Chemokine CCL27: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR10 RECEPTORS. It is constitutively expressed in the skin and may play a role in T-CELL trafficking during cutaneous INFLAMMATION.Chemokine CCL21: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CCL22: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards TH2 CELLS and TC2 CELLS.Chemokine CCL17: A CC-type chemokine that is found at high levels in the THYMUS and has specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It is synthesized by DENDRITIC CELLS; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; KERATINOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Chemokine CCL2: A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CCL19: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards T LYMPHOCYTES and B LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CCL5: A CC-type chemokine that is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS; MONOCYTES; and LYMPHOCYTES. It is a potent and selective eosinophil chemotaxin that is stored in and released from PLATELETS and activated T-LYMPHOCYTES. Chemokine CCL5 is specific for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR3 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS. The acronym RANTES refers to Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted.Chemokine CCL20: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR6 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS; T-LYMPHOCYTES; and B-LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CCL1: A CC-type chemokine secreted by activated MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CCR8 RECEPTORS.Chemokines, CC: Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.Receptors, Chemokine: Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Chemokine CCL3: A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.Chemokine CCL7: A monocyte chemoattractant protein that has activity towards a broad variety of immune cell types. Chemokine CCL7 has specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR2 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS.Chemokines: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Receptors, CCR10: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL27. They may play a specialized role in the cutaneous homing of LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CCL4: A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.Chemokine CXCL12: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.Receptors, CCR1: CCR receptors with specificity for a broad variety of CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in MONOCYTES; tissue MACROPHAGES; NEUTROPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS.Chemokine CXCL10: A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON and is chemotactic for MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Chemokine CCL8: A monocyte chemoattractant protein that attracts MONOCYTES; LYMPHOCYTES; BASOPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS. Chemokine CCL8 has specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS.Receptors, CCR: Chemokine receptors that are specific for CC CHEMOKINES.Receptors, CCR2: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL2 and several other CCL2-related chemokines. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; BASOPHILS; and NK CELLS.Chemokine CCL11: A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.Chemokine CCL24: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.Receptors, CCR7: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.Receptors, CCR8: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL1. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES.Chemokine CXCL1: A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Receptors, CCR4: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL17 and CHEMOKINE CCL22. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; MAST CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and NK CELLS.Chemokines, CXC: Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.Chemokine CX3CL1: A CX3C chemokine that is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells. The soluble form of chemokine CX3CL1 can be released from cell surface by proteolysis and act as a chemoattractant that may be involved in the extravasation of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. The membrane form of the protein may also play a role in cell adhesion.Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins: Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.Receptors, CCR5: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.Receptors, CCR3: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL11 and a variety of other CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; BASOPHILS; and MAST CELLS.Chemokine CXCL9: An INTEFERON-inducible CXC chemokine that is specific for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Mice, Inbred C57BLCell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Chemokine CXCL2: A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CXCL13: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.Receptors, CXCR4: CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Chemokine CXCL11: A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON. It is a chemotactic factor for activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Chemotaxis: The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.Chemokine CXCL6: A CXC chemokine that has stimulatory and chemotactic activities towards NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR1 RECEPTORS and CXCR2 RECEPTORS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Chemokine CXCL5: A CXC chemokine that is predominantly expressed in EPITHELIAL CELLS. It has specificity for the CXCR2 RECEPTORS and is involved in the recruitment and activation of NEUTROPHILS.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Receptors, CXCR3: CXCR receptors that are expressed on the surface of a number of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; NK CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and a subset of B-LYMPHOCYTES. The receptors are activated by CHEMOKINE CXCL9; CHEMOKINE CXCL10; and CHEMOKINE CXCL11.Mice, Inbred BALB CMonocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Receptors, Interleukin-8B: High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and T-LYMPHOCYTES. These receptors also bind several other CXC CHEMOKINES.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Dermatitis, Atopic: A chronic inflammatory genetically determined disease of the skin marked by increased ability to form reagin (IgE), with increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis and asthma, and hereditary disposition to a lowered threshold for pruritus. It is manifested by lichenification, excoriation, and crusting, mainly on the flexural surfaces of the elbow and knee. In infants it is known as infantile eczema.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Monocyte Chemoattractant Proteins: Chemokines that are chemoattractants for monocytes. These CC chemokines (cysteines adjacent) number at least three including CHEMOKINE CCL2.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Receptors, CCR6: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL20. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Receptors, Interleukin-8A: High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and BASOPHILS.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Receptors, CXCR: Chemokine receptors that are specific for CXC CHEMOKINES.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Carbon Tetrachloride: A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Receptors, Cytokine: Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Chemokines, CX3C: Group of chemokines with the first two cysteines separated by three amino acids. CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural killer cells, monocytes, and activated T-cells.Receptors, CXCR5: CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Chemotactic Factors: Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Monokines: Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.Receptors, HIV: Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Carbon Tetrachloride PoisoningDuffy Blood-Group System: A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.Chemotactic Factors, Eosinophil: Cytotaxins liberated from normal or invading cells that specifically attract eosinophils; they may be complement fragments, lymphokines, neutrophil products, histamine or other; the best known is the tetrapeptide ECF-A, released mainly by mast cells.Neutrophil Infiltration: The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Heterocyclic Compounds: Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Cell Migration Inhibition: Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Platelet Factor 4: A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Endothelium, Lymphatic: Unbroken cellular lining (intima) of the lymph vessels (e.g., the high endothelial lymphatic venules). It is more permeable than vascular endothelium, lacking selective absorption and functioning mainly to remove plasma proteins that have filtered through the capillaries into the tissue spaces.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
