Chemokine CCL27: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR10 RECEPTORS. It is constitutively expressed in the skin and may play a role in T-CELL trafficking during cutaneous INFLAMMATION.Chemokine CCL21: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CCL22: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards TH2 CELLS and TC2 CELLS.Chemokine CCL17: A CC-type chemokine that is found at high levels in the THYMUS and has specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It is synthesized by DENDRITIC CELLS; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; KERATINOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Chemokine CCL2: A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CCL19: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards T LYMPHOCYTES and B LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CCL5: A CC-type chemokine that is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS; MONOCYTES; and LYMPHOCYTES. It is a potent and selective eosinophil chemotaxin that is stored in and released from PLATELETS and activated T-LYMPHOCYTES. Chemokine CCL5 is specific for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR3 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS. The acronym RANTES refers to Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted.Chemokine CCL20: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR6 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS; T-LYMPHOCYTES; and B-LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CCL1: A CC-type chemokine secreted by activated MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CCR8 RECEPTORS.Chemokines, CC: Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.Receptors, Chemokine: Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Chemokine CCL3: A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.Chemokine CCL7: A monocyte chemoattractant protein that has activity towards a broad variety of immune cell types. Chemokine CCL7 has specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR2 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS.Chemokines: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Receptors, CCR10: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL27. They may play a specialized role in the cutaneous homing of LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CCL4: A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.Chemokine CXCL12: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.Receptors, CCR1: CCR receptors with specificity for a broad variety of CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in MONOCYTES; tissue MACROPHAGES; NEUTROPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS.Chemokine CXCL10: A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON and is chemotactic for MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Chemokine CCL8: A monocyte chemoattractant protein that attracts MONOCYTES; LYMPHOCYTES; BASOPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS. Chemokine CCL8 has specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS.Receptors, CCR: Chemokine receptors that are specific for CC CHEMOKINES.Receptors, CCR2: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL2 and several other CCL2-related chemokines. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; BASOPHILS; and NK CELLS.Chemokine CCL11: A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.Chemokine CCL24: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.Receptors, CCR7: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.Receptors, CCR8: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL1. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES.Chemokine CXCL1: A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Receptors, CCR4: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL17 and CHEMOKINE CCL22. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; MAST CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and NK CELLS.Chemokines, CXC: Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.Chemokine CX3CL1: A CX3C chemokine that is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells. The soluble form of chemokine CX3CL1 can be released from cell surface by proteolysis and act as a chemoattractant that may be involved in the extravasation of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. The membrane form of the protein may also play a role in cell adhesion.Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins: Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.Receptors, CCR5: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.Receptors, CCR3: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL11 and a variety of other CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; BASOPHILS; and MAST CELLS.Chemokine CXCL9: An INTEFERON-inducible CXC chemokine that is specific for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Mice, Inbred C57BLCell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Chemokine CXCL2: A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CXCL13: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.Receptors, CXCR4: CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Chemokine CXCL11: A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON. It is a chemotactic factor for activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Chemotaxis: The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.Chemokine CXCL6: A CXC chemokine that has stimulatory and chemotactic activities towards NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR1 RECEPTORS and CXCR2 RECEPTORS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Chemokine CXCL5: A CXC chemokine that is predominantly expressed in EPITHELIAL CELLS. It has specificity for the CXCR2 RECEPTORS and is involved in the recruitment and activation of NEUTROPHILS.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Receptors, CXCR3: CXCR receptors that are expressed on the surface of a number of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; NK CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and a subset of B-LYMPHOCYTES. The receptors are activated by CHEMOKINE CXCL9; CHEMOKINE CXCL10; and CHEMOKINE CXCL11.Mice, Inbred BALB CMonocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Receptors, Interleukin-8B: High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and T-LYMPHOCYTES. These receptors also bind several other CXC CHEMOKINES.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Dermatitis, Atopic: A chronic inflammatory genetically determined disease of the skin marked by increased ability to form reagin (IgE), with increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis and asthma, and hereditary disposition to a lowered threshold for pruritus. It is manifested by lichenification, excoriation, and crusting, mainly on the flexural surfaces of the elbow and knee. In infants it is known as infantile eczema.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Monocyte Chemoattractant Proteins: Chemokines that are chemoattractants for monocytes. These CC chemokines (cysteines adjacent) number at least three including CHEMOKINE CCL2.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Receptors, CCR6: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL20. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Receptors, Interleukin-8A: High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and BASOPHILS.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Receptors, CXCR: Chemokine receptors that are specific for CXC CHEMOKINES.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Carbon Tetrachloride: A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Receptors, Cytokine: Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Chemokines, CX3C: Group of chemokines with the first two cysteines separated by three amino acids. CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural killer cells, monocytes, and activated T-cells.Receptors, CXCR5: CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Chemotactic Factors: Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Monokines: Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.Receptors, HIV: Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Carbon Tetrachloride PoisoningDuffy Blood-Group System: A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.Chemotactic Factors, Eosinophil: Cytotaxins liberated from normal or invading cells that specifically attract eosinophils; they may be complement fragments, lymphokines, neutrophil products, histamine or other; the best known is the tetrapeptide ECF-A, released mainly by mast cells.Neutrophil Infiltration: The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Heterocyclic Compounds: Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Cell Migration Inhibition: Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Platelet Factor 4: A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Endothelium, Lymphatic: Unbroken cellular lining (intima) of the lymph vessels (e.g., the high endothelial lymphatic venules). It is more permeable than vascular endothelium, lacking selective absorption and functioning mainly to remove plasma proteins that have filtered through the capillaries into the tissue spaces.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.

Selective eosinophil transendothelial migration triggered by eotaxin via modulation of Mac-1/ICAM-1 and VLA-4/VCAM-1 interactions. (1/477)

We have recently cloned eotaxin, a highly efficacious eosinophilic chemokine involved in the development of lung eosinophilia during allergic inflammatory reactions. To understand more precisely how eotaxin facilitates the specific migration of eosinophils, we have studied which adhesion receptors are essential for eotaxin action both in vivo and in vitro. Experiments using mice genetically deficient in adhesion receptors demonstrated that molecules previously reported to be involved in both leukocyte tethering/rolling (P-selectin and E-selectin) and in sticking/ transmigration (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) are required for eotaxin action in vivo. To further elucidate the mechanism(s) involved in this process, we have used an in vitro transendothelial chemotaxis model. mAb neutralization studies performed in this system suggest that the integrins Mac-1 (CD11b/18), VLA-4 (alpha4beta1) and LFA-1 (CD11a/18) are involved in the transendothelial chemotaxis of eosinophils to eotaxin. Accordingly, the expression of these integrins on eosinophils is elevated by direct action of this chemokine in a concentration-dependent manner. Taken together, our results suggest that eotaxin-induced eosinophil transendothelial migration in vivo and in vitro relies on Mac-1/ICAM-1 and VLA-4NCAM-1 interactions, the latter ones becoming more relevant at later time points of the eotaxin-induced recruitment process.  (+info)

Eotaxin contributes to renal interstitial eosinophilia. (2/477)

BACKGROUND: A potent eosinophil chemotactic cytokine, human eotaxin, is directly chemotactic for eosinophils. Therefore, the specific expression of eotaxin in tissue might play a crucial role in tissue eosinophilia. However, the precise molecular mechanism of the recruitment and activation of eosinophils in human renal diseases remains to be investigated. We evaluated the role of eotaxin in the pathogenesis of human diffuse interstitial nephritis with marked infiltration of eosinophils. METHODS: In this study, we examined 20 healthy volunteers. 56 patients with primary or secondary glomerular diseases and two hypereosinophilic syndrome patients without renal involvement. Urinary and serum eotaxin levels were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We also detected the presence of eotaxin protein immunohistochemically. RESULTS: On the one hand, urinary levels of eotaxin were significantly higher before the initiation of glucocorticoid administration in the patient with interstitial nephritis with marked infiltration of eosinophils. On the other hand, urinary eotaxin levels were not detected in any patients with nephrotic syndrome, interstitial nephritis without eosinophils, hypereosinophilic syndrome without renal involvement or other renal diseases. Serum eotaxin levels were not detected in any of the patients. Therefore, the detection of eotaxin in the urine was specific for renal interstitial eosinophilia. Moreover, endothelial cells, infiltrating mononuclear cells and renal epithelial cells in the tubulointerstitial lesions were immunostained with specific anti-eotaxin antibodies. Furthermore, the elevated urinary levels of eotaxin decreased dramatically during glucocorticoid-induced convalescence. HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesize that in situ expression of eotaxin may provide a new mechanism to explain the renal interstitial eosinophil infiltration.  (+info)

