A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR10 RECEPTORS. It is constitutively expressed in the skin and may play a role in T-CELL trafficking during cutaneous INFLAMMATION.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards TH2 CELLS and TC2 CELLS.
A CC-type chemokine that is found at high levels in the THYMUS and has specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It is synthesized by DENDRITIC CELLS; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; KERATINOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards T LYMPHOCYTES and B LYMPHOCYTES.
A CC-type chemokine that is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS; MONOCYTES; and LYMPHOCYTES. It is a potent and selective eosinophil chemotaxin that is stored in and released from PLATELETS and activated T-LYMPHOCYTES. Chemokine CCL5 is specific for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR3 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS. The acronym RANTES refers to Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR6 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS; T-LYMPHOCYTES; and B-LYMPHOCYTES.
A CC-type chemokine secreted by activated MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CCR8 RECEPTORS.
Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.
Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
A monocyte chemoattractant protein that has activity towards a broad variety of immune cell types. Chemokine CCL7 has specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR2 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS.
Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL27. They may play a specialized role in the cutaneous homing of LYMPHOCYTES.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.
CCR receptors with specificity for a broad variety of CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in MONOCYTES; tissue MACROPHAGES; NEUTROPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS.
A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON and is chemotactic for MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
A monocyte chemoattractant protein that attracts MONOCYTES; LYMPHOCYTES; BASOPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS. Chemokine CCL8 has specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS.
Chemokine receptors that are specific for CC CHEMOKINES.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL2 and several other CCL2-related chemokines. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; BASOPHILS; and NK CELLS.
A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL1. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES.
A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL17 and CHEMOKINE CCL22. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; MAST CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and NK CELLS.
Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.
A CX3C chemokine that is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells. The soluble form of chemokine CX3CL1 can be released from cell surface by proteolysis and act as a chemoattractant that may be involved in the extravasation of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. The membrane form of the protein may also play a role in cell adhesion.
Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL11 and a variety of other CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; BASOPHILS; and MAST CELLS.
An INTEFERON-inducible CXC chemokine that is specific for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.
CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON. It is a chemotactic factor for activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
A CXC chemokine that has stimulatory and chemotactic activities towards NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR1 RECEPTORS and CXCR2 RECEPTORS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
A CXC chemokine that is predominantly expressed in EPITHELIAL CELLS. It has specificity for the CXCR2 RECEPTORS and is involved in the recruitment and activation of NEUTROPHILS.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
CXCR receptors that are expressed on the surface of a number of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; NK CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and a subset of B-LYMPHOCYTES. The receptors are activated by CHEMOKINE CXCL9; CHEMOKINE CXCL10; and CHEMOKINE CXCL11.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and T-LYMPHOCYTES. These receptors also bind several other CXC CHEMOKINES.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A chronic inflammatory genetically determined disease of the skin marked by increased ability to form reagin (IgE), with increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis and asthma, and hereditary disposition to a lowered threshold for pruritus. It is manifested by lichenification, excoriation, and crusting, mainly on the flexural surfaces of the elbow and knee. In infants it is known as infantile eczema.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Chemokines that are chemoattractants for monocytes. These CC chemokines (cysteines adjacent) number at least three including CHEMOKINE CCL2.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL20. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and BASOPHILS.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Chemokine receptors that are specific for CXC CHEMOKINES.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Group of chemokines with the first two cysteines separated by three amino acids. CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural killer cells, monocytes, and activated T-cells.
CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.
Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.
Cytotaxins liberated from normal or invading cells that specifically attract eosinophils; they may be complement fragments, lymphokines, neutrophil products, histamine or other; the best known is the tetrapeptide ECF-A, released mainly by mast cells.
The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.
Unbroken cellular lining (intima) of the lymph vessels (e.g., the high endothelial lymphatic venules). It is more permeable than vascular endothelium, lacking selective absorption and functioning mainly to remove plasma proteins that have filtered through the capillaries into the tissue spaces.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.

Selective eosinophil transendothelial migration triggered by eotaxin via modulation of Mac-1/ICAM-1 and VLA-4/VCAM-1 interactions. (1/477)

We have recently cloned eotaxin, a highly efficacious eosinophilic chemokine involved in the development of lung eosinophilia during allergic inflammatory reactions. To understand more precisely how eotaxin facilitates the specific migration of eosinophils, we have studied which adhesion receptors are essential for eotaxin action both in vivo and in vitro. Experiments using mice genetically deficient in adhesion receptors demonstrated that molecules previously reported to be involved in both leukocyte tethering/rolling (P-selectin and E-selectin) and in sticking/ transmigration (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) are required for eotaxin action in vivo. To further elucidate the mechanism(s) involved in this process, we have used an in vitro transendothelial chemotaxis model. mAb neutralization studies performed in this system suggest that the integrins Mac-1 (CD11b/18), VLA-4 (alpha4beta1) and LFA-1 (CD11a/18) are involved in the transendothelial chemotaxis of eosinophils to eotaxin. Accordingly, the expression of these integrins on eosinophils is elevated by direct action of this chemokine in a concentration-dependent manner. Taken together, our results suggest that eotaxin-induced eosinophil transendothelial migration in vivo and in vitro relies on Mac-1/ICAM-1 and VLA-4NCAM-1 interactions, the latter ones becoming more relevant at later time points of the eotaxin-induced recruitment process.  (+info)

Eotaxin contributes to renal interstitial eosinophilia. (2/477)

BACKGROUND: A potent eosinophil chemotactic cytokine, human eotaxin, is directly chemotactic for eosinophils. Therefore, the specific expression of eotaxin in tissue might play a crucial role in tissue eosinophilia. However, the precise molecular mechanism of the recruitment and activation of eosinophils in human renal diseases remains to be investigated. We evaluated the role of eotaxin in the pathogenesis of human diffuse interstitial nephritis with marked infiltration of eosinophils. METHODS: In this study, we examined 20 healthy volunteers. 56 patients with primary or secondary glomerular diseases and two hypereosinophilic syndrome patients without renal involvement. Urinary and serum eotaxin levels were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We also detected the presence of eotaxin protein immunohistochemically. RESULTS: On the one hand, urinary levels of eotaxin were significantly higher before the initiation of glucocorticoid administration in the patient with interstitial nephritis with marked infiltration of eosinophils. On the other hand, urinary eotaxin levels were not detected in any patients with nephrotic syndrome, interstitial nephritis without eosinophils, hypereosinophilic syndrome without renal involvement or other renal diseases. Serum eotaxin levels were not detected in any of the patients. Therefore, the detection of eotaxin in the urine was specific for renal interstitial eosinophilia. Moreover, endothelial cells, infiltrating mononuclear cells and renal epithelial cells in the tubulointerstitial lesions were immunostained with specific anti-eotaxin antibodies. Furthermore, the elevated urinary levels of eotaxin decreased dramatically during glucocorticoid-induced convalescence. HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesize that in situ expression of eotaxin may provide a new mechanism to explain the renal interstitial eosinophil infiltration.  (+info)

Effects of Th2 cytokines on chemokine expression in the lung: IL-13 potently induces eotaxin expression by airway epithelial cells. (3/477)

Airway inflammation associated with asthma is characterized by massive infiltration of eosinophils, mediated in part by specific chemoattractant factors produced in the lung. Allergen-specific Th2 cells appear to play a central role in asthma; for example, adoptively transferred Th2 cells induced lung eosinophilia associated with induction of specific chemokines. Interestingly, Th2 supernatant alone administered intranasally to naive mice induced eotaxin, RANTES, monocyte-chemotactic protein-1, and KC expression along with lung eosinophilia. We tested the major cytokines individually and found that IL-4 and IL-5 induced higher levels of macrophage-inflammatory protein-1alpha and KC; IL-4 also increased the production of monocyte-chemotactic protein-1; IL-13 and IL-4 induced eotaxin. IL-13 was by far the most potent inducer of eotaxin; indeed, a neutralizing anti-IL-13 Ab removed most of the eotaxin-inducing activity from Th2 supernatants, although it did not entirely block the recruitment of eosinophils. While TNF-alpha did not stimulate eotaxin production by itself, it markedly augmented eotaxin induction by IL-13. IL-13 was able to induce eotaxin in the lung of JAK3-deficient mice, suggesting that JAK3 is not required for IL-13 signaling in airway epithelial cells; however, eosinophilia was not induced in this situation, suggesting that JAK3 transduces other IL-13-mediated mechanisms critical for eosinophil recruitment. Our study suggests that IL-13 is an important mediator in the pathogenesis of asthma and therefore a potential target for asthma therapy.  (+info)

Differential regulation of eosinophil chemokine signaling via CCR3 and non-CCR3 pathways. (4/477)

To investigate eosinophil stimulation by chemokines we developed a sensitive assay of leukocyte shape change, the gated autofluorescence/forward scatter assay. Leukocyte shape change responses are mediated through rearrangements of the cellular cytoskeleton in a dynamic process typically resulting in a polarized cell and are essential to the processes of leukocyte migration from the microcirculation into sites of inflammation. We examined the actions of the chemokines eotaxin, eotaxin-2, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), MCP-3, MCP-4, RANTES, macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha), and IL-8 on leukocytes in mixed cell suspensions and focused on the responses of eosinophils to C-C chemokines. Those chemokines acting on CCR3 induced a rapid shape change in eosinophils from all donors; of these, eotaxin and eotaxin-2 were the most potent. Responses to MCP-4 were qualitatively different, showing marked reversal of shape change responses with agonist concentration and duration of treatment. In contrast, MIP-1alpha induced a potent response in eosinophils from a small and previously undescribed subgroup of donors via a non-CCR3 pathway likely to be CCR1 mediated. Incubation of leukocytes at 37 degrees C for 90 min in the absence of extracellular calcium up-regulated responses to MCP-4 and MIP-1alpha in the majority of donors, and there was a small increase in responses to eotaxin. MIP-1alpha responsiveness in vivo may therefore be a function of both CCR1 expression levels and the regulated efficiency of coupling to intracellular signaling pathways. The observed up-regulation of MIP-1alpha signaling via non-CCR3 pathways may play a role in eosinophil recruitment in inflammatory states such as occurs in the asthmatic lung.  (+info)

Pulmonary expression of interleukin-13 causes inflammation, mucus hypersecretion, subepithelial fibrosis, physiologic abnormalities, and eotaxin production. (5/477)

Interleukin (IL)-13 is a pleiotropic cytokine produced in large quantities by activated CD4(+) Th2 lymphocytes. To define further its potential in vivo effector functions, the Clara cell 10-kDa protein promoter was used to express IL-13 selectively in the lung, and the phenotype of the resulting transgenic mice was characterized. In contrast to transgene-negative littermates, the lungs of transgene-positive mice contained an inflammatory response around small and large airways and in the surrounding parenchyma. It was mononuclear in nature and contained significant numbers of eosinophils and enlarged and occasionally multinucleated macrophages. Airway epithelial cell hypertrophy, mucus cell metaplasia, the hyperproduction of neutral and acidic mucus, the deposition of Charcot-Leyden-like crystals, and subepithelial airway fibrosis were also prominently noted. Eotaxin protein and mRNA were also present in large quantities in the lungs of the transgene-positive, but not the transgene-negative, mice. IL-4, IL-5, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-5 were not similarly detected. Physiological evaluations revealed significant increases in baseline airways resistance and airways hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to methacholine in transgene-positive animals. Thus, the targeted pulmonary expression of IL-13 causes a mononuclear and eosinophilic inflammatory response, mucus cell metaplasia, the deposition of Charcot-Leyden-like crystals, airway fibrosis, eotaxin production, airways obstruction, and nonspecific AHR. IL-13 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of similar responses in asthma or other Th2-polarized tissue responses.  (+info)

Differential chemokine expression in tissues involved by Hodgkin's disease: direct correlation of eotaxin expression and tissue eosinophilia. (6/477)

Hodgkin's disease (HD) is a lymphoid malignancy characterized by infrequent malignant cells surrounded by abundant inflammatory cells. In this study, we examined the potential contribution of chemokines to inflammatory cell recruitment in different subtypes of HD. Chemokines are small proteins that are active as chemoattractants and regulators of cell activation. We found that HD tissues generally express higher levels of interferon-gamma-inducible protein-10 (IP-10), Mig, RANTES, macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha), and eotaxin, but not macrophage-derived chemotactic factor (MDC), than tissues from lymphoid hyperplasia (LH). Within HD subtypes, expression of IP-10 and Mig was highest in the mixed cellularity (MC) subtype, whereas expression of eotaxin and MDC was highest in the nodular sclerosis (NS) subtype. A significant direct correlation was detected between evidence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in the neoplastic cells and levels of expression of IP-10, RANTES, and MIP-1alpha. Levels of eotaxin expression correlated directly with the extent of tissue eosinophilia. By immunohistochemistry, IP-10, Mig, and eotaxin proteins localized in the malignant Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells and their variants, and to some surrounding inflammatory cells. Eotaxin was also detected in fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells of vessels. These results provide evidence of high level chemokine expression in HD tissues and suggest that chemokines may play an important role in the recruitment of inflammatory cell infiltrates into tissues involved by HD.  (+info)

Eotaxin activates T cells to chemotaxis and adhesion only if induced to express CCR3 by IL-2 together with IL-4. (7/477)