Role of the C-C chemokine, TCA3, in the protective anticryptococcal cell-mediated immune response. (1/82)Activated T lymphocytes play a crucial role in orchestrating cellular infiltration during a cell-mediated immune (CMI) reaction. TCA3, a C-C chemokine, is produced by Ag-activated T cells and is chemotactic for neutrophils and macrophages, two cell types in a murine CMI reaction. Using a gelatin sponge model for delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), we show that TCA3 is a component of the expression phase of an anticryptococcal CMI response in mice. TCA3 mRNA levels are augmented in anticryptococcal DTH reactions at the same time peak influxes of neutrophils and lymphocytes are observed. Neutralization of TCA3 in immunized mice results in reduced numbers of neutrophils and lymphocytes at DTH reaction sites. However, when rTCA3 is injected into sponges in naive mice, only neutrophils are attracted into the sponges, indicating TCA3 is chemotactic for neutrophils, but not lymphocytes. We show that TCA3 is indirectly attracting lymphocytes into DTH-reactive sponges by affecting at least one other chemokine that is chemotactic for lymphocytes. Of the two lymphocyte-attracting chemokines assessed, monocyte-chemotactic protein-1 and macrophage-inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha), only MIP-1alpha was reduced when TCA3 was neutralized, indicating that TCA3 affects the levels of MIP-1alpha, which attracts lymphocytes into the sponges. TCA3 also plays a role in protection against Cryptococcus neoformans in the lungs and brains of infected mice, as evidenced by the fact that neutralization of TCA3 results in increased C. neoformans CFU in those two organs. (+info)
Sequence polymorphisms in the chemokines Scya1 (TCA-3), Scya2 (monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1), and Scya12 (MCP-5) are candidates for eae7, a locus controlling susceptibility to monophasic remitting/nonrelapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. (2/82)Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), the principal animal model of multiple sclerosis, is genetically controlled. To date, 13 disease-modifying loci have been identified in the mouse by whole genome scanning using an F2 intercross between EAE-susceptible SJL/J and EAE-resistant B10.S/DvTe mice. Two quantitative trait loci (QTL), eae6 and eae7, on chromosome 11 were identified by classical marker-specific linkage analysis and interval mapping. Both QTL were reported to be associated with severity and duration of clinical signs. eae7 was subsequently shown to be a unique locus controlling the development of monophasic remitting/nonrelapsing EAE. In this study, composite interval mapping resolved eae6 into two linked QTL: eae6a at 0-13 cM is associated with disease severity, and eae6b at 19-28 cM associated with the duration of clinical signs. Additionally, composite interval mapping significantly refined the locations of eae6a, eae6b, and eae7, thereby facilitating systematic candidate gene screening by cDNA sequencing of SJL/J and B10.S/DvTe alleles. Sequence polymorphisms were not seen in Lif and IL12 beta, candidate genes for eae6a and eae6b, respectively. Similarly, cDNA sequence polymorphisms in Nos2, Scya3, Scya4, Scya5, Scya6, Scya7, Scya9, Scya10, and Scya11 were excluded as candidates for eae7. However, multiple sequence polymorphisms resulting in significant amino acid substitutions were identified in Scya1 (TCA-3), Scya2 (monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1), and Scya12 (MCP-5). Given the role of chemokines in EAE, these sequence polymorphisms are promising candidates for eae7, a locus associated with severity of clinical signs and susceptibility to the shorter, less severe monophasic remitting/nonrelapsing form of disease. (+info)
IFN-gamma shapes immune invasion of the central nervous system via regulation of chemokines. (3/82)Dynamic interplay between cytokines and chemokines directs trafficking of leukocyte subpopulations to tissues in autoimmune inflammation. We have examined the role of IFN-gamma in directing chemokine production and leukocyte infiltration to the CNS in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice are resistant to induction of EAE by immunization with myelin basic protein. However, IFN-gamma-deficient (BALB/c) and IFN-gammaR-deficient (C57BL/6) mice developed rapidly progressing lethal disease. Widespread demyelination and disseminated leukocytic infiltration of spinal cord were seen, unlike the focal perivascular infiltrates in SJL/J mice. Gr-1+ neutrophils predominated in CNS, and CD4+ T cells with an activated (CD69+, CD25+) phenotype and eosinophils were also present. RANTES and macrophage chemoattractant protein-1, normally up-regulated in EAE, were undetectable in IFN-gamma- and IFN-gammaR-deficient mice. Macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and T cell activation gene-3, both neutrophil-attracting chemokines, were strongly up-regulated. There was no induction of the Th2 cytokines, IL-4, IL-10, or IL-13. RNase protection assays and RT-PCR showed the prevalence of IL-2, IL-3, and IL-15, but no increase in IL-12p40 mRNA levels in IFN-gamma- or IFN-gammaR-deficient mice with EAE. Lymph node cells from IFN-gamma-deficient mice proliferated in response to myelin basic protein, whereas BALB/c lymph node cells did not. These findings show a regulatory role for IFN-gamma in EAE, acting on T cell proliferation and directing chemokine production, with profound implications for the onset and progression of disease. (+info)
Human NK cells express CC chemokine receptors 4 and 8 and respond to thymus and activation-regulated chemokine, macrophage-derived chemokine, and I-309. (4/82)NK cells respond to various chemokines, suggesting that they express receptors for these chemokines. In this paper, we show that IL-2-activated NK (IANK) cells express CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4) and CCR8, as determined by flow cytometric, immunoblot, and RNase protection assays. Macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC), the ligand for CCR4, induces the phosphorylation of CCR4 within 0.5 min of activating IANK cells with this ligand. This is corroborated with the recruitment of G protein-coupled receptor kinases 2 and 3 and their association with CCR4 in IANK cell membranes. Also, CCR4 is internalized between 5 and 45 min but reappears in the membranes after 60 min of stimulation with MDC. MDC, thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC), and I-309 induce the chemotaxis of IANK cells, an activity that is inhibited upon pretreatment of these cells with pertussis toxin, suggesting that receptors for these chemokines are coupled to pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins. In the calcium release assay, cross-desensitization experiments showed that TARC completely desensitizes the calcium flux response induced by MDC or I-309, whereas both MDC and I-309 partially desensitize the calcium flux response induced by TARC. These results suggest that TARC utilizes CCR4 and CCR8. Our results are the first to show that IL-2-activated NK cells express CCR4 and CCR8, suggesting that these receptors are not exclusive for Th2 cells. (+info)
Respiratory syncytial virus G and/or SH glycoproteins modify CC and CXC chemokine mRNA expression in the BALB/c mouse. (5/82)Chemokine mRNA expression by pulmonary leukocytes following infection of BALB/c mice with two strains of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and one strain of parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV-3) was determined. The results suggest that RSV G and/or SH proteins inhibit early MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, MIP-2, MCP-1, and IP-10 mRNA expression. TCA-3 mRNA expression was found to be increased during PIV-3 infection. (+info)
CCR8 on human thymocytes functions as a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 coreceptor. (6/82)To determine whether human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) coreceptors besides CXCR4 and CCR5 are involved in HIV-1 infection of the thymus, we focused on CCR8, a receptor for the chemokine I-309, because of its high expression in the thymus. Similar levels of CCR8 mRNA were detected in immature and mature primary human thymocytes. Consistent with this, [(125)I]I-309 was shown to bind specifically and with similar affinity to the surface of immature and mature human thymocytes. Fusion of human thymocytes with cells expressing HIV-1 X4 or X4R5 envelope glycoprotein was inhibited by I-309 in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, I-309 partially inhibited productive infection of human thymocytes by X4, R5, and X4R5 HIV-1 strains. Our data provide the first evidence that CCR8 functions as an HIV-1 coreceptor on primary human cells and suggest that CCR8 may contribute to HIV-1-induced thymic pathogenesis. (+info)
