Chemokine CCL27: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR10 RECEPTORS. It is constitutively expressed in the skin and may play a role in T-CELL trafficking during cutaneous INFLAMMATION.Chemokine CCL21: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CCL22: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards TH2 CELLS and TC2 CELLS.Chemokine CCL17: A CC-type chemokine that is found at high levels in the THYMUS and has specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It is synthesized by DENDRITIC CELLS; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; KERATINOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Chemokine CCL2: A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CCL19: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards T LYMPHOCYTES and B LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CCL5: A CC-type chemokine that is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS; MONOCYTES; and LYMPHOCYTES. It is a potent and selective eosinophil chemotaxin that is stored in and released from PLATELETS and activated T-LYMPHOCYTES. Chemokine CCL5 is specific for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR3 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS. The acronym RANTES refers to Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted.Chemokine CCL20: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR6 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS; T-LYMPHOCYTES; and B-LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CCL1: A CC-type chemokine secreted by activated MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CCR8 RECEPTORS.Chemokines, CC: Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.Receptors, Chemokine: Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Chemokine CCL3: A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.Chemokine CCL7: A monocyte chemoattractant protein that has activity towards a broad variety of immune cell types. Chemokine CCL7 has specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR2 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS.Chemokines: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Receptors, CCR10: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL27. They may play a specialized role in the cutaneous homing of LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CCL4: A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.Chemokine CXCL12: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.Receptors, CCR1: CCR receptors with specificity for a broad variety of CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in MONOCYTES; tissue MACROPHAGES; NEUTROPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS.Chemokine CXCL10: A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON and is chemotactic for MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Chemokine CCL8: A monocyte chemoattractant protein that attracts MONOCYTES; LYMPHOCYTES; BASOPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS. Chemokine CCL8 has specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS.Receptors, CCR: Chemokine receptors that are specific for CC CHEMOKINES.Receptors, CCR2: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL2 and several other CCL2-related chemokines. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; BASOPHILS; and NK CELLS.Chemokine CCL11: A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.Chemokine CCL24: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.Receptors, CCR7: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.Receptors, CCR8: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL1. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES.Chemokine CXCL1: A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Receptors, CCR4: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL17 and CHEMOKINE CCL22. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; MAST CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and NK CELLS.Chemokines, CXC: Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.Chemokine CX3CL1: A CX3C chemokine that is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells. The soluble form of chemokine CX3CL1 can be released from cell surface by proteolysis and act as a chemoattractant that may be involved in the extravasation of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. The membrane form of the protein may also play a role in cell adhesion.Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins: Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.Receptors, CCR5: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.Receptors, CCR3: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL11 and a variety of other CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; BASOPHILS; and MAST CELLS.Chemokine CXCL9: An INTEFERON-inducible CXC chemokine that is specific for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Mice, Inbred C57BLCell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Chemokine CXCL2: A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CXCL13: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.Receptors, CXCR4: CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Chemokine CXCL11: A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON. It is a chemotactic factor for activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Chemotaxis: The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.Chemokine CXCL6: A CXC chemokine that has stimulatory and chemotactic activities towards NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR1 RECEPTORS and CXCR2 RECEPTORS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Chemokine CXCL5: A CXC chemokine that is predominantly expressed in EPITHELIAL CELLS. It has specificity for the CXCR2 RECEPTORS and is involved in the recruitment and activation of NEUTROPHILS.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Receptors, CXCR3: CXCR receptors that are expressed on the surface of a number of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; NK CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and a subset of B-LYMPHOCYTES. The receptors are activated by CHEMOKINE CXCL9; CHEMOKINE CXCL10; and CHEMOKINE CXCL11.Mice, Inbred BALB CMonocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Receptors, Interleukin-8B: High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and T-LYMPHOCYTES. These receptors also bind several other CXC CHEMOKINES.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Dermatitis, Atopic: A chronic inflammatory genetically determined disease of the skin marked by increased ability to form reagin (IgE), with increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis and asthma, and hereditary disposition to a lowered threshold for pruritus. It is manifested by lichenification, excoriation, and crusting, mainly on the flexural surfaces of the elbow and knee. In infants it is known as infantile eczema.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Monocyte Chemoattractant Proteins: Chemokines that are chemoattractants for monocytes. These CC chemokines (cysteines adjacent) number at least three including CHEMOKINE CCL2.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Receptors, CCR6: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL20. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Receptors, Interleukin-8A: High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and BASOPHILS.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Receptors, CXCR: Chemokine receptors that are specific for CXC CHEMOKINES.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Carbon Tetrachloride: A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Receptors, Cytokine: Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Chemokines, CX3C: Group of chemokines with the first two cysteines separated by three amino acids. CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural killer cells, monocytes, and activated T-cells.Receptors, CXCR5: CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Chemotactic Factors: Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Monokines: Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.Receptors, HIV: Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Carbon Tetrachloride PoisoningDuffy Blood-Group System: A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.Chemotactic Factors, Eosinophil: Cytotaxins liberated from normal or invading cells that specifically attract eosinophils; they may be complement fragments, lymphokines, neutrophil products, histamine or other; the best known is the tetrapeptide ECF-A, released mainly by mast cells.Neutrophil Infiltration: The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Heterocyclic Compounds: Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Cell Migration Inhibition: Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Platelet Factor 4: A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Endothelium, Lymphatic: Unbroken cellular lining (intima) of the lymph vessels (e.g., the high endothelial lymphatic venules). It is more permeable than vascular endothelium, lacking selective absorption and functioning mainly to remove plasma proteins that have filtered through the capillaries into the tissue spaces.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.