The transmigration and adherence of T lymphocytes through microvascular endothelium are essential events for their recruitment into inflammatory sites. In the present study, we investigated the expression of CC chemokine receptor CCR3 on T lymphocytes and the capacities of the CC chemokine eotaxin to induce chemotaxis and adhesion in T lymphocytes. We have observed a novel phenomenon that IL-2 and IL-4 induce the expression of CCR3 on T lymphocytes. We also report that CC chemokine eotaxin is a potent chemoattractant for IL-2- and IL-4-stimulated T lymphocytes, but not for freshly isolated T lymphocytes. Eotaxin attracts T lymphocytes via CCR3, documented by the fact that anti-CCR3 mAb blocks eotaxin-mediated T lymphocyte chemotaxis. In combination with IL-2 and IL-4, eotaxin enhances the expression of adhesion molecules such as ICAM-1 and several integrins (CD29, CD49a, and CD49b) on T lymphocytes and thus promotes adhesion and aggregation of T lymphocytes. The eotaxin-induced T lymphocyte adhesion could be selectively blocked by a specific cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor, H-89, indicating that eotaxin activates T lymphocytes via a special cAMP-signaling pathway. Our new findings all point toward the fact that eotaxin, in association with the Th1-derived cytokine IL-2 and the Th2-derived cytokine IL-4, is an important T lymphocyte activator, stimulating the directional migration, adhesion, accumulation, and recruitment of T lymphocytes, and paralleled the accumulation of eosinophils and basophils during the process of certain types of inflammation such as allergy.  (+info)

CD26/dipeptidyl-peptidase IV down-regulates the eosinophil chemotactic potency, but not the anti-HIV activity of human eotaxin by affecting its interaction with CC chemokine receptor 3. (8/477)

Chemokines attract and activate distinct sets of leukocytes. The CC chemokine eotaxin has been characterized as an important mediator in allergic reactions because it selectively attracts eosinophils, Th2 lymphocytes, and basophils. Human eotaxin has a penultimate proline, indicating that it might be a substrate for dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (CD26/DPP IV). In this study we demonstrate that eotaxin is efficiently cleaved by CD26/DPP IV and that the NH2-terminal truncation affects its biological activity. CD26/DPP IV-truncated eotaxin(3-74) showed reduced chemotactic activity for eosinophils and impaired binding and signaling properties through the CC chemokine receptor 3. Moreover, eotaxin(3-74) desensitized calcium signaling and inhibited chemotaxis toward intact eotaxin. In addition, HIV-2 infection of CC chemokine receptor 3-transfected cells was inhibited to a similar extent by eotaxin and eotaxin(3-74). Thus, CD26/DPP IV differently regulates the chemotactic and antiviral potencies of eotaxin by the removal of two NH2-terminal residues. This physiological processing may be an important down-regulatory mechanism, limiting eotaxin-mediated inflammatory responses.  (+info)