CC chemokine I-309 is the principal monocyte chemoattractant induced by apolipoprotein(a) in human vascular endothelial cells. (7/82)BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is a risk factor for atherosclerosis; however, the mechanisms are unclear. We previously reported that Lp(a) stimulated human vascular endothelial cells to produce monocyte chemotactic activity. The apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)] portion of Lp(a) was the active moiety. METHODS AND RESULTS: We now describe the identification of the chemotactic activity as being due to the CC chemokine I-309. The carboxy-terminal domain of apo(a) containing 6 type-4 kringles (types 5 to 10), kringle V, and the protease domain was demonstrated to contain the I-309-inducing portion. Polyclonal and monoclonal anti-I-309 antibodies as well as an antibody against a portion of the extracellular domain of CCR8, the I-309 receptor, inhibited the increase in monocyte chemotactic activity induced by apo(a). I-309 antisense oligonucleotides also inhibited the induction of endothelial monocyte chemotactic activity by apo(a). I-309 mRNA was identified in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Apo(a) induced an increase in I-309 protein in the endothelial cytoplasm and in the conditioned medium. Immunohistochemical studies have identified I-309 in endothelium, macrophages, and extracellular areas of human atherosclerotic plaques and have found that I-309 colocalized with apo(a). CONCLUSIONS: These data establish that I-309 is responsible for the monocyte chemotactic activity induced in human umbilical vein endothelial cells by Lp(a). The identification of the endothelial cell as a source for I-309 suggests that this chemokine may participate in vessel wall biology. Our data also suggest that I-309 may play a role in mediating the effects of Lp(a) in atherosclerosis. (+info)
I-309 binds to and activates endothelial cell functions and acts as an angiogenic molecule in vivo. (8/82)Several chemokines have been shown to act as angiogenic molecules or to modulate the activity of growth factors such as fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The detection of the CC chemokine receptor (CCR) 8 message in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and RNase protection assay (RPA), prompted us to investigate the potential role exerted by the CC chemokine I-309, a known ligand of such receptor, in both in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis assays. We show here that I-309 binds to endothelial cells, stimulates chemotaxis and invasion of these cells, and enhances HUVEC differentiation into capillary-like structures in an in vitro Matrigel assay. Furthermore, I-309 is an inducer of angiogenesis in vivo in both the rabbit cornea and the chick chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM). (+info)
Tumor necrosis factor alpha
positive regulation of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 production. • positive regulation of JUN kinase activity. • positive ... positive regulation of chemokine production. • cellular extravasation. • negative regulation of lipid storage. • negative ... positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • epithelial cell proliferation involved in salivary gland morphogenesis ... Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
... as well as chemokine and cytokine production, and expression of adhesion molecules such as E-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1. This ... Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • regulation of insulin secretion. • extrinsic apoptotic signaling ... Copeland KF (2006). "Modulation of HIV-1 transcription by cytokines and chemokines". Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry. 5 (12 ... Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
chemokine activity. • cytokine activity. • heparin binding. • protein binding. • CXCR3 chemokine receptor binding. ... C-X-C motif chemokine 11 is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also called Interferon-inducible T- ... "Entrez Gene: CXCL11 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11".. *^ a b Cole KE, Strick CA, Paradis TJ, Ogborne KT, Loetscher M, Gladue ... This chemokine elicits its effects on its target cells by interacting with the cell surface chemokine receptor CXCR3, with a ...
Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
"The assignment of chemokine-chemokine receptor pairs: TARC and MIP-1 beta are not ligands for human CC-chemokine receptor 8". ... The ligand of the CCR8 is CCL1. CCL8 also functions as a CCR8 agonist. Studies of this receptor and its ligands suggested its ... "The assignment of chemokine-chemokine receptor pairs: TARC and MIP-1 beta are not ligands for human CC-chemokine receptor 8". ... This gene is located at the chemokine receptor gene cluster region. CC chemokine receptors GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...
IL-31 plays a role in this disease by inducing chemokine genes CCL1, CCL17, and CCL22. The chemokines transcribed from these ...
Index of immunology articles
... immunology Cancer immunoprevention Cancer immunotherapy Cantuzumab ravtansine Cathelicidin CC chemokine receptors CCBP2 CCL1 ... C-C chemokine receptor type 6 C-C chemokine receptor type 7 Calreticulin Cancer ... CD4 CD4+ T cells and antitumor immunity CD74 CD94/NKG2 Cell-mediated immunity CELSR1 Central tolerance Chemokine Chemokine ... CR6261 CroFab Cross-presentation Cross-reactivity Cryptic self epitopes Cryptotope CX3CL1 CX3CR1 CXC chemokine receptors CXCL1 ...
Chromosome 17 (human)
Several CC chemokines: CCL1, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL7, CCL8, CCL11, CCL13, CCL14, CCL15, CCL16, CCL18, and CCL23 The ... C-C motif chemokine ligand 4 like 1 (17q12) DDX52: DExD-box helicase 52 (17q12) ERBB2 loca leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2, ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 1 (CCL1) is a small glycoprotein secreted by activated T cells that belongs to a family ... CCL1 attracts monocytes, NK cells, and immature B cells and dendritic cells by interacting with a cell surface chemokine ... This chemokine resides in a large cluster of CC chemokines on human chromosome 17. Miller MD, Krangel MS (April 1992). "The ... the receptor for the human CC chemokine I-309". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (28): 17251-4. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.28.17251. PMID 9211859. ...
C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... CCL1 for the ligand 1 of the CC-family of chemokines, and CCR1 for its respective receptor. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) ... The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other chemokines in that it has ... CXCR that bind CXC chemokines, CCR that bind CC chemokines, CX3CR1 that binds the sole CX3C chemokine (CX3CL1), and XCR1 that ...
CCL1 - Википедија, слободна енциклопедија
... the receptor for the human CC chemokine I-309". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (28): 17251-4. PMID 9211859.. ... CCL1 privlači monocite, NK ćelije, nezrele B ćelije i dendritske ćelije putem interakcije sa hemokin receptorom na površini ... Преузето из „https://sr.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=CCL1&oldid=12335510" ...
C-C chemokine receptor type 6
chemokine receptor activity. • receptor activity. • protein binding. • C-C chemokine receptor activity. • C-C chemokine binding ... Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene. CCR6 ... "Entrez Gene: CCR6 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 6".. *^ Wang K, Zhang H, Kugathasan S, Annese V, Bradfield JP, Russell RK, ... "Chemokine Receptors: CCR6". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ...
CC chemokine receptors
The ligands for this receptor are CCL1 and CCL16. CCR9 was previously called orphan receptor GPR 9-6 and is very highly ... The CC chemokine receptors all work by activating the G protein Gi. CCR1 was the first CC chemokine receptor identified and ... The orphan chemokine receptor G protein-coupled receptor-2 (GPR-2, CCR10) binds the skin-associated chemokine CCL27 (CTACK/ALP/ ... Human CC chemokine liver-expressed chemokine/CCL16 is a functional ligand for CCR1, CCR2 and CCR5, and constitutively expressed ...