Effects of Th2 cytokines on chemokine expression in the lung: IL-13 potently induces eotaxin expression by airway epithelial cells. (3/477)

Airway inflammation associated with asthma is characterized by massive infiltration of eosinophils, mediated in part by specific chemoattractant factors produced in the lung. Allergen-specific Th2 cells appear to play a central role in asthma; for example, adoptively transferred Th2 cells induced lung eosinophilia associated with induction of specific chemokines. Interestingly, Th2 supernatant alone administered intranasally to naive mice induced eotaxin, RANTES, monocyte-chemotactic protein-1, and KC expression along with lung eosinophilia. We tested the major cytokines individually and found that IL-4 and IL-5 induced higher levels of macrophage-inflammatory protein-1alpha and KC; IL-4 also increased the production of monocyte-chemotactic protein-1; IL-13 and IL-4 induced eotaxin. IL-13 was by far the most potent inducer of eotaxin; indeed, a neutralizing anti-IL-13 Ab removed most of the eotaxin-inducing activity from Th2 supernatants, although it did not entirely block the recruitment of eosinophils. While TNF-alpha did not stimulate eotaxin production by itself, it markedly augmented eotaxin induction by IL-13. IL-13 was able to induce eotaxin in the lung of JAK3-deficient mice, suggesting that JAK3 is not required for IL-13 signaling in airway epithelial cells; however, eosinophilia was not induced in this situation, suggesting that JAK3 transduces other IL-13-mediated mechanisms critical for eosinophil recruitment. Our study suggests that IL-13 is an important mediator in the pathogenesis of asthma and therefore a potential target for asthma therapy.  (+info)

Differential regulation of eosinophil chemokine signaling via CCR3 and non-CCR3 pathways. (4/477)

To investigate eosinophil stimulation by chemokines we developed a sensitive assay of leukocyte shape change, the gated autofluorescence/forward scatter assay. Leukocyte shape change responses are mediated through rearrangements of the cellular cytoskeleton in a dynamic process typically resulting in a polarized cell and are essential to the processes of leukocyte migration from the microcirculation into sites of inflammation. We examined the actions of the chemokines eotaxin, eotaxin-2, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), MCP-3, MCP-4, RANTES, macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha), and IL-8 on leukocytes in mixed cell suspensions and focused on the responses of eosinophils to C-C chemokines. Those chemokines acting on CCR3 induced a rapid shape change in eosinophils from all donors; of these, eotaxin and eotaxin-2 were the most potent. Responses to MCP-4 were qualitatively different, showing marked reversal of shape change responses with agonist concentration and duration of treatment. In contrast, MIP-1alpha induced a potent response in eosinophils from a small and previously undescribed subgroup of donors via a non-CCR3 pathway likely to be CCR1 mediated. Incubation of leukocytes at 37 degrees C for 90 min in the absence of extracellular calcium up-regulated responses to MCP-4 and MIP-1alpha in the majority of donors, and there was a small increase in responses to eotaxin. MIP-1alpha responsiveness in vivo may therefore be a function of both CCR1 expression levels and the regulated efficiency of coupling to intracellular signaling pathways. The observed up-regulation of MIP-1alpha signaling via non-CCR3 pathways may play a role in eosinophil recruitment in inflammatory states such as occurs in the asthmatic lung.  (+info)

Pulmonary expression of interleukin-13 causes inflammation, mucus hypersecretion, subepithelial fibrosis, physiologic abnormalities, and eotaxin production. (5/477)

Interleukin (IL)-13 is a pleiotropic cytokine produced in large quantities by activated CD4(+) Th2 lymphocytes. To define further its potential in vivo effector functions, the Clara cell 10-kDa protein promoter was used to express IL-13 selectively in the lung, and the phenotype of the resulting transgenic mice was characterized. In contrast to transgene-negative littermates, the lungs of transgene-positive mice contained an inflammatory response around small and large airways and in the surrounding parenchyma. It was mononuclear in nature and contained significant numbers of eosinophils and enlarged and occasionally multinucleated macrophages. Airway epithelial cell hypertrophy, mucus cell metaplasia, the hyperproduction of neutral and acidic mucus, the deposition of Charcot-Leyden-like crystals, and subepithelial airway fibrosis were also prominently noted. Eotaxin protein and mRNA were also present in large quantities in the lungs of the transgene-positive, but not the transgene-negative, mice. IL-4, IL-5, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-5 were not similarly detected. Physiological evaluations revealed significant increases in baseline airways resistance and airways hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to methacholine in transgene-positive animals. Thus, the targeted pulmonary expression of IL-13 causes a mononuclear and eosinophilic inflammatory response, mucus cell metaplasia, the deposition of Charcot-Leyden-like crystals, airway fibrosis, eotaxin production, airways obstruction, and nonspecific AHR. IL-13 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of similar responses in asthma or other Th2-polarized tissue responses.  (+info)

Differential chemokine expression in tissues involved by Hodgkin's disease: direct correlation of eotaxin expression and tissue eosinophilia. (6/477)

Hodgkin's disease (HD) is a lymphoid malignancy characterized by infrequent malignant cells surrounded by abundant inflammatory cells. In this study, we examined the potential contribution of chemokines to inflammatory cell recruitment in different subtypes of HD. Chemokines are small proteins that are active as chemoattractants and regulators of cell activation. We found that HD tissues generally express higher levels of interferon-gamma-inducible protein-10 (IP-10), Mig, RANTES, macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha), and eotaxin, but not macrophage-derived chemotactic factor (MDC), than tissues from lymphoid hyperplasia (LH). Within HD subtypes, expression of IP-10 and Mig was highest in the mixed cellularity (MC) subtype, whereas expression of eotaxin and MDC was highest in the nodular sclerosis (NS) subtype. A significant direct correlation was detected between evidence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in the neoplastic cells and levels of expression of IP-10, RANTES, and MIP-1alpha. Levels of eotaxin expression correlated directly with the extent of tissue eosinophilia. By immunohistochemistry, IP-10, Mig, and eotaxin proteins localized in the malignant Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells and their variants, and to some surrounding inflammatory cells. Eotaxin was also detected in fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells of vessels. These results provide evidence of high level chemokine expression in HD tissues and suggest that chemokines may play an important role in the recruitment of inflammatory cell infiltrates into tissues involved by HD.  (+info)

Eotaxin activates T cells to chemotaxis and adhesion only if induced to express CCR3 by IL-2 together with IL-4. (7/477)

The transmigration and adherence of T lymphocytes through microvascular endothelium are essential events for their recruitment into inflammatory sites. In the present study, we investigated the expression of CC chemokine receptor CCR3 on T lymphocytes and the capacities of the CC chemokine eotaxin to induce chemotaxis and adhesion in T lymphocytes. We have observed a novel phenomenon that IL-2 and IL-4 induce the expression of CCR3 on T lymphocytes. We also report that CC chemokine eotaxin is a potent chemoattractant for IL-2- and IL-4-stimulated T lymphocytes, but not for freshly isolated T lymphocytes. Eotaxin attracts T lymphocytes via CCR3, documented by the fact that anti-CCR3 mAb blocks eotaxin-mediated T lymphocyte chemotaxis. In combination with IL-2 and IL-4, eotaxin enhances the expression of adhesion molecules such as ICAM-1 and several integrins (CD29, CD49a, and CD49b) on T lymphocytes and thus promotes adhesion and aggregation of T lymphocytes. The eotaxin-induced T lymphocyte adhesion could be selectively blocked by a specific cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor, H-89, indicating that eotaxin activates T lymphocytes via a special cAMP-signaling pathway. Our new findings all point toward the fact that eotaxin, in association with the Th1-derived cytokine IL-2 and the Th2-derived cytokine IL-4, is an important T lymphocyte activator, stimulating the directional migration, adhesion, accumulation, and recruitment of T lymphocytes, and paralleled the accumulation of eosinophils and basophils during the process of certain types of inflammation such as allergy.  (+info)

