A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR10 RECEPTORS. It is constitutively expressed in the skin and may play a role in T-CELL trafficking during cutaneous INFLAMMATION.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards TH2 CELLS and TC2 CELLS.
A CC-type chemokine that is found at high levels in the THYMUS and has specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It is synthesized by DENDRITIC CELLS; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; KERATINOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards T LYMPHOCYTES and B LYMPHOCYTES.
A CC-type chemokine that is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS; MONOCYTES; and LYMPHOCYTES. It is a potent and selective eosinophil chemotaxin that is stored in and released from PLATELETS and activated T-LYMPHOCYTES. Chemokine CCL5 is specific for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR3 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS. The acronym RANTES refers to Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR6 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS; T-LYMPHOCYTES; and B-LYMPHOCYTES.
A CC-type chemokine secreted by activated MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CCR8 RECEPTORS.
Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.
Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
A monocyte chemoattractant protein that has activity towards a broad variety of immune cell types. Chemokine CCL7 has specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR2 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS.
Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL27. They may play a specialized role in the cutaneous homing of LYMPHOCYTES.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.
CCR receptors with specificity for a broad variety of CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in MONOCYTES; tissue MACROPHAGES; NEUTROPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS.
A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON and is chemotactic for MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
A monocyte chemoattractant protein that attracts MONOCYTES; LYMPHOCYTES; BASOPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS. Chemokine CCL8 has specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS.
Chemokine receptors that are specific for CC CHEMOKINES.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL2 and several other CCL2-related chemokines. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; BASOPHILS; and NK CELLS.
A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL1. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES.
A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL17 and CHEMOKINE CCL22. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; MAST CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and NK CELLS.
Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.
A CX3C chemokine that is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells. The soluble form of chemokine CX3CL1 can be released from cell surface by proteolysis and act as a chemoattractant that may be involved in the extravasation of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. The membrane form of the protein may also play a role in cell adhesion.
Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL11 and a variety of other CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; BASOPHILS; and MAST CELLS.
An INTEFERON-inducible CXC chemokine that is specific for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.
CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON. It is a chemotactic factor for activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
A CXC chemokine that has stimulatory and chemotactic activities towards NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR1 RECEPTORS and CXCR2 RECEPTORS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
A CXC chemokine that is predominantly expressed in EPITHELIAL CELLS. It has specificity for the CXCR2 RECEPTORS and is involved in the recruitment and activation of NEUTROPHILS.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
CXCR receptors that are expressed on the surface of a number of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; NK CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and a subset of B-LYMPHOCYTES. The receptors are activated by CHEMOKINE CXCL9; CHEMOKINE CXCL10; and CHEMOKINE CXCL11.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and T-LYMPHOCYTES. These receptors also bind several other CXC CHEMOKINES.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A chronic inflammatory genetically determined disease of the skin marked by increased ability to form reagin (IgE), with increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis and asthma, and hereditary disposition to a lowered threshold for pruritus. It is manifested by lichenification, excoriation, and crusting, mainly on the flexural surfaces of the elbow and knee. In infants it is known as infantile eczema.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Chemokines that are chemoattractants for monocytes. These CC chemokines (cysteines adjacent) number at least three including CHEMOKINE CCL2.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL20. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and BASOPHILS.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Chemokine receptors that are specific for CXC CHEMOKINES.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Group of chemokines with the first two cysteines separated by three amino acids. CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural killer cells, monocytes, and activated T-cells.
CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.
Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.
Cytotaxins liberated from normal or invading cells that specifically attract eosinophils; they may be complement fragments, lymphokines, neutrophil products, histamine or other; the best known is the tetrapeptide ECF-A, released mainly by mast cells.
The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.
Unbroken cellular lining (intima) of the lymph vessels (e.g., the high endothelial lymphatic venules). It is more permeable than vascular endothelium, lacking selective absorption and functioning mainly to remove plasma proteins that have filtered through the capillaries into the tissue spaces.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.

Selective eosinophil transendothelial migration triggered by eotaxin via modulation of Mac-1/ICAM-1 and VLA-4/VCAM-1 interactions. (1/477)

We have recently cloned eotaxin, a highly efficacious eosinophilic chemokine involved in the development of lung eosinophilia during allergic inflammatory reactions. To understand more precisely how eotaxin facilitates the specific migration of eosinophils, we have studied which adhesion receptors are essential for eotaxin action both in vivo and in vitro. Experiments using mice genetically deficient in adhesion receptors demonstrated that molecules previously reported to be involved in both leukocyte tethering/rolling (P-selectin and E-selectin) and in sticking/ transmigration (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) are required for eotaxin action in vivo. To further elucidate the mechanism(s) involved in this process, we have used an in vitro transendothelial chemotaxis model. mAb neutralization studies performed in this system suggest that the integrins Mac-1 (CD11b/18), VLA-4 (alpha4beta1) and LFA-1 (CD11a/18) are involved in the transendothelial chemotaxis of eosinophils to eotaxin. Accordingly, the expression of these integrins on eosinophils is elevated by direct action of this chemokine in a concentration-dependent manner. Taken together, our results suggest that eotaxin-induced eosinophil transendothelial migration in vivo and in vitro relies on Mac-1/ICAM-1 and VLA-4NCAM-1 interactions, the latter ones becoming more relevant at later time points of the eotaxin-induced recruitment process.  (+info)

Eotaxin contributes to renal interstitial eosinophilia. (2/477)

BACKGROUND: A potent eosinophil chemotactic cytokine, human eotaxin, is directly chemotactic for eosinophils. Therefore, the specific expression of eotaxin in tissue might play a crucial role in tissue eosinophilia. However, the precise molecular mechanism of the recruitment and activation of eosinophils in human renal diseases remains to be investigated. We evaluated the role of eotaxin in the pathogenesis of human diffuse interstitial nephritis with marked infiltration of eosinophils. METHODS: In this study, we examined 20 healthy volunteers. 56 patients with primary or secondary glomerular diseases and two hypereosinophilic syndrome patients without renal involvement. Urinary and serum eotaxin levels were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We also detected the presence of eotaxin protein immunohistochemically. RESULTS: On the one hand, urinary levels of eotaxin were significantly higher before the initiation of glucocorticoid administration in the patient with interstitial nephritis with marked infiltration of eosinophils. On the other hand, urinary eotaxin levels were not detected in any patients with nephrotic syndrome, interstitial nephritis without eosinophils, hypereosinophilic syndrome without renal involvement or other renal diseases. Serum eotaxin levels were not detected in any of the patients. Therefore, the detection of eotaxin in the urine was specific for renal interstitial eosinophilia. Moreover, endothelial cells, infiltrating mononuclear cells and renal epithelial cells in the tubulointerstitial lesions were immunostained with specific anti-eotaxin antibodies. Furthermore, the elevated urinary levels of eotaxin decreased dramatically during glucocorticoid-induced convalescence. HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesize that in situ expression of eotaxin may provide a new mechanism to explain the renal interstitial eosinophil infiltration.  (+info)

Effects of Th2 cytokines on chemokine expression in the lung: IL-13 potently induces eotaxin expression by airway epithelial cells. (3/477)

Airway inflammation associated with asthma is characterized by massive infiltration of eosinophils, mediated in part by specific chemoattractant factors produced in the lung. Allergen-specific Th2 cells appear to play a central role in asthma; for example, adoptively transferred Th2 cells induced lung eosinophilia associated with induction of specific chemokines. Interestingly, Th2 supernatant alone administered intranasally to naive mice induced eotaxin, RANTES, monocyte-chemotactic protein-1, and KC expression along with lung eosinophilia. We tested the major cytokines individually and found that IL-4 and IL-5 induced higher levels of macrophage-inflammatory protein-1alpha and KC; IL-4 also increased the production of monocyte-chemotactic protein-1; IL-13 and IL-4 induced eotaxin. IL-13 was by far the most potent inducer of eotaxin; indeed, a neutralizing anti-IL-13 Ab removed most of the eotaxin-inducing activity from Th2 supernatants, although it did not entirely block the recruitment of eosinophils. While TNF-alpha did not stimulate eotaxin production by itself, it markedly augmented eotaxin induction by IL-13. IL-13 was able to induce eotaxin in the lung of JAK3-deficient mice, suggesting that JAK3 is not required for IL-13 signaling in airway epithelial cells; however, eosinophilia was not induced in this situation, suggesting that JAK3 transduces other IL-13-mediated mechanisms critical for eosinophil recruitment. Our study suggests that IL-13 is an important mediator in the pathogenesis of asthma and therefore a potential target for asthma therapy.  (+info)

Differential regulation of eosinophil chemokine signaling via CCR3 and non-CCR3 pathways. (4/477)

To investigate eosinophil stimulation by chemokines we developed a sensitive assay of leukocyte shape change, the gated autofluorescence/forward scatter assay. Leukocyte shape change responses are mediated through rearrangements of the cellular cytoskeleton in a dynamic process typically resulting in a polarized cell and are essential to the processes of leukocyte migration from the microcirculation into sites of inflammation. We examined the actions of the chemokines eotaxin, eotaxin-2, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), MCP-3, MCP-4, RANTES, macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha), and IL-8 on leukocytes in mixed cell suspensions and focused on the responses of eosinophils to C-C chemokines. Those chemokines acting on CCR3 induced a rapid shape change in eosinophils from all donors; of these, eotaxin and eotaxin-2 were the most potent. Responses to MCP-4 were qualitatively different, showing marked reversal of shape change responses with agonist concentration and duration of treatment. In contrast, MIP-1alpha induced a potent response in eosinophils from a small and previously undescribed subgroup of donors via a non-CCR3 pathway likely to be CCR1 mediated. Incubation of leukocytes at 37 degrees C for 90 min in the absence of extracellular calcium up-regulated responses to MCP-4 and MIP-1alpha in the majority of donors, and there was a small increase in responses to eotaxin. MIP-1alpha responsiveness in vivo may therefore be a function of both CCR1 expression levels and the regulated efficiency of coupling to intracellular signaling pathways. The observed up-regulation of MIP-1alpha signaling via non-CCR3 pathways may play a role in eosinophil recruitment in inflammatory states such as occurs in the asthmatic lung.  (+info)

Pulmonary expression of interleukin-13 causes inflammation, mucus hypersecretion, subepithelial fibrosis, physiologic abnormalities, and eotaxin production. (5/477)