C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... C chemokinesEdit. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other ... CC chemokinesEdit. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins have two adjacent cysteines (amino acids), near their amino ... CXC chemokinesEdit. The two N-terminal cysteines of CXC chemokines (or α-chemokines) are separated by one amino acid, ...
Several CC chemokines: CCL1, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL7, CCL8, CCL11, CCL13, CCL14, CCL15, CCL16, CCL18, and CCL23 ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 18 (CCL18) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family. The functions of CCL18 have ... Furthermore, CCL18 binding is competitive with CCR8's previously described ligand, CCL1, further suggesting that CCL18 binds ... It was previously known as Pulmonary and activation-regulated chemokine (PARC), dendritic cell (DC)-chemokine 1 (DC-CK1), ... Chemokines are classed as a special type of cytokine that is involved in immune cell trafficking. CCL18 in particular has some ...
साँचा:Cytokines - विकिपीडिया
Chemokine. CCL. CCL1 · CCL2 · CCL3 · CCL4 · CCL5 · CCL6 · CCL7 · CCL8 · CCL9 · CCL11 · CCL12 · CCL13 · CCL14 · CCL15 · CCL16 · ...
Interleukin 8 receptor, alpha
C-X-C chemokine receptor activity. • interleukin-8 binding. • G-protein coupled receptor activity. • chemokine receptor ... This name and the corresponding gene symbol IL8RA have been replaced by the HGNC approved name C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 1 ... "Chemokine Receptors: CXCR1". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ... chemokine-mediated signaling pathway. • interleukin-8-mediated signaling pathway. • neutrophil degranulation. • chemotaxis. ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 1 (CCL1) is a small glycoprotein secreted by activated T cells that belongs to a family inflammatory cytokines known as chemokines. CCL1 attracts monocytes, NK cells, and immature B cells and dendritic cells by interacting with a cell surface chemokine receptor called CCR8. This chemokine resides in a large cluster of CC chemokines on human chromosome 17. Miller MD, Krangel MS (April 1992). "The human cytokine I-309 is a monocyte chemoattractant". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89 (7): 2950-4. doi:10.1073/pnas.89.7.2950. PMC 48781 . PMID 1557400. Roos RS, Loetscher M, Legler DF, Clark-Lewis I, Baggiolini M, Moser B (July 1997). "Identification of CCR8, the receptor for the human CC chemokine I-309". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (28): 17251-4. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.28.17251. PMID 9211859 ...
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Nicotiana tabacum TCA-1 protein: a tobacco nuclear protein; MW 40 kDa; salicylic acid induces binding to a 10 bp sequence which is highly conserved amongst stress-inducible genes; aa sequence has been determined
Transcription factor that recognizes and binds to the enhancer heptamer motif 5-TGA[CG]TCA-3. Promotes activity of NR5A1 when phosphorylated by HIPK3 leading to increased steroidogenic gene expression upon cAMP signaling pathway stimulation ...
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RayBio|sup|®|/sup| C-Series Human Chemokine Antibody Array 1 Kit. Detects 38 Human Chemokines. Suitable for all liquid sample types.
Looking for online definition of SCYA18 in the Medical Dictionary? SCYA18 explanation free. What is SCYA18? Meaning of SCYA18 medical term. What does SCYA18 mean?
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This line was initiated in 1972 by D.J. Giard, et al. through explant culture of lung carcinomatous tissue from a 58-year-old Caucasian male.
This line was initiated in 1972 by D.J. Giard, et al. through explant culture of lung carcinomatous tissue from a 58-year-old Caucasian male.
Определение направления окислительно-восстановительных реакций. «Элемент Даниэля»
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 26 (CCL26) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family that is also called Eotaxin-3, Macrophage inflammatory protein 4-alpha (MIP-4-alpha), Thymic stroma chemokine-1 (TSC-1), and IMAC. It is expressed by several tissues including heart, lung and ovary, and in endothelial cells that have been stimulated with the cytokine interleukin 4. CCL26 is chemotactic for eosinophils and basophils and elicits its effects by binding to the cell surface chemokine receptor CCR3. This gene for chemokine is located on human chromosome 7. Shinkai et al. A novel human CC chemokine, eotaxin-3, which is expressed in IL-4-stimulated vascular endothelial cells, exhibits potent activity toward eosinophils. J. Immunol. 163:1602-1610, 1999. Guo et al. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel human CC chemokine, SCYA26. Genomics 58:313-317, 1999. Kitaura et al. Molecular cloning of a novel human CC chemokine (Eotaxin-3) that is a functional ligand of CC chemokine receptor ...
Recombinant Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 17 (CCL17) 蛋白. 宿主: 人. 宿主: 大肠杆菌（E. Coli）. 产品编号 ABIN2469118.
Recombinant human CCL22/MDC, fused to His-tag at N-terminus, was expressed as insoluble protein aggregate inE.coliand purified by conventional chromatography, after refolding of the isolated inclusion bodies in a renaturation buffer. MW =10.3 kDa (90aa).
Reaktivität: Meerschweinchen - Probe: Serum, Cell Culture Supernatant. | Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 8 (CCL8) ELISA Kit (ABIN628807).
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Fast, simple luminescent calcium flux assays using an AequoScreen cell line stably-transfected with human chemokine XCR1 receptor.
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Abstract 4368: Tumor cell entry into the lymph node is controlled by CCL1 chemokine expressed by lymph node lymphatic sinuses |...
Abstract 4368: Tumor cell entry into the lymph node is controlled by CCL1 chemokine expressed by lymph node lymphatic sinuses. ... Abstract 4368: Tumor cell entry into the lymph node is controlled by CCL1 chemokine expressed by lymph node lymphatic sinuses ... Abstract 4368: Tumor cell entry into the lymph node is controlled by CCL1 chemokine expressed by lymph node lymphatic sinuses ... Abstract 4368: Tumor cell entry into the lymph node is controlled by CCL1 chemokine expressed by lymph node lymphatic sinuses ...http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/72/8_Supplement/4368
ccl1 Protein, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 1 - Creative BioMart
... is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that was previously called GRO1 oncogene, GROα, KC, Neutrophil- ... CCL1-19H. Recombinant Human CCL1, Fc tagged. HEK293. Human. Fc. +Inquiry. CCL1-605H. Recombinant Human CCL1 protein. E.coli. ... Ccl1-621M. Recombinant Mouse Ccl1, Fc tagged. HEK293. Mouse. Fc. +Inquiry. CCL1-678R. Recombinant Rhesus monkey CCL1 Protein, ... Recombinant Human CCL1, His-tagged. E. coli. Human. His. +Inquiry. CCL1-29H. Recombinant Human Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 1. ...https://www.creativebiomart.net/symbolsearch_CCL1.htm
Differential regulation of chemokine production by Fcgamma receptor engagement in human monocytes: association of CCL1 with a...