Anti-Eotaxin 2 antibody conjugated to Biotin validated for WB, ELISA, sELISA and tested in Human. Immunogen corresponding to recombinant full length protein
We have characterized previously the expression of the chemokines eotaxin, MCP-5, RANTES, and MCP-1 (mRNA and/or protein), and correlated this with the leukocytes migrating to the lung during a murine model of lung inflammation ((5), (16)). From these experiments, we concluded that MCP-1 mRNA expression paralleled the accumulation of monocytes/macrophages in this organ, both events occurring predominantly at early stages of the response (day 15). Also, eotaxin mRNA expression paralleled lung eosinophilia predominantly at late stages (day 21). In contrast, other chemokines, such as RANTES or MCP-5, were expressed throughout the inflammatory reaction. This underlines the contribution of chemokines at different stages of the response.. From the work presented here, we first conclude that eosinophil recruitment and development of BHR in this model system involve the action of both eosinophilic (eotaxin, RANTES, MCP-5, and MIP-1α) and noneosinophilic chemokines (MCP-1). This indicates the absence of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interleukin-12 inhibits eotaxin secretion of cultured primary lung cells and alleviates airway inflammation in vivo. AU - Ye, Yi Ling. AU - Huang, Wan Ching. AU - Lee, Yueh L.. AU - Chiang, Bor Luen. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - The mechanisms that cause the inflammation of airway and lung tissue in asthma have been studied extensively. It is noted that type 1 T helper cell (Th1)-related cytokines could decrease the accumulation of eosinophils in lung tissue and relieve airway constriction. But the therapeutic mechanisms of Th1 cytokines remain unclear. In this study, interleukin-12 (IL-12) DNA plasmid as a therapeutic reagent was delivered intravenously. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids were collected from IL-12 treated and control mice, and analyzed for cell composition and eotaxin level. The results showed that IL-12 DNA plasmid could effectively inhibit eosinophilia and airway inflammation in vivo. The level of eotaxin in BAL fluid also decreased. To further investigate the ...
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Eotaxin is a CC chemokine that signals through the CCR3 receptor. It is produced by IFN-γ-stimulated endothelial cells and TNF-activated
Expression of pulmonary eotaxin protein and mRNA was determined in six subjects with atopic asthma and five nonatopic normal subjects. Levels of eotaxin expression and eosinophil mobilization were compared before and after segmental allergen challenge in subjects with atopic asthma. In the absence o …
TY - JOUR. T1 - Oncostatin M causes eotaxin-1 release from airway smooth muscle. T2 - Synergy with IL-4 and IL-13. AU - Faffe, Débora S.. AU - Flynt, Lesley. AU - Mellema, Matthew. AU - Moore, Paul E.. AU - Silverman, Eric S.. AU - Subramaniam, Venkat. AU - Jones, Matthew R.. AU - Mizgerd, Joseph P.. AU - Whitehead, Timothy. AU - Imrich, Amy. AU - Panettieri, Reynold A.. AU - Shore, Stephanie A.. PY - 2005/3. Y1 - 2005/3. N2 - Background: Eotaxin is implicated in asthmatic eosinophilia. Oncostatin M (OSM) causes eotaxin release from fibroblasts. Objective: We sought to examine the effects and mechanism of action of OSM and other IL-6 family cytokines on eotaxin release from human airway smooth muscle cells. Methods: Eotaxin 1 release was measured by means of ELISA. Western blotting was used to examine mitogen-activated protein kinase and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT-3) phosphorylation. Eotaxin promoter activity was analyzed in cells transfected with wild-type STAT-3, ...
Background: Patients with severe asthma are less sensitive to oral or inhaled corticosteroids. Relative corticosteroid insensitivity has been shown in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and alveolar macrophages in these patients.. Aims and objectives: Determine the response of corticosteroids in airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) of severe asthma, in terms of suppression of cytokine-induced chemokine release and mRNA expression, and investigate the underlying mechanisms.. Methods: ASMCs of non-asthmatics (NA; 12), patients with non-severe (NSA; 10) or severe asthma (SA; 10) were pretreated with dexamethasone (Dex; 10-10-10-6 M) followed by stimulation with TNF-α at 10 ng/mL. IL-8 and eotaxin release determined by ELISA; mRNA quantified by RT-PCR. p65 NF-κB recruitment to gene promoters measured by ChIP assay; p38, JNK, and ERK expression measured by Western blot.. Results: Baseline and TNF-α induced eotaxin release and mRNA were higher in NSA, but not SA, compared to NA, while no differences ...
Background: MCP-1 (CCL2), MCP-3 (CCL7), and eotaxin (CCL11) are genes for CC chemokines clustered on the long arm of chromosome 17. Previous studies have implicated these chemokines in monocyte recruitment, viral replication, and anti-HIV cytotoxic T cell responses. An epidemiological analysis identified genetic variants influencing HIV-1 transmission and disease progression. Methods: Genomic DNA from over 3000 participants enrolled in five natural history cohorts in the United States were analyzed. Nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) covering 33 kb containing these three genes were genotyped using the polymerase chain reaction. Distortions in allele, genotype, and haplotype frequencies were assessed with respect to HIV-1 transmission and rates of disease progression using categorical and survival analyses. Results: Extensive linkage disequilibrium was observed. Three SNP (−2136T located in theMCP-1 promoter region, 767G in intron 1 of MCP-1, and −1385A in the Eotaxin promoter) were nearly
References for Abcams Recombinant human Eotaxin 2 protein (ab54405). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
Eotaxin His Tag Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 74 amino acids fragment (24-87).
Eosinophils are specialized myeloid cells associated with allergy and helminth infections. Blood eosinophils demonstrate circadian cycling, as described over 80 years ago, and are abundant in the healthy gastrointestinal tract. Although a cytokine, interleukin (IL)-5, and chemokines such as eotaxins mediate eosinophil development and survival, and tissue recruitment, respectively, the processes underlying the basal regulation of these signals remain unknown. Here we show that serum IL-5 levels are maintained by long-lived type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) resident in peripheral tissues. ILC2 cells secrete IL-5 constitutively and are induced to co-express IL-13 during type 2 inflammation, resulting in localized eotaxin production and eosinophil accumulation. In the small intestine where eosinophils and eotaxin are constitutive, ILC2 cells co-express IL-5 and IL-13; this co-expression is enhanced after caloric intake. The circadian synchronizer vasoactive intestinal peptide also stimulates ILC2 cells
What, then, are those secret ingredients in blood that age the brain? According to Sakura Minami of the San Carlos-based biotech company Alkahest, one is eotaxin, a ligand for the C-C chemokine receptor type 3 (CCR3). Using proteomics approaches, Minami and colleagues saw that eotaxin shot up in the blood with age. Also known as CCL11, eotaxin is known to play a role in inflammation, for example in the recruitment of eosinophils upon CCR3 engagement. Given that these infection-fighting white blood cells can become damaging in allergic conditions such as asthma, CCR3 is an established drug target.. The researchers previously demonstrated that injecting eotaxin into young mice caused neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus to slow to a trickle, and that neutralizing eotaxin with an antibody blocked this effect (Aug 2011 news). At SfN, Minami reported preclinical findings from efforts to stifle the consequences of age-related eotaxin elevation. Rather than target eotaxin directly, Alkahest scientists ...
Previous investigations have demonstrated a link between elevated levels of eosinophils, eosinophil activation, and adult IBD. However, there have been conflicting data regarding the individual contribution of the eosinophil-selective chemokines eotaxin-1 and eotaxin-2 in eosinophil recruitment in IBD. In the present study we demonstrate the following: 1) that eosinophil numbers are elevated in pediatric UC and that their level correlates with disease severity; 2) eotaxin-1 and not eotaxin-2 or eotaxin-3 is up-regulated in lesional colonic biopsy samples of pediatric UC patients; and 3) eotaxin-1 mRNA expression correlates with colonic eosinophil levels in pediatric UC. Using a chemical-induced colonic injury model, we define that eotaxin-1, and not eotaxin-2, is critical for eosinophil recruitment and that eotaxin-1 is predominantly derived from intestinal macrophages. Consistent with our experimental analysis, we show that eotaxin-1 is predominantly expressed by intestinal macrophages; ...
Clinical studies have demonstrated a link between the eosinophil-selective chemokines, eotaxins (eotaxin-1/CCL11 and eotaxin-2/CCL24), eosinophils, and the inflammatory bowel diseases, Crohns disease and ulcerative colitis (UC). However, the cellular source and individual contribution of the eotaxins to colonic eosinophilic accumulation in inflammatory bowel diseases remain unclear. In this study we demonstrate, by gene array and quantitative PCR, elevated levels of eotaxin-1 mRNA in the rectosigmoid colon of pediatric UC patients. We show that elevated levels of eotaxin-1 mRNA positively correlated with rectosigmoid eosinophil numbers. Further, colonic eosinophils appeared to be degranulating, and the levels positively correlated with disease severity. Using the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced intestinal epithelial injury model, we show that DSS treatment of mice strongly induced colonic eotaxin-1 and eotaxin-2 expression and eosinophil levels. Analysis of eosinophil-deficient mice ...
Asthma is associated with eosinophilic airway inflammation and eosinophils are believed to be important in the pathogenesis of asthma. IL-5 has been considered the central mediator for eosinophilic proliferation, differentiation and eosinophilic inflammation, but results of recent studies suggest that besides IL-5, eotaxin may contribute to the pathogenesis of asthma. Eotaxin is CC chemokine first isolated from guinea pig bronchoalveolar lavage. It selectively binds to a specific receptor (CCR3) highly expressed on eosinophils, basophils, and mast cells being important in the pathogenesis of asthma. Eotaxin is produced mainly by epithelial cells of lung and gut, to mediate organ preferential attraction of eosinophils. Production of eotaxin is stimulated by IL-4, IL-13, TNF-α. Human eotaxin family includes: eotaxin-1 (CCL11), eotaxin-2 (CCL24) and eotaxin-3 (CCL26). It seems that eotaxin-3 may be expressed following allergen challenge. Studies with glucocorticosteroids have shown some inhibitory ...
Eotaxin Mouse Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 74 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 8403.2 Dalton.
It is now generally accepted that DPPIV acts as an important regulator of multiple physiological processes. It catalyzes the release of dipeptides from the N-terminus of circulating hormones, neuropeptides, and chemokines. Moreover, DPPIV is engaged in T cell-dependent immune responses and has been associated with cell adhesion and tumor metastasis (19, 23, 24). As DPPIV appears to act at a checkpoint of blood glucose homeostasis via potentiation of GLP-1-mediated stimulation of the entero-insular-axis and concomitant release of insulin, it has emerged as a target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (4). At present, several DPPIV inhibitors are in the late stage of clinical development and some of them have reached the market for this indication (25). However, based on its ubiquitous expression and pleiotropic functions, systemic and continuous pharmacological blockade of DPPIV might act as a double-edged sword, as not only the beneficial release of insulin is increased but also immune ...
Arachidonic acid (AA) is converted to a large number of biologically active products by cyclooxygenases, lipoxygenases, and cytochrome P450 enzymes (Funk,
Eosinophils are bone marrow-derived cells that differentiate in the bone marrow and migrate into the peripheral blood primarily under the regulation of interleukin (IL)-5
EzWay Mouse Eotaxin ELISA Kit,K1332181,Cytokine ELISA Kit,EzWay Cytokine ELISA Kit reduces your assay time to 2.5 hours by integrating incubation of sample & …
D4327 - 17 Standard Test Method for Anions in Water by Suppressed Ion Chromatography , anions, drinking water, ion chromatography, reagent water, wastewater,,
The role of selectins in mediating eosinophil recruitment in vivo was assessed in a model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mouse pleurisy. LPS administration
Levocetirizine is a selective antihistaminic that acts through H1 receptor. Levocetirizine inhibits eotaxin-induced eosinophil transendothelial migration through monolayers of human dermal or lung microvascular endothelial cells in vitro. The drug also inhibits both resting and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-stimulated eosinophil adhesion to vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), eotaxin production by endothelial cells and ICAM-1, as well as major histocompatability complex (MHC) class I expression by interferon (IFN)-γ-stimulated keratinocytes[1]. ...
The respective life histories of human subjects and mice are well defined and describe a unique story of evolutionary conservation extending from sequence identity within the genome to the underpinnings of biochemical, cellular, and physiologic pathways. As a consequence, the hematopoietic lineages …
Human CCL24/Eotaxin-2/MPIF-2 ELISA Kit (Colorimetric). High sensitivity ELISA kit for detection of CCL24/Eotaxin-2/MPIF-2. Backed by our 100% Guarantee.
|H3|Mouse Eotaxin-1 ELISA Kit|/H3||H4|Brand|/H4||p|BioAim Scientific (Kanada)|/p||h4|short description|/h4||p|The Bioaim Mouse Eotaxin ELISA kit is a solid phase sandwich ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) for the quantitative measurement of Eotaxi
This release contains summaries, links to PDFs, and contact information for the following newsworthy papers to be published online on January 4, 2006 in the Journal of Clinical Investigation, including: Soy diet worsens heart disease; Breast cancer-causing gene predicts shorter survival; Blocking eotaxin may help asthmatics breathe easier; Turns-ons and turn-offs for smooth muscle cells; Cancer detection: spinning biological trash into diagnostic gold; How chromosomal leap frog causes cancer in B cells; and others.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Failure of sputum eosinophilia after eotaxin inhalation in asthma. AU - Bumbacea, D.. AU - Scheerens, J.. AU - Mann, B. S.. AU - Stirling, R. G.. AU - Chung, K. F.. PY - 2004/5. Y1 - 2004/5. N2 - Background: Eotaxin is a chemokine specific for eosinophils and may play an important role in eosinophil recruitment in asthma. The effects of eotaxin inhalation on sputum and blood eosinophils, exhaled nitric oxide (NO), and bronchial responsiveness were determined. Methods: Eotaxin was administered by nebulisation to asthma patients in three studies: (1) an open dose finding study with eotaxin (5, 10 and 20 μg) to two asthmatic subjects; (2) a randomised placebo controlled study with 20 μg eotaxin to five asthmatic subjects and five normal volunteers; and (3) a randomised placebo controlled study with 40 μg eotaxin to nine asthmatics. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1), exhaled NO, and blood eosinophils were measured before and hourly for 5 hours after nebulisation and at ...
Patients with asthma demonstrate circadian variations in the airway inflammation and lung function. Pinealectomy reduces the total inflammatory cell number in the asthmatic rat lung. We hypothesize that melatonin, a circadian rhythm regulator, may modulate the circadian inflammatory variations in asthma by stimulating the chemotaxins expression in the lung epithelial cell. Lung epithelial cells (A549) were stimulated with melatonin in the presence or absence of TNF-α(100 ng/ml). RANTES (Regulated on Activation Normal T-cells Expressed and Secreted) and eotaxin expression were measured using ELISA and real-time RT-PCR, eosinophil chemotactic activity (ECA) released by A549 was measured by eosinophil chemotaxis assay. TNF-α increased the expression of RANTES (307.84 ± 33.56 versus 207.64 ± 31.27 pg/ml of control, p = 0.025) and eotaxin (108.97 ± 10.87 versus 54.00 ± 5.29 pg/ml of control, p = 0.041). Melatonin(10-10 to 10-6M) alone didnt change the expression of RNATES (204.97 ± 32.56 pg/ml) and
Eosinophil accumulation is a distinctive feature of lung allergic inflammation. Here, we have used a mouse model of OVA (ovalbumin)-induced pulmonary eosinophilia to study the cellular and molecular mechanisms for this selective recruitment of eosinophils to the airways. In this model there was an early accumulation of infiltrating monocytes/macrophages in the lung during the OVA treatment, whereas the increase in infiltrating T-lymphocytes paralleled the accumulation of eosinophils. The kinetics of accumulation of these three leukocyte subtypes correlated with the levels of mRNA expression of the chemokines monocyte chemotactic peptide-1/JE, eotaxin, and RANTES (regulated upon activation in normal T cells expressed and secreted), suggesting their involvement in the recruitment of these leukocytes. Furthermore, blockade of eotaxin with specific antibodies in vivo reduced the accumulation of eosinophils in the lung in response to OVA by half. Mature CD4+ T-lymphocytes were absolutely required for ...