Interleukin (IL)-13 is a pleiotropic cytokine produced in large quantities by activated CD4(+) Th2 lymphocytes. To define further its potential in vivo effector functions, the Clara cell 10-kDa protein promoter was used to express IL-13 selectively in the lung, and the phenotype of the resulting transgenic mice was characterized. In contrast to transgene-negative littermates, the lungs of transgene-positive mice contained an inflammatory response around small and large airways and in the surrounding parenchyma. It was mononuclear in nature and contained significant numbers of eosinophils and enlarged and occasionally multinucleated macrophages. Airway epithelial cell hypertrophy, mucus cell metaplasia, the hyperproduction of neutral and acidic mucus, the deposition of Charcot-Leyden-like crystals, and subepithelial airway fibrosis were also prominently noted. Eotaxin protein and mRNA were also present in large quantities in the lungs of the transgene-positive, but not the transgene-negative, mice. IL-4, IL-5, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-5 were not similarly detected. Physiological evaluations revealed significant increases in baseline airways resistance and airways hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to methacholine in transgene-positive animals. Thus, the targeted pulmonary expression of IL-13 causes a mononuclear and eosinophilic inflammatory response, mucus cell metaplasia, the deposition of Charcot-Leyden-like crystals, airway fibrosis, eotaxin production, airways obstruction, and nonspecific AHR. IL-13 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of similar responses in asthma or other Th2-polarized tissue responses.  (+info)

Differential chemokine expression in tissues involved by Hodgkin's disease: direct correlation of eotaxin expression and tissue eosinophilia. (6/477)

Hodgkin's disease (HD) is a lymphoid malignancy characterized by infrequent malignant cells surrounded by abundant inflammatory cells. In this study, we examined the potential contribution of chemokines to inflammatory cell recruitment in different subtypes of HD. Chemokines are small proteins that are active as chemoattractants and regulators of cell activation. We found that HD tissues generally express higher levels of interferon-gamma-inducible protein-10 (IP-10), Mig, RANTES, macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha), and eotaxin, but not macrophage-derived chemotactic factor (MDC), than tissues from lymphoid hyperplasia (LH). Within HD subtypes, expression of IP-10 and Mig was highest in the mixed cellularity (MC) subtype, whereas expression of eotaxin and MDC was highest in the nodular sclerosis (NS) subtype. A significant direct correlation was detected between evidence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in the neoplastic cells and levels of expression of IP-10, RANTES, and MIP-1alpha. Levels of eotaxin expression correlated directly with the extent of tissue eosinophilia. By immunohistochemistry, IP-10, Mig, and eotaxin proteins localized in the malignant Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells and their variants, and to some surrounding inflammatory cells. Eotaxin was also detected in fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells of vessels. These results provide evidence of high level chemokine expression in HD tissues and suggest that chemokines may play an important role in the recruitment of inflammatory cell infiltrates into tissues involved by HD.  (+info)

Eotaxin activates T cells to chemotaxis and adhesion only if induced to express CCR3 by IL-2 together with IL-4. (7/477)

The transmigration and adherence of T lymphocytes through microvascular endothelium are essential events for their recruitment into inflammatory sites. In the present study, we investigated the expression of CC chemokine receptor CCR3 on T lymphocytes and the capacities of the CC chemokine eotaxin to induce chemotaxis and adhesion in T lymphocytes. We have observed a novel phenomenon that IL-2 and IL-4 induce the expression of CCR3 on T lymphocytes. We also report that CC chemokine eotaxin is a potent chemoattractant for IL-2- and IL-4-stimulated T lymphocytes, but not for freshly isolated T lymphocytes. Eotaxin attracts T lymphocytes via CCR3, documented by the fact that anti-CCR3 mAb blocks eotaxin-mediated T lymphocyte chemotaxis. In combination with IL-2 and IL-4, eotaxin enhances the expression of adhesion molecules such as ICAM-1 and several integrins (CD29, CD49a, and CD49b) on T lymphocytes and thus promotes adhesion and aggregation of T lymphocytes. The eotaxin-induced T lymphocyte adhesion could be selectively blocked by a specific cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor, H-89, indicating that eotaxin activates T lymphocytes via a special cAMP-signaling pathway. Our new findings all point toward the fact that eotaxin, in association with the Th1-derived cytokine IL-2 and the Th2-derived cytokine IL-4, is an important T lymphocyte activator, stimulating the directional migration, adhesion, accumulation, and recruitment of T lymphocytes, and paralleled the accumulation of eosinophils and basophils during the process of certain types of inflammation such as allergy.  (+info)

CD26/dipeptidyl-peptidase IV down-regulates the eosinophil chemotactic potency, but not the anti-HIV activity of human eotaxin by affecting its interaction with CC chemokine receptor 3. (8/477)

Chemokines attract and activate distinct sets of leukocytes. The CC chemokine eotaxin has been characterized as an important mediator in allergic reactions because it selectively attracts eosinophils, Th2 lymphocytes, and basophils. Human eotaxin has a penultimate proline, indicating that it might be a substrate for dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (CD26/DPP IV). In this study we demonstrate that eotaxin is efficiently cleaved by CD26/DPP IV and that the NH2-terminal truncation affects its biological activity. CD26/DPP IV-truncated eotaxin(3-74) showed reduced chemotactic activity for eosinophils and impaired binding and signaling properties through the CC chemokine receptor 3. Moreover, eotaxin(3-74) desensitized calcium signaling and inhibited chemotaxis toward intact eotaxin. In addition, HIV-2 infection of CC chemokine receptor 3-transfected cells was inhibited to a similar extent by eotaxin and eotaxin(3-74). Thus, CD26/DPP IV differently regulates the chemotactic and antiviral potencies of eotaxin by the removal of two NH2-terminal residues. This physiological processing may be an important down-regulatory mechanism, limiting eotaxin-mediated inflammatory responses.  (+info)