CD26/dipeptidyl-peptidase IV down-regulates the eosinophil chemotactic potency, but not the anti-HIV activity of human eotaxin by affecting its interaction with CC chemokine receptor 3. (8/477)

Chemokines attract and activate distinct sets of leukocytes. The CC chemokine eotaxin has been characterized as an important mediator in allergic reactions because it selectively attracts eosinophils, Th2 lymphocytes, and basophils. Human eotaxin has a penultimate proline, indicating that it might be a substrate for dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (CD26/DPP IV). In this study we demonstrate that eotaxin is efficiently cleaved by CD26/DPP IV and that the NH2-terminal truncation affects its biological activity. CD26/DPP IV-truncated eotaxin(3-74) showed reduced chemotactic activity for eosinophils and impaired binding and signaling properties through the CC chemokine receptor 3. Moreover, eotaxin(3-74) desensitized calcium signaling and inhibited chemotaxis toward intact eotaxin. In addition, HIV-2 infection of CC chemokine receptor 3-transfected cells was inhibited to a similar extent by eotaxin and eotaxin(3-74). Thus, CD26/DPP IV differently regulates the chemotactic and antiviral potencies of eotaxin by the removal of two NH2-terminal residues. This physiological processing may be an important down-regulatory mechanism, limiting eotaxin-mediated inflammatory responses.  (+info)