|p|Recombinant Human Eotaxin-2/CCL24 is a single non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 78 amino acids.|/p| |p|Background: Eotaxin-2 (CCL24) is a novel CC chemokine recently identified. It is produced by activated monocytes and T lymphocytes. Eota
Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by the degradation of articular cartilage, marked by the breakdown of matrix proteins. Studies demonstrated the involvement of chemokines in this process, and some may potentially serve as diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets; however, the underlying signal transductions are not well understood. We investigated the effects of the CC chemokine eotaxin-1 (CCL11) on the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression and secretion in the human chondrocyte cell line SW1353 and primary chondrocytes. Eotaxin-1 significantly induced MMP-3 mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibitors of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 kinase were able to repress eotaxin-1-induced MMP-3 expression. On the contrary, Rp-adenosine-3,5-cyclic monophosphorothioate (Rp-cAMPs), a competitive cAMP antagonist for cAMP receptors, and H-89, a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, markedly enhanced eotaxin-1-induced MMP-3 expression. These results suggest that MMP-3 expression
Domieh et al.: Endurance training and plasma visfatin www.brjb.com.br CHOI, K. M.; KIM, J. H.; CHO, G. J.; BAIK, S. H.; PARK, H. S.; KIM, S. M. Effect of exercise training on plasma visfatin and eotaxin levels. European Journal of Endocrinology, v. 157, p. 437-442, 2007. DAVUTOGLUA, M.; OZKAYAB, M.; GULERA, E.; GARIPARDICA, M.; GURSOYA, H.; KARABIBERA, H.; KILINC, M. Plasma visfatin concentrations in childhood obesity: relationships to insulin resistance and anthropometric indices. Swiss Medical Weekly, v. 139, p. 22-27, 2009. FREEDLAND, E. S. Role of a critical visceral adipose tissue threshold (CVATT) in metabolic syndrome: implications for controlling dietary carbohydrates: a review. Nutrition & Metabolism, v. 1, p. 1-24, 2004. FRYDELUND-LARSEN, L.; AKERSTROM, T.; NIELSEN, S.; KELLER, P.; KELLER, C.; PEDERSEN, B. K. Visfatin mRNA expression in human subcutaneous adipose tissue is regulated by exercise. American Journal of Physiology Endocrinology Metabolism, v. 292, p. E24-E31, 2007. FU, Y.; ...
article{7c45b648-bb75-40bb-a1de-8aa59d14e5c0, abstract = {Huntingtons disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by both neurological and systemic abnormalities. Immune activation is a well-established feature of the HD brain and we have previously demonstrated a widespread, progressive innate immune response detectable in plasma throughout the course of HD. In the present work we used multiplex ELISA to quantify levels of chemokines in plasma from controls and subjects at different stages of HD. We found an altered chemokine profile tracking with disease progression, with significant elevations of five chemokines (eotaxin-3, MIP-1β, eotaxin, MCP-1 and MCP-4) while three (eotaxin-3, MIP-1β and eotaxin) showed significant linear increases across advancing disease stages. We validated our results in a separate sample cohort including subjects at different stages of HD. Here we saw that chemokine levels (MCP-1 and eotaxin) correlated with clinical scores. We conclude ...
Defective eosinophil chemotaxis to eotaxin in a patient with chronic lower baseline cD4+ T-lymphocytes and elevated CD8+ T cells Amr E El-Shazly1, Monique Henket2, Philippe P Lefebvre1, Renaud Louis21Department of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, GIGA-Research, Liege University Hospitals (Centre Hospitalier Universaitaire-C.H.U.). Liege-Belgium; 2Department of Pulmonology, GIGA-Research, Liege University Hospitals (Centre Hospitalier Universaitaire-C.H.U.). Liege-BelgiumBackground: Idiopathic selective CD4+ lower baseline cell count and an increase in CD8+ cells is an unusual immune defect. Whether this is a true variant of idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia (ICL) or a sequelae to recurrent infections is not clear.Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to investigate the expression and function of the cc-chemokine receptor CCR3 in eosinophils from a female patient with this disorder. A secondary objective was to study the in vitro ability of different cytokines to modulate
Subjects admitted on this protocol will have elevated eosinophil counts in the peripheral blood or tissues or will be relatives of subjects with eosinophilia. Eosinophilic subjects will undergo an extensive clinical evaluation focused on the identification of the cause of eosinophilia and the presence of end organ manifestations. In addition, they will be characterized in detail immunologically, and their blood cells and/or serum will be collected to provide reagents (eg. specific antibodies, T-cell clones, etc.) that will be used in the laboratory to address broader questions relating to the etiology of eosinophilia, its immunoregulation, the degree and source of eosinophil activation, and/or the functional role of eosinophils in the afferent arm of those immune response where they are prominent. While the protocol is not primarily designed to study treatment of patients with blood and tissue eosinophilia, the clinical and immunological responses to various medically indicated therapies will be ...
LEGEND MAX™ Mouse CCL11 ELISA Kit with Pre-coated Plates - CCL11, also known as Eotaxin, is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family.
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Airway eosinophilia is considered a central event in the pathogenesis of asthma. The toxic components of eosinophils are thought to be important in inducing bronchial mucosal injury and dysfunction. Previous studies have suggested an interaction between nitric oxide (NO) and chemokines in modulating eosinophil functions, but this is still conflicting. In the present study, we have carried out functional assays (adhesion and degranulation) and flow cytometry analysis of adhesion molecules (VLA-4 and Mac-1 expression) to evaluate the interactions between NO and CC-chemokines (eotaxin and RANTES) in human eosinophils. Eosinophils were purified using a percoll gradient followed by immunomagnetic cell separator. Cell adhesion and degranulation were evaluated by measuring eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) activity, whereas expression of Mac-1 and VLA-4 was detected using flow cytometry. At 4 h incubation, both eotaxin (100 ng/ml) and RANTES (1000 ng/ml) increased by 133% and 131% eosinophil adhesion, respectively.
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Allergen vs diluent challenges; multi-spot plate assay: symptoms increased, and peak nasal flow decreased, following allergen but not diluent challenge (both p,0.001, between groups difference). Levels of IL-4 (p,0.01), IL-5 and IL-13 (both P,0.001) were maximally increased at 5 hours compared to pre-challenge; no significant increases were seen following diluent challenge. Between group differences (allergen vs diluent) for IL-4, -5 and -13 were seen at 4 and 6 hours (all p,0.01).Allergen challenge; magnetic bead assay: IL-5 was increased at 6 hours (p=0.03 vs pre-challenge), with IL-13 and IL-4 also showing a trend towards an increase (both p=0.06 vs pre-challenge). Eotaxin and MDC were increased at 6 hours (both p=0.03 vs pre-challenge); IL-6 was elevated at 2 hours (p=0.03 vs pre-challenge). Levels of IL-17A, IL-27, IL-23, IFN-gamma and IL-12p70 were low and did not change significantly after allergen challenge. High levels of IL-8 were detected, maximal at baseline, but did not change ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The surface phenotype of human eosinophils. AU - Tachimoto, Hiroshi. AU - Bochner, Bruce S.. PY - 2000/3/16. Y1 - 2000/3/16. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0034094643&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0034094643&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Review article. C2 - 10761304. AN - SCOPUS:0034094643. VL - 76. SP - 45. EP - 62. JO - Progress in Allergy. JF - Progress in Allergy. SN - 1660-2242. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Eosinophilic esophagitis. T2 - A clinicopathological review. AU - Philpott, Hamish. AU - Nandurkar, Sanjay. AU - Thien, Francis. AU - Gibson, Peter R.. AU - Royce, Simon G.. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is considered to be a chronic antigen-driven disease whereby food and/or aeroallergens induce a chronic inflammatory infiltrate in the esophagus, resulting in pathological hyperplasia of the epithelia and muscular layers, and fibrosis of the lamina propria (referred to collectively as remodelling) and the symptoms of dysphagia and food impaction. EoE shares features with other atopic conditions of asthma and atopic dermatitis, such as a TH2 cytokine milieu and a mixed inflammatory infiltrate of eosinophils, mast cells and lymphocytes. Relatively distinct features include the strong male predominance amongst adult patients, and the expression of the eosinophil chemokine eotaxin 3. Current first line treatments such as strict dietary modification and ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Microtubule dynamics regulate cyclic stretch-induced cell alignment in human airway smooth muscle cells. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Of the three types of leukocytes recruited, neutrophils, eosinophils, and macrophages, the most striking difference between BLTR−/− and wild-type mice occurred in eosinophil recruitment (Fig. 5 A). Neither group had substantial numbers of peritoneal eosinophils at baseline or 4 h after thioglycollate instillation. Peak numbers of eosinophils were seen in both groups at 48 h, but BLTR−/− mice recruited only 33% as many eosinophils to the inflamed peritoneum as wild-type mice at this time point (P , 0.005). Numbers of peritoneal eosinophils declined in both groups at 96 h, but BLTR−/− mice continued to have significantly fewer of these cells. At 96 h, BLTR−/− mice had only 20% as many eosinophils recovered from the peritoneal cavity as wild-type mice (P , 0.01).. Although the numbers of peritoneal neutrophils and macrophages appeared lower in the BLTR−/− mice at some time points, the differences from wild type did not reach statistical significance for either of these cell ...
Eosinophilia (e-o-sin-o-FILL-e-uh) is a higher than normal level of eosinophils. Eosinophils are a type of disease-fighting white blood cell. This condition most often indicates a parasitic infection, an allergic reaction or cancer.. You can have high levels of eosinophils in your blood (blood eosinophilia) or in tissues at the site of an infection or inflammation (tissue eosinophilia).. Tissue eosinophilia may be found in samples taken during an exploratory procedure or in samples of certain fluids, such as mucus released from nasal tissues. If you have tissue eosinophilia, the level of eosinophils in your bloodstream is likely normal.. Blood eosinophilia may be detected with a blood test, usually as part of a complete blood count. A count of more than 500 eosinophils per microliter of blood is generally considered eosinophilia in adults. A count of more than 1,500 eosinophils per microliter of blood that lasts for several months is called hypereosinophilia.. Eosinophils play two roles in your ...
The elevation of intracellular cyclic AMP by phosphodiesterase (PDE)4 inhibitors in eosinophils is associated with inhibition of the activation and recruitment of these cells. We have previously shown that systemic treatment with the PDE4 inhibitor rolipram effectively inhibt eosinophil migration in guinea pig skin. In the present study we compare the oral potency and efficacy of the PDE4 inhibitors rolipram, RP 73401 and CDP 840 on allergic and PAF-induced eosinophil recruitment. Rolipram and RP 73401 were equally effective and potent when given by the oral route and much more active than the PDE4 inhibitor CDP 840. We suggest that this guinea pig model of allergic and mediator-induced eosinophil recruitment is both a sensitive and simple tool to test the efficacy and potency of PDE4 inhibitors in vivo ...
Median cervico-vaginal levels of IL-6, Eotaxin, IP-10, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and TNFα were higher than corresponding serum cytokines, significantly so for IL-6 and IP-10. Cervico-vaginal and serum cytokines were not correlated, but cytokines from the same fluid were correlated. ICCs for most serum cytokines were ≤0.40, while ICCs were higher in cervico-vaginal cytokines (range 0.52-0.83). IP-10 and Eotaxin had the highest ICCs for both cytokine sources. In adjusted models, PM10 was positively associated with serum cytokines IL-6, IP-10, MIP-1β and Eotaxin but inversely associated with cervico-vaginal cytokine TNFα, IP-10, MIP-1β, MCP-1 and Eotaxin, controlling for false discovery rate. CO was inversely associated with cervico-vaginal TNFα, IL-6, MIP-1β, MCP-1 and Eotaxin.. ...
Hi Again Please could you tell me what tissue in mouse is a good positive control for eosinophil staining. Thanks Marilyn _______________________________________________ Histonet mailing list [email protected] http://lists.utsouthwestern.edu/mailman/listinfo/histonet ...
The brown dog tick evasin-4 binds to CCL5 and CCL11, but appears to neutralize even more chemokines. It has an Ig-fold domain. ... chemokine-binding proteins such as evasins are being researched to assess their therapeutic potential as chemokine-targeting ... As chemokines have been implicated in a number of inflammatory diseases including atherosclerosis, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis ... a tick-derived chemokine-binding protein with broad selectivity can be modified for use in preclinical disease models". The ...
... host-derived pro-inflammatory chemokines (e.g. CXCL8, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL11, CXCL10), platelet-activating factor, and ... stimulates their expression the chemokine receptor, CCR5, to inhibit chemokine signaling, enhances their phagocyte activity, ... CMKLR1 (chemokine receptor-like 1), also termed the ChemR23 or E series resolvin receptor (ERV), is expressed on inflammation- ...
This receptor binds and responds to a variety of chemokines, including eotaxin (CCL11), eotaxin-3 (CCL26), MCP-3 (CCL7), MCP-4 ... It is also known to be an entry co-receptor for HIV-1. This gene and seven other chemokine receptor genes form a chemokine ... a novel CC chemokine that is selective for the chemokine receptor CCR3, and acts like eotaxin on human eosinophil and basophil ... an eosinophil-selective CC chemokine, and identification of a specific eosinophil eotaxin receptor, CC chemokine receptor 3". J ...
FcεRI cross-linking by IgE and anti-IgE antibodies led to Th2 (IL-4, -5, and -13) cytokines and CCL11/eotaxin-1 chemokine ...
The eotaxins are a CC chemokine subfamily of eosinophil chemotactic proteins. In humans, there are three family members: CCL11 ... "The MCP/eotaxin subfamily of CC chemokines". Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 10 (1): 61-86. doi:10.1016/s1359-6101(99)00005-2. PMID ...
... or to sites of helminth infection in response to chemokines like CCL11 (eotaxin-1), CCL24 (eotaxin-2), CCL5 (RANTES), 5- ...
Cancer immunoprevention Cancer immunotherapy Cantuzumab ravtansine Cathelicidin CC chemokine receptors CCBP2 CCL1 CCL11 CCL12 ... Breakthrough infection Broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies Bursa of Fabricius C-C chemokine receptor type 6 C-C chemokine ... CD4 CD4+ T cells and antitumor immunity CD74 CD94/NKG2 Cell-mediated immunity CELSR1 Central tolerance Chemokine Chemokine ... CR6261 CroFab Cross-presentation Cross-reactivity Cryptic self epitopes Cryptotope CX3CL1 CX3CR1 CXC chemokine receptors CXCL1 ...
... encoding protein Zinc finger protein 207 Several CC chemokines: CCL1, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL7, CCL8, CCL11, CCL13, CCL14, ... C-C motif chemokine ligand 4 like 1 (17q12) DDX52: DExD-box helicase 52 (17q12) ERBB2 loca leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2, ...
CCL11, CCL24, CCL26, CCL5, CCL7, CCL13, and CCL3. Chemokines CCL11 (eotaxin) and CCL5 (RANTES) acts through a specific receptor ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other chemokines in that it has ... CCL1 for the ligand 1 of the CC-family of chemokines, and CCR1 for its respective receptor. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) ...
Chemokine receptors for which CCL11 is a ligand include CCR2, CCR3 and CCR5. However, it has been found that eotaxin-1 (CCL11) ... CCL11 is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family. CCL11 selectively recruits eosinophils by inducing their ... The effects of CCL11 are mediated by its binding to a G-protein-linked receptor known as a chemokine receptor. ... Human CCL11 genome location and CCL11 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Garcia-Zepeda EA, Rothenberg ME, Ownbey RT ...
This receptor has several CC chemokine ligands including CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL11, CCL13, CCL14 and CCL16. CCR6, a ... CCR3 is a receptor for multiple inflammatory/inducible CC chemokines, including CCL11, CCL26, CCL7, CCL13, CCL15, CCL24 and ... The CC chemokine receptors all work by activating the G protein Gi. CCR1 was the first CC chemokine receptor identified and ... CC chemokine receptors (or beta chemokine receptors) are integral membrane proteins that specifically bind and respond to ...