Anti-Eotaxin 2 antibody conjugated to Biotin validated for WB, ELISA, sELISA and tested in Human. Immunogen corresponding to recombinant full length protein
We have characterized previously the expression of the chemokines eotaxin, MCP-5, RANTES, and MCP-1 (mRNA and/or protein), and correlated this with the leukocytes migrating to the lung during a murine model of lung inflammation ((5), (16)). From these experiments, we concluded that MCP-1 mRNA expression paralleled the accumulation of monocytes/macrophages in this organ, both events occurring predominantly at early stages of the response (day 15). Also, eotaxin mRNA expression paralleled lung eosinophilia predominantly at late stages (day 21). In contrast, other chemokines, such as RANTES or MCP-5, were expressed throughout the inflammatory reaction. This underlines the contribution of chemokines at different stages of the response.. From the work presented here, we first conclude that eosinophil recruitment and development of BHR in this model system involve the action of both eosinophilic (eotaxin, RANTES, MCP-5, and MIP-1α) and noneosinophilic chemokines (MCP-1). This indicates the absence of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interleukin-12 inhibits eotaxin secretion of cultured primary lung cells and alleviates airway inflammation in vivo. AU - Ye, Yi Ling. AU - Huang, Wan Ching. AU - Lee, Yueh L.. AU - Chiang, Bor Luen. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - The mechanisms that cause the inflammation of airway and lung tissue in asthma have been studied extensively. It is noted that type 1 T helper cell (Th1)-related cytokines could decrease the accumulation of eosinophils in lung tissue and relieve airway constriction. But the therapeutic mechanisms of Th1 cytokines remain unclear. In this study, interleukin-12 (IL-12) DNA plasmid as a therapeutic reagent was delivered intravenously. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids were collected from IL-12 treated and control mice, and analyzed for cell composition and eotaxin level. The results showed that IL-12 DNA plasmid could effectively inhibit eosinophilia and airway inflammation in vivo. The level of eotaxin in BAL fluid also decreased. To further investigate the ...
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Eotaxin is a CC chemokine that signals through the CCR3 receptor. It is produced by IFN-γ-stimulated endothelial cells and TNF-activated
Expression of pulmonary eotaxin protein and mRNA was determined in six subjects with atopic asthma and five nonatopic normal subjects. Levels of eotaxin expression and eosinophil mobilization were compared before and after segmental allergen challenge in subjects with atopic asthma. In the absence o …
TY - JOUR. T1 - Oncostatin M causes eotaxin-1 release from airway smooth muscle. T2 - Synergy with IL-4 and IL-13. AU - Faffe, Débora S.. AU - Flynt, Lesley. AU - Mellema, Matthew. AU - Moore, Paul E.. AU - Silverman, Eric S.. AU - Subramaniam, Venkat. AU - Jones, Matthew R.. AU - Mizgerd, Joseph P.. AU - Whitehead, Timothy. AU - Imrich, Amy. AU - Panettieri, Reynold A.. AU - Shore, Stephanie A.. PY - 2005/3. Y1 - 2005/3. N2 - Background: Eotaxin is implicated in asthmatic eosinophilia. Oncostatin M (OSM) causes eotaxin release from fibroblasts. Objective: We sought to examine the effects and mechanism of action of OSM and other IL-6 family cytokines on eotaxin release from human airway smooth muscle cells. Methods: Eotaxin 1 release was measured by means of ELISA. Western blotting was used to examine mitogen-activated protein kinase and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT-3) phosphorylation. Eotaxin promoter activity was analyzed in cells transfected with wild-type STAT-3, ...
Background: Patients with severe asthma are less sensitive to oral or inhaled corticosteroids. Relative corticosteroid insensitivity has been shown in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and alveolar macrophages in these patients.. Aims and objectives: Determine the response of corticosteroids in airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) of severe asthma, in terms of suppression of cytokine-induced chemokine release and mRNA expression, and investigate the underlying mechanisms.. Methods: ASMCs of non-asthmatics (NA; 12), patients with non-severe (NSA; 10) or severe asthma (SA; 10) were pretreated with dexamethasone (Dex; 10-10-10-6 M) followed by stimulation with TNF-α at 10 ng/mL. IL-8 and eotaxin release determined by ELISA; mRNA quantified by RT-PCR. p65 NF-κB recruitment to gene promoters measured by ChIP assay; p38, JNK, and ERK expression measured by Western blot.. Results: Baseline and TNF-α induced eotaxin release and mRNA were higher in NSA, but not SA, compared to NA, while no differences ...
Background: MCP-1 (CCL2), MCP-3 (CCL7), and eotaxin (CCL11) are genes for CC chemokines clustered on the long arm of chromosome 17. Previous studies have implicated these chemokines in monocyte recruitment, viral replication, and anti-HIV cytotoxic T cell responses. An epidemiological analysis identified genetic variants influencing HIV-1 transmission and disease progression. Methods: Genomic DNA from over 3000 participants enrolled in five natural history cohorts in the United States were analyzed. Nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) covering 33 kb containing these three genes were genotyped using the polymerase chain reaction. Distortions in allele, genotype, and haplotype frequencies were assessed with respect to HIV-1 transmission and rates of disease progression using categorical and survival analyses. Results: Extensive linkage disequilibrium was observed. Three SNP (−2136T located in theMCP-1 promoter region, 767G in intron 1 of MCP-1, and −1385A in the Eotaxin promoter) were nearly
References for Abcams Recombinant human Eotaxin 2 protein (ab54405). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
Eotaxin His Tag Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 74 amino acids fragment (24-87).
Eosinophils are specialized myeloid cells associated with allergy and helminth infections. Blood eosinophils demonstrate circadian cycling, as described over 80 years ago, and are abundant in the healthy gastrointestinal tract. Although a cytokine, interleukin (IL)-5, and chemokines such as eotaxins mediate eosinophil development and survival, and tissue recruitment, respectively, the processes underlying the basal regulation of these signals remain unknown. Here we show that serum IL-5 levels are maintained by long-lived type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) resident in peripheral tissues. ILC2 cells secrete IL-5 constitutively and are induced to co-express IL-13 during type 2 inflammation, resulting in localized eotaxin production and eosinophil accumulation. In the small intestine where eosinophils and eotaxin are constitutive, ILC2 cells co-express IL-5 and IL-13; this co-expression is enhanced after caloric intake. The circadian synchronizer vasoactive intestinal peptide also stimulates ILC2 cells
What, then, are those secret ingredients in blood that age the brain? According to Sakura Minami of the San Carlos-based biotech company Alkahest, one is eotaxin, a ligand for the C-C chemokine receptor type 3 (CCR3). Using proteomics approaches, Minami and colleagues saw that eotaxin shot up in the blood with age. Also known as CCL11, eotaxin is known to play a role in inflammation, for example in the recruitment of eosinophils upon CCR3 engagement. Given that these infection-fighting white blood cells can become damaging in allergic conditions such as asthma, CCR3 is an established drug target.. The researchers previously demonstrated that injecting eotaxin into young mice caused neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus to slow to a trickle, and that neutralizing eotaxin with an antibody blocked this effect (Aug 2011 news). At SfN, Minami reported preclinical findings from efforts to stifle the consequences of age-related eotaxin elevation. Rather than target eotaxin directly, Alkahest scientists ...
Previous investigations have demonstrated a link between elevated levels of eosinophils, eosinophil activation, and adult IBD. However, there have been conflicting data regarding the individual contribution of the eosinophil-selective chemokines eotaxin-1 and eotaxin-2 in eosinophil recruitment in IBD. In the present study we demonstrate the following: 1) that eosinophil numbers are elevated in pediatric UC and that their level correlates with disease severity; 2) eotaxin-1 and not eotaxin-2 or eotaxin-3 is up-regulated in lesional colonic biopsy samples of pediatric UC patients; and 3) eotaxin-1 mRNA expression correlates with colonic eosinophil levels in pediatric UC. Using a chemical-induced colonic injury model, we define that eotaxin-1, and not eotaxin-2, is critical for eosinophil recruitment and that eotaxin-1 is predominantly derived from intestinal macrophages. Consistent with our experimental analysis, we show that eotaxin-1 is predominantly expressed by intestinal macrophages; ...
Clinical studies have demonstrated a link between the eosinophil-selective chemokines, eotaxins (eotaxin-1/CCL11 and eotaxin-2/CCL24), eosinophils, and the inflammatory bowel diseases, Crohns disease and ulcerative colitis (UC). However, the cellular source and individual contribution of the eotaxins to colonic eosinophilic accumulation in inflammatory bowel diseases remain unclear. In this study we demonstrate, by gene array and quantitative PCR, elevated levels of eotaxin-1 mRNA in the rectosigmoid colon of pediatric UC patients. We show that elevated levels of eotaxin-1 mRNA positively correlated with rectosigmoid eosinophil numbers. Further, colonic eosinophils appeared to be degranulating, and the levels positively correlated with disease severity. Using the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced intestinal epithelial injury model, we show that DSS treatment of mice strongly induced colonic eotaxin-1 and eotaxin-2 expression and eosinophil levels. Analysis of eosinophil-deficient mice ...
Asthma is associated with eosinophilic airway inflammation and eosinophils are believed to be important in the pathogenesis of asthma. IL-5 has been considered the central mediator for eosinophilic proliferation, differentiation and eosinophilic inflammation, but results of recent studies suggest that besides IL-5, eotaxin may contribute to the pathogenesis of asthma. Eotaxin is CC chemokine first isolated from guinea pig bronchoalveolar lavage. It selectively binds to a specific receptor (CCR3) highly expressed on eosinophils, basophils, and mast cells being important in the pathogenesis of asthma. Eotaxin is produced mainly by epithelial cells of lung and gut, to mediate organ preferential attraction of eosinophils. Production of eotaxin is stimulated by IL-4, IL-13, TNF-α. Human eotaxin family includes: eotaxin-1 (CCL11), eotaxin-2 (CCL24) and eotaxin-3 (CCL26). It seems that eotaxin-3 may be expressed following allergen challenge. Studies with glucocorticosteroids have shown some inhibitory ...
Eotaxin Mouse Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 74 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 8403.2 Dalton.
It is now generally accepted that DPPIV acts as an important regulator of multiple physiological processes. It catalyzes the release of dipeptides from the N-terminus of circulating hormones, neuropeptides, and chemokines. Moreover, DPPIV is engaged in T cell-dependent immune responses and has been associated with cell adhesion and tumor metastasis (19, 23, 24). As DPPIV appears to act at a checkpoint of blood glucose homeostasis via potentiation of GLP-1-mediated stimulation of the entero-insular-axis and concomitant release of insulin, it has emerged as a target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (4). At present, several DPPIV inhibitors are in the late stage of clinical development and some of them have reached the market for this indication (25). However, based on its ubiquitous expression and pleiotropic functions, systemic and continuous pharmacological blockade of DPPIV might act as a double-edged sword, as not only the beneficial release of insulin is increased but also immune ...
Arachidonic acid (AA) is converted to a large number of biologically active products by cyclooxygenases, lipoxygenases, and cytochrome P450 enzymes (Funk,