CCL1; I-309) is a CC chemokine that interacts with CC chemokine receptor 8, which is preferentially expressed in polarized T ... Thus, CCL1 is a CC chemokine with a unique pattern of regulation associated with a distinct form of M2 (Type 2, M2b) monocyte ... CCL1 was present in synovial fluids and macrophages in juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Thus, regulation of CCL1 in human ... was designed to characterize the production of CCL1 in monocytes compared with the production of other chemokines (CCL2, CCL22 ...https://www.ndorms.ox.ac.uk/publications/544778
CCL1 Gene - GeneCards | CCL1 Protein | CCL1 Antibody
C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The ... GeneCards Summary for CCL1 Gene CCL1 (C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with CCL1 ... Animal Models for CCL1 Gene. MGI Knock Outs for CCL1:. * Ccl1 Ccl1,tm1Sman, ... Evolution for CCL1 Gene. ENSEMBL:. Gene Tree for CCL1 (if available). TreeFam:. Gene Tree for CCL1 (if available). Aminode:. ...https://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=CCL1&keywords=GH17J034200&prefilter=genomic_location
Tumor necrosis factor alpha - Wikipedia
positive regulation of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 production. • positive regulation of JUN kinase activity. • positive ... positive regulation of chemokine production. • cellular extravasation. • negative regulation of lipid storage. • negative ... positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • epithelial cell proliferation involved in salivary gland morphogenesis ... Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TNF-alpha
Lymphokine - Wikipedia
Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lymphokine
Porcine CCL1 (Chemokine C-C-Motif Ligand 1) ELISA Kit Manufacturers in Delhi
Chemokine C-C-Motif Ligand 1) ELISA Kit OSCAR DIAGNOSTIC SERVICES PVT. LTD.is an India based Company in Delhi. ... Porcine CCL1 (Chemokine C-C-Motif Ligand 1) ELISA Kit » Porcine CCL1 (Chemokine C-C-Motif Ligand 1) ELISA Kit. Porcine CCL1 ( ... Porcine CCL1 (Chemokine C-C-Motif Ligand 1) ELISA Kit. Porcine CCL1 (Chemokine C-C-Motif Ligand 1) ELISA Kit. Porcine CCL1 ( ... Porcine CCL1 (Chemokine C-C-Motif Ligand 1) ELISA Kit. Porcine CCL1 (Chemokine C-C-Motif Ligand 1) ELISA Kit. Porcine CCL1 ( ...https://www.odspl.com/sub-product/Porcine+CCL1+%28Chemokine+C-C-Motif+Ligand+1%29+ELISA+Kit.php
Vaccines | Free Full-Text | Chemokines as Cancer Vaccine Adjuvants | HTML
This review will focus on recent murine and human studies that use chemokines as therapeutic anti-cancer vaccine adjuvants. ... Recent discoveries in the many biological roles of chemokines in tumor immunology allow their exploitation in enhancing ... This knowledge, combined with advances in gene therapy and virology, allows researchers to employ chemokines as potential ... CCL1. I-309. CCR8. inflammatory and angiogenic. CCL2. MCP-1/MCAF/TDCF. CCR2. inflammatory and angiogenic. ...http://www.mdpi.com/2076-393X/1/4/444/htm
Plasma chemokines are biomarkers of disease severity, higher bacterial burden and delayed sputum culture conversion in...
PTB individuals with bilateral or cavitary disease displayed significantly elevated levels of CCL1, CCL3, CXCL1, CXCL10 and ... Whether chemokines can perform the same role in PTB is not known. We examined the plasma levels of chemokines in individuals ... Finally, the chemokines were significantly reduced following successful ATT. Our data demonstrate that PTB is associated with ... We also examined the chemokines in PTB individuals at the end of anti-tuberculous chemotherapy (ATT). PTB individuals exhibited ...https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-54803-w?error=cookies_not_supported&code=839fa44a-57ea-4749-9d84-deb7d6dc2491
Interferon alpha-1 - Wikipedia
Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...http://www.let.rug.nl/~gosse/termpedia2/termpedia.php?language=dutch_general&density=7&link_color=000000&termpedia_system=perl_db&url=http%3A%2F%2Fen.wikipedia.org%2Fwiki%2FInterferon_alpha_1
Chemokine - Wikipedia
C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... C chemokinesEdit. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other ... CC chemokinesEdit. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins have two adjacent cysteines (amino acids), near their amino ... CXC chemokinesEdit. The two N-terminal cysteines of CXC chemokines (or α-chemokines) are separated by one amino acid, ...https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemokines
Recombinant human I-309 protein (ab9854) | Abcam
C-C motif chemokine 1. *Ccl1. *CCL1_HUMAN. *Chemokine CC Motif Ligand 1 ...https://www.abcam.com/recombinant-human-i-309-protein-ab9854.html
Anti-I-309 antibody (ab109788) | Abcam
CCL1_HUMAN antibody. *Chemokine CC Motif Ligand 1 antibody. *inflammatory cytokine I-309 antibody ... Amino-terminal extension of CCL1 by a single amino acid generates a partial agonist.. J Biol Chem 281:36652-61 (2006). Read ...http://www.abcam.com/i-309-antibody-ab109788.html
Chemokine Levels in Subretinal Fluid Obtained during Scleral Buckling Surgery after Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment | IOVS |...