Menzies-Gow A, Ying S, Sabroe I, Stubbs VL, Soler D, Williams TJ, Kay AB (September 2002). "Eotaxin (CCL11) and eotaxin-2 ( ... C-C motif chemokine ligand 24 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCL24 gene. This gene belongs to the subfamily of ... "Entrez Gene: C-C motif chemokine ligand 24". Retrieved 2018-05-09. Papadopoulos NG, Papi A, Meyer J, Stanciu LA, Salvi S, ...
chemokine receptor activity. • receptor activity. • protein binding. • C-C chemokine receptor activity. • C-C chemokine binding ... Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene.[5] CCR6 ... "Entrez Gene: CCR6 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 6".. *^ Wang K, Zhang H, Kugathasan S, Annese V, Bradfield JP, Russell RK, ... "Chemokine Receptors: CCR6". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ...
CCL11, CCL24, CCL26, CCL5, CCL7, CCL13, and CCL3. Chemokines CCL11 (eotaxin) and CCL5 (RANTES) acts through a specific receptor ... C chemokinesEdit. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... CC chemokinesEdit. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins have two adjacent cysteines (amino acids), near their amino ...
Several CC chemokines: CCL1, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL7, CCL8, CCL11, CCL13, CCL14, CCL15, CCL16, CCL18, and CCL23 ...
positive regulation of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 production. • positive regulation of JUN kinase activity. • positive ... positive regulation of chemokine production. • cellular extravasation. • negative regulation of lipid storage. • negative ... positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • epithelial cell proliferation involved in salivary gland morphogenesis ...
... s are a subset of cytokines that are produced by a type of immune cell known as a lymphocyte.[1] They are protein mediators typically produced by T cells to direct the immune system response by signaling between its cells. Lymphokines have many roles, including the attraction of other immune cells, including macrophages and other lymphocytes, to an infected site and their subsequent activation to prepare them to mount an immune response. Circulating lymphocytes can detect a very small concentration of lymphokine and then move up the concentration gradient towards where the immune response is required. Lymphokines aid B cells to produce antibodies. Important lymphokines secreted by the T helper cell include:[2] ...
... binds to the death receptors DR4 (TRAIL-RI) and DR5 (TRAIL-RII). The process of apoptosis is caspase-8-dependent. Caspase-8 activates downstream effector caspases including procaspase-3, -6, and -7, leading to activation of specific kinases.[11] TRAIL also binds the receptors DcR1 and DcR2, which do not contain a cytoplasmic domain (DcR1) or contain a truncated death domain (DcR2). DcR1 functions as a TRAIL-neutralizing decoy-receptor. The cytoplasmic domain of DcR2 is functional and activates NFkappaB. In cells expressing DcR2, TRAIL binding therefore activates NFkappaB, leading to transcription of genes known to antagonize the death signaling pathway and/or to promote inflammation. Application of engineered ligands that have variable affinity for different death (DR4 and DR5) and decoy receptors (DCR1 and DCR2) may allow selective targeting of cancer cells by controlling activation of Type 1/Type 2 pathways of cell death and single cell fluctuations. Luminescent iridium complex-peptide ...
... (IL-24) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL24 gene. IL-24 is a cytokine belonging to the IL-10 family of cytokines that signals through two heterodimeric receptors: IL-20R1/IL-20R2 and IL-22R1/IL-20R2. This interleukin is also known as melanoma differentiation-associated 7 (mda-7) due to its discovery as a tumour suppressing protein. IL-24 appears to control in cell survival and proliferation by inducing rapid activation of particular transcription factors called STAT1 and STAT3. This cytokine is predominantly released by activated monocytes, macrophages and T helper 2 (Th2) cells[5] and acts on non-haematopoietic tissues such as skin, lung and reproductive tissues. IL-24 performs important roles in wound healing, arthritis, psoriasis and cancer.[6][7][8] Several studies have shown that cell death occurs in cancer cells/cell lines following exposure to IL-24.[9][10] The gene for IL-24 is located on chromosome 1 in humans.[11] ...
... as well as chemokine and cytokine production, and expression of adhesion molecules such as E-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1. This ...
positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • regulation of insulin secretion. • extrinsic apoptotic signaling ... Copeland KF (2006). "Modulation of HIV-1 transcription by cytokines and chemokines". Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry. 5 (12 ...
... is sometimes used interchangeably among scientists with the term cytokine.[3] Historically, cytokines were associated with hematopoietic (blood and lymph forming) cells and immune system cells (e.g., lymphocytes and tissue cells from spleen, thymus, and lymph nodes). For the circulatory system and bone marrow in which cells can occur in a liquid suspension and not bound up in solid tissue, it makes sense for them to communicate by soluble, circulating protein molecules. However, as different lines of research converged, it became clear that some of the same signaling proteins which the hematopoietic and immune systems use were also being used by all sorts of other cells and tissues, during development and in the mature organism. While growth factor implies a positive effect on cell division, cytokine is a neutral term with respect to whether a molecule affects proliferation. While some cytokines can be growth factors, such as G-CSF and GM-CSF, others have an inhibitory effect on ...
chemokine activity. • cytokine activity. • heparin binding. • protein binding. • CXCR3 chemokine receptor binding. ... C-X-C motif chemokine 11 is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also called Interferon-inducible T- ... "Entrez Gene: CXCL11 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11".. *^ a b Cole KE, Strick CA, Paradis TJ, Ogborne KT, Loetscher M, Gladue ... This chemokine elicits its effects on its target cells by interacting with the cell surface chemokine receptor CXCR3, with a ...
Interferon alfa 2b is an antiviral or antineoplastic drug, that was originally discovered in the laboratory of Charles Weissmann at the University of Zurich. It was developed at Biogen, and ultimately marketed by Schering-Plough under the tradename Intron-A. It has been used for a wide range of indications, including viral infections and cancers. This drug is approved around the world for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C, chronic hepatitis B, hairy cell leukemia, Behçet's disease, chronic myelogenous leukemia, multiple myeloma, follicular lymphoma, carcinoid tumor, mastocytosis and malignant melanoma. ...
4-1BB is a type 2 transmembrane glycoprotein receptor belonging to the TNF superfamily, expressed on activated T Lymphocytes.[1] 4-1BBL (4-1BB ligand) is found on APCs (antigen presenting cells) and binds to 4-1BB. ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the interleukin 1 cytokine family. Protein structure modeling indicated that this cytokine may contain a 12-stranded beta-trefoil structure that is conserved between IL1A (IL-A alpha) and IL1B (IL-1 beta). This gene and eight other interleukin 1 family genes form a cytokine gene cluster on chromosome 2. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported.[8]. ...
Chemokine. CCL. CCL1 · CCL2 · CCL3 · CCL4 · CCL5 · CCL6 · CCL7 · CCL8 · CCL9 · CCL11 · CCL12 · CCL13 · CCL14 · CCL15 · CCL16 · ...
C-X-C chemokine receptor activity. • interleukin-8 binding. • G-protein coupled receptor activity. • chemokine receptor ... This name and the corresponding gene symbol IL8RA have been replaced by the HGNC approved name C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 1 ... "Chemokine Receptors: CXCR1". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ... chemokine-mediated signaling pathway. • interleukin-8-mediated signaling pathway. • neutrophil degranulation. • chemotaxis. ...
Elevated serum levels of macrophage-derived chemokine and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine in autistic children, J ... CCL11, CCL17, CCl19, CCL21, CCL22, CC25, CXCL7, CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, CXCL12, CXCL16. ... Kabelitz D, Wesch D., Features and functions of gamma delta T lymphocytes: focus on chemokines and their receptors. ...
Elevated serum levels of macrophage-derived chemokine and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine in autistic children, J ... CCL11, CCL17, CCl19, CCL21, CCL22, CC25, CXCL7, CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, CXCL12, CXCL16. ... Kabelitz D, Wesch D., Features and functions of gamma delta T lymphocytes: focus on chemokines and their receptors. ...
There were significantly greater concentrations of the chemokines CCL3 and CCL11 in plasma of LE patients than in NI ... CCL11 was useful in diagnosis of leprosy, thereby suggesting that measurement of this chemokine may be useful as an aid in ... The aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of chemokines as biologic markers of disease activity. We used an ... When the use of CCL11 to differentiate LE patients versus NI individuals was evaluated, the area under the receiver-operator- ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 11 (CCL11) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family that is also known as eotaxin- ... Chemokine receptors for which CCL11 is a ligand include CCR2, CCR3 and CCR5. However, it has been found that eotaxin-1 (CCL11) ... The effects of CCL11 are mediated by its binding to a G-protein-linked receptor known as a chemokine receptor. ... Ccl11; chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 11; Scya11; eotaxin; eotaxin-1; MGC22554; small inducible cytokine subfamily A (Cys-Cys), ...
CCL11 Chemokine. On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from either several symptoms or a ... Chemokine CCL11 (CCL11 Chemokine). A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for ...
This review will focus on recent murine and human studies that use chemokines as therapeutic anti-cancer vaccine adjuvants. ... Recent discoveries in the many biological roles of chemokines in tumor immunology allow their exploitation in enhancing ... This knowledge, combined with advances in gene therapy and virology, allows researchers to employ chemokines as potential ... CCL11. Eotaxin-1. CCR3. inflammatory, homeostatic and angiogenic. CCL13. MCP-4. CCR2, CCR3. inflammatory. ...
PeproTechs chemokines include proteins that act through G protein-coupled receptors and conform to the prototypical chemokine ... Chemokine Subfamilies and Nomenclature. C Chemokines - Contain only two conserved cysteine residues linked by a single ... Chemokines and their receptors otherwise tend to interact indiscriminately to stimulate upregulation of adherent chemokines, co ... including a special class of small cytokines called chemokines.. Representing the largest class of cytokines, chemokines play ...
PeproTechs chemokines include proteins that act through G protein-coupled receptors and conform to the prototypical chemokine ...
We had already shown that IL-6, certain chemokines (CCL2, CCL2, and CCL11), inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2), and ... mRNA coding for IL6, CCL2, CCL11, NOS2, CCL5, and PTGS2 was highly induced by Pam3CSK4 stimulation in preadipocytes as well as ... Induction of genes coding for IL6, CCL2, CCL5, CCL11, NOS2, and PTGS2 was measured by qPCR in preadipocytes (a) or in ... TLR4 activation induced a lower secretion of IL6, CCL5, and CCL11 in adipocytes when compared to preadipocytes, while CCL2 ...
CCL11 [P51671]. 2. EBI-7783254,EBI-727357. CCL17 [Q92583]. 3. EBI-7783254,EBI-16640146. ... IPR000827, Chemokine_CC_CS. IPR001811, Chemokine_IL8-like_dom. IPR036048, Interleukin_8-like_sf. ... IPR000827, Chemokine_CC_CS. IPR001811, Chemokine_IL8-like_dom. IPR036048, Interleukin_8-like_sf. ... C-C motif chemokine 28 (Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 28, isoform CRA_b) ...
CCL11 protein, human * Chemokine CCL11 * Chemokines, CC * Cytokines * RNA Grant support * AI-40618/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/United ...
... and eotaxin-3/CCL26 bind specifically and exclusively to CC chemokine receptor (CCR) 3, which is a potential therapeutic target ... Eotaxin-1/CCL11, eotaxin-2/CCL24, and eotaxin-3/CCL26 bind specifically and exclusively to CC chemokine receptor (CCR) 3, which ... Bronchial epithelial cells represent an important source of chemokines, and thus we investigated in vitro and in vivo ...
CCL11, C-C motif chemokine ligand 11; IL-16, interleukin 16; CCL22, C-C motif chemokine ligand 22; IL-1β, interleukin 1β; TGF-α ... Individual cytokines are identified at left: CCL27, C-C motif chemokine ligand 27, also known as CTACK; PDGF-AA, platelet- ... We analyzed 64 circulating cytokines and chemokines in plasma of 120 African American women enrolled in the Black Womens ... We used regression analysis to identify cytokines and chemokines associated with obesity, co-morbid T2D and hypertension, and ...
CC chemokine eotaxin-1 (Ccl11) Embryos. BPA. [31]. Superoxide dismutase (Sod) Embryos. PFOS, BPA. [26, 31]. ...
CCL11, CCL24, CCL26, CCL5, CCL7, CCL13, and CCL3. Chemokines CCL11 (eotaxin) and CCL5 (RANTES) acts through a specific receptor ... C chemokinesEdit. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... CC chemokinesEdit. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins have two adjacent cysteines (amino acids), near their amino ...
... a C-C-chemokine of 8.4 kDa, whose major biological activity is the chemoattraction of eosinophils. Given evidence of autoimmune ... 0/CCL11 protein, human; 0/Chemokine CCL11; 0/Chemokines, CC; 0/Chemotactic Factors, Eosinophil; 0/Cytokines; 0/Progesterone ... Chemokine CCL11. Chemokines, CC*. Chemotactic Factors, Eosinophil / chemistry, metabolism*. Cytokines / chemistry, metabolism ... Our laboratories have focused recently on the production and localization of eotaxin, a C-C-chemokine of 8.4 kDa, whose major ...
CCL11) in bone metabolism in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is not clearly elucidated. Thus, this cross-sectional study aimed to ... Ankylosing spondylitis CC chemokines Osteogenesis Biomarkers Tumor necrosis factor This is a preview of subscription content, ... We found that the serum level of CCL11 was associated with structural damage in patients with AS, suggesting that CCL11 may ... Wu D, Zhou J, Bi H, Li L, Gao W, Huang M, Adcock IM, Barnes PJ, Yao X (2014) CCL11 as a potential diagnostic marker for asthma ...
C-C motif chemokine 7 K14624 CCL2; C-C motif chemokine 2 K14624 CCL2; C-C motif chemokine 2 K16597 CCL11; C-C motif chemokine ... C-C motif chemokine 6 K05509 CCL7; C-C motif chemokine 7 K22671 CCL9; C-C motif chemokine 9 K16597 CCL11; C-C motif chemokine ... C-C motif chemokine 6 K05509 CCL7; C-C motif chemokine 7 K22671 CCL9; C-C motif chemokine 9 K16597 CCL11; C-C motif chemokine ... C-C motif chemokine 2 K14624 CCL2; C-C motif chemokine 2 K16598 CCL27; C-C motif chemokine 27 K16597 CCL11; C-C motif chemokine ...
0/Chemokine CCL11; E1UOL152H7/Iron; EC 3.4.21.-/Lactoferrin From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of ... Chemokine CCL11 / pharmacology. Chemotaxis, Leukocyte / drug effects*. Eosinophils / cytology*, drug effects*. Humans. Iron / ...
CCL11 is a member of the CC chemokine family and was originally identified as a chemoattractant for eosinophils. ... CCL11 selectively recruits eosinophils through binding to the chemokine receptor CCR3 during allergic response. CCL11 ... In addition, CCL11 facilitates proliferation and metastasis of tumor cells expressing the CCL11 receptor, CCR3. CCL11 has been ... Cytokines/Chemokines Gene ID 6356 View all products for this Gene ID UniProt View information about CCL11 on UniProt.org ...
CCL11 induces angiogenic responses in CCR3,sup,+,/sup, microvascular endothelial cells and facilitates the proliferati ... p,CCL11 is a member of the CC chemokine family. It was originally identified as a chemoattractant for eosinophils, and ... CCL11 is a member of the CC chemokine family. It was originally identified as a chemoattractant for eosinophils, and ... Cytokines/Chemokines Antigen References 1. Crump MP, et al. 1998. J. Biol. Chem. 273:22471.. 2. Conroy DM, et al. 2001. Respir ...
... the CC chemokines CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, CCL11, CCL17, CCL18, CCL19, CCL21, CCL22; the CXC chemokines CXCL8, CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL12; ... Generally, CC chemokines potently attract monocytes, T lymphocytes, eosinophils, and basophils, whereas CXC chemokines are ... Differences between our study and previous studies, chemokine function, and chemokine levels are summarized in Table 4. Before ... The concentrations of IL-6 and the following chemokines were measured: the chemokine-like macrophage migration inhibitory ...
CCL11,. eosinophil migration. promote lung metastasis and. CCL15-16,. promote the formation of human. ... Among the four types of chemokines, there are two highly homologous XC chemokines: XC motif chemokine ligand 1 (XCL1) and XCL2 ... Chemokine receptors. Chemokines. Functions. Signaling pathways. Role in HCC. (Refs.). CXCR1. CXCL6,. Chemotactic neutrophils. - ... chemokines can bind to the atypical chemokine receptor (ACKR) subfamily, which is a key regulator of the chemokine network, and ...