Eosinophils are bone marrow-derived cells that differentiate in the bone marrow and migrate into the peripheral blood primarily under the regulation of interleukin (IL)-5
EzWay Mouse Eotaxin ELISA Kit,K1332181,Cytokine ELISA Kit,EzWay Cytokine ELISA Kit reduces your assay time to 2.5 hours by integrating incubation of sample & …
D4327 - 17 Standard Test Method for Anions in Water by Suppressed Ion Chromatography , anions, drinking water, ion chromatography, reagent water, wastewater,,
The role of selectins in mediating eosinophil recruitment in vivo was assessed in a model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mouse pleurisy. LPS administration
Levocetirizine is a selective antihistaminic that acts through H1 receptor. Levocetirizine inhibits eotaxin-induced eosinophil transendothelial migration through monolayers of human dermal or lung microvascular endothelial cells in vitro. The drug also inhibits both resting and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-stimulated eosinophil adhesion to vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), eotaxin production by endothelial cells and ICAM-1, as well as major histocompatability complex (MHC) class I expression by interferon (IFN)-γ-stimulated keratinocytes[1]. ...
The respective life histories of human subjects and mice are well defined and describe a unique story of evolutionary conservation extending from sequence identity within the genome to the underpinnings of biochemical, cellular, and physiologic pathways. As a consequence, the hematopoietic lineages …
Human CCL24/Eotaxin-2/MPIF-2 ELISA Kit (Colorimetric). High sensitivity ELISA kit for detection of CCL24/Eotaxin-2/MPIF-2. Backed by our 100% Guarantee.
|H3|Mouse Eotaxin-1 ELISA Kit|/H3||H4|Brand|/H4||p|BioAim Scientific (Kanada)|/p||h4|short description|/h4||p|The Bioaim Mouse Eotaxin ELISA kit is a solid phase sandwich ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) for the quantitative measurement of Eotaxi
This release contains summaries, links to PDFs, and contact information for the following newsworthy papers to be published online on January 4, 2006 in the Journal of Clinical Investigation, including: Soy diet worsens heart disease; Breast cancer-causing gene predicts shorter survival; Blocking eotaxin may help asthmatics breathe easier; Turns-ons and turn-offs for smooth muscle cells; Cancer detection: spinning biological trash into diagnostic gold; How chromosomal leap frog causes cancer in B cells; and others.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Failure of sputum eosinophilia after eotaxin inhalation in asthma. AU - Bumbacea, D.. AU - Scheerens, J.. AU - Mann, B. S.. AU - Stirling, R. G.. AU - Chung, K. F.. PY - 2004/5. Y1 - 2004/5. N2 - Background: Eotaxin is a chemokine specific for eosinophils and may play an important role in eosinophil recruitment in asthma. The effects of eotaxin inhalation on sputum and blood eosinophils, exhaled nitric oxide (NO), and bronchial responsiveness were determined. Methods: Eotaxin was administered by nebulisation to asthma patients in three studies: (1) an open dose finding study with eotaxin (5, 10 and 20 μg) to two asthmatic subjects; (2) a randomised placebo controlled study with 20 μg eotaxin to five asthmatic subjects and five normal volunteers; and (3) a randomised placebo controlled study with 40 μg eotaxin to nine asthmatics. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1), exhaled NO, and blood eosinophils were measured before and hourly for 5 hours after nebulisation and at ...
Patients with asthma demonstrate circadian variations in the airway inflammation and lung function. Pinealectomy reduces the total inflammatory cell number in the asthmatic rat lung. We hypothesize that melatonin, a circadian rhythm regulator, may modulate the circadian inflammatory variations in asthma by stimulating the chemotaxins expression in the lung epithelial cell. Lung epithelial cells (A549) were stimulated with melatonin in the presence or absence of TNF-α(100 ng/ml). RANTES (Regulated on Activation Normal T-cells Expressed and Secreted) and eotaxin expression were measured using ELISA and real-time RT-PCR, eosinophil chemotactic activity (ECA) released by A549 was measured by eosinophil chemotaxis assay. TNF-α increased the expression of RANTES (307.84 ± 33.56 versus 207.64 ± 31.27 pg/ml of control, p = 0.025) and eotaxin (108.97 ± 10.87 versus 54.00 ± 5.29 pg/ml of control, p = 0.041). Melatonin(10-10 to 10-6M) alone didnt change the expression of RNATES (204.97 ± 32.56 pg/ml) and
Eosinophil accumulation is a distinctive feature of lung allergic inflammation. Here, we have used a mouse model of OVA (ovalbumin)-induced pulmonary eosinophilia to study the cellular and molecular mechanisms for this selective recruitment of eosinophils to the airways. In this model there was an early accumulation of infiltrating monocytes/macrophages in the lung during the OVA treatment, whereas the increase in infiltrating T-lymphocytes paralleled the accumulation of eosinophils. The kinetics of accumulation of these three leukocyte subtypes correlated with the levels of mRNA expression of the chemokines monocyte chemotactic peptide-1/JE, eotaxin, and RANTES (regulated upon activation in normal T cells expressed and secreted), suggesting their involvement in the recruitment of these leukocytes. Furthermore, blockade of eotaxin with specific antibodies in vivo reduced the accumulation of eosinophils in the lung in response to OVA by half. Mature CD4+ T-lymphocytes were absolutely required for ...
|p|Recombinant Human Eotaxin-2/CCL24 is a single non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 78 amino acids.|/p| |p|Background: Eotaxin-2 (CCL24) is a novel CC chemokine recently identified. It is produced by activated monocytes and T lymphocytes. Eota
Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by the degradation of articular cartilage, marked by the breakdown of matrix proteins. Studies demonstrated the involvement of chemokines in this process, and some may potentially serve as diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets; however, the underlying signal transductions are not well understood. We investigated the effects of the CC chemokine eotaxin-1 (CCL11) on the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression and secretion in the human chondrocyte cell line SW1353 and primary chondrocytes. Eotaxin-1 significantly induced MMP-3 mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibitors of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 kinase were able to repress eotaxin-1-induced MMP-3 expression. On the contrary, Rp-adenosine-3,5-cyclic monophosphorothioate (Rp-cAMPs), a competitive cAMP antagonist for cAMP receptors, and H-89, a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, markedly enhanced eotaxin-1-induced MMP-3 expression. These results suggest that MMP-3 expression
Domieh et al.: Endurance training and plasma visfatin www.brjb.com.br CHOI, K. M.; KIM, J. H.; CHO, G. J.; BAIK, S. H.; PARK, H. S.; KIM, S. M. Effect of exercise training on plasma visfatin and eotaxin levels. European Journal of Endocrinology, v. 157, p. 437-442, 2007. DAVUTOGLUA, M.; OZKAYAB, M.; GULERA, E.; GARIPARDICA, M.; GURSOYA, H.; KARABIBERA, H.; KILINC, M. Plasma visfatin concentrations in childhood obesity: relationships to insulin resistance and anthropometric indices. Swiss Medical Weekly, v. 139, p. 22-27, 2009. FREEDLAND, E. S. Role of a critical visceral adipose tissue threshold (CVATT) in metabolic syndrome: implications for controlling dietary carbohydrates: a review. Nutrition & Metabolism, v. 1, p. 1-24, 2004. FRYDELUND-LARSEN, L.; AKERSTROM, T.; NIELSEN, S.; KELLER, P.; KELLER, C.; PEDERSEN, B. K. Visfatin mRNA expression in human subcutaneous adipose tissue is regulated by exercise. American Journal of Physiology Endocrinology Metabolism, v. 292, p. E24-E31, 2007. FU, Y.; ...
article{7c45b648-bb75-40bb-a1de-8aa59d14e5c0, abstract = {Huntingtons disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by both neurological and systemic abnormalities. Immune activation is a well-established feature of the HD brain and we have previously demonstrated a widespread, progressive innate immune response detectable in plasma throughout the course of HD. In the present work we used multiplex ELISA to quantify levels of chemokines in plasma from controls and subjects at different stages of HD. We found an altered chemokine profile tracking with disease progression, with significant elevations of five chemokines (eotaxin-3, MIP-1β, eotaxin, MCP-1 and MCP-4) while three (eotaxin-3, MIP-1β and eotaxin) showed significant linear increases across advancing disease stages. We validated our results in a separate sample cohort including subjects at different stages of HD. Here we saw that chemokine levels (MCP-1 and eotaxin) correlated with clinical scores. We conclude ...
Defective eosinophil chemotaxis to eotaxin in a patient with chronic lower baseline cD4+ T-lymphocytes and elevated CD8+ T cells Amr E El-Shazly1, Monique Henket2, Philippe P Lefebvre1, Renaud Louis21Department of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, GIGA-Research, Liege University Hospitals (Centre Hospitalier Universaitaire-C.H.U.). Liege-Belgium; 2Department of Pulmonology, GIGA-Research, Liege University Hospitals (Centre Hospitalier Universaitaire-C.H.U.). Liege-BelgiumBackground: Idiopathic selective CD4+ lower baseline cell count and an increase in CD8+ cells is an unusual immune defect. Whether this is a true variant of idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia (ICL) or a sequelae to recurrent infections is not clear.Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to investigate the expression and function of the cc-chemokine receptor CCR3 in eosinophils from a female patient with this disorder. A secondary objective was to study the in vitro ability of different cytokines to modulate
Subjects admitted on this protocol will have elevated eosinophil counts in the peripheral blood or tissues or will be relatives of subjects with eosinophilia. Eosinophilic subjects will undergo an extensive clinical evaluation focused on the identification of the cause of eosinophilia and the presence of end organ manifestations. In addition, they will be characterized in detail immunologically, and their blood cells and/or serum will be collected to provide reagents (eg. specific antibodies, T-cell clones, etc.) that will be used in the laboratory to address broader questions relating to the etiology of eosinophilia, its immunoregulation, the degree and source of eosinophil activation, and/or the functional role of eosinophils in the afferent arm of those immune response where they are prominent. While the protocol is not primarily designed to study treatment of patients with blood and tissue eosinophilia, the clinical and immunological responses to various medically indicated therapies will be ...
LEGEND MAX™ Mouse CCL11 ELISA Kit with Pre-coated Plates - CCL11, also known as Eotaxin, is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family.
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Airway eosinophilia is considered a central event in the pathogenesis of asthma. The toxic components of eosinophils are thought to be important in inducing bronchial mucosal injury and dysfunction. Previous studies have suggested an interaction between nitric oxide (NO) and chemokines in modulating eosinophil functions, but this is still conflicting. In the present study, we have carried out functional assays (adhesion and degranulation) and flow cytometry analysis of adhesion molecules (VLA-4 and Mac-1 expression) to evaluate the interactions between NO and CC-chemokines (eotaxin and RANTES) in human eosinophils. Eosinophils were purified using a percoll gradient followed by immunomagnetic cell separator. Cell adhesion and degranulation were evaluated by measuring eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) activity, whereas expression of Mac-1 and VLA-4 was detected using flow cytometry. At 4 h incubation, both eotaxin (100 ng/ml) and RANTES (1000 ng/ml) increased by 133% and 131% eosinophil adhesion, respectively.