Role of the C-C chemokine, TCA3, in the protective anticryptococcal cell-mediated immune response. (1/82)

Activated T lymphocytes play a crucial role in orchestrating cellular infiltration during a cell-mediated immune (CMI) reaction. TCA3, a C-C chemokine, is produced by Ag-activated T cells and is chemotactic for neutrophils and macrophages, two cell types in a murine CMI reaction. Using a gelatin sponge model for delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), we show that TCA3 is a component of the expression phase of an anticryptococcal CMI response in mice. TCA3 mRNA levels are augmented in anticryptococcal DTH reactions at the same time peak influxes of neutrophils and lymphocytes are observed. Neutralization of TCA3 in immunized mice results in reduced numbers of neutrophils and lymphocytes at DTH reaction sites. However, when rTCA3 is injected into sponges in naive mice, only neutrophils are attracted into the sponges, indicating TCA3 is chemotactic for neutrophils, but not lymphocytes. We show that TCA3 is indirectly attracting lymphocytes into DTH-reactive sponges by affecting at least one other chemokine that is chemotactic for lymphocytes. Of the two lymphocyte-attracting chemokines assessed, monocyte-chemotactic protein-1 and macrophage-inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha), only MIP-1alpha was reduced when TCA3 was neutralized, indicating that TCA3 affects the levels of MIP-1alpha, which attracts lymphocytes into the sponges. TCA3 also plays a role in protection against Cryptococcus neoformans in the lungs and brains of infected mice, as evidenced by the fact that neutralization of TCA3 results in increased C. neoformans CFU in those two organs.  (+info)

Sequence polymorphisms in the chemokines Scya1 (TCA-3), Scya2 (monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1), and Scya12 (MCP-5) are candidates for eae7, a locus controlling susceptibility to monophasic remitting/nonrelapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. (2/82)

Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), the principal animal model of multiple sclerosis, is genetically controlled. To date, 13 disease-modifying loci have been identified in the mouse by whole genome scanning using an F2 intercross between EAE-susceptible SJL/J and EAE-resistant B10.S/DvTe mice. Two quantitative trait loci (QTL), eae6 and eae7, on chromosome 11 were identified by classical marker-specific linkage analysis and interval mapping. Both QTL were reported to be associated with severity and duration of clinical signs. eae7 was subsequently shown to be a unique locus controlling the development of monophasic remitting/nonrelapsing EAE. In this study, composite interval mapping resolved eae6 into two linked QTL: eae6a at 0-13 cM is associated with disease severity, and eae6b at 19-28 cM associated with the duration of clinical signs. Additionally, composite interval mapping significantly refined the locations of eae6a, eae6b, and eae7, thereby facilitating systematic candidate gene screening by cDNA sequencing of SJL/J and B10.S/DvTe alleles. Sequence polymorphisms were not seen in Lif and IL12 beta, candidate genes for eae6a and eae6b, respectively. Similarly, cDNA sequence polymorphisms in Nos2, Scya3, Scya4, Scya5, Scya6, Scya7, Scya9, Scya10, and Scya11 were excluded as candidates for eae7. However, multiple sequence polymorphisms resulting in significant amino acid substitutions were identified in Scya1 (TCA-3), Scya2 (monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1), and Scya12 (MCP-5). Given the role of chemokines in EAE, these sequence polymorphisms are promising candidates for eae7, a locus associated with severity of clinical signs and susceptibility to the shorter, less severe monophasic remitting/nonrelapsing form of disease.  (+info)