Anti-Eotaxin 2 antibody conjugated to Biotin validated for WB, ELISA, sELISA and tested in Human. Immunogen corresponding to recombinant full length protein
We have characterized previously the expression of the chemokines eotaxin, MCP-5, RANTES, and MCP-1 (mRNA and/or protein), and correlated this with the leukocytes migrating to the lung during a murine model of lung inflammation ((5), (16)). From these experiments, we concluded that MCP-1 mRNA expression paralleled the accumulation of monocytes/macrophages in this organ, both events occurring predominantly at early stages of the response (day 15). Also, eotaxin mRNA expression paralleled lung eosinophilia predominantly at late stages (day 21). In contrast, other chemokines, such as RANTES or MCP-5, were expressed throughout the inflammatory reaction. This underlines the contribution of chemokines at different stages of the response.. From the work presented here, we first conclude that eosinophil recruitment and development of BHR in this model system involve the action of both eosinophilic (eotaxin, RANTES, MCP-5, and MIP-1α) and noneosinophilic chemokines (MCP-1). This indicates the absence of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interleukin-12 inhibits eotaxin secretion of cultured primary lung cells and alleviates airway inflammation in vivo. AU - Ye, Yi Ling. AU - Huang, Wan Ching. AU - Lee, Yueh L.. AU - Chiang, Bor Luen. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - The mechanisms that cause the inflammation of airway and lung tissue in asthma have been studied extensively. It is noted that type 1 T helper cell (Th1)-related cytokines could decrease the accumulation of eosinophils in lung tissue and relieve airway constriction. But the therapeutic mechanisms of Th1 cytokines remain unclear. In this study, interleukin-12 (IL-12) DNA plasmid as a therapeutic reagent was delivered intravenously. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids were collected from IL-12 treated and control mice, and analyzed for cell composition and eotaxin level. The results showed that IL-12 DNA plasmid could effectively inhibit eosinophilia and airway inflammation in vivo. The level of eotaxin in BAL fluid also decreased. To further investigate the ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Oncostatin M causes eotaxin-1 release from airway smooth muscle. T2 - Synergy with IL-4 and IL-13. AU - Faffe, Débora S.. AU - Flynt, Lesley. AU - Mellema, Matthew. AU - Moore, Paul E.. AU - Silverman, Eric S.. AU - Subramaniam, Venkat. AU - Jones, Matthew R.. AU - Mizgerd, Joseph P.. AU - Whitehead, Timothy. AU - Imrich, Amy. AU - Panettieri, Reynold A.. AU - Shore, Stephanie A.. PY - 2005/3. Y1 - 2005/3. N2 - Background: Eotaxin is implicated in asthmatic eosinophilia. Oncostatin M (OSM) causes eotaxin release from fibroblasts. Objective: We sought to examine the effects and mechanism of action of OSM and other IL-6 family cytokines on eotaxin release from human airway smooth muscle cells. Methods: Eotaxin 1 release was measured by means of ELISA. Western blotting was used to examine mitogen-activated protein kinase and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT-3) phosphorylation. Eotaxin promoter activity was analyzed in cells transfected with wild-type STAT-3, ...
Background: Patients with severe asthma are less sensitive to oral or inhaled corticosteroids. Relative corticosteroid insensitivity has been shown in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and alveolar macrophages in these patients.. Aims and objectives: Determine the response of corticosteroids in airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) of severe asthma, in terms of suppression of cytokine-induced chemokine release and mRNA expression, and investigate the underlying mechanisms.. Methods: ASMCs of non-asthmatics (NA; 12), patients with non-severe (NSA; 10) or severe asthma (SA; 10) were pretreated with dexamethasone (Dex; 10-10-10-6 M) followed by stimulation with TNF-α at 10 ng/mL. IL-8 and eotaxin release determined by ELISA; mRNA quantified by RT-PCR. p65 NF-κB recruitment to gene promoters measured by ChIP assay; p38, JNK, and ERK expression measured by Western blot.. Results: Baseline and TNF-α induced eotaxin release and mRNA were higher in NSA, but not SA, compared to NA, while no differences ...
Background: MCP-1 (CCL2), MCP-3 (CCL7), and eotaxin (CCL11) are genes for CC chemokines clustered on the long arm of chromosome 17. Previous studies have implicated these chemokines in monocyte recruitment, viral replication, and anti-HIV cytotoxic T cell responses. An epidemiological analysis identified genetic variants influencing HIV-1 transmission and disease progression. Methods: Genomic DNA from over 3000 participants enrolled in five natural history cohorts in the United States were analyzed. Nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) covering 33 kb containing these three genes were genotyped using the polymerase chain reaction. Distortions in allele, genotype, and haplotype frequencies were assessed with respect to HIV-1 transmission and rates of disease progression using categorical and survival analyses. Results: Extensive linkage disequilibrium was observed. Three SNP (−2136T located in theMCP-1 promoter region, 767G in intron 1 of MCP-1, and −1385A in the Eotaxin promoter) were nearly
References for Abcams Recombinant human Eotaxin 2 protein (ab54405). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
Previous investigations have demonstrated a link between elevated levels of eosinophils, eosinophil activation, and adult IBD. However, there have been conflicting data regarding the individual contribution of the eosinophil-selective chemokines eotaxin-1 and eotaxin-2 in eosinophil recruitment in IBD. In the present study we demonstrate the following: 1) that eosinophil numbers are elevated in pediatric UC and that their level correlates with disease severity; 2) eotaxin-1 and not eotaxin-2 or eotaxin-3 is up-regulated in lesional colonic biopsy samples of pediatric UC patients; and 3) eotaxin-1 mRNA expression correlates with colonic eosinophil levels in pediatric UC. Using a chemical-induced colonic injury model, we define that eotaxin-1, and not eotaxin-2, is critical for eosinophil recruitment and that eotaxin-1 is predominantly derived from intestinal macrophages. Consistent with our experimental analysis, we show that eotaxin-1 is predominantly expressed by intestinal macrophages; ...
Clinical studies have demonstrated a link between the eosinophil-selective chemokines, eotaxins (eotaxin-1/CCL11 and eotaxin-2/CCL24), eosinophils, and the inflammatory bowel diseases, Crohns disease and ulcerative colitis (UC). However, the cellular source and individual contribution of the eotaxins to colonic eosinophilic accumulation in inflammatory bowel diseases remain unclear. In this study we demonstrate, by gene array and quantitative PCR, elevated levels of eotaxin-1 mRNA in the rectosigmoid colon of pediatric UC patients. We show that elevated levels of eotaxin-1 mRNA positively correlated with rectosigmoid eosinophil numbers. Further, colonic eosinophils appeared to be degranulating, and the levels positively correlated with disease severity. Using the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced intestinal epithelial injury model, we show that DSS treatment of mice strongly induced colonic eotaxin-1 and eotaxin-2 expression and eosinophil levels. Analysis of eosinophil-deficient mice ...
Asthma is associated with eosinophilic airway inflammation and eosinophils are believed to be important in the pathogenesis of asthma. IL-5 has been considered the central mediator for eosinophilic proliferation, differentiation and eosinophilic inflammation, but results of recent studies suggest that besides IL-5, eotaxin may contribute to the pathogenesis of asthma. Eotaxin is CC chemokine first isolated from guinea pig bronchoalveolar lavage. It selectively binds to a specific receptor (CCR3) highly expressed on eosinophils, basophils, and mast cells being important in the pathogenesis of asthma. Eotaxin is produced mainly by epithelial cells of lung and gut, to mediate organ preferential attraction of eosinophils. Production of eotaxin is stimulated by IL-4, IL-13, TNF-α. Human eotaxin family includes: eotaxin-1 (CCL11), eotaxin-2 (CCL24) and eotaxin-3 (CCL26). It seems that eotaxin-3 may be expressed following allergen challenge. Studies with glucocorticosteroids have shown some inhibitory ...
It is now generally accepted that DPPIV acts as an important regulator of multiple physiological processes. It catalyzes the release of dipeptides from the N-terminus of circulating hormones, neuropeptides, and chemokines. Moreover, DPPIV is engaged in T cell-dependent immune responses and has been associated with cell adhesion and tumor metastasis (19, 23, 24). As DPPIV appears to act at a checkpoint of blood glucose homeostasis via potentiation of GLP-1-mediated stimulation of the entero-insular-axis and concomitant release of insulin, it has emerged as a target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (4). At present, several DPPIV inhibitors are in the late stage of clinical development and some of them have reached the market for this indication (25). However, based on its ubiquitous expression and pleiotropic functions, systemic and continuous pharmacological blockade of DPPIV might act as a double-edged sword, as not only the "beneficial" release of insulin is increased but also immune ...
Eosinophils are bone marrow-derived cells that differentiate in the bone marrow and migrate into the peripheral blood primarily under the regulation of interleukin (IL)-5
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The role of selectins in mediating eosinophil recruitment in vivo was assessed in a model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mouse pleurisy. LPS administration resulted in significant eosinophil influx at 24 hours, whereas neutrophil recruitment to the cavity peaked at 4 hours and persisted for 24 hours. The anti-L-selectin monoclonal antibody (MoAb) MEL-14 effectively inhibited (by 97%) eosinophil influx at 24 hours and also inhibited neutrophil recruitment at both times (75% to 95%). Eosinophil recruitment was partially reduced (54%) by the anti-P- selectin MoAb 5H1 but, in contrast, was unaffected by the anti-E- selectin MoAb 10E6. Neutrophil influx at 4 or 24 hours was not affected by the anti-P- or anti-E-selectin MoAbs. However, coadministration of anti-P-selectin and anti-E-selectin was very effective at inhibiting eosinophil influx at 24 hours (86%) and neutrophil influx at 4 (93%) and 24 hours (92%). These results show that all three selectins play a role in LPS-induced eosinophil and ...