CCL1. I-309. CCR8. T, NK. ND. CCL2. MCP-1. CCR2, CCR10. M, m, T, NK, b. 900 ± 132. 6,101 (128-8,777). 2,740 ± 2,460. 890 (286- ... the CXC chemokines CXCL8, CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL12; and CX3CL1. This set represented all chemokines present in the chemokine ... CCL1. I-309. CCR8. T, NK. ND. CCL2. MCP-1. CCR2, CCR10. M, m, T, NK, b. 900 ± 132. 6,101 (128-8,777). 2,740 ± 2,460. 890 (286- ... Generally, CC chemokines potently attract monocytes, T lymphocytes, eosinophils, and basophils, whereas CXC chemokines are ...https://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2126872
Chemokines and Chemokine Receptors
Chemokines and their receptors play essential roles in immunology during inflammation and in homeostasis. ... Chemokines are a class of secreted molecules that induce chemotaxis (migration) of target cells. ... CCL1. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. a. b. b. ... Chemokine Receptor Biology poster. Order your copy of our ... Chemokines are also involved in the orchestration of wound healing.. For more information on inflammatory chemokines, see the ...https://www.biolegend.com/en-us/chemokine-receptors
Ciliary neurotrophic factor - wikidoc
Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...https://www.wikidoc.org/index.php/Ciliary_neurotrophic_factor
Colony-stimulating factor - wikidoc
Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...http://wikidoc.org/index.php/Colony-stimulating_factor
Interleukin 20 - wikidoc
Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...http://wikidoc.org/index.php/Interleukin_20
Interleukin 7 - wikidoc
Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...https://www.wikidoc.org/index.php/Interleukin_7
Chemotaxis research area
Recombinant Human I-309 (CCL1). 카다로그 번호: 300-37 Subcategory: Chemokines See Pricing ... the most commonly researched inducers of chemotaxis are chemokines, or cytokines secreted by cells for the purpose of driving ... the Chemokines functioning to direct cellular movement.. Explore relevant products below. ...https://www.peprotech.com/ko/chemotaxis
Recombinant Human I-309 (CCL1). Catalog Number: 300-37 Subcategory: Chemokines See Pricing ... the most commonly researched inducers of chemotaxis are chemokines, or cytokines secreted by cells for the purpose of driving ... the Chemokines functioning to direct cellular movement.. Explore relevant products below. ...https://www.peprotech.com/gb/chemotaxis
CCL1 - Википедија, слободна енциклопедија
... the receptor for the human CC chemokine I-309". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (28): 17251-4. PMID 9211859.. ... CCL1 privlači monocite, NK ćelije, nezrele B ćelije i dendritske ćelije putem interakcije sa hemokin receptorom na površini ... Преузето из „https://sr.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=CCL1&oldid=12335510" ...https://sr.wikipedia.org/wiki/CCL1
Whole-body imaging of lymphovascular niches identifies pre-metastatic roles of midkine | Nature
Tumor cell entry into the lymph node is controlled by CCL1 chemokine expressed by lymph node lymphatic sinuses. J. Exp. Med. ...https://www.nature.com/articles/nature22977?error=cookies_not_supported&code=3ab9b2ed-d54c-43aa-a086-7a1ec452dfef
US20110081408A1 - Anti-chemokine and associated receptors antibodies for inhibition of growth of neoplasms - Google...
It is possible to identify the particular chemokines which are over-expressed in the tumor using methods of the invention and ... The present invention provides a means of inhibiting the growth and metastasis of cancer cells by administering anti-chemokine ... that binds to a chemokine or chemokine receptor selected from the group consisting of CCL1, CCL4, CCL17, CCL19, CCL21, CCL22, ... that binds to a chemokine or chemokine receptor selected from the group consisting of CCL1, CCL4, CCL17, CCL19, CCL21, CCL22, ...https://patents.google.com/patent/US20110081408A1/en
ReceptorCCL2Ccl11InflammationCaptured chemokine receptorsMonocytesPathwaysChemoattractantCCL8SuperfamilyProteinsProtein-coupled receptorsCCR1AntibodySecretionRole of chemokinesGenesAnti-chemokine antibodiesMacrophagesExpression of chemokinesAntibodiesLeukocyteHuman CC chemokineCytokines and chemokinesRoles in the pathogenesisGeneTransmembraneCCL20ELISA KitsBeta-chemokineVarious chemokinesMonocyteSelectivelyMetastasisChemotactic
- We selected most pathways CCL1 participated on our site, such as Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, Chemokine signaling pathway, which may be useful for your reference. (creativebiomart.net)
- Differential regulation of chemokine production by Fcgamma receptor engagement in human monocytes: association of CCL1 with a distinct form of M2 monocyte activation (M2b, Type 2). (ox.ac.uk)
- I-309) is a CC chemokine that interacts with CC chemokine receptor 8, which is preferentially expressed in polarized T helper cell type 2 and Tc2 cells, in eosinophils, and in T regulatory cells. (ox.ac.uk)
- Induction of CCL1 in monocytes required engagement of Fc receptor for immunoglobulin G (FcgammaR)II and exposure to IL-1beta or LPS. (ox.ac.uk)
- It binds to the chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 8. (genecards.org)
- In the context of cancer, the chemokine-chemokine receptor system plays paradoxical roles. (mdpi.com)
- Most chemokines bind to more than one receptor, while most receptors also display overlapping ligand specificity [ 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
- Use this table to quickly identify the chemokines that bind to each receptor. (biolegend.com)
- To date, ten true members of the CC chemokine receptor subfamily have been described. (wikipedia.org)
- CCR1 was the first CC chemokine receptor identified and binds multiple inflammatory/inducible (see inducible gene) CC chemokines (including CCL4, CCL5, CCL6, CCL14, CCL15, CCL16 and CCL23). (wikipedia.org)
- There is some suggestion that this chemokine receptor is restricted to memory T-cells within the lymphocyte pool. (wikipedia.org)
- CCR3 is a receptor for multiple inflammatory/inducible CC chemokines, including CCL11, CCL26, CCL7, CCL13, CCL15, CCL24 and CCL5 that attract eosinophils, and CCL28 that attracts B and T lymphocytes to mucosal tissues. (wikipedia.org)
- The CC chemokines CCL3, CCL5, CCL17 and CCL22 signal through this receptor. (wikipedia.org)
- The ligands for this receptor are CCL1 and CCL16. (wikipedia.org)
- To note, the chemokine binding protein D6 had previously been named CCR9, but this molecule is a scavenger receptor not a true (signaling) chemokine receptor. (wikipedia.org)
- However, due to the inability of this molecule (also known as CCRL1 and CCX CKR) to generate a signal following ligand interaction, it has been suggested that it is a scavenger receptor for chemokines and not a bona fide chemokine receptor. (wikipedia.org)
- Their homeostatic function in homing is best exemplified by the chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 (expressed within lymph nodes and on lymphatic endothelial cells) and their receptor CCR7 (expressed on cells destined for homing in cells to these organs). (wikipedia.org)
- This chemokine ligand/receptor pair was also proposed to represent an innovative therapeutic target for the treatment of ovarian cancer. (hindawi.com)
- Chemokines display high structural homology and overlapping functions and often bind more than one receptor. (hindawi.com)
- An appreciation of the role of CCL18 in these diseases has been hampered by the lack of an identified chemokine receptor. (harvard.edu)
- We report that the human chemokine receptor CCR8 is a CCL18 receptor. (harvard.edu)
- Identifying CCR8 as a chemokine receptor for CCL18 will help clarify the biological role of this highly expressed chemokine in human disease. (harvard.edu)
- Receptor for the chemokine CCL1/SCYA1/I-309. (creativebiomart.net)
- Mouse CCL8 is a CC chemokine of the monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP) family whose biological activity and receptor usage have remained elusive. (nih.gov)