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Allergen vs diluent challenges; multi-spot plate assay: symptoms increased, and peak nasal flow decreased, following allergen but not diluent challenge (both p,0.001, between groups difference). Levels of IL-4 (p,0.01), IL-5 and IL-13 (both P,0.001) were maximally increased at 5 hours compared to pre-challenge; no significant increases were seen following diluent challenge. Between group differences (allergen vs diluent) for IL-4, -5 and -13 were seen at 4 and 6 hours (all p,0.01).Allergen challenge; magnetic bead assay: IL-5 was increased at 6 hours (p=0.03 vs pre-challenge), with IL-13 and IL-4 also showing a trend towards an increase (both p=0.06 vs pre-challenge). Eotaxin and MDC were increased at 6 hours (both p=0.03 vs pre-challenge); IL-6 was elevated at 2 hours (p=0.03 vs pre-challenge). Levels of IL-17A, IL-27, IL-23, IFN-gamma and IL-12p70 were low and did not change significantly after allergen challenge. High levels of IL-8 were detected, maximal at baseline, but did not change ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The surface phenotype of human eosinophils. AU - Tachimoto, Hiroshi. AU - Bochner, Bruce S.. PY - 2000/3/16. Y1 - 2000/3/16. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0034094643&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0034094643&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Review article. C2 - 10761304. AN - SCOPUS:0034094643. VL - 76. SP - 45. EP - 62. JO - Progress in Allergy. JF - Progress in Allergy. SN - 1660-2242. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Eosinophilic esophagitis. T2 - A clinicopathological review. AU - Philpott, Hamish. AU - Nandurkar, Sanjay. AU - Thien, Francis. AU - Gibson, Peter R.. AU - Royce, Simon G.. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is considered to be a chronic antigen-driven disease whereby food and/or aeroallergens induce a chronic inflammatory infiltrate in the esophagus, resulting in pathological hyperplasia of the epithelia and muscular layers, and fibrosis of the lamina propria (referred to collectively as remodelling) and the symptoms of dysphagia and food impaction. EoE shares features with other atopic conditions of asthma and atopic dermatitis, such as a TH2 cytokine milieu and a mixed inflammatory infiltrate of eosinophils, mast cells and lymphocytes. Relatively distinct features include the strong male predominance amongst adult patients, and the expression of the eosinophil chemokine eotaxin 3. Current first line treatments such as strict dietary modification and ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Microtubule dynamics regulate cyclic stretch-induced cell alignment in human airway smooth muscle cells. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Of the three types of leukocytes recruited, neutrophils, eosinophils, and macrophages, the most striking difference between BLTR−/− and wild-type mice occurred in eosinophil recruitment (Fig. 5 A). Neither group had substantial numbers of peritoneal eosinophils at baseline or 4 h after thioglycollate instillation. Peak numbers of eosinophils were seen in both groups at 48 h, but BLTR−/− mice recruited only 33% as many eosinophils to the inflamed peritoneum as wild-type mice at this time point (P , 0.005). Numbers of peritoneal eosinophils declined in both groups at 96 h, but BLTR−/− mice continued to have significantly fewer of these cells. At 96 h, BLTR−/− mice had only 20% as many eosinophils recovered from the peritoneal cavity as wild-type mice (P , 0.01).. Although the numbers of peritoneal neutrophils and macrophages appeared lower in the BLTR−/− mice at some time points, the differences from wild type did not reach statistical significance for either of these cell ...
Eosinophilia (e-o-sin-o-FILL-e-uh) is a higher than normal level of eosinophils. Eosinophils are a type of disease-fighting white blood cell. This condition most often indicates a parasitic infection, an allergic reaction or cancer.. You can have high levels of eosinophils in your blood (blood eosinophilia) or in tissues at the site of an infection or inflammation (tissue eosinophilia).. Tissue eosinophilia may be found in samples taken during an exploratory procedure or in samples of certain fluids, such as mucus released from nasal tissues. If you have tissue eosinophilia, the level of eosinophils in your bloodstream is likely normal.. Blood eosinophilia may be detected with a blood test, usually as part of a complete blood count. A count of more than 500 eosinophils per microliter of blood is generally considered eosinophilia in adults. A count of more than 1,500 eosinophils per microliter of blood that lasts for several months is called hypereosinophilia.. Eosinophils play two roles in your ...
The elevation of intracellular cyclic AMP by phosphodiesterase (PDE)4 inhibitors in eosinophils is associated with inhibition of the activation and recruitment of these cells. We have previously shown that systemic treatment with the PDE4 inhibitor rolipram effectively inhibt eosinophil migration in guinea pig skin. In the present study we compare the oral potency and efficacy of the PDE4 inhibitors rolipram, RP 73401 and CDP 840 on allergic and PAF-induced eosinophil recruitment. Rolipram and RP 73401 were equally effective and potent when given by the oral route and much more active than the PDE4 inhibitor CDP 840. We suggest that this guinea pig model of allergic and mediator-induced eosinophil recruitment is both a sensitive and simple tool to test the efficacy and potency of PDE4 inhibitors in vivo ...
Median cervico-vaginal levels of IL-6, Eotaxin, IP-10, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and TNFα were higher than corresponding serum cytokines, significantly so for IL-6 and IP-10. Cervico-vaginal and serum cytokines were not correlated, but cytokines from the same fluid were correlated. ICCs for most serum cytokines were ≤0.40, while ICCs were higher in cervico-vaginal cytokines (range 0.52-0.83). IP-10 and Eotaxin had the highest ICCs for both cytokine sources. In adjusted models, PM10 was positively associated with serum cytokines IL-6, IP-10, MIP-1β and Eotaxin but inversely associated with cervico-vaginal cytokine TNFα, IP-10, MIP-1β, MCP-1 and Eotaxin, controlling for false discovery rate. CO was inversely associated with cervico-vaginal TNFα, IL-6, MIP-1β, MCP-1 and Eotaxin.. ...
Hi Again Please could you tell me what tissue in mouse is a good positive control for eosinophil staining. Thanks Marilyn _______________________________________________ Histonet mailing list [email protected] http://lists.utsouthwestern.edu/mailman/listinfo/histonet ...
The brown dog tick evasin-4 binds to CCL5 and CCL11, but appears to neutralize even more chemokines. It has an Ig-fold domain. ... chemokine-binding proteins such as evasins are being researched to assess their therapeutic potential as chemokine-targeting ... As chemokines have been implicated in a number of inflammatory diseases including atherosclerosis, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis ... a tick-derived chemokine-binding protein with broad selectivity can be modified for use in preclinical disease models". The ...
These chemokines include CCL11, CCL2 and CCL12, which are highly localized on mouse and human chromosomes, implicating a ... In healthy aging humans, the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid levels of certain chemokines are elevated. In a mouse model, plasma ... levels of these chemokines correlate with reduced neurogenesis, suggesting that neurogenesis may be modulated by certain global ...
... host-derived pro-inflammatory chemokines (e.g. CXCL8, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL11, CXCL10), platelet-activating factor, and ... stimulates their expression the chemokine receptor, CCR5, to inhibit chemokine signaling, enhances their phagocyte activity, ... CMKLR1 (chemokine receptor-like 1), also termed the ChemR23 or E series resolvin receptor (ERV), is expressed on inflammation- ...
This receptor binds and responds to a variety of chemokines, including eotaxin (CCL11), eotaxin-3 (CCL26), MCP-3 (CCL7), MCP-4 ... It is also known to be an entry co-receptor for HIV-1. This gene and seven other chemokine receptor genes form a chemokine ... a novel CC chemokine that is selective for the chemokine receptor CCR3, and acts like eotaxin on human eosinophil and basophil ... an eosinophil-selective CC chemokine, and identification of a specific eosinophil eotaxin receptor, CC chemokine receptor 3". J ...
FcεRI cross-linking by IgE and anti-IgE antibodies led to Th2 (IL-4, -5, and -13) cytokines and CCL11/eotaxin-1 chemokine ...
The eotaxins are a CC chemokine subfamily of eosinophil chemotactic proteins. In humans, there are three family members: CCL11 ... "The MCP/eotaxin subfamily of CC chemokines". Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 10 (1): 61-86. doi:10.1016/s1359-6101(99)00005-2. PMID ...
... or to sites of helminth infection in response to chemokines like CCL11 (eotaxin-1), CCL24 (eotaxin-2), CCL5 (RANTES), 5- ...
Cancer immunoprevention Cancer immunotherapy Cantuzumab ravtansine Cathelicidin CC chemokine receptors CCBP2 CCL1 CCL11 CCL12 ... Breakthrough infection Broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies Bursa of Fabricius C-C chemokine receptor type 6 C-C chemokine ... CD4 CD4+ T cells and antitumor immunity CD74 CD94/NKG2 Cell-mediated immunity CELSR1 Central tolerance Chemokine Chemokine ... CR6261 CroFab Cross-presentation Cross-reactivity Cryptic self epitopes Cryptotope CX3CL1 CX3CR1 CXC chemokine receptors CXCL1 ...
... encoding protein Zinc finger protein 830 Several CC chemokines: CCL1, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL7, CCL8, CCL11, CCL13, CCL14, ... C-C motif chemokine ligand 4 like 1 (17q12) DDX52: DExD-box helicase 52 (17q12) ERBB2 loca leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2, ...
Chemokine receptors for which CCL11 is a ligand include CCR2, CCR3 and CCR5. However, it has been found that eotaxin-1 (CCL11) ... CCL11 is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family. CCL11 selectively recruits eosinophils by inducing their ... The effects of CCL11 are mediated by its binding to a G-protein-linked receptor known as a chemokine receptor. ... Human CCL11 genome location and CCL11 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Garcia-Zepeda EA, Rothenberg ME, Ownbey RT ...
CCL11, CCL24, CCL26, CCL5, CCL7, CCL13, and CCL3. Chemokines CCL11 (eotaxin) and CCL5 (RANTES) acts through a specific receptor ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other chemokines in that it has ... CCL1 for the ligand 1 of the CC-family of chemokines, and CCR1 for its respective receptor. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) ...
This receptor has several CC chemokine ligands including CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL11, CCL13, CCL14 and CCL16. CCR6, a ... CCR3 is a receptor for multiple inflammatory/inducible CC chemokines, including CCL11, CCL26, CCL7, CCL13, CCL15, CCL24 and ... The CC chemokine receptors all work by activating the G protein Gi. CCR1 was the first CC chemokine receptor identified and ... CC chemokine receptors (or beta chemokine receptors) are integral membrane proteins that specifically bind and respond to ...
Menzies-Gow A, Ying S, Sabroe I, Stubbs VL, Soler D, Williams TJ, Kay AB (September 2002). "Eotaxin (CCL11) and eotaxin-2 ( ... C-C motif chemokine ligand 24 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCL24 gene. This gene belongs to the subfamily of ... "Entrez Gene: C-C motif chemokine ligand 24". Retrieved 2018-05-09. Papadopoulos NG, Papi A, Meyer J, Stanciu LA, Salvi S, ...
Several CC chemokines: CCL1, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL7, CCL8, CCL11, CCL13, CCL14, CCL15, CCL16, CCL18, and CCL23 ...
... chemokine, IL-6, and interleukin 8 (IL-8).[82][80] IL-6 and IL-8 are the most conserved and robust features of SASP.[83] ...
Eotaxin/CCL11 in idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis. Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the ... Association of genetic variants of the chemokine receptor CCR5 and its ligands, RANTES and MCP-2, with outcome of HCV infection ...
Query Trace: Diabetes Complications and CCL11[original query] Chemokine gene polymorphisms association with increased risk of ...