Levocetirizine is a selective antihistaminic that acts through H1 receptor. Levocetirizine inhibits eotaxin-induced eosinophil transendothelial migration through monolayers of human dermal or lung microvascular endothelial cells in vitro. The drug also inhibits both resting and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-stimulated eosinophil adhesion to vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), eotaxin production by endothelial cells and ICAM-1, as well as major histocompatability complex (MHC) class I expression by interferon (IFN)-γ-stimulated keratinocytes[1]. ...
Human CCL24/Eotaxin-2/MPIF-2 ELISA Kit (Colorimetric). High sensitivity ELISA kit for detection of CCL24/Eotaxin-2/MPIF-2. Backed by our 100% Guarantee.
This release contains summaries, links to PDFs, and contact information for the following newsworthy papers to be published online on January 4, 2006 in the Journal of Clinical Investigation, including: Soy diet worsens heart disease; Breast cancer-causing gene predicts shorter survival; Blocking eotaxin may help asthmatics breathe easier; Turns-ons and turn-offs for smooth muscle cells; Cancer detection: spinning biological trash into diagnostic gold; How chromosomal leap frog causes cancer in B cells; and others.
Patients with asthma demonstrate circadian variations in the airway inflammation and lung function. Pinealectomy reduces the total inflammatory cell number in the asthmatic rat lung. We hypothesize that melatonin, a circadian rhythm regulator, may modulate the circadian inflammatory variations in asthma by stimulating the chemotaxins expression in the lung epithelial cell. Lung epithelial cells (A549) were stimulated with melatonin in the presence or absence of TNF-α(100 ng/ml). RANTES (Regulated on Activation Normal T-cells Expressed and Secreted) and eotaxin expression were measured using ELISA and real-time RT-PCR, eosinophil chemotactic activity (ECA) released by A549 was measured by eosinophil chemotaxis assay. TNF-α increased the expression of RANTES (307.84 ± 33.56 versus 207.64 ± 31.27 pg/ml of control, p = 0.025) and eotaxin (108.97 ± 10.87 versus 54.00 ± 5.29 pg/ml of control, p = 0.041). Melatonin(10-10 to 10-6M) alone didnt change the expression of RNATES (204.97 ± 32.56 pg/ml) and
|p|Recombinant Human Eotaxin-2/CCL24 is a single non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 78 amino acids.|/p| |p|Background: Eotaxin-2 (CCL24) is a novel CC chemokine recently identified. It is produced by activated monocytes and T lymphocytes. Eota
Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by the degradation of articular cartilage, marked by the breakdown of matrix proteins. Studies demonstrated the involvement of chemokines in this process, and some may potentially serve as diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets; however, the underlying signal transductions are not well understood. We investigated the effects of the CC chemokine eotaxin-1 (CCL11) on the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression and secretion in the human chondrocyte cell line SW1353 and primary chondrocytes. Eotaxin-1 significantly induced MMP-3 mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibitors of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 kinase were able to repress eotaxin-1-induced MMP-3 expression. On the contrary, Rp-adenosine-3,5-cyclic monophosphorothioate (Rp-cAMPs), a competitive cAMP antagonist for cAMP receptors, and H-89, a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, markedly enhanced eotaxin-1-induced MMP-3 expression. These results suggest that MMP-3 expression
Domieh et al.: Endurance training and plasma visfatin www.brjb.com.br CHOI, K. M.; KIM, J. H.; CHO, G. J.; BAIK, S. H.; PARK, H. S.; KIM, S. M. Effect of exercise training on plasma visfatin and eotaxin levels. European Journal of Endocrinology, v. 157, p. 437-442, 2007. DAVUTOGLUA, M.; OZKAYAB, M.; GULERA, E.; GARIPARDICA, M.; GURSOYA, H.; KARABIBERA, H.; KILINC, M. Plasma visfatin concentrations in childhood obesity: relationships to insulin resistance and anthropometric indices. Swiss Medical Weekly, v. 139, p. 22-27, 2009. FREEDLAND, E. S. Role of a critical visceral adipose tissue threshold (CVATT) in metabolic syndrome: implications for controlling dietary carbohydrates: a review. Nutrition & Metabolism, v. 1, p. 1-24, 2004. FRYDELUND-LARSEN, L.; AKERSTROM, T.; NIELSEN, S.; KELLER, P.; KELLER, C.; PEDERSEN, B. K. Visfatin mRNA expression in human subcutaneous adipose tissue is regulated by exercise. American Journal of Physiology Endocrinology Metabolism, v. 292, p. E24-E31, 2007. FU, Y.; ...
article{7c45b648-bb75-40bb-a1de-8aa59d14e5c0, abstract = {Huntingtons disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by both neurological and systemic abnormalities. Immune activation is a well-established feature of the HD brain and we have previously demonstrated a widespread, progressive innate immune response detectable in plasma throughout the course of HD. In the present work we used multiplex ELISA to quantify levels of chemokines in plasma from controls and subjects at different stages of HD. We found an altered chemokine profile tracking with disease progression, with significant elevations of five chemokines (eotaxin-3, MIP-1β, eotaxin, MCP-1 and MCP-4) while three (eotaxin-3, MIP-1β and eotaxin) showed significant linear increases across advancing disease stages. We validated our results in a separate sample cohort including subjects at different stages of HD. Here we saw that chemokine levels (MCP-1 and eotaxin) correlated with clinical scores. We conclude ...
Subjects admitted on this protocol will have elevated eosinophil counts in the peripheral blood or tissues or will be relatives of subjects with eosinophilia. Eosinophilic subjects will undergo an extensive clinical evaluation focused on the identification of the cause of eosinophilia and the presence of end organ manifestations. In addition, they will be characterized in detail immunologically, and their blood cells and/or serum will be collected to provide reagents (eg. specific antibodies, T-cell clones, etc.) that will be used in the laboratory to address broader questions relating to the etiology of eosinophilia, its immunoregulation, the degree and source of eosinophil activation, and/or the functional role of eosinophils in the afferent arm of those immune response where they are prominent. While the protocol is not primarily designed to study treatment of patients with blood and tissue eosinophilia, the clinical and immunological responses to various medically indicated therapies will be ...
LEGEND MAX™ Mouse CCL11 ELISA Kit with Pre-coated Plates - CCL11, also known as Eotaxin, is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family.
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Allergen vs diluent challenges; multi-spot plate assay: symptoms increased, and peak nasal flow decreased, following allergen but not diluent challenge (both p,0.001, between groups difference). Levels of IL-4 (p,0.01), IL-5 and IL-13 (both P,0.001) were maximally increased at 5 hours compared to pre-challenge; no significant increases were seen following diluent challenge. Between group differences (allergen vs diluent) for IL-4, -5 and -13 were seen at 4 and 6 hours (all p,0.01).Allergen challenge; magnetic bead assay: IL-5 was increased at 6 hours (p=0.03 vs pre-challenge), with IL-13 and IL-4 also showing a trend towards an increase (both p=0.06 vs pre-challenge). Eotaxin and MDC were increased at 6 hours (both p=0.03 vs pre-challenge); IL-6 was elevated at 2 hours (p=0.03 vs pre-challenge). Levels of IL-17A, IL-27, IL-23, IFN-gamma and IL-12p70 were low and did not change significantly after allergen challenge. High levels of IL-8 were detected, maximal at baseline, but did not change ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Eosinophilic esophagitis. T2 - A clinicopathological review. AU - Philpott, Hamish. AU - Nandurkar, Sanjay. AU - Thien, Francis. AU - Gibson, Peter R.. AU - Royce, Simon G.. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is considered to be a chronic antigen-driven disease whereby food and/or aeroallergens induce a chronic inflammatory infiltrate in the esophagus, resulting in pathological hyperplasia of the epithelia and muscular layers, and fibrosis of the lamina propria (referred to collectively as remodelling) and the symptoms of dysphagia and food impaction. EoE shares features with other atopic conditions of asthma and atopic dermatitis, such as a TH2 cytokine milieu and a mixed inflammatory infiltrate of eosinophils, mast cells and lymphocytes. Relatively distinct features include the strong male predominance amongst adult patients, and the expression of the eosinophil chemokine eotaxin 3. Current first line treatments such as strict dietary modification and ...
Of the three types of leukocytes recruited, neutrophils, eosinophils, and macrophages, the most striking difference between BLTR−/− and wild-type mice occurred in eosinophil recruitment (Fig. 5 A). Neither group had substantial numbers of peritoneal eosinophils at baseline or 4 h after thioglycollate instillation. Peak numbers of eosinophils were seen in both groups at 48 h, but BLTR−/− mice recruited only 33% as many eosinophils to the inflamed peritoneum as wild-type mice at this time point (P , 0.005). Numbers of peritoneal eosinophils declined in both groups at 96 h, but BLTR−/− mice continued to have significantly fewer of these cells. At 96 h, BLTR−/− mice had only 20% as many eosinophils recovered from the peritoneal cavity as wild-type mice (P , 0.01).. Although the numbers of peritoneal neutrophils and macrophages appeared lower in the BLTR−/− mice at some time points, the differences from wild type did not reach statistical significance for either of these cell ...
Eosinophilia (e-o-sin-o-FILL-e-uh) is a higher than normal level of eosinophils. Eosinophils are a type of disease-fighting white blood cell. This condition most often indicates a parasitic infection, an allergic reaction or cancer.. You can have high levels of eosinophils in your blood (blood eosinophilia) or in tissues at the site of an infection or inflammation (tissue eosinophilia).. Tissue eosinophilia may be found in samples taken during an exploratory procedure or in samples of certain fluids, such as mucus released from nasal tissues. If you have tissue eosinophilia, the level of eosinophils in your bloodstream is likely normal.. Blood eosinophilia may be detected with a blood test, usually as part of a complete blood count. A count of more than 500 eosinophils per microliter of blood is generally considered eosinophilia in adults. A count of more than 1,500 eosinophils per microliter of blood that lasts for several months is called hypereosinophilia.. Eosinophils play two roles in your ...