- Here we show that CCL8 is highly expressed in the skin, where it serves as an agonist for the chemokine receptor CCR8 but not for CCR2. (nih.gov)
- NSC5844 is a bisquinoline compound with C-C chemokine receptor type 1 (CCR1)-agonistic properties. (adooq.com)
- ZK-756326 is a potent, selective and non-peptide CCR8 chemokine receptor agonist. (adooq.com)
- CCR8 encodes a member of the beta chemokine receptor family, which is predicted to be a seven transmembrane protein similar to G protein-coupled receptors. (antibodies-online.com)
- Role of Conserved Disulfide Bridges and Aromatic Residues in Extracellular Loop 2 of Chemokine Receptor CCR8 for Chemokine (show CCL1 ELISA Kits ) and Small Molecule Binding. (antibodies-online.com)
- Chemokine receptor CCR8 is required for lipopolysaccharide-triggered cytokine production in mouse peritoneal macrophages. (antibodies-online.com)
- We show that monocytic and granulocytic myeloid cell subsets in peripheral blood of patients with cancer with urothelial and renal carcinomas display increased expression of chemokine receptor CCR8. (aacrjournals.org)
- In the current study, we show that progression of human urothelial and renal carcinomas is associated with increased expression of chemokine receptor CCR8. (aacrjournals.org)
- We found that a large subset of metastatic melanomas express chemokine receptor CCR8. (aacrjournals.org)
- The primary receptor-binding domain of all chemokines is near the NH2 terminus, and antagonists can be obtained by truncation or substitutions in this region. (embl.de)
- Major progress has been made in the understanding of chemokine actions on T lymphocytes that respond to several CC chemokines but also to IP10 and Mig, two CXC chemokines that selectively attract T cells via a novel receptor. (embl.de)
- In patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), chemokine and chemokine receptor interactions play a central role in the recruitment of leukocytes into inflamed joints. (biomedcentral.com)
- More importantly, the increased level of CXCR5, a homeostatic chemokine receptor, in the RA synovium suggests that non-inflammatory receptor-ligand pairs might play an important role in the pathogenesis of RA. (biomedcentral.com)
- The EBV-encoded BILF1 receptor presents limited homology to chemokine receptors, with highest homology to CXCR4. (aspetjournals.org)
- Th1-/Th2-associated chemokine and chemokine receptor profiles in ITP patients before and after pulsed HD-DXM was studied. (biomedcentral.com)
- Specifically, the immune-related differentially expressed genes (IRDEGs), which belong to the KEGG (Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes) pathways, such as the complement and coagulation cascades, chemokine signalling pathways and toll-like receptor signalling pathways were mainly observed at 24 h post-infection. (biomedcentral.com)
- It binds to the chemokine receptor CCR8. (genetex.com)
- The current nomenclature is thus based on these families, eg, CCL1 for ligand 1 of the CC family of chemokines and CCR1 for its respective receptor. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Furthermore, chemokine ligand-receptor interactions markedly improved the wound repair of structural skin cells in vitro. (biomedcentral.com)
- The present study, prompted by transcriptional profiling of human monocytes undergoing different forms of activation, was designed to characterize the production of CCL1 in monocytes compared with the production of other chemokines (CCL2, CCL22, and CCL18) differentially regulated by distinct activation signals. (ox.ac.uk)
- The C10/CCL6 chemokine and CCR1 play critical roles in the pathogenesis of IL-13-induced inflammation and remodeling. (wikipedia.org)
- Chemokines are small secreted cytokines, primarily involved in the regulation of the motility of hematopoietic cells (cells of the immune system) in their specific homing to lymphoid organs in normal hematopoiesis and during inflammation [ 1 ], through the activation of specific G-protein coupled receptors [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Expression analysis revealed 52 cytokines and chemokines primarily involved in proliferation and inflammation and differentially expressed not only in malignant and nonmalignant renal cells but also in the four RCC cell lines. (hindawi.com)
- Chemokines are involved in cancer-related inflammation and malignant progression. (aacrjournals.org)
- Its principal ligand, CCL1, is constitutively expressed by lymphatic endothelial cells in the lymph node and is further upregulated by inflammation. (aacrjournals.org)
- Thus, regulation of CCL1 in human monocytes is unique, with an obligate requirement of FcgammaR engagement and costimulation by signals (IL-1beta and LPS), which use the myeloid differentiation primary-response protein 88 adaptor protein. (ox.ac.uk)
- This chemokine, a member of the CC subfamily, is secreted by activated T cells and displays chemotactic activity for monocytes but not for neutrophils. (genecards.org)
- Inflammatory chemokines function mainly as chemoattractants for leukocytes , recruiting monocytes , neutrophils and other effector cells from the blood to sites of infection or tissue damage. (wikipedia.org)
- Molecular cloning of leukotactin-1: a novel human beta-chemokine, a chemoattractant for neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes, and a potent agonist at CC chemokine receptors 1 and 3. (wikipedia.org)
- CCL1 involved in several pathways and played different roles in them. (creativebiomart.net)
- Click on one of the chemokine subfamilies shown in the Explore Pathways box below to see the specific chemokines that belong to each group, their receptors, and the different immune cell types that have been shown to express the chemokine receptors. (rndsystems.com)
- Chemokines are involved in normal pathways of inflammatory responses as well as in pathological inflammatory responses of autoimmune diseases. (tonbobio.com)
- Our aim was to investigate the mechanism of pulsed HD-DXM for management of ITP, specifically regarding the chemokine pathways. (biomedcentral.com)
- Unraveling the chemokine-driven communication pathways in this complex process could possibly lead to new therapeutic strategies in wound healing disorders. (biomedcentral.com)
- Chemokines are a group of related chemoattractant peptides that are essential regulators of the immune system, both during homeostatic and inflammatory conditions. (mdpi.com)
- The major role of chemokines is to act as a chemoattractant to guide the migration of cells. (wikipedia.org)
- Chemokines are small chemoattractant peptides mainly involved in the immune responses. (hindawi.com)
- Among these signals, small molecular weight chemoattractant proteins known as chemokines are potentially important contributors as they participate in both directing leukocyte migration and function. (frontiersin.org)
- CC chemokine ligand 2 and CXC chemokine ligand 8 as neutrophil chemoattractant factors in canine idiopathic polyarthritis. (adooq.com)
- Chemokines form a superfamily of secreted proteins involved in immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes. (genecards.org)
- The immunobiology of interferon-gamma inducible protein 10 kD (IP-10): a novel, pleiotropic member of the C-X-C chemokine superfamily. (embl.de)
- Interferon-gamma inducible protein 10 kD (IP-10) is a highly inducible, primary response gene that belongs to the C-X-C chemokine superfamily. (embl.de)
- The Chemokine Superfamily is made up of 4 classes based on the arrangement of the conserved cysteine (C) residues found in the mature protein: C (gamma), CC (beta), CXC and CX3C (delta) chemokine groups. (tonbobio.com)
- This presents the opportunity to identify all relevant members of the chemokine superfamily involved in complex biological processes such as wound healing. (biomedcentral.com)
- Also, other proteins which involved in the same pathway with CCL1 were listed below. (creativebiomart.net)
- Some of the functions are cooperated with other proteins, some of the functions could acted by CCL1 itself. (creativebiomart.net)