On the other hand, CSF concentrations of the chemokine CCL11 is lower in adults with MS than in the CSF from adults with ADEM ... CSF cytokine and chemokine profiles in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. J Neuroimmunol. 2006 Jun. 175(1-2):52-8. [QxMD ... Cytokines and chemokines in cerebrospinal fluid and serum of adult patients with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. J Neurol ... 49] The complex ensuing inflammatory cascade entails the local action of cytokines and chemokines as well as lymphokine-induced ...
Query Trace: Leukemia and CCL11[original query] Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in genes encoding for CC chemokines were not ...
In addition, TDI inhalation upregulated Th2 cytokine (IL-4, -5, -13, -10) and chemokine (Ccl11, Ccl24) expression and ... Neutralization of IL-5 did not affect the development of the cytokine/chemokine response driving recruitment of eosinophils. ...
Query Trace: Obesity and CCL11[original query] Chemokine gene polymorphisms association with increased risk of type 2 diabetes ...
Query Trace: Lymphoma and CCL11[original query] Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in genes encoding for CC chemokines were not ...
On the other hand, CSF concentrations of the chemokine CCL11 is lower in adults with MS than in the CSF from adults with ADEM ... CSF cytokine and chemokine profiles in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. J Neuroimmunol. 2006 Jun. 175(1-2):52-8. [QxMD ... Cytokines and chemokines in cerebrospinal fluid and serum of adult patients with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. J Neurol ... 49] The complex ensuing inflammatory cascade entails the local action of cytokines and chemokines as well as lymphokine-induced ...
On the other hand, CSF concentrations of the chemokine CCL11 is lower in adults with MS than in the CSF from adults with ADEM ... CSF cytokine and chemokine profiles in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. J Neuroimmunol. 2006 Jun. 175(1-2):52-8. [QxMD ... Cytokines and chemokines in cerebrospinal fluid and serum of adult patients with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. J Neurol ... 49] The complex ensuing inflammatory cascade entails the local action of cytokines and chemokines as well as lymphokine-induced ...
A comparison of WTC exposure categorial variables identified that chemokines (CCL17, CCL11), circulating receptors (RAGE, TREM1 ... and chemokines (IL-8, CC chemokine ligand- CCL17). Furthermore, this WTCS cluster was associated with WTC exposure variables, ...
Query Trace: Heroin Dependence and CCL11[original query] Inflammatory chemokine eotaxin-1 is correlated with age in heroin ...
CCL11, a chemokine largely neglected in the field of malaria, emerges as an important marker of exposure or mediator in this ... CCL11 was the only biomarker to show a negative association with P. vivax infection and its concentration at recruitment was ... We measured the plasma concentrations of a set of thirty-one biomarkers, comprising cytokines, chemokines and growth factors, ...
Regnase-1 is known to be stimulated by the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, ... and CCL11 associated with an intermediate prognosis, and a cluster of patients with PAH expressing elevated Tnfsf10/TRAIL ... A study of CTD-PAH revealed elevated circulating IL-6 and C-X-C motif chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL13,[5] whereas a recent machine ... chemokines such as CXCL1, CXCL2 and CXCL3; and transcription factors, including NFKBID, NFKBIZ, MAFK, and ID1.[3] These ...
Five cytokines/chemokines, IFN-α (p = 0.016), CXCL10 (p = 0.016), CXCL11 (p = 0.016), CCL11 (p = 0.016), and CCL2 (p = 0.003), ... Finally, neutrophils correlated with CCL3 and IL-18, and ferritin with CCL3, IFN-γ, and CCL11. CXCL5 was the only chemokine ... Serum Cytokine/Chemokine Levels Cytokine/chemokine values varied both over time and between patient and control groups (Table 3 ... Cytokine/Chemokine Profiling. We studied serum cytokine/chemokine levels from the serum samples collected 8-12, 48-60, and 96- ...
CCL11, CCL24, CCL26, CCL5, CCL7, CCL13, and CCL3. Chemokines CCL11 (eotaxin) and CCL5 (RANTES) acts through a specific receptor ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other chemokines in that it has ... CCL1 for the ligand 1 of the CC-family of chemokines, and CCR1 for its respective receptor. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) ...
CCL11), IL-8 or C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 8 (CXCL8), IP-10 or CXCL10, MCP-1 or CCL2, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1 ... Chemokines and chemokine receptors in mood disorders, schizophrenia, and cognitive impairment: a systematic review of biomarker ... These findings have prompted interest in soluble inflammatory molecules, called chemokines[9]. Chemokines are considered a ... The Role of Chemokines in the Pathophysiology of Major Depressive Disorder. Int J Mol Sci. 2019;20:2283. [PubMed] [DOI] [Cited ...
CCL11, a chemokine largely neglected in the field of malaria, emerges as an important marker of exposure or mediator in this ... CCL11 was the only biomarker to show a negative association with P. vivax infection and its concentration at recruitment was ... We measured the plasma concentrations of a set of thirty-one biomarkers, comprising cytokines, chemokines and growth factors, ...
Ccl11. C-C motif chemokine ligand 11. ISO. protein:increased expression:plasma, respiratory system fluid/secretion. RGD. PMID: ...
In the last decades, it is emerging that the chemokine system represents a potential target for immunotherapy. Chemokines, a ... Chemokines, a large family of cytokines with chemotactic activity, and their cognate receptors are expressed by both cancer and ... Here, we review first attempts to inhibit the chemokine system in cancer as a monotherapy or in combination with canonical or ... Here, we review first attempts to inhibit the chemokine system in cancer as a monotherapy or in combination with canonical or ...
On the other hand, CSF concentrations of the chemokine CCL11 is lower in adults with MS than in the CSF from adults with ADEM ... CSF cytokine and chemokine profiles in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. J Neuroimmunol. 2006 Jun. 175(1-2):52-8. [QxMD ... Cytokines and chemokines in cerebrospinal fluid and serum of adult patients with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. J Neurol ... 49] The complex ensuing inflammatory cascade entails the local action of cytokines and chemokines as well as lymphokine-induced ...
Regnase-1 is known to be stimulated by the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, ... and CCL11 associated with an intermediate prognosis, and a cluster of patients with PAH expressing elevated Tnfsf10/TRAIL ... A study of CTD-PAH revealed elevated circulating IL-6 and C-X-C motif chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL13,[5] whereas a recent machine ... chemokines such as CXCL1, CXCL2 and CXCL3; and transcription factors, including NFKBID, NFKBIZ, MAFK, and ID1.[3] These ...
CCL11. Eotaxin. 20ug. CN-03. CCL11. Eotaxin. 100ug. CN-03. CCL11. Eotaxin. 1mg. CN-03. ... Human Native Chemokines. Almac presents a series of native human chemokines, produced by chemical synthesis to ensure high ... Chemokine & Histone online shop. Comprehensive range of Chemokine and Histone products with worldwide shipping and online ... Chemokine & Histone online shop. Comprehensive range of Chemokine and Histone products with worldwide shipping and online ...
Immunology Multiplex Assay Simultaneously analyze multiple cytokine and chemokine biomarkers with Bead-Based Multiplex Assays ... MILLIPLEX MAP Mouse Cytokine/Chemokine Magnetic Bead Panel - Premixed 32 Plex - ... Eotaxin/CCL11 G-CSF GM-CSF IFN-γ IL-1α IL-1β IL-2 IL-3 IL-4 IL-5 IL-6 IL-7 IL-9 IL-10 IL-12 (p40) IL-12 (p70) IL-13 IL-15 IL-17 ... MILLIPLEX MAP Mouse Cytokine / Chemokine panel enables you to focus on the therapeutic potential of cytokines as well as the ...
In addition, TDI inhalation upregulated Th2 cytokine (IL-4, -5, -13, -10) and chemokine (Ccl11, Ccl24) expression and ... Neutralization of IL-5 did not affect the development of the cytokine/chemokine response driving recruitment of eosinophils. ...
Recombinant Macaca mulatta C-X-C motif chemokine 10protein (CXCL10) (Active) , CSB-AP001031MOW Cusabio Active Proteins ... Recombinant Rhesus Macaque Eotaxin protein (CCL11) (Active) , CSB-AP001041MOW , CusabioProtein Description: Full Length of ... Recombinant Macaca mulatta C-X-C motif chemokine 10protein (CXCL10) (Active) , CSB-AP001031MOW , CusabioProtein Description: ... Recombinant Rhesus Macaque Eotaxin protein (CCL11) (Active) , CSB-AP001041MOW Cusabio Active Proteins ...
The age-associated plasma chemokine CCL11 has been shown to impair young brain function while GDF11 has been reported to ...
On the other hand, CSF concentrations of the chemokine CCL11 is lower in adults with MS than in the CSF from adults with ADEM ... CSF cytokine and chemokine profiles in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. J Neuroimmunol. 2006 Jun. 175(1-2):52-8. [QxMD ... Cytokines and chemokines in cerebrospinal fluid and serum of adult patients with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. J Neurol ... 49] The complex ensuing inflammatory cascade entails the local action of cytokines and chemokines as well as lymphokine-induced ...
Our recent genetic scans in families identified haplotypes in the genes of CCL2, CCL3 and CCL11-CCL8-CCL13 which showed ... or CC chemokine ligands - CCL) in the development of inflammatory lesions in the central nervous system of patients with ... The importance of β-chemokines (or CC chemokine ligands - CCL) in the development of inflammatory lesions in the central ... Involvement of β-chemokines in the development of inflammatory demyelination. Banisor, Ileana; Leist, Thomas; Kalman, ...
... and cytokines/chemokines, associated with the development of newly diagnosed TB in PLWH. Differentially expressed miRNA ... and cytokines/chemokines, associated with the development of newly diagnosed TB in PLWH. Differentially expressed miRNA ... Comparison of Serum Cytokines and Chemokines. Of the 37 cytokines/chemokines measured in serum, we observed 3 with ... Serum levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2), eotaxin/CCL11, transforming growth factor-α ( ...
One of the notable chemokines is CCL11 - which can activate hippocampal microglia and inhibit neurogenesis - has been found in ... increased cytokine and chemokine signaling that is potentially characteristic of aging; impaired hippocampal neurogenesis; ... but can initiate neurotoxic activity through cytokine and chemokine signaling when a patient is infected with COVID. ...
The associated locus harbors several chemokines including eotaxin-1 encoded by CCL11, and the haplotype includes a missense ... Our analysis identified a haplotype of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on chromosome 17 within a chemokine gene cluster ... The associated locus harbors several chemokines including eotaxin-1 encoded by CCL11, and the haplotype includes a missense ... Our analysis identified a haplotype of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on chromosome 17 within a chemokine gene cluster ...
Isgrò M, Bianchetti L, Marini MA, Bellini A, Schmidt M and Mattoli S: The C-C motif chemokine ligands CCL5, CCL11, and CCL24 ... To detect the chemokines in lung cancer cells, immunohistochemistry was performed using Leica Bond-Max (Leica) and Bond Polymer ... Zhang XW, Qin X, Qin CY, Yin YL, Chen Y and Zhu HL: Expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and CC chemokine receptor ... Sakai N, Wada T, Yokoyama H, Lipp M, Ueha S, Matsushima K and Kaneko S: Secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine (SLC/CCL21)/CCR7 ...
C-C motif chemokine ligand (CCL)2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL11, CCL19, CCL20, CD40 ligand, fractalkine, C-X-C motif chemokine ... Respiratory syncytial virus-induced chemokine production: linking viral replication to chemokine production in vitro and in ... Characterization of cytokine/chemokine profiles of severe acute respiratory syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005;171(8): ... Interestingly, almost all of these mediators are chemokines or cytokines involved in either recruitment or activation of T ...
Query Trace: Multiple Sclerosis and CCL11[original query] Genetic variants of CC chemokine genes in experimental autoimmune ... An investigation of polymorphisms in the 17q11.2-12 CC chemokine gene cluster for association with multiple sclerosis in ...