The elevation of intracellular cyclic AMP by phosphodiesterase (PDE)4 inhibitors in eosinophils is associated with inhibition of the activation and recruitment of these cells. We have previously shown that systemic treatment with the PDE4 inhibitor rolipram effectively inhibt eosinophil migration in guinea pig skin. In the present study we compare the oral potency and efficacy of the PDE4 inhibitors rolipram, RP 73401 and CDP 840 on allergic and PAF-induced eosinophil recruitment. Rolipram and RP 73401 were equally effective and potent when given by the oral route and much more active than the PDE4 inhibitor CDP 840. We suggest that this guinea pig model of allergic and mediator-induced eosinophil recruitment is both a sensitive and simple tool to test the efficacy and potency of PDE4 inhibitors in vivo ...
Hi Again Please could you tell me what tissue in mouse is a good positive control for eosinophil staining. Thanks Marilyn _______________________________________________ Histonet mailing list [email protected] http://lists.utsouthwestern.edu/mailman/listinfo/histonet ...
Background: There is a lack of information about peripheral blood eosinophil activity during allergen-induced late-phase airway inflammation in asthma. The aim of this study was to evaluate eosinophil chemotaxis, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), degranulation, and apoptosis during allergen-induced late-phase airway inflammation in asthma patients.. Methods: 30 patients with asthma (AA), 25 with rhinitis (AR) and 20 healthy subjects (HS) were examined. Peripheral blood was collected 24 h before and 7 h as well as 24 h after the bronchial allergen challenge. Peripheral blood eosinophil chemotaxis, production of ROS and apoptosis were estimated flow cytometrically and degranulation was analyzed by the levels of neurotoxin in serum.. Results: Eosinophil chemotaxis (A), production of ROS (B), degranulation (C) and apoptosis (D) are presented in Figure 1 and Figure 2.. Conclusions: During allergen-induced late-phase airway inflammation, eosinophils from patients with AA demonstrated ...
Baggiolini M, Dahinden CA. CC chemokines in allergic inflammation. Immunol. Today (1994) 15:127-133.. Baggiolini M, Dewald B, Moser B. Interleukin-8 and related chemotactic cytokines-CXC and CC chemokines. Adv. Immunol. (1994) 55:97-179.. Barnes DA, Huston M, Holmes R, Benveniste EN, Yong VW, Scholz P, Perez HD. Induction of RANTES expression by astrocytes and astrocytoma cell lines. J. Neuroimmunol. (1996) 71: 207-214.. Beck LA, Dalke S, Leiferman KM, Bickel CA, Hamilton R, Rosen H, Bochner BS, Schleimer RP. Cutaneous injection of RANTES causes eosinophil recruitment: comparison of nonallergic and allergic human subjects. J Immunol. (1997) 159:2962-2972.. Bevilacqua MP, Gimbrone MA Jr. Inducible endothelial functions in inflammation and coagulation. Semin Thromb Hemost. (1987) 13:425-433.. Black RA, Rauch CT, Kozlosky CJ, Peschon JJ, Slack JL, Wolfson MF, Castner BJ, Stocking KL, Reddy P, Srinivasan S, Nelson N, Boiani N, Schooley KA, Gerhart M, Davis R, Fitzner, Johnson RS, Paxton RJ, March ...
Eosinophils migrating to different tissues in the body are part of its function[45]. Eosinophils that are part of the circulatory system remain inactive until they reach the tissue[46]. When eosinophils migrate to endothelial cells, interleukin (IL)-4 or IL-Beta encouragse further migration[46]. The rate of this process further increases if a chemoattractant is used[46]. In an experiment where a culture is used, the endothelial cells that were treated to prevent this chemotactic event lead to a decrease in the expression of CD68[46]. CD69 is an early marker and CD35 is a receptor[47]. Both of these are controlled by endothelial cells and thus their expression increased when the eosinophils migrated to the endothelial cells[47]. Granules express receptors for cytokines and G protein coupled receptors (CCR3) for chemokines. These are located on their surface membranes and respond to external cytokines and chemokines by activating a signal-transduction pathway within. IFN-γ (cytokine) and eotaxin ...
Learn more about Eosinophilia at Osceola Regional Medical Center DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
These chemokines include CCL11, CCL2 and CCL12, which are highly localized on mouse and human chromosomes, implicating a ... In healthy aging humans, the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid levels of certain chemokines are elevated. In a mouse model, plasma ... levels of these chemokines correlate with reduced neurogenesis, suggesting that neurogenesis may be modulated by certain global ...
... host-derived pro-inflammatory chemokines (e.g. CXCL8, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL11, CXCL10), platelet-activating factor, and ... stimulates their expression the chemokine receptor, CCR5, to inhibit chemokine signaling, enhances their phagocyte activity, ... CMKLR1 (chemokine receptor-like 1), also termed the ChemR23 or E series resolvin receptor (ERV), is expressed on inflammation- ...
This receptor binds and responds to a variety of chemokines, including eotaxin (CCL11), eotaxin-3 (CCL26), MCP-3 (CCL7), MCP-4 ... It is also known to be an entry co-receptor for HIV-1. This gene and seven other chemokine receptor genes form a chemokine ... a novel CC chemokine that is selective for the chemokine receptor CCR3, and acts like eotaxin on human eosinophil and basophil ... an eosinophil-selective CC chemokine, and identification of a specific eosinophil eotaxin receptor, CC chemokine receptor 3". J ...
The eotaxins are a CC chemokine subfamily of eosinophil chemotactic proteins. In humans, there are three family members: CCL11 ... "The MCP/eotaxin subfamily of CC chemokines". Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 10 (1): 61-86. doi:10.1016/s1359-6101(99)00005-2. PMID ...
... or to sites of helminth infection in response to chemokines like CCL11 (eotaxin-1), CCL24 (eotaxin-2), CCL5 (RANTES), 5- ...
Cancer immunoprevention Cancer immunotherapy Cantuzumab ravtansine Cathelicidin CC chemokine receptors CCBP2 CCL1 CCL11 CCL12 ... C-C chemokine receptor type 6 C-C chemokine receptor type 7 Calreticulin Cancer immunology ... CD4 CD4+ T cells and antitumor immunity CD74 CD94/NKG2 Cell-mediated immunity CELSR1 Central tolerance Chemokine Chemokine ... CR6261 CroFab Cross-presentation Cross-reactivity Cryptic self epitopes Cryptotope CX3CL1 CX3CR1 CXC chemokine receptors CXCL1 ...
Several CC chemokines: CCL1, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL7, CCL8, CCL11, CCL13, CCL14, CCL15, CCL16, CCL18, and CCL23 The ... C-C motif chemokine ligand 4 like 1 (17q12) DDX52: DExD-box helicase 52 (17q12) ERBB2 loca leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2, ...
Chemokine receptors for which CCL11 is a ligand include CCR2, CCR3 and CCR5. However, it has been found that eotaxin-1 (CCL11) ... CCL11 is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family. CCL11 selectively recruits eosinophils by inducing their ... The effects of CCL11 are mediated by its binding to a G-protein-linked receptor known as a chemokine receptor. ... Human CCL11 genome location and CCL11 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Garcia-Zepeda EA, Rothenberg ME, Ownbey RT ...
CCL11, CCL24, CCL26, CCL5, CCL7, CCL13, and CCL3. Chemokines CCL11 (eotaxin) and CCL5 (RANTES) acts through a specific receptor ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other chemokines in that it has ... CCL1 for the ligand 1 of the CC-family of chemokines, and CCR1 for its respective receptor. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) ...
chemokine receptor activity. • receptor activity. • protein binding. • C-C chemokine receptor activity. • C-C chemokine binding ... Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene.[5] CCR6 ... "Entrez Gene: CCR6 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 6".. *^ Wang K, Zhang H, Kugathasan S, Annese V, Bradfield JP, Russell RK, ... "Chemokine Receptors: CCR6". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ...
This receptor has several CC chemokine ligands including CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL11, CCL13, CCL14 and CCL16. CCR6, a ... CCR3 is a receptor for multiple inflammatory/inducible CC chemokines, including CCL11, CCL26, CCL7, CCL13, CCL15, CCL24 and ... The CC chemokine receptors all work by activating the G protein Gi. CCR1 was the first CC chemokine receptor identified and ... The orphan chemokine receptor G protein-coupled receptor-2 (GPR-2, CCR10) binds the skin-associated chemokine CCL27 (CTACK/ALP/ ...
CCL11, CCL24, CCL26, CCL5, CCL7, CCL13, and CCL3. Chemokines CCL11 (eotaxin) and CCL5 (RANTES) acts through a specific receptor ... C chemokinesEdit. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... CC chemokinesEdit. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins have two adjacent cysteines (amino acids), near their amino ...
Several CC chemokines: CCL1, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL7, CCL8, CCL11, CCL13, CCL14, CCL15, CCL16, CCL18, and CCL23 ...
positive regulation of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 production. • positive regulation of JUN kinase activity. • positive ... positive regulation of chemokine production. • cellular extravasation. • negative regulation of lipid storage. • negative ... positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • epithelial cell proliferation involved in salivary gland morphogenesis ...
... s are a subset of cytokines that are produced by a type of immune cell known as a lymphocyte.[1] They are protein mediators typically produced by T cells to direct the immune system response by signaling between its cells. Lymphokines have many roles, including the attraction of other immune cells, including macrophages and other lymphocytes, to an infected site and their subsequent activation to prepare them to mount an immune response. Circulating lymphocytes can detect a very small concentration of lymphokine and then move up the concentration gradient towards where the immune response is required. Lymphokines aid B cells to produce antibodies. Important lymphokines secreted by the T helper cell include:[2] ...