AMPs, antimicrobial peptides; AMs, alveolar macrophages; BAL, bronchoalveolar lavage; CCL11, C-C motif chemokine 11; CFU, ... and CCL11 in SPF mice. The level of expression of PD-L1 on CD11b+ DCs and the frequency of FoxP3+CD25+ Treg cells are also ...
Bertilimumab (anti-CCL11 chemokine; Immune Pharmaceuticals). • REGN 3500 (anti-IL-33; Sanofi/Regeneron). • FB 825 (Anti-CmX; ...
CCL11, CCL24, CCL26, CCL5, CCL7, CCL13, and CCL3. Chemokines CCL11 (eotaxin) and CCL5 (RANTES) acts through a specific receptor ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other chemokines in that it has ... CCL1 for the ligand 1 of the CC-family of chemokines, and CCR1 for its respective receptor. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) ...
Structural basis of receptor sulfotyrosine recognition by a CC chemokine: The N-terminal region of CCR3 bound to CCL11/eotaxin- ... Research ArticleChemokine Signaling. Structural basis for chemokine recognition by a G protein-coupled receptor and ... Crystal structure of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 in complex with a viral chemokine. Science 347, 1117-1122 (2015).. ... The herpesvirus 8-encoded chemokine vMIP-II, but not the poxvirus-encoded chemokine MC148, inhibits the CCR10 receptor. Eur. J ...
CCL11. Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 11. NM_002986. Gene Info. Symbol. Name. Sequence ID. CGAP Gene Info. ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 21. NM_002989. Gene Info. CCL23. Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 23. NM_005064. NM_145898. Gene Info ... Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 4. NM_005508. Gene Info. CCR5. Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 (gene/pseudogene). NM_000579. NM ... Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 2. AK292685. Gene Info. CCR2. Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 2. NM_001123041. NM_001123396. Gene ...
CCL11. Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 11. NM_002986. Gene Info. CCL19. Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 19. NM_006274. Gene Info. ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 4. NM_002984. Gene Info. CCL4L1. Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 4-like 1. NM_207007. NM_001001435. ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3. NM_002983. Gene Info. CCL4. ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 21. NM_002989. Gene Info. CCL24. ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 26. NM_006072. Gene Info. CCL3. ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 24. NM_002991. Gene Info. CCL26. ...
CCL11. Scya11. Eotaxin. P51671 CCL12. Scya12. MCP-5. Q62401 CCL13. Scya13. MCP-4, NCC-1, Ckβ10. Q99616 ... C chemokines. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other chemokines ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... CC chemokines. The CC chemokines (or β-chemokines) have two adjacent cysteines near their amino terminus. There have been at ...
2001) The CC chemokine eotaxin (CCL11) is a partial agonist of CC chemokine receptor 2b. J Biol Chem 276:42957-42964. ... CC chemokine receptor. CCL. CC chemokine ligand. MCP. monocyte chemotactic protein. GPCR. G-protein-coupled receptor. BRET. ... This conclusion is further supported by the atypical signaling profile of CCL11. CCL11 induced marginal Gαi activation that had ... 2007) Analysis of second messenger pathways stimulated by different chemokines acting at the chemokine receptor CCR5. Biochem ...
CCL11. CCR6. D-myo-Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. CCL26. XCL1. CXCL9. GNB1. CCL21. CXCL10. GRK1. RELA. PRKCD. CCL25. IKBKG. ... Chemokines are small cytokines, or signaling proteins, secreted by cells. A major rol of chemokines is to act as ... c-C motif chemokine 12-like. CXCL12. CCR1. CX3CR1. GNG2. DOCK2. RAC1. GNB4. Jak-STAT signaling pathway. CCR2. PIK3R2. HRAS. ... Ontology Term : chemokine mediated signaling pathway added !. 90740. view. 23:30, 13 December 2016. Khanspers. New pathway. ...
  • Chemokine receptors for which CCL11 is a ligand include CCR2, CCR3 and CCR5. (creative-biogene.com)
  • A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. (lookfordiagnosis.com)
  • To date, there are more than 50 chemokines and 18 chemokine receptors identified [ 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Most chemokines bind to more than one receptor, while most receptors also display overlapping ligand specificity [ 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • a trait that enables the recruitment of diverse populations of well-defined chemokine subsets and receptors. (peprotech.com)
  • In order to exert biological effect, chemokines will bind with receptors of the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily, which possess seven conserved transmembrane domains with which chemokines can interact. (peprotech.com)
  • Classified into subfamilies based on the motifs of their ligands, these receptors tend to interact with the chemokines of their eponymous subfamilies. (peprotech.com)
  • Chemokines and their receptors otherwise tend to interact indiscriminately to stimulate upregulation of adherent chemokines, co-stimulatory cytokines and signaling cascades that polarizes cells to direct chemotaxis. (peprotech.com)
  • All of these proteins exert their biological effects by interacting with G protein -linked transmembrane receptors called chemokine receptors , that are selectively found on the surfaces of their target cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been found that chemokines and their receptors serve a pivotal role in HCC progression. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Thus, chemokines and their receptors directly or indirectly shape the tumor cell microenvironment, and regulate the biological behavior of the tumor. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Exosomes containing chemokines or expressing receptors for chemokines may improve chemotaxis to HCC and may thus be exploited for targeted drug delivery. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Chemokines bind to a variety of different receptors, which belong to the G-protein-binding receptor family, and there are ~23 types of chemokine receptors that have been discovered ( 10 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Chemokines and their receptors were initially thought to allow for an interaction between immune cells and the inflammatory sites ( 11 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • After binding to the receptors, chemokines primarily serve a role in migration of leukocytes, such as monocytes, eosinophils and dendritic cells (DCs) ( 11 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Among other homeostatic chemokine receptors include: CCR9, CCR10, and CXCR5, which are important as part of the cell addresses for tissue-specific homing of leukocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Receptor-ligand promiscuity is a hallmark of the inflammatory CC-chemokine/receptor system, where most ligands bind more than one receptor and most receptors bind more than one ligand. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Pharmacologic mechanisms that may in part account for these differences are difficult to assess on primary cells and in in vivo systems because of the presence of alternative receptors and the confounding variety of regulatory mechanisms of the chemokine response. (aspetjournals.org)
  • For example, binding preferences and activity of a given chemokine are modulated by proteoglycan binding, protease processing, and oligomerization of chemokines as well as chemokine receptors, adding several layers of complexity. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Knowledge about intrinsically different effects of different chemokines on the same receptor should help to better direct drug developing efforts targeting chemokine receptors. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Chemokine signals are transduced by G-protein coupled receptors, which dissociate to activate diverse downstream pathways resulting in cellular polarization and actin reorganization. (wikipathways.org)
  • Chemokines exhibit affinity for seven transmembrane-spanning G protein-coupled signaling receptors and extracellular matrix or cell-bound glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). (rupress.org)
  • CXCL8 promotes in vivo activation and recruitment of neutrophil granulocytes through the chemokine receptors 1 and 2 (CXCR1 and CXCR2) ( 7 , 8 ). (rupress.org)
  • Chemokine activity is controlled at different levels, including regulation of chemokine and chemokine receptor expression, the presence of "silent" or "decoy" chemokine receptors, binding to GAG, and posttranslational modification ( 9 - 13 ). (rupress.org)
  • Therapies that block IL-4 and chemokine receptors on eosinophils might be more effective clinically in reducing eosinophilic lung inflammation. (gwu.edu)
  • Chemokines are small chemoattractant proteins that bind to chemokine receptors, which are members of the family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), to stimulate the directed migration of immune cells to sites of infection or inflammation. (sciencemag.org)
  • CC chemokine receptors (or beta chemokine receptors) are integral membrane proteins that specifically bind and respond to cytokines of the CC chemokine family. (wikipedia.org)
  • They represent one subfamily of chemokine receptors, a large family of G protein-linked receptors that are known as seven transmembrane (7-TM) proteins since they span the cell membrane seven times. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CC chemokine receptors all work by activating the G protein Gi. (wikipedia.org)
  • This molecule was originally designated CCR11 due to its ability to bind several CC chemokines (including CCL19, CCL21 and CCL25) and its structural similarity to chemokine receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene expression of these three chemokines and their corresponding receptors CCR5, CXCR3, and CCR3, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was determined by quantitative RT-PCR. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The abnormal profiles of Th1-/Th2-associated chemokines and chemokine receptors may play important roles in the pathogenesis of ITP. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, expression of chemokines and chemokine receptors associated with the Th1/Th2 imbalance, particularly relating to immune regulation by modified application of glucocorticoids, has yet to be explored. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chemokines induce chemotaxis through the activation of G-protein-coupled receptors, and the receptors that a given leukocyte expresses determines the chemokines to which it will respond. (ahajournals.org)
  • The migration and movement of eosinophils is promoted by chemokines, such as CCL11, CCL24 and CCL26 and chemokine receptors, such as CCR3. (news-medical.net)
  • Chemotaxis typically requires the stimulation of 7 transmembrane pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive G protein-coupled chemokine receptors (GPCR) [ 19 , 20 , 21 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Chemokine receptors are named from their ligand families, thus the CC chemokine eotaxin-1 binds to the CCR3 receptor which is expressed on eosinophis, mast cells, Th2 type lymphocytes and even on keratinocytes. (eurekaselect.com)
  • 4- 6 Chemokine receptors are designated according to the type of chemokine(s) they bind (CXC, CC, XC, CX3C), followed by R for receptor and a number indicating the order of discovery. (bmj.com)
  • Chemokine receptors belong to the large family of seven transmembrane domain receptors which couple to heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins (G-proteins) (fig 1). (bmj.com)
  • During organogenesis, immunosurveillance, and inflammation, chemokines selectively recruit leukocytes by activating seven-transmembrane-spanning receptors. (pnas.org)
  • Many chemokines bind several receptors and multiple chemokines often bind the same receptor, resulting in a highly complex network of interactions ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • CCR3 is one of more than 20 distinct chemokine receptors expressed in human leukocytes. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • The most thoroughly characterized CC chemokine is MCP-1 (also known as CCL2), a potent agonist for monocytes, memory T cells, and basophils. (ahajournals.org)
  • The sera and urine chemokines CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, CCL11, and CXCL8 were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test. (ajtmh.org)
  • We have demonstrated that chemokine ligands CCL2 and CCL3 are biomarkers that correlate with pelvic pain symptoms. (jove.com)
  • This migratory activity was markedly inhibited by the viral CC chemokine inhibitor and the deficiency of MCP-1/CCL2, indicating that MCP-1/CCL2 is a main attractant of THP-1 cells among the SLF-derived molecules. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chemokine mRNA expression of CCL11 (d) and CCL2 (e) from lung tissue homogenates were analysed with RT-qPCR. (springermedizin.de)
  • However, it has been found that eotaxin-1 (CCL11) has high degree selectivity for its receptor, such that they are inactive on neutrophils and monocytes, which do not express CCR3. (creative-biogene.com)
  • In addition, CCL11 facilitates proliferation and metastasis of tumor cells expressing the CCL11 receptor, CCR3. (biolegend.com)
  • CCL11 has been shown to induce angiogenic response by CCR3-positive microvascular endothelial cells. (biolegend.com)
  • CCL11 selectively recruits eosinophils through binding to the chemokine receptor CCR3 during allergic response. (biolegend.com)
  • CCL11 induces angiogenic responses in CCR3 + microvascular endothelial cells and facilitates the proliferation and metastasis of CCR3 + tumor cells. (biolegend.com)
  • Eotaxin binds and activates the CCR3 chemokine receptor, and may play a fundamental role in the development of allergic responses. (thermofisher.com)
  • CCL11 can contribute to inflammation in asthma through activation of CCR3 on eosinophils, leukocytes, and mast cells ( 11 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • CCR3 is a receptor for multiple inflammatory/inducible CC chemokines, including CCL11, CCL26, CCL7, CCL13, CCL15, CCL24 and CCL5 that attract eosinophils, and CCL28 that attracts B and T lymphocytes to mucosal tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Objectives We aimed to assess the expression of the CCL24 chemokine in systemic sclerosis (SSc) and to evaluate the possible pathogenic implications of the CCL24/CCR3 axis using both in vitro and in vivo models. (bmj.com)
  • Eotaxin-1/CCL11 binds CCR3, is chemotactic for eosinophils-but not mononuclear cells or neutrophils-and is involved in eosinophilic type inflammatory responses (e.g., atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, asthma and parasitic infections). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • According to Sakura Minami of the San Carlos-based biotech company Alkahest, one is eotaxin, a ligand for the C-C chemokine receptor type 3 (CCR3). (alzforum.org)
  • CCR3, the receptor for CCL11 , which allow them to respond to a multitude of cytokines, chemokines and lipid mediators. (immunology.org)
  • Mouse Eotaxin activity is mediated by the mouse CC chemokine receptor CCR3, which, unlike human CCR3, can also be activated by mouse MIP-1α. (biovendor.com)
  • There were significantly greater concentrations of the chemokines CCL3 and CCL11 in plasma of LE patients than in NI individuals. (ajtmh.org)
  • The CC chemokines CCL3, CCL5, CCL17 and CCL22 signal through this receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • 4] also induced expression of CCL11 , CCL5, CCL3, and CXCL2, and BB exposure resulted in upregulation of CCL4. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Eotaxin-1/CCL11, eotaxin-2/CCL24, and eotaxin-3/CCL26 bind specifically and exclusively to CC chemokine receptor (CCR) 3, which is a potential therapeutic target in treating the peribronchial eosinophilia associated with allergic airway diseases. (nih.gov)
  • Trophoblasts-derived chemokine CCL24 promotes the proliferation, growth and apoptosis of decidual stromal cells in human early pregnancy. (nih.gov)
  • genes de quimiocinas CCL5/RANTES, CCL11 , CCL24, CCL26, filagrina e outros) e (d) associados a funcao pulmonar e remodelamento bronquico (ADAM-33, DPP-10 e HLA-G, dentre outros). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • CCL11 selectively recruits eosinophils by inducing their chemotaxis, and therefore, is implicated in allergic responses. (creative-biogene.com)
  • Our laboratories have focused recently on the production and localization of eotaxin, a C-C-chemokine of 8.4 kDa, whose major biological activity is the chemoattraction of eosinophils. (biomedsearch.com)
  • CCL11 is a member of the CC chemokine family and was originally identified as a chemoattractant for eosinophils. (biolegend.com)
  • In response to allergens, CCL11, which participates in a variety of allergic diseases, promotes accumulation of eosinophils. (biolegend.com)
  • CCL11 has been reported to stimulate eosinophil release from bone marrow, resulting in an elevated level of circulating eosinophils. (biolegend.com)