It functions as one of the natural ligands for the chemokine receptor chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 (CCR5), and it ... This chemokine, a member of the CC subfamily, functions as a chemoattractant for blood monocytes, memory T helper cells and ... Chemokines form a superfamily of secreted proteins involved in immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes. The superfamily is ... This gene is one of several chemokine genes clustered on the q-arm of chromosome 17. ...
Ccl11. 11. 82057832 to 82062955 5123. +. protein coding gene. chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 11. ... chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 7. Tssr103564. 11. 82046518 to 82046529 11. +. TSS region. transcription start site region 103564 ... chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 12. Tssr103570. 11. 82115180 to 82115186 6. +. TSS region. transcription start site region 103570 ... chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 8. Tssr103571. 11. 82167092 to 82167114 22. +. TSS region. transcription start site region 103571 ...
Chemotactic cytokines or chemokines play pivotal roles in various processes such as immune surveillance, organ development, ... Mouse Proinflammatory Chemokine Panel (13-plex) with V-bottom Plate - ... MCP-1, CCL2, RANTES, CCL5, IP-10, CXCL10, Eotaxin, CCL11, TARC, CCL17, MIP-1a, CCL3, MIP-1b, CCL4, MIG, CXCL9, MIP-3a, CCL20, ... Cytokines/Chemokines Gene ID 20302 View all products for this Gene ID 20302 View all products for this Gene ID 20303 View all ...
... and chemokines eotaxin (CCL11) and RANTES (CCL5) were measured by ELISA; and levels of eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) were ... and chemokines eotaxin (CCL11) and RANTES (CCL5) were measured by ELISA; and levels of eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) were ... and chemokines eotaxin (CCL11) and RANTES (CCL5) were measured by ELISA; and levels of eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) were ... and chemokines eotaxin (CCL11) and RANTES (CCL5) were measured by ELISA; and levels of eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) were ...
CCL11 (chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 11) LOVD v.3.0 Build 28 [ Current LOVD status ]. Register as submitter , Log in ... CCL11. Active transcripts. Legend. Please note that a short description of a certain column can be displayed when you move your ...
Duggan, A. T., Perdomo, M. F., Piombino-Mascali, D., Marciniak, S., Poinar, D., Emery, M. V., Buchmann, J. P., Duchêne, S., Jankauskas, R., Humphreys, M., Golding, G. B., Southon, J., Devault, A., Rouillard, J. M., Sahl, J. W., Dutour, O., Hedman, K., Sajantila, A., Smith, G. L., Holmes, E. C., & 1 othersPoinar, H. N., Dec 19 2016, In: Current Biology. 26, 24, p. 3407-3412 6 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › peer-review ...
Thereafter, we investigated the protein release for IL-8/CXCL8, eotaxin-1/CCL11 chemokines, and IL-6 from TSLP-stimulated HASM ... 4) and suggests that TSLP induces proinflammatory cytokine (IL-6) and chemokines (IL-8/CXCL8 and eotaxin-1/CCL11) expression at ... Eotaxin-1/CCL11 is a potent chemoattractant for eosinophils both in vitro and in vivo. Enhanced eotaxin-1/CCL11 production has ... eotaxin-1/CCL11 (27), and IL-6 (30) carrying proximal promoter regions of respective cytokine/chemokine genes. Primary HASM ...
  • Plasma components (histamine, eotaxin, IgE and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC)) were decreased in the 10% wasabi rhizome HR-AD diet. (researchgate.net)
  • The associated locus harbors several chemokines including eotaxin-1 encoded by CCL11, and the haplotype includes a missense polymorphism in this gene. (escholarship.org)
  • Functionally, TSLPR-mediated HASM activation induced a significant increase in CXC (IL-8/CXCL8), CC (eotaxin-1/CCL11) chemokines, and proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 expression. (aai.org)
  • Our findings that bacteria inhibit the release of the eosinophil selective chemokine, eotaxin-1 may help to explain the mechanisms by which bacterial immunotherapy reduces allergic inflammation in the lung. (novartis.com)
  • The CC chemokine ligand 11, eotaxin (CCL11), is up-regulated in senescent human hepatic stellate cells and crucial in animal models of T-cell mediated hepatitis. (mssm.edu)
  • These biomarkers included: interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, eotaxin/CCL-11, eotaxin-3/CCL-26, and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC)/CCL-17. (spiromics.net)
  • The combination OVA + ZymA + H-ASD induced a marked recruitment of eosinophils and upregulation of T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines (interleukin [IL]-4 and IL-13), IL-6, eotaxin/CCL11, and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-3/CCL7 in BALF and OVA-specific IgE in serum. (escholarship.org)
  • Another reported that IL-10, C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL-10, formerly IFN-γ inducible protein 10) and CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2, formerly monocyte chemoattractant protein 1) levels were higher in patients with high viral loads ( 12 ), but patients with severe disease had higher levels of CXCL10 and CCL2 than did patients with less-severe cases. (cdc.gov)
  • Inflammatory CC (CCL2, CCL3, CCL5) and CXC (CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL5, CXCL6, and CXCL8) chemokines recruit at the tumor site CCR2 + monocytes and CXCR2 + neutrophils that differentiate into tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) and tumor associated neutrophils (TANs), exerting pro- or anti-tumoral role ( 7 - 10 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Our recent genetic scans in families identified haplotypes in the genes of CCL2, CCL3 and CCL11-CCL8-CCL13 which showed association with multiple sclerosis. (columbia.edu)
  • Surgically resected tumor tissues were examined for the expression of chemotactic factors, including C‑X‑C motif chemokine 12 (CXCL12), CCL2, platelet‑derived growth factor (PDGF)‑AA and PDGF‑BB, as well as tumor‑infiltrating fibrocytes by immunostaining. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In addition to our previous study, which demonstrated that fibrocytes accumulated in the tumor microenvironment via the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis ( 15 ), several chemotactic factors, such as CCL2, CCL5, CCL11, and CCL24, and PDGFs, have also been shown to induce the migration of fibrocytes in pulmonary fibrosis and/or asthma ( 16 - 18 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • After assessing peripheral immune cells and chemokines, mortality and age over 65 years were linked to elevated levels of inflammatory chemokines CCL2, CCL4, CCL11, and CCL20. (contagionlive.com)
  • More specifically, the absence of LIME in effector T cells resulted in the reduced migration and defective morphological polarization in response to inflammatory chemokines such as CCL5 and CXCL10. (molcells.org)
  • Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (also CCL5 ) is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CCL5 gene . (wikidoc.org)
  • CCL5 is an 8kDa protein classified as a chemotactic cytokine or chemokine . (wikidoc.org)
  • IL-2 and IFN-γ ) that are released by T cells , CCL5 also induces the proliferation and activation of certain natural-killer ( NK ) cells to form CHAK (CC-Chemokine-activated killer) cells. (wikidoc.org)
  • Furthermore, we show that the expression of the chemokines Ccl4 , Ccl9 , Il18 and the chemokine receptor Cxcr4 increases in LSK cells during development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chemokine CCL4" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (musc.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Chemokine CCL4" by people in this website by year, and whether "Chemokine CCL4" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (musc.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Chemokine CCL4" by people in Profiles. (musc.edu)
  • In the present study, Yaki and colleagues [ 1 ] present a set of clinical and translational observations implicating Regnase-1 as a central regulatory node of inflammation in PAH by virtue of its broad dampening effect on a variety of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. (medscape.com)
  • Although cumulative evidence suggests that human airway smooth muscle (HASM) cells can initiate or perpetuate the airway inflammation by secreting a variety of inflammatory cell products such as cytokines and chemokines, the role of TSLP in this pathway is not known. (aai.org)
  • Human Qbeads Inflammation Panel Kit allows the measurement of seven human cytokines and chemokines from either serum or in vitro samples. (sartorius.com)
  • The value of blood cytokines and chemokines in assessing COPD. (spiromics.net)
  • however, there are fewer studies that have investigated multiple biomarkers and replicated in multiple large well-characterized cohorts of susceptible current and former smokers.METHODS: We used two MSD multiplex panels to measure 9 cytokines and chemokines in 2123 subjects from COPDGene and 1117 subjects from SPIROMICS. (spiromics.net)
  • Pathologic changes, cytological alterations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), changes in inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in BALF, and OVA-specific IgE and IgG 1 antibodies in serum were investigated. (escholarship.org)
  • In both cases, C-C motif chemokine ligand 11 (CCL11) was present in cerebrospinal fluid from seven days all the way to seven weeks after infection. (williamhaseltine.com)
  • The major role of chemokines is to act as a chemoattractant to guide the migration of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Background and Aims: Recent studies highlight the role of chemokines for the attraction of inflammatory cells in liver injury and fibrogenesis. (mssm.edu)
  • Many of his papers are concerned with the role of chemokines in eosinophil recruitment. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • In addition, TDI inhalation upregulated Th2 cytokine (IL-4, -5, -13, -10) and chemokine (Ccl11, Ccl24) expression and eosinophil infiltration into the nasal mucosa of mice with TDI rhinitis. (cdc.gov)
  • Interferon pathway-related cytokines/chemokines, including interleukin (IL) 18, macrophage inflammatory protein 3α, and IL-33, were elevated, but tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6, CXCL8 (formerly IL-8), and cytokines acting through C-C chemokine receptor 2 and CCR5 were lower among case-patients than controls. (cdc.gov)
  • Their homeostatic function in homing is best exemplified by the chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 (expressed within lymph nodes and on lymphatic endothelial cells) and their receptor CCR7 (expressed on cells destined for homing in cells to these organs). (wikipedia.org)
  • It functions as one of the natural ligands for the chemokine receptor chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 (CCR5), and it suppresses in vitro replication of the R5 strains of HIV-1, which use CCR5 as a coreceptor. (creativebiomart.net)
  • C-C motif chemokine receptor 1 [Sourc. (gsea-msigdb.org)
  • CCR3 has been identified to be a specific CCL11 receptor. (watson-int.cn)
  • Alternatively, LT-HSCs circulating in fetal blood might not possess the appropriate chemokine receptor or adhesion molecule repertoire required for bone marrow homing and migration. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our group has previously used PBMCs from ALS patients and demonstrated persistent pro-inflammatory phenotypes, dysregulated chemokine receptor expression, increased oxidative stress, dysregulated calcium buffering, and most recently, an up-regulation of the UPR component ATF6 that also seems to be affected by age. (uniklinikum-jena.de)
  • C-C motif chemokine receptor 9 [Source. (gsea-msigdb.org)
  • On the contrary, chemokines, such as CCL21 and ELR − chemokines (CXCL4, CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11) inhibit angiogenesis and endothelial cell proliferation ( 26 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • 6-MSITC inhibited interleukin (IL)-6 and C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL10) production in TNF-α-stimulated TR146 cells, which are a human oral epithelial cell line. (tokushima-u.ac.jp)