... binds to the death receptors DR4 (TRAIL-RI) and DR5 (TRAIL-RII). The process of apoptosis is caspase-8-dependent. Caspase-8 activates downstream effector caspases including procaspase-3, -6, and -7, leading to activation of specific kinases.[11] TRAIL also binds the receptors DcR1 and DcR2, which do not contain a cytoplasmic domain (DcR1) or contain a truncated death domain (DcR2). DcR1 functions as a TRAIL-neutralizing decoy-receptor. The cytoplasmic domain of DcR2 is functional and activates NFkappaB. In cells expressing DcR2, TRAIL binding therefore activates NFkappaB, leading to transcription of genes known to antagonize the death signaling pathway and/or to promote inflammation. Application of engineered ligands that have variable affinity for different death (DR4 and DR5) and decoy receptors (DCR1 and DCR2) may allow selective targeting of cancer cells by controlling activation of Type 1/Type 2 pathways of cell death and single cell fluctuations. Luminescent iridium complex-peptide ...
... (IL-24) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL24 gene. IL-24 is a cytokine belonging to the IL-10 family of cytokines that signals through two heterodimeric receptors: IL-20R1/IL-20R2 and IL-22R1/IL-20R2. This interleukin is also known as melanoma differentiation-associated 7 (mda-7) due to its discovery as a tumour suppressing protein. IL-24 appears to control in cell survival and proliferation by inducing rapid activation of particular transcription factors called STAT1 and STAT3. This cytokine is predominantly released by activated monocytes, macrophages and T helper 2 (Th2) cells[5] and acts on non-haematopoietic tissues such as skin, lung and reproductive tissues. IL-24 performs important roles in wound healing, arthritis, psoriasis and cancer.[6][7][8] Several studies have shown that cell death occurs in cancer cells/cell lines following exposure to IL-24.[9][10] The gene for IL-24 is located on chromosome 1 in humans.[11] ...
... as well as chemokine and cytokine production, and expression of adhesion molecules such as E-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1. This ...
positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • regulation of insulin secretion. • extrinsic apoptotic signaling ... Copeland KF (2006). "Modulation of HIV-1 transcription by cytokines and chemokines". Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry. 5 (12 ...
... is sometimes used interchangeably among scientists with the term cytokine.[3] Historically, cytokines were associated with hematopoietic (blood and lymph forming) cells and immune system cells (e.g., lymphocytes and tissue cells from spleen, thymus, and lymph nodes). For the circulatory system and bone marrow in which cells can occur in a liquid suspension and not bound up in solid tissue, it makes sense for them to communicate by soluble, circulating protein molecules. However, as different lines of research converged, it became clear that some of the same signaling proteins which the hematopoietic and immune systems use were also being used by all sorts of other cells and tissues, during development and in the mature organism. While growth factor implies a positive effect on cell division, cytokine is a neutral term with respect to whether a molecule affects proliferation. While some cytokines can be growth factors, such as G-CSF and GM-CSF, others have an inhibitory effect on ...
chemokine activity. • cytokine activity. • heparin binding. • protein binding. • CXCR3 chemokine receptor binding. ... C-X-C motif chemokine 11 is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also called Interferon-inducible T- ... "Entrez Gene: CXCL11 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11".. *^ a b Cole KE, Strick CA, Paradis TJ, Ogborne KT, Loetscher M, Gladue ... This chemokine elicits its effects on its target cells by interacting with the cell surface chemokine receptor CXCR3, with a ...
Interferon alfa 2b is an antiviral or antineoplastic drug, that was originally discovered in the laboratory of Charles Weissmann at the University of Zurich. It was developed at Biogen, and ultimately marketed by Schering-Plough under the tradename Intron-A. It has been used for a wide range of indications, including viral infections and cancers. This drug is approved around the world for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C, chronic hepatitis B, hairy cell leukemia, Behçet's disease, chronic myelogenous leukemia, multiple myeloma, follicular lymphoma, carcinoid tumor, mastocytosis and malignant melanoma. ...
4-1BB is a type 2 transmembrane glycoprotein receptor belonging to the TNF superfamily, expressed on activated T Lymphocytes.[1] 4-1BBL (4-1BB ligand) is found on APCs (antigen presenting cells) and binds to 4-1BB. ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the interleukin 1 cytokine family. Protein structure modeling indicated that this cytokine may contain a 12-stranded beta-trefoil structure that is conserved between IL1A (IL-A alpha) and IL1B (IL-1 beta). This gene and eight other interleukin 1 family genes form a cytokine gene cluster on chromosome 2. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported.[8]. ...
Chemokine. CCL. CCL1 · CCL2 · CCL3 · CCL4 · CCL5 · CCL6 · CCL7 · CCL8 · CCL9 · CCL11 · CCL12 · CCL13 · CCL14 · CCL15 · CCL16 · ...
C-X-C chemokine receptor activity. • interleukin-8 binding. • G-protein coupled receptor activity. • chemokine receptor ... This name and the corresponding gene symbol IL8RA have been replaced by the HGNC approved name C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 1 ... "Chemokine Receptors: CXCR1". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ... chemokine-mediated signaling pathway. • interleukin-8-mediated signaling pathway. • neutrophil degranulation. • chemotaxis. ...
Elevated serum levels of macrophage-derived chemokine and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine in autistic children, J ... CCL11, CCL17, CCl19, CCL21, CCL22, CC25, CXCL7, CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, CXCL12, CXCL16. ... Kabelitz D, Wesch D., Features and functions of gamma delta T lymphocytes: focus on chemokines and their receptors. ...
Acts as a receptor for chemokines including CCL2, CCL3, CCL3L1, CCL4, CCL5, CCL7, CCL8, CCL11, CCL13, CCL17, CCL22, CCL23, ... Also known as interceptor (internalizing receptor) or chemokine-scavenging receptor or chemokine decoy receptor. ... increasing its efficiency in chemokine uptake and degradation. By scavenging chemokines in tissues, on the surfaces of ... resulting instead in chemokine sequestration, degradation, or transcytosis. ...
There were significantly greater concentrations of the chemokines CCL3 and CCL11 in plasma of LE patients than in NI ... CCL11 was useful in diagnosis of leprosy, thereby suggesting that measurement of this chemokine may be useful as an aid in ... The aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of chemokines as biologic markers of disease activity. We used an ... When the use of CCL11 to differentiate LE patients versus NI individuals was evaluated, the area under the receiver-operator- ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 11 (CCL11) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family that is also known as eotaxin- ... Chemokine receptors for which CCL11 is a ligand include CCR2, CCR3 and CCR5. However, it has been found that eotaxin-1 (CCL11) ... The effects of CCL11 are mediated by its binding to a G-protein-linked receptor known as a chemokine receptor. ... Ccl11; chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 11; Scya11; eotaxin; eotaxin-1; MGC22554; small inducible cytokine subfamily A (Cys-Cys), ...
CCL11 Chemokine. On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from either several symptoms or a ... Chemokine CCL11 (CCL11 Chemokine). A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for ...
This review will focus on recent murine and human studies that use chemokines as therapeutic anti-cancer vaccine adjuvants. ... Recent discoveries in the many biological roles of chemokines in tumor immunology allow their exploitation in enhancing ... This knowledge, combined with advances in gene therapy and virology, allows researchers to employ chemokines as potential ... CCL11. Eotaxin-1. CCR3. inflammatory, homeostatic and angiogenic. CCL13. MCP-4. CCR2, CCR3. inflammatory. ...
PeproTechs chemokines include proteins that act through G protein-coupled receptors and conform to the prototypical chemokine ... Chemokines. This Chemokine category includes proteins that act through G protein-coupled receptors and conform to the ... with the exception of Lymphotactin that contains only one disulfide bond but is still considered a chemokine). ... prototypical chemokine protein structure containing four specific cross-linked cysteine residues ( ...
PeproTechs chemokines include proteins that act through G protein-coupled receptors and conform to the prototypical chemokine ...
We had already shown that IL-6, certain chemokines (CCL2, CCL2, and CCL11), inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2), and ... mRNA coding for IL6, CCL2, CCL11, NOS2, CCL5, and PTGS2 was highly induced by Pam3CSK4 stimulation in preadipocytes as well as ... Induction of genes coding for IL6, CCL2, CCL5, CCL11, NOS2, and PTGS2 was measured by qPCR in preadipocytes (a) or in ... TLR4 activation induced a lower secretion of IL6, CCL5, and CCL11 in adipocytes when compared to preadipocytes, while CCL2 ...
CCL11, C-C motif chemokine ligand 11; IL-16, interleukin 16; CCL22, C-C motif chemokine ligand 22; IL-1β, interleukin 1β; TGF-α ... Individual cytokines are identified at left: CCL27, C-C motif chemokine ligand 27, also known as CTACK; PDGF-AA, platelet- ... We analyzed 64 circulating cytokines and chemokines in plasma of 120 African American women enrolled in the Black Womens ... We used regression analysis to identify cytokines and chemokines associated with obesity, co-morbid T2D and hypertension, and ...
CCL11, CCL24, CCL26, CCL5, CCL7, CCL13, and CCL3. Chemokines CCL11 (eotaxin) and CCL5 (RANTES) acts through a specific receptor ... C chemokinesEdit. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... CC chemokinesEdit. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins have two adjacent cysteines (amino acids), near their amino ...