  • The CC chemokines induce recruitment of eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils, and monocytes, and play important roles in the regulation of many inflammatory conditions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Eosinophils release their proinflammatory and cytotoxic granule proteins, and various chemokines in response to a fungal infection. (news-medical.net)
  • In humans, dermal expression of both eotaxin/CCL11 and RANTES/CCL5 correlates with the numbers of dermal eosinophils associated with the early phases of Onchocerca volvulus infection, suggesting the importance of host expressed chemokines in directing this response [ 8 , 9 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Production of chemoattractant molecules by the parasites could explain the presence of eosinophils in the infected tissues of mice with attenuated chemokine expression. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Many cell types including lymphocytes, macrophages, bronchial smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells and eosinophils, are able to produce this chemokine, predominantly after cytokine stimulation, however little is known about its expression in human skin in vivo. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Eotaxin/CCL11 is a major chemoattractant for eosinophils and Th2 cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Differentiation of haemato-poietic progenitors to eosinophils in the bone marrow is governed by SCF, IL-3, IL-4, GM-CSF and CCL11. (immunology.org)
  • IL-5 and CCL11 then act in concert to drive final differentiation, maturation and release of eosinophils from the bone marrow into the bloodstream. (immunology.org)
  • CCR1 was the first CC chemokine receptor identified and binds multiple inflammatory/inducible (see inducible gene) CC chemokines (including CCL4, CCL5, CCL6, CCL14, CCL15, CCL16 and CCL23). (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasma levels of CCL5 and CXCL11 (Th1-associated) and of CCL11 (Th2-associated) were determined by ELISA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the present study we investigated the effect of mutations in the GAG binding sites of three chemokines, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/CC chemokine ligand (CCL)2, macrophage-inflammatory protein-1β/CCL4, and RANTES/CCL5, on their ability to recruit cells in vivo . (pnas.org)
  • For example, in addition to chemotaxis, chemokines modulate lymphocyte development, priming and effector function [ 2 ] and play a critical role in immune surveillance. (mdpi.com)
  • Representing the largest class of cytokines, chemokines play an essential role in both physiological and pathological activities by stimulating the migration of certain leukocytes through concentration gradients in a process known as chemotaxis. (peprotech.com)
  • In addition to being known for mediating chemotaxis, chemokines are all approximately 8-10 kilodaltons in mass and have four cysteine residues in conserved locations that are key to forming their 3-dimensional shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, the potential application of chemokines in chemotaxis of exosomes as drug vehicles is discussed. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Both aspects, cell adhesion and chemotaxis, are regulated by members of the family of chemotactic cytokines (chemokines) comprising structurally related and secreted proteins of 67-127 amino acids in length. (bmj.com)
  • Description: Measuring antagonism of CCL11-induced chemotaxis in vitro . (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • Chemokines primarily act to promote leukocyte chemotaxis to sites of inflammation. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • Eotaxin is a 74-amino acid, eosinophil-chemotactic CC chemokine originally found in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from allergic inflammatory subjects. (thermofisher.com)
  • In animal models of pulmonary allergic inflammation, eosinophil accumulation is controlled by CCL11 generation ( 12 , 13 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • This eosinophil specific chemokine assumed to be involved in eosinophilic inflammatory diseases such as atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, asthma and parasitic infections. (abnova.com)
  • Eosinophil-platelet interactions can be strengthened via the expression of granulocytes and certain chemokines. (news-medical.net)
  • The importance of chemokines is underscored by the fact that eotaxin-1/CCL11 knockout mice exhibit decreased eosinophil tissue influx and an inability to clear infection with Brugia malayi microfilariae [ 10 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • However, eosinophil migration to the intestine is decreased but not absent in eotaxin/CCL11 knockout mice infected with Trichinella spiralis and Trichuris muris [ 11 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • For example, CCL11 , a normal eosinophil associated chemokine, increases in plasma with age and when administered to young mice reduces neurogenesis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Eotaxin (CCL11) is a potent eosinophil chemoattractant belonging to the C-C chemokine. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Moreover, oesophagi expressed increased IL-13 and the eosinophil agonist chemokine eotaxin-1. (elsevier.com)
  • Human Eotaxin is a CC chemokine (β-chemokine) composed of 74 amino acids (molecular weight 8.4 kDa), and is one of a subfamily of eosinophil chemotactic proteins produced by a number of normal cells and cell lines. (quanterix.com)
  • We then used hierarchical clustering to generate inflammation signatures by combining the effects of identified cytokines and chemokines and summarized the signatures using an inflammation score. (nih.gov)
  • This study shows that PAD citrullinates the chemokine CXCL8, and thus may dampen neutrophil extravasation during acute or chronic inflammation. (rupress.org)
  • Chemokines are a family of small secreted proteins that activate and attract leukocytes during inflammation, but also play an important role in normal leukocyte trafficking, including lymphocyte homing. (rupress.org)
  • Chemokines are a large family of low-molecular-weight cytokines that are characterized by their ability to direct the migration of leukocytes from the bloodstream to sites of inflammation ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • In this review, we summarize roles of the chemokines, a family of small secreted proteins that selectively recruit monocytes, neutrophils, and lymphocytes to sites of vascular injury, inflammation, and developing atherosclerosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • The chemokines are a family of potent chemotactic cytokines that regulate the trafficking of leukocytes and are rapidly upregulated at sites of vascular inflammation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Chemokines ( chemo tactic cyto kines ) are small heparin-binding proteins that direct the migration of circulating leukocytes to sites of inflammation or injury. (ahajournals.org)
  • CC chemokines tend to attract mononuclear cells and are found at sites of chronic inflammation. (ahajournals.org)
  • The CXC family of chemokines, of which IL-8 (CXCL8) is the prototypical member, attract polymorphonuclear leukocytes and have been implicated in acute pulmonary inflammation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Chemokines are derived from heterogeneous sources and direct leukocytes to sites of inflammation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • For instance, CCL20 is also associated with inflammation since it can act as pro-inflammatory chemokine as well. (biology-online.org)
  • Cell migration is mediated by a group of chemotactic cytokines called chemokines: low molecular weight molecules that have been shown as important leukocyte chemical attractants to sites of inflammation and infection. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The effects of CCL11 are mediated by its binding to a G-protein-linked receptor known as a chemokine receptor. (creative-biogene.com)
  • To obtain a linear standard curve, serial dilutions of CCL11 recombinant protein ranging from 500 to 7.81 pg/mL are recommended for each ELISA plate. (biolegend.com)
  • Intramolecular disulphide bonds typically join the first to third, and the second to fourth cysteine residues, numbered as they appear in the protein sequence of the chemokine. (wikidoc.org)
  • The first two cysteines, in a chemokine, are situated close together near the N-terminal end of the mature protein, with the third cysteine residing in the centre of the molecule and the fourth close to the C-terminal end . (wikidoc.org)
  • Mouse polyclonal antibody raised against a full-length human CCL11 protein. (abnova.com)
  • STAT-6 small interfering RNA significantly knocked down both STAT-6 mRNA expression and phosphorylation and inhibited CCL11 mRNA and protein expression. (jimmunol.org)
  • Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • 1997). "CCR6, a CC chemokine receptor that interacts with macrophage inflammatory protein 3alpha and is highly expressed in human dendritic cells" . (wikipedia.org)
  • The specific ligand of this receptor is CCL25 To note, the chemokine binding protein D6 had previously been named CCR9, but this molecule is a scavenger receptor not a true (signaling) chemokine receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we review the role of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and related chemokines in regulating the recruitment of monocyte/macrophages to the vessel wall and discuss how these chemokines contribute to the pathophysiology of vascular disease, with an emphasis on atherosclerosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • Thus, unlike other soluble chemokines, it is a type 1 transmembrane protein. (ahajournals.org)
  • Human CCL11 (P51671, 1 a.a. - 97 a.a.) full-length recombinant protein. (abnova.com)
  • CXCR4 has several biochemical functions, for example, C-X-C chemokine receptor activity, G-protein coupled receptor activity, actin binding. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Department of Veterans Affairs, discovered elevated levels of a protein called CCL11 in the brains of dead football players with Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE), but not in the brains of healthy people or people with Alzheimer's disease. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The chemokines are labelled selectively at or near the C -terminus of the protein in a selective manner which ensures that only a single dye molecule is incorporated. (almacgroup.com)
  • Two nomenclature systems are used in the current literature, the traditional abbreviations dating back to the time of chemokine discovery, such as interleukin (IL)-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and a systematic nomenclature that combines structural motifs (CXC, CC, XC, CX3C) with L for ligand and the number of the respective gene ( http://cytokine.medic.kumamoto-u.ac.jp gives access to recent updates 3 ). (bmj.com)
  • The most recent chemokine binding protein is a structural variant of CXCR3, termed CXCR3-B, which binds the classical CXCR3 ligands: monokine induced by interferon γ (Mig)/CXCL9, interferon α inducible protein 10 (IP10)/CXCL10, and interferon inducible T cell alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC)/CXCL11 as well as platelet factor 4/CXCL4. (bmj.com)
  • Furthermore, several studies have shown that variants of chemokines with altered dimer interfaces remain monomeric even at high protein concentrations and yet are indistinguishable from wild-type chemokines in receptor binding and activation assays in vitro . (pnas.org)
  • A gene on chromosome 3p21 that encodes a member of the beta chemokine receptor family, whose ligands include macrophage inflammatory protein 1 (MIP-1) alpha, regulated on activation normal T expressed and secreted protein (RANTES), monocyte chemoattractant protein 3 (MCP-3) and myeloid progenitor inhibitory factor-1 (MPIF-1). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 11 (CCL11) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family that is also known as eotaxin-1. (creative-biogene.com)
  • We used an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure chemokines in plasma of patients with leprosy (LE) and non-infected (NI) individuals. (ajtmh.org)
  • Serum levels of CCL11, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-17, and Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) were measured with commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. (springer.com)
  • The amount of chemokines released into culture medium by human corneal fibroblasts was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, surface expression of adhesion molecules on the cultured cells was measured with a whole-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the intracellular abundance of these molecules mRNA was quantitated by reverse transcription and real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. (arvojournals.org)
  • The invasion of such matter generates an onslaught of inflammatory responses, recruiting several immune cells and proteins, including a special class of small cytokines called chemokines. (peprotech.com)
  • Chemokines (Greek -kinos , movement) are a family of small cytokines , or signaling proteins secreted by cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytokine proteins are classified as chemokines according to behavior and structural characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokines are a class of small molecular proteins with similar structures, functions and chemotactic properties, and their molecular weights are ~10 kDa, and chemokines represent the largest member of the cytokine family ( 9 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Chemokines are a family of small cytokines , or proteins secreted by cells . (wikidoc.org)
  • Proteins are classified as chemokines according to shared structural characteristics such as small size (they are all approximately 8-10 kilodaltons in size), and the presence of four cysteine residues in conserved locations that are key to forming their 3-dimensional shape. (wikidoc.org)
  • Proteins are classified into the chemokine family based on their structural characteristics, not just their ability to attract cells. (wikidoc.org)
  • Typical chemokine proteins are produced as pro-peptides , beginning with a signal peptide of approximately 20 amino acids that gets cleaved from the active (mature) portion of the molecule during the process of its secretion from the cell. (wikidoc.org)
  • Chemokines are small cytokines, or signaling proteins, secreted by cells. (wikipathways.org)
  • Monocyte chemoattractant proteins (MCPs) are chemokines that stimulate the receptor CCR2, which is found on monocytes and macrophages and is implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes. (sciencemag.org)
  • Over 50 chemokines have been identified in humans and are characterized as small proteins ranging in size from 8 to 10 kDa [ 1 , 2 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Among CC chemokine familiy members, Eotaxin is functionally and structurally mostly related to the MCP/Eotaxin proteins. (biovendor.com)
  • Although we did not detect any SNP associated with either oxidative DNA damage or IUGR, in univariate analysis we found four genes (MBL2, CCL7, CCL11 , and CCL18) modifying the incidence of LBW. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 5] The gene for human CCL11 (scya11) is encoded on three exons and is located on chromosome 17. (creative-biogene.com)
  • Some inflammatory chemokines have proven essential in memory T cell generation [ 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Inflammatory chemokines function mainly as chemoattractants for leukocytes , recruiting monocytes , neutrophils and other effector cells from the blood to sites of infection or tissue damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain inflammatory chemokines activate cells to initiate an immune response or promote wound healing . (wikipedia.org)
  • Inflammatory: inflammatory chemokines are produced in high concentrations during infection or injury and determine the migration of inflammatory leukocytes into the damaged area. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recombinant Mouse CCL11, (amino acids (His24-Pro97, Accession# NM_011330), were expressed in E. coli . (biolegend.com)
  • Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against a full length recombinant CCL11. (abnova.com)
  • In vitro studies showed that incubation of NPCs with recombinant mouse CCL11 promoted migration and proliferation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chemokines are functionally divided into two groups: Homeostatic: are constitutively produced in certain tissues and are responsible for basal leukocyte migration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Homeostatic chemokines are chemokines that are responsible for basal leukocyte migration. (biology-online.org)
  • Microglia can also receive cyto- and chemokine signals as part of auto- and paracrine communications with astrocytes, neurons, the endothelium, and leukocyte infiltrates. (jove.com)
  • Chemokines are a group of related chemoattractant peptides that are essential regulators of the immune system, both during homeostatic and inflammatory conditions. (mdpi.com)