  • Screening of chemokine expression in ESCC cells with NEDD9 overexpression and knockdown showed that NEDD9 regulated C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 8 (CXCL8) expression via the ERK pathway. (cancerbiomed.org)
  • for example, CCL20 can act also as pro-inflammatory chemokine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Mouse Proinflammatory Chemokine panel is a multiplex bead-based assay panel, using fluorescence-encoded beads suitable for use on various flow cytometers. (biolegend.com)
  • The LEGENDplex™ Mouse Proinflammatory Chemokine Detection Antibodies product is intended for use with the Mix and Match Mouse Proinflammatory Chemokine Panel of products. (biolegend.com)
  • Chemokines have been classified into four main subfamilies: CXC, CC, CX3C and C. All of these proteins exert their biological effects by interacting with G protein-linked transmembrane receptors called chemokine receptors, that are selectively found on the surfaces of their target cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • They performed multiplexed inflammatory chemokine measurement of sera and flow cytometry of fresh blood samples. (contagionlive.com)
  • After the exclusion of men with conditions linked with systemic inflammation, associations between prostate cancer and deviant levels of C-X3-C motif chemokine ligand 1, platelet-derived growth factor subunit B homodimer, interleukin 10, C-C motif chemokine ligand (CCL) 21, and CCL11 remained statistically significant. (endourology.ph)
  • Interferon pathway activation and cytokines/chemokines acting through CCR2 and CCR5 improved health results among children with severe CCHF. (cdc.gov)
  • For example, cytokine and chemokines mediate interactions between cells directly, regulating target immune cell responses. (emdmillipore.com)
  • Altogether, our data suggest that the TSLPR-mediated HASM activation induces proinflammatory cytokine and chemokines release that may facilitate inflammatory immune cells recruitment in airways. (aai.org)
  • Chemokines (from Ancient Greek χῠμείᾱ (khumeíā) 'alchemy', and κῑ́νησῐς (kī́nēsis) 'movement'), or chemotactic cytokines, are a family of small cytokines or signaling proteins secreted by cells that induce directional movement of leukocytes, as well as other cell types, including endothelial and epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytokine proteins are classified as chemokines according to behavior and structural characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokines form a superfamily of secreted proteins involved in immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Kolagenazy typu IV (MMP-2 i MMP-9) i ich substraty--białka macierzy zewnatrzkomórkowej, hormony, cytokiny, chemokiny i ich receptory [Type IV collagenases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) and their substrates--intracellular proteins, hormones, cytokines, chemokines and their receptors]. (kaznu.kz)
  • The importance of β-chemokines (or CC chemokine ligands - CCL) in the development of inflammatory lesions in the central nervous system of patients with multiple sclerosis and rodents with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis is strongly supported by descriptive studies and experimental models. (columbia.edu)
  • The panel included cytokines, chemokines, growth factors and ligands according to established SOPs. (medscape.com)
  • We also provide recent findings about the role in cancer of atypical chemokine receptors that could become future targets for immunotherapy. (frontiersin.org)
  • Chemokines produced by tumor itself, cancer-associated fibroblasts and infiltrating leukocytes ( 27 , 28 ), through the binding of chemokine receptors expressed by tumor cells, directly promote cancer cell proliferation activating different signaling pathways, such as PI3K/AKT/NF-κB and MAPK/ERK pathway ( 29 - 31 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • ACKR1 is one of more than 20 distinct chemokine receptors expressed in human leukocytes. (guidetomalariapharmacology.org)
  • Genetic variants of CC chemokine genes in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. (cdc.gov)
  • This gene is one of several chemokine genes clustered on the q-arm of chromosome 17. (creativebiomart.net)
  • This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes. (musc.edu)
  • Our analysis identified a haplotype of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on chromosome 17 within a chemokine gene cluster associated with delayed onset of mild-cognitive impairment and dementia. (escholarship.org)
  • This chemokine has been localized to chromosome 17 in humans. (wikidoc.org)
  • Inflammatory chemokines function mainly as chemoattractants for leukocytes, recruiting monocytes, neutrophils and other effector cells from the blood to sites of infection or tissue damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • This chemokine, a member of the CC subfamily, functions as a chemoattractant for blood monocytes, memory T helper cells and eosinophils. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils. (ouhsc.edu)
  • Chemokines, are a family of small, secreted, and structurally related cytokines with a crucial role in inflammation and immunity ( 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Expression profiling of chemokines, especially those involved in inflammation and immune disorders, is important in achieving a deeper understanding of disease states. (biolegend.com)
  • Despite largely mild illness, the mice showed signs of elevated inflammation, with a noticeable increase in cytokine and chemokine levels. (williamhaseltine.com)
  • The cytokines/chemokines included are implicated in inflammatory responses to disease states including autoimmune diseases, chronic inflammation, and infections, including viral infections such as COVID-19. (sartorius.com)
  • Chemokines primarily act to promote leukocyte chemotaxis to sites of inflammation. (guidetomalariapharmacology.org)
  • Both CC and CXC chemokines play a critical role in tumor angiogenesis, essential for tumor growth and metastatic spreading ( 19 , 20 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. (musc.edu)
  • CCL11 was first purified from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of guinea pigs. (watson-int.cn)
  • RNAdjuvant ® was the only one to induce most of the cytokines/chemokines tested with a pronounced Th1 cytokine pattern. (biomedcentral.com)
  • PAMPs) and induce the innate immune response by activation of a signaling cascade resulting in the upregulation of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and type I IFNs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We hypothesize that bacteria and bacterial products could induce cytokine/chemokine release from ASMC. (novartis.com)
  • An investigation of polymorphisms in the 17q11.2-12 CC chemokine gene cluster for association with multiple sclerosis in Australians. (cdc.gov)
  • Simultaneously analyze multiple cytokine and chemokine biomarkers with Bead-Based Multiplex Assays using the Luminex technology, in mouse serum, plasma and cell culture samples. (emdmillipore.com)
  • Chemokines are functionally divided into two groups: Homeostatic: are constitutively produced in certain tissues and are responsible for basal leukocyte migration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some chemokines present at tumor site can modify leukocyte activation, for instance CXCL16 acting on CXCR6 induces macrophage polarization toward a pro-tumoral phenotype in solid tumors ( 11 , 12 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • In the context of Covid-19, elevated CCL11 levels were associated with an increase in reactivity of microglial cells. (williamhaseltine.com)
  • The proper movement of immune cells is orchestrated by the spatial and temporal expression of chemokines. (frontiersin.org)
  • MILLIPLEX MAP Mouse Cytokine / Chemokine panel enables you to focus on the therapeutic potential of cytokines as well as the modulation of cytokine expression. (emdmillipore.com)
  • Enhanced TSLP expression has been detected in asthmatic airways that correlated with both the expression of Th2-attracting chemokines and with disease severity. (aai.org)
  • We have analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) array the expression pattern of extracellular matrix and adhesion molecules as well as chemokines and chemokine receptors in Lineage - Sca-1 + c-Kit + (LSK) cells at different stages of development, in order to characterize the role played by these molecules in LSK. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our results show marked changes in the expression pattern of extracellular matrix, adhesion molecules, chemokines and their receptors with developmental age, particularly in later stages of development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Neutralization of IL-5 did not affect the development of the cytokine/chemokine response driving recruitment of eosinophils. (cdc.gov)
  • They noted the difference in the longitudinal assessment of immune cells and chemokines, indicating age-associated immune changes are not the cause of all inflammatory changes associated with COVID-19 mortality. (contagionlive.com)
  • In addition to being known for mediating chemotaxis, chemokines are all approximately 8-10 kilodaltons in mass and have four cysteine residues in conserved locations that are key to forming their 3-dimensional shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some chemokines are considered pro-inflammatory and can be induced during an immune response to recruit cells of the immune system to a site of infection, while others are considered homeostatic and are involved in controlling the migration of cells during normal processes of tissue maintenance or development. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main function of chemokines is to manage the migration of leukocytes (homing) in the respective anatomical locations in inflammatory and homeostatic processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we report that LIME is preferentially expressed in effector T cells and mediates chemokine-mediated T cell migration. (molcells.org)
  • Taken together, the present findings show that LIME is a critical regulator of inflammatory chemokine-mediated signaling and the subsequent migration of effector T cells to inflammatory sites. (molcells.org)
  • Extracellular matrix and adhesion molecules, as well as chemokines and their receptors, are important in adult HSC migration. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our findings that ASMC can respond directly to gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria by releasing the neutrophil selective chemokine, CXCL-8, is consistent with what we know about the role of neutrophil recruitment in bacterial infections in the lung. (novartis.com)
  • hypothesized that circulating LT-HSC, although chemotactic by 14.5 dpc to the bone marrow recruiting chemokine stromal cell derived factor-1α (SDF-1α), would not colonize the fetal bone marrow until a suitable microenvironment is present [ 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • GM-CSF, instead of IL-5, and chemokines may coordinate airway eosinophilia during the chronic asymptomatic phase of asthma. (elsevier.com)
  • Airway smooth muscle cells (ASMC) are a source of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines that may propagate local airway inflammatory responses. (novartis.com)
  • Chemotactic cytokines or chemokines play pivotal roles in various processes such as immune surveillance, organ development, angiogenesis, and immune responses. (biolegend.com)
  • Secondary lymphoid-tissue chemokine induced modulation of T cells. (ouhsc.edu)
  • In addition to playing a major role in the activation of host immune responses, chemokines are important for biological processes, including morphogenesis and wound healing, as well as in the pathogenesis of diseases like cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some chemokines control cells of the immune system during processes of immune surveillance, such as directing lymphocytes to the lymph nodes so they can screen for invasion of pathogens by interacting with antigen-presenting cells residing in these tissues. (wikipedia.org)