- We selected most functions CCL1 had, and list some proteins which have the same functions with CCL1. (creativebiomart.net)
- Chemokines (Greek -kinos , movement) are a family of small cytokines , or signaling proteins secreted by cells . (wikipedia.org)
- All of these proteins exert their biological effects by interacting with G protein -linked transmembrane receptors called chemokine receptors , that are selectively found on the surfaces of their target cells. (wikipedia.org)
- CC chemokine receptors (or beta chemokine receptors) are integral membrane proteins that specifically bind and respond to cytokines of the CC chemokine family. (wikipedia.org)
- They represent one subfamily of chemokine receptors, a large family of G protein-linked receptors that are known as seven transmembrane (7-TM) proteins since they span the cell membrane seven times. (wikipedia.org)
- This study analyzed and compared the presence of 100 proteins including chemokines, cytokines and soluble factors in six different types of media supplements: serum, plasma, recalcified plasma, heat inactivated serum, heat inactivated plasma and heat inactivated recalcified plasma. (biomedcentral.com)
- Chemokines, a family of chemoattractive proteins, have been suggested to be key players in cell-to-cell communication and essential for directed migration of structural cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- Chemokines receptors are seven transmembrane spanning G protein-coupled receptors that allow cells to migrate towards increasing chemokine gradients. (biolegend.com)
- Chemokine activities are mediated by seven-transmembrane-domain, G protein coupled receptors, five of which were discovered in the past three years. (embl.de)
- In addition to binding endogenous chemokines, these viral G protein-coupled receptors (vGPCRs) have acquired the ability to signal in a constitutive manner. (aspetjournals.org)
- These are named CCR1 to CCR10 according to the IUIS/WHO Subcommittee on Chemokine Nomenclature. (wikipedia.org)
- Human CC chemokine liver-expressed chemokine/CCL16 is a functional ligand for CCR1, CCR2 and CCR5, and constitutively expressed by hepatocytes. (wikipedia.org)
- Human "CC" chemokines (structurally characterized by four cysteines) includes 28 members, called CCL1-28 that bind at least 10 receptors (CCR1-10). (hindawi.com)
- It is upregulated by inflammatory stimuli and induces leukocyte recruitment to inflamed tissues via interacting with two chemokine receptors CCR1 and CCR5 on inflammatory cell surface. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Esto sugiere que las quimiocina que se unen a CCR1 , CCR2 y CCR5 juegan un papel importante en la infeccion temprana de M. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Primary tumor-derived exosomal RNAs, which are enriched in small nuclear RNAs, activate TLR3 in lung epithelial cells, consequently inducing chemokine (zeige CCL1 ELISA Kits ) secretion in the lung and promoting neutrophil recruitment. (antikoerper-online.de)
- My earlier research demonstrated that skin cells are able to recognize danger signals and upon activation keratinocytes they organize an immune response via the secretion of inflammatory mediators and chemokines. (ki.se)
- This antimicrobial gene is one of several chemokine genes clustered on the q-arm of chromosome 17. (genecards.org)
- a ) Relative positioning of the six MCP-cluster chemokine genes on human chromosome 17 and mouse chromosome 11, modified from the Ensembl site. (nih.gov)
- The Mouse Chemokines & Receptors RT² Profiler ™ PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 genes that encode chemokines and their receptors. (sabiosciences.com)
- Strikingly, chemokines were found to be among the most highly regulated genes and their expression was found to coincide with the expression of their matching receptors. (biomedcentral.com)
- Strikingly, a subset of chemokines proved to be among the most highly regulated genes. (biomedcentral.com)
- The early activation marker CD69 regulates the expression of chemokines and CD4 T cell accumulation in intestine. (nih.gov)
- However, expression of chemokines and chemokine receptors associated with the Th1/Th2 imbalance, particularly relating to immune regulation by modified application of glucocorticoids, has yet to be explored. (biomedcentral.com)
- It is possible to identify the particular chemokines which are over-expressed in the tumor using methods of the invention and administer antibodies against that over-expressed chemokine. (google.com)
- This invention relates to antibodies or the use of antibodies directed against certain chemokines. (google.com)
- Chemokines are functionally divided into two groups: Homeostatic: are constitutively produced in certain tissues and are responsible for basal leukocyte migration. (wikipedia.org)
- Chemokine activity is dependent on the presence of and interaction with chemokine receptors on the leukocyte surface. (biomedcentral.com)
- Once at the site of injury, immune cells can react by releasing additional cytokines and chemokines, bringing more cells into the fold. (biolegend.com)
- Cytokines and chemokines are widely involved in cancer cell progression and thus represent promising candidate factors for new biomarkers. (hindawi.com)
- This is the first study examining the expression of 84 cytokines and chemokines in four RCC cell lines compared to that in a nonmalignant renal cell line. (hindawi.com)
- Among other mechanisms, cytokines and chemokines are suspected to play a crucial role in proliferation and progression of various malignancies. (hindawi.com)
- Even though some studies suggested an impact in RCC, the role of cytokines and chemokines in RCC progression is poorly understood [ 1 , 11 , 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
- After classification of the RCC cells in cell lines of high and low cell growth rates, a transcriptional profiling specific for 84 cytokines and chemokines (Table 1 ) was carried out and compared to the corresponding cell growth properties. (hindawi.com)
- The aim of this analysis was to identify cell growth-associated cytokines and chemokines by comparison of malignant and nonmalignant expression patterns, particularly with regard to the identification of putative biomarkers for RCC progression. (hindawi.com)
- CCL1 (C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 1) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
- This knowledge, combined with advances in gene therapy and virology, allows researchers to employ chemokines as potential vaccine adjuvants. (mdpi.com)
- Analysis of gene expression in HREC (Figure 4) indicated that high glucose upregulated the transcript levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) (D), IL-8 (E), IL-10 (F), TNF-[alpha] (G), and C-C motif chemokine ligand 23 ( CCL23 ) (I). (thefreedictionary.com)
- Gene expression of these three chemokines and their corresponding receptors CCR5, CXCR3, and CCR3, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was determined by quantitative RT-PCR. (biomedcentral.com)
- Establishment of the TB granuloma is controlled by the synchronized expression of various chemokines. (nature.com)
- Various chemokines and IL-6 are upregulated in patients in whom fibrotic membranes develop after primary RRD repair and may therefore be involved in the future development of postoperative PVR. (arvojournals.org)
- There has been a great deal of work published on the induction of various chemokines and cytokines using in vitro culture systems. (asm.org)
- There have been numerous in vitro studies showing that chlamydiae can elicit various chemokines and cytokines from tissue culture cells (reviewed in reference 19 ). (asm.org)
- Due to their function of targeting cells to specific organs, homeostatic chemokines can also be involved in cancer and metastasis. (biolegend.com)
- In addition, chemokine receptors play a prominent role in cancer development (e.g., by inducing cellular proliferation or by modifying cellular migration patterns), resulting in cancer metastasis ( Balkwill, 2004 ). (aspetjournals.org)