  • The major role of chemokines is to act as a chemoattractant to guide the migration of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • CXCL8 (IL-8), which contains the tripeptide Glu-Leu-Arg (ELR) in front of the first Cys residue, is an inflammatory CXC chemokine with potent neutrophil chemotactic and angiogenic properties ( 3 - 6 ). (rupress.org)
  • In an attempt to better understand such discrepancies, we studied alternatively modified chemokines and discovered a novel natural posttranslational modification of CXCL8, i.e., the conversion of one specific Arg into Cit. (rupress.org)
  • The chemokine receptor CCR2, which has been implicated in a variety of inflammatory, autoimmune, and cardiovascular conditions, binds several natural chemokine ligands. (aspetjournals.org)
  • MIP-3B specifically binds to chemokine receptor CCR7. (creativebiomart.net)
  • This knowledge, combined with advances in gene therapy and virology, allows researchers to employ chemokines as potential vaccine adjuvants. (mdpi.com)
  • This gene encodes a CXC chemokine receptor specific for stromal cell-derived factor-1. (creativebiomart.net)
  • We have profiled, for the first time, an evolving human metastatic microenvironment by measuring gene expression, matrisome proteomics, cytokine and chemokine levels, cellularity, extracellular matrix organization, and biomechanical properties, all on the same sample. (aacrjournals.org)
  • While a function of chemokines is to regulate lymphocyte trafficking, the view that chemokines act simply as "chemotactic cytokines" has evolved to include the many critical roles they play in regulating innate and adaptive immune responses. (mdpi.com)
  • These chemotactic cytokines contain conserved cysteine residues in their amino (NH 2 )-terminal structure, a characteristic used for classification into CXC, CC, CX 3 C, and C chemokines ( 1 , 2 ). (rupress.org)
  • The present invention provides a means of inhibiting the growth and metastasis of cancer cells by administering anti-chemokine antibodies. (google.com)
  • It is possible to identify the particular chemokines which are over-expressed in the tumor using methods of the invention and administer antibodies against that over-expressed chemokine. (google.com)
  • This invention relates to antibodies or the use of antibodies directed against certain chemokines. (google.com)
  • To gain a better understanding of the role of TARC in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis, we have investigated the cellular sources of this chemokine in nasal mucosa. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Eotaxin/CCL11 is involved in acute, but not chronic, allergic airway responses to Aspergillus fumigatus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The present study addresses the role of eotaxin/CCL11 during acute and chronic allergic airway responses to the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The researchers traced the neuron bust in young mice to blood-borne factors from the older animals-in particular, the chemokine eotaxin (also known as CCL11), which plays a role in allergic responses. (alzforum.org)
  • CCL11/eotaxin-1 is a potent eosinophilic CC chemokine expressed by primary human fibroblasts. (jimmunol.org)
  • IL-4/IL-13 increases CCL11/eotaxin-1, a potent eosinophilic CC chemokine expression in primary human fibroblasts, through IL-4Rα/STAT-6-dependent mechanisms ( 8 - 10 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Because of their critical roles in monocyte recruitment in vascular and nonvascular diseases, MCP-1 and CCR2 have become important therapeutic targets, and efforts are underway to develop potent and specific antagonists of these and related chemokines. (ahajournals.org)
  • By virtue of potent effects on resident and invading cells, microglial cyto- and chemokines regulate innate defense mechanisms, help the initiation and influence the type of immune responses, participate in the recruitment of leukocytes to the CNS, and support attempts of tissue repair and recovery. (jove.com)
  • thus, it is not surprising that chemokines are also able to bind linear sulfated GAGs such as heparin and heparan sulfate. (pnas.org)
  • Plasma CCL11 increases with age in both mice and humans, the researchers found. (alzforum.org)
  • Recent discoveries in the many biological roles of chemokines in tumor immunology allow their exploitation in enhancing recruitment of antigen presenting cells (APCs) and effector cells to appropriate anatomical sites. (mdpi.com)
  • Chemokines are involved in the inflammatory response, tumor immune response, proliferation, invasion and metastasis via modulation of various signaling pathways. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Here, we hypothesized that patient tumor cell genomics influenced cell signaling and expression of PD-L1, chemokines, and immunosuppressive molecules and these profiles could be used to predict patient clinical responses. (springer.com)
  • Differential expression of chemokines in patients with localized and diffuse cutaneous American leishmaniasis. (ajtmh.org)
  • Their homeostatic function in homing is best exemplified by the chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 (expressed within lymph nodes and on lymphatic endothelial cells) and their receptor CCR7 (expressed on cells destined for homing in cells to these organs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Its ligands include the related chemokines CCL19 and CCL21, (previously called ELC and SLC). (wikipedia.org)
  • This review will focus on recent murine and human studies that use chemokines as therapeutic anti-cancer vaccine adjuvants. (mdpi.com)
  • Baf3-hCCR3 transfectants chemoattracted by human CCL11. (biolegend.com)
  • Human CCL11, amino acids Gly24-Pro97 (Accession# NM_002986.2) was expressed in E. coli . (biolegend.com)
  • The synergies between IL-4 and TNF-α involve overlapping consensus binding sites for NF-κB and STAT-6 in the CCL11 promoter in human airway epithelial cells and fibroblasts ( 10 , 18 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The LEGENDplex™ Human Proinflammatory Chemokine Standard product is intended for use with the Mix and Match Human Proinflammatory Chemokine Panel of products. (biolegend.com)
  • 5,6 There are ≈50 human chemokines, which are divided into three major families based on differences in their structure and function. (ahajournals.org)
  • Expression of C-C chemokine TARC in human nasal mucosa and its regulation by cytokines'Clin Exp Allergy. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Here, we discuss recent views on the role of chemokines in controlling tissue localisation of human memory T cells under steady state (non-inflamed) conditions. (bmj.com)
  • The large majority of approximately 50 human chemokines fall into the group of either CXC or CC chemokines. (bmj.com)
  • This is the mouse homolog of human CCL11 . (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • Some chemokines are considered pro- inflammatory and can be induced during an immune response to recruit cells of the immune system to a site of infection , while others are considered homeostatic and are involved in controlling the migration of cells during normal processes of tissue maintenance or development . (wikipedia.org)
  • The main function of chemokines is to manage the migration of leukocytes (homing) in the respective anatomical locations in inflammatory and homeostatic processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • A major rol of chemokines is to act as chemoattractants in guiding migration of cells. (wikipathways.org)
  • We examined the role of chemokines in mediating NPC migration after neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, we demonstrated that CCL11, one of CC chemokines highly expressed at brain injury sites, promoted the migration and proliferation of NPCs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, quaternary structure of chemokines and their interaction with GAGs may significantly contribute to the localization of leukocytes beyond migration patterns defined by chemokine receptor interactions. (pnas.org)
  • However, chemokines control the direction of cell migration and provide a trigger for cell activation. (pnas.org)
  • However, the description of the nonredundant pharmacology of ligands to a given receptor in defined in vitro systems and in the absence of most of the confounding in vivo mechanisms is of prime interest for drug development, which has indeed been hampered by the complexity of the chemokine system. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Classified into subfamilies by the structural conservation of both cysteine residues and disulfide bonds, chemokine nomenclature reflects several cysteine-grouping motifs and arrangements. (peprotech.com)
  • C Chemokines - Contain only two conserved cysteine residues linked by a single disulfide bond. (peprotech.com)
  • CC Chemokines - Contain four conserved cysteine residues of which the first two, closest to the N-terminal, are adjacent to one another. (peprotech.com)
  • CXC Chemokines - Contain four conserved cysteine residues of which the first two, closest to the N-terminal, are separated by a single amino acid. (peprotech.com)
  • To date, >50 chemokines have been found, which can be divided into four families: CXC, CX3C, CC and XC, according to the different positions of the conserved N‑terminal cysteine residues. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • 50 chemokines have been identified, which can be divided into four families: CXC, CX3C, CC and XC, based on the different positions of the conserved N-terminal cysteine residues ( 9 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • All chemokines share a typical Greek key structure that is stabilised by disulphide bonds between conserved cysteine residues. (wikidoc.org)
  • The largest family is known as the CC chemokines because the first two of the four conserved cysteine residues that are characteristic of chemokines are adjacent to each other. (ahajournals.org)
  • Chemokines have been traditionally divided into four families (CXC, CC, C, and CX3C) based on the patterns of amino-terminal cysteine residues. (pnas.org)
  • Cloning and characterization of a novel murine beta chemokine receptor, D6. (uniprot.org)
  • On the other hand, the chemokine system also plays a crucial role in the induction of antitumor immune responses and optimal effector function regulation of immune cells [ 1 , 4 , 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Bronchial epithelial cells represent an important source of chemokines, and thus we investigated in vitro and in vivo expression of eotaxin-2 and eotaxin-3 in bronchial epithelial cells in comparison with that of eotaxin-1. (nih.gov)
  • Chemokines released by infected or damaged cells form a concentration gradient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Attracted cells move through the gradient towards the higher concentration of chemokine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells that are attracted by chemokines follow a signal of increasing chemokine concentration towards the source of the chemokine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some chemokines control cells of the immune system during processes of immune surveillance, such as directing lymphocytes to the lymph nodes so they can screen for invasion of pathogens by interacting with antigen-presenting cells residing in these tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other chemokines are inflammatory and are released from a wide variety of cells in response to bacterial infection, viruses and agents that cause physical damage such as silica or the urate crystals that occur in gout . (wikipedia.org)
  • CCL11 production is upregulated in response to several proimflammatory cytokines, such as IL-4, IL-13, TNF-α, and IFN-α, produced by mast cells and Th2 lymphocytes. (biolegend.com)
  • T cells were also actively recruited post-TDB treatment by IFNγ-dependent T-cell chemokines mediated via CXCR3. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The supernatant from necrotic corneal epithelial cells induced a low level of CCL11 release by corneal fibroblasts, as did Th2 cytokines, IL-4 and IL-13. (arvojournals.org)
  • However, the combination of the supernatant from necrotic corneal epithelial cells and IL-4 or IL-13 induced a marked synergistic increase in CCL11 release. (arvojournals.org)
  • The abundance of CCL11 mRNA in the fibroblasts was also increased in a synergistic manner by costimulation with the supernatant from necrotic corneal epithelial cells and IL-4 or IL-13. (arvojournals.org)
  • The supernatant from necrotic corneal epithelial cells activated NF-κB in corneal fibroblasts, and inhibitors of NF-κB and IL-1 receptor antagonist attenuated CCL11 release and VCAM-1 expression induced by the supernatant from necrotic corneal epithelial cells in combination with IL-4 or IL-13. (arvojournals.org)
  • Several cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-1β, and TGF-β, synergize with IL-4/IL-13 to increase CCL11 expression in airway fibroblasts ( 8 , 10 , 14 ), smooth muscle cells ( 15 , 16 ), and keratocytes ( 17 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • 1997). "Cloning and characterization of a specific receptor for the novel CC chemokine MIP-3alpha from lung dendritic cells" . (wikipedia.org)
  • There is some suggestion that this chemokine receptor is restricted to memory T-cells within the lymphocyte pool. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rando's laboratory used shared circulation in mice to discover the chemical CCL11 in the blood of old mice responsible for inhibiting stem cells in the brain. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Chemokine elevations were accompanied by increases in mast cells and B cells at 5 days, monocytes and neutrophils at day 10, CD4+ T cells at day 20, and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells at day 30. (jove.com)
  • These mutant chemokines retain chemotactic activity in vitro , but they are unable to recruit cells when administered intraperitoneally. (pnas.org)
  • Instead, the immune response produces high levels of chemokines to recruit effector inflammatory cells ( 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We found that the serum level of CCL11 was associated with structural damage in patients with AS, suggesting that CCL11 may serve as a promising biomarker for new bone formation in AS. (springer.com)
  • They all also possess conserved amino acids that are important for creating their 3-dimensional or tertiary structure , such as (in most cases) four cysteines that interact with each other in pairs to create a Greek key shape that is a characteristic of chemokines. (wikidoc.org)
  • 8-10 CXC chemokines have a single amino acid residue between the first two canonical cysteines. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1, 2 In addition, there are two C chemokines, Ltn-α/XCL1 and Ltn-β/XCL2, in which two out of the four conserved Cys residues are missing, and a single CX3C chemokine, called fractalkine/CX3CL1, with three amino acids separating the two NH 2 terminal Cys residues. (bmj.com)
  • However, due to the inability of this molecule (also known as CCRL1 and CCX CKR) to generate a signal following ligand interaction, it has been suggested that it is a scavenger receptor for chemokines and not a bona fide chemokine receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adding chemokine and immunosuppressive molecule expression profiles allowed patient models to achieve a greater than 85.0% predictive correlation among predicted and reported patient clinical responses. (springer.com)
  • Our results suggested that chemokine and immunosuppressive molecule expression profiles can be used to accurately predict clinical responses thus differentiating among patients who would and would not benefit from PD-1 or PD-L1 immunotherapies. (springer.com)
  • The chemokine receptor CCR2 is of significant clinical interest because it has been implicated in inflammatory and cardiovascular disease. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The authors also showed that a region in the transmembrane domains of CCR2 was a critical site for chemokine-receptor interactions. (sciencemag.org)
  • These are named CCR1 to CCR10 according to the IUIS/WHO Subcommittee on Chemokine Nomenclature. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus CCRL1 should not be called CCR11 under the guidelines of the IUIS/WHO Subcommittee on Chemokine Nomenclature. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this article we have combined the "common" name with the systematic nomenclature at the first instance a particular chemokine is mentioned and then used the systematic name in the remainder of the text. (bmj.com)
  • All chemokines are small, with a molecular mass of between 8 and 10 kDa . (wikidoc.org)
  • 1] AF647®-labelled chemokines are licensed for research use under patents or patent applications owned by Molecular Probes. (almacgroup.com)
  • These are known as homeostatic chemokines and are produced and secreted without any need to stimulate their source cell(s). (wikipedia.org)
  • Basal: homeostatic chemokines are basal produced in the thymus and lymphoid tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokines target all types of leucocyte, including haematopoietic precursors, mature leucocytes of the innate immune system as well as naive, memory, and effector lymphocytes. (bmj.com)
  • Proteolytic processing regulates cytokine and chemokine activities. (rupress.org)
  • During differentiation of ND fibroblasts, increased expression of immune response genes PAI-1, TIMP-1, CCL11 , and IL-6 was found. (frontiersin.org)