... a C-C-chemokine of 8.4 kDa, whose major biological activity is the chemoattraction of eosinophils. Given evidence of autoimmune ... 0/CCL11 protein, human; 0/Chemokine CCL11; 0/Chemokines, CC; 0/Chemotactic Factors, Eosinophil; 0/Cytokines; 0/Progesterone ... Chemokine CCL11. Chemokines, CC*. Chemotactic Factors, Eosinophil / chemistry, metabolism*. Cytokines / chemistry, metabolism ... Our laboratories have focused recently on the production and localization of eotaxin, a C-C-chemokine of 8.4 kDa, whose major ...
CCL11) in bone metabolism in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is not clearly elucidated. Thus, this cross-sectional study aimed to ... Ankylosing spondylitis CC chemokines Osteogenesis Biomarkers Tumor necrosis factor This is a preview of subscription content, ... We found that the serum level of CCL11 was associated with structural damage in patients with AS, suggesting that CCL11 may ... Wu D, Zhou J, Bi H, Li L, Gao W, Huang M, Adcock IM, Barnes PJ, Yao X (2014) CCL11 as a potential diagnostic marker for asthma ...
0/Chemokine CCL11; E1UOL152H7/Iron; EC 3.4.21.-/Lactoferrin From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of ... Chemokine CCL11 / pharmacology. Chemotaxis, Leukocyte / drug effects*. Eosinophils / cytology*, drug effects*. Humans. Iron / ...
... the CC chemokines CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, CCL11, CCL17, CCL18, CCL19, CCL21, CCL22; the CXC chemokines CXCL8, CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL12; ... Generally, CC chemokines potently attract monocytes, T lymphocytes, eosinophils, and basophils, whereas CXC chemokines are ... Differences between our study and previous studies, chemokine function, and chemokine levels are summarized in Table 4. Before ... The concentrations of IL-6 and the following chemokines were measured: the chemokine-like macrophage migration inhibitory ...
AMPs, antimicrobial peptides; AMs, alveolar macrophages; BAL, bronchoalveolar lavage; CCL11, C-C motif chemokine 11; CFU, ... and CCL11 in SPF mice. The level of expression of PD-L1 on CD11b+ DCs and the frequency of FoxP3+CD25+ Treg cells are also ...
CCL11 is a member of the CC chemokine family and was originally identified as a chemoattractant for eosinophils. ... CCL11 selectively recruits eosinophils through binding to the chemokine receptor CCR3 during allergic response. CCL11 ... In addition, CCL11 facilitates proliferation and metastasis of tumor cells expressing the CCL11 receptor, CCR3. CCL11 has been ... Cytokines/Chemokines Gene ID 6356 View all products for this Gene ID UniProt View information about CCL11 on UniProt.org ...
Bertilimumab (anti-CCL11 chemokine; Immune Pharmaceuticals). • REGN 3500 (anti-IL-33; Sanofi/Regeneron). • FB 825 (Anti-CmX; ...
CCL11, eosinophil chemotactic protein (eotaxin); CXCL1, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand-1 like; CXCL2, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ... CCL11, eosinophil chemotactic protein (eotaxin); CXCL1, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand-1 like; CXCL2, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ... CCL11, eosinophil chemotactic protein (eotaxin); CXCL1, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand-1 like; CXCL2, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ... Cytokine and chemokine values in CCHFV- or CCHFV/ZsG-infected Ifnar-/- mice (100 TCID50 SC).. Mice were grouped based on viral ...
Structural basis of receptor sulfotyrosine recognition by a CC chemokine: The N-terminal region of CCR3 bound to CCL11/eotaxin- ... Research ArticleChemokine Signaling. Structural basis for chemokine recognition by a G protein-coupled receptor and ... Crystal structure of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 in complex with a viral chemokine. Science 347, 1117-1122 (2015).. ... The herpesvirus 8-encoded chemokine vMIP-II, but not the poxvirus-encoded chemokine MC148, inhibits the CCR10 receptor. Eur. J ...
CCL11. Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 11. NM_002986. Gene Info. Symbol. Name. Sequence ID. CGAP Gene Info. ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 21. NM_002989. Gene Info. CCL23. Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 23. NM_005064. NM_145898. Gene Info ... Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 4. NM_005508. Gene Info. CCR5. Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 (gene/pseudogene). NM_000579. NM ... Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 2. AK292685. Gene Info. CCR2. Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 2. NM_001123041. NM_001123396. Gene ...
CCL11. Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 11. NM_002986. Gene Info. CCL19. Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 19. NM_006274. Gene Info. ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 4. NM_002984. Gene Info. CCL4L1. Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 4-like 1. NM_207007. NM_001001435. ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3. NM_002983. Gene Info. CCL4. ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 21. NM_002989. Gene Info. CCL24. ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 26. NM_006072. Gene Info. CCL3. ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 24. NM_002991. Gene Info. CCL26. ...
Chemokines and their receptors play essential roles in immunology during inflammation and in homeostasis. ... Chemokines are a class of secreted molecules that induce chemotaxis (migration) of target cells. ... CCL11. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. a. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. ... Chemokine Receptor Biology poster. Order your copy of our ... Chemokines are also involved in the orchestration of wound healing.. For more information on inflammatory chemokines, see the ...
2001) The CC chemokine eotaxin (CCL11) is a partial agonist of CC chemokine receptor 2b. J Biol Chem 276:42957-42964. ... CC chemokine receptor. CCL. CC chemokine ligand. MCP. monocyte chemotactic protein. GPCR. G-protein-coupled receptor. BRET. ... This conclusion is further supported by the atypical signaling profile of CCL11. CCL11 induced marginal Gαi activation that had ... 2007) Analysis of second messenger pathways stimulated by different chemokines acting at the chemokine receptor CCR5. Biochem ...
CCL11, CCL24, CCL26, CCL5, CCL7, CCL13, and CCL3. Chemokines CCL11 (eotaxin) and CCL5 (RANTES) acts through a specific receptor ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other chemokines in that it has ... CCL1 for the ligand 1 of the CC-family of chemokines, and CCR1 for its respective receptor. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) ...
Bertilimumab (anti-CCL11 chemokine; Immune Pharmaceuticals) *REGN 3500 (anti-IL-33; Sanofi/Regeneron) ... 8.2 Anti-CCL11 targeting therapies. 8.2.1 Key insights summary. 8.3 Anti-IL-33 targeting therapies. 8.3.1 Key insights summary ...
  • By scavenging chemokines in tissues, on the surfaces of lymphatic vessels, and in placenta, plays an essential role in the resolution (termination) of the inflammatory response and in the regulation of adaptive immune responses. (uniprot.org)
  • CXCL8 (IL-8), which contains the tripeptide Glu-Leu-Arg (ELR) in front of the first Cys residue, is an inflammatory CXC chemokine with potent neutrophil chemotactic and angiogenic properties ( 3 - 6 ). (rupress.org)
  • In an attempt to better understand such discrepancies, we studied alternatively modified chemokines and discovered a novel natural posttranslational modification of CXCL8, i.e., the conversion of one specific Arg into Cit. (rupress.org)
  • Interleukin (IL)-6, a multifunctional cytokine with regulatory functions in wound healing, and several chemokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) after rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). (arvojournals.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a glycosylated membrane protein and a non-specific receptor for several chemokines. (genecards.org)
  • This invention relates to antibodies or the use of antibodies directed against certain chemokines. (google.com)
  • The present invention provides a means of inhibiting the growth and metastasis of cancer cells by administering anti-chemokine antibodies. (google.com)
  • During differentiation of ND fibroblasts, increased expression of immune response genes PAI-1, TIMP-1, CCL11 , and IL-6 was found. (frontiersin.org)
  • Leukotactin-1 (CCL15) belongs to the CC subfamily, one of four chemokine groups (CXC, CC, C, and CX 3 C), as defined by their primary structures. (jimmunol.org)
  • The LEGENDplex™ Human Proinflammatory Chemokine Standard product is intended for use with the Mix and Match Human Proinflammatory Chemokine Panel of products. (biolegend.com)
  • Consistent with their ability to respond to local environmental cues, proinflammatory chemokines and interleukins are present at high levels in the microenvironment of epithelial tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Patients with neuropathic pain have higher levels of a set of proinflammatory chemokines. (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • Patients with neuropathic pain have elevated levels of a set of proinflammatory chemokines compared with healthy individuals, suggesting ongoing neuroinflammation, according to a study published in the journal Pain . (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • This interaction is thought to facilitate the retention of chemokines on cell surfaces and enable localized high concentrations of chemokines to form, even in the presence of shear forces caused by blood flow in capillary beds. (pnas.org)
  • While a function of chemokines is to regulate lymphocyte trafficking, the view that chemokines act simply as "chemotactic cytokines" has evolved to include the many critical roles they play in regulating innate and adaptive immune responses. (mdpi.com)
  • Previously, we showed that spiral ligament fibrocytes (SLFs) recognize OM pathogens and up-regulate chemokines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recent studies suggest that its pathogenesis may involve cytokines, in particular, chemokines - cytokines that regulate cell traffic under both physiological and pathological conditions. (prohealth.com)
  • However, the description of the nonredundant pharmacology of ligands to a given receptor in defined in vitro systems and in the absence of most of the confounding in vivo mechanisms is of prime interest for drug development, which has indeed been hampered by the complexity of the chemokine system. (aspetjournals.org)