IFN-gamma shapes immune invasion of the central nervous system via regulation of chemokines. (3/82)

Dynamic interplay between cytokines and chemokines directs trafficking of leukocyte subpopulations to tissues in autoimmune inflammation. We have examined the role of IFN-gamma in directing chemokine production and leukocyte infiltration to the CNS in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice are resistant to induction of EAE by immunization with myelin basic protein. However, IFN-gamma-deficient (BALB/c) and IFN-gammaR-deficient (C57BL/6) mice developed rapidly progressing lethal disease. Widespread demyelination and disseminated leukocytic infiltration of spinal cord were seen, unlike the focal perivascular infiltrates in SJL/J mice. Gr-1+ neutrophils predominated in CNS, and CD4+ T cells with an activated (CD69+, CD25+) phenotype and eosinophils were also present. RANTES and macrophage chemoattractant protein-1, normally up-regulated in EAE, were undetectable in IFN-gamma- and IFN-gammaR-deficient mice. Macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and T cell activation gene-3, both neutrophil-attracting chemokines, were strongly up-regulated. There was no induction of the Th2 cytokines, IL-4, IL-10, or IL-13. RNase protection assays and RT-PCR showed the prevalence of IL-2, IL-3, and IL-15, but no increase in IL-12p40 mRNA levels in IFN-gamma- or IFN-gammaR-deficient mice with EAE. Lymph node cells from IFN-gamma-deficient mice proliferated in response to myelin basic protein, whereas BALB/c lymph node cells did not. These findings show a regulatory role for IFN-gamma in EAE, acting on T cell proliferation and directing chemokine production, with profound implications for the onset and progression of disease.  (+info)

Human NK cells express CC chemokine receptors 4 and 8 and respond to thymus and activation-regulated chemokine, macrophage-derived chemokine, and I-309. (4/82)

NK cells respond to various chemokines, suggesting that they express receptors for these chemokines. In this paper, we show that IL-2-activated NK (IANK) cells express CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4) and CCR8, as determined by flow cytometric, immunoblot, and RNase protection assays. Macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC), the ligand for CCR4, induces the phosphorylation of CCR4 within 0.5 min of activating IANK cells with this ligand. This is corroborated with the recruitment of G protein-coupled receptor kinases 2 and 3 and their association with CCR4 in IANK cell membranes. Also, CCR4 is internalized between 5 and 45 min but reappears in the membranes after 60 min of stimulation with MDC. MDC, thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC), and I-309 induce the chemotaxis of IANK cells, an activity that is inhibited upon pretreatment of these cells with pertussis toxin, suggesting that receptors for these chemokines are coupled to pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins. In the calcium release assay, cross-desensitization experiments showed that TARC completely desensitizes the calcium flux response induced by MDC or I-309, whereas both MDC and I-309 partially desensitize the calcium flux response induced by TARC. These results suggest that TARC utilizes CCR4 and CCR8. Our results are the first to show that IL-2-activated NK cells express CCR4 and CCR8, suggesting that these receptors are not exclusive for Th2 cells.  (+info)

Respiratory syncytial virus G and/or SH glycoproteins modify CC and CXC chemokine mRNA expression in the BALB/c mouse. (5/82)

Chemokine mRNA expression by pulmonary leukocytes following infection of BALB/c mice with two strains of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and one strain of parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV-3) was determined. The results suggest that RSV G and/or SH proteins inhibit early MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, MIP-2, MCP-1, and IP-10 mRNA expression. TCA-3 mRNA expression was found to be increased during PIV-3 infection.  (+info)

CCR8 on human thymocytes functions as a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 coreceptor. (6/82)

To determine whether human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) coreceptors besides CXCR4 and CCR5 are involved in HIV-1 infection of the thymus, we focused on CCR8, a receptor for the chemokine I-309, because of its high expression in the thymus. Similar levels of CCR8 mRNA were detected in immature and mature primary human thymocytes. Consistent with this, [(125)I]I-309 was shown to bind specifically and with similar affinity to the surface of immature and mature human thymocytes. Fusion of human thymocytes with cells expressing HIV-1 X4 or X4R5 envelope glycoprotein was inhibited by I-309 in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, I-309 partially inhibited productive infection of human thymocytes by X4, R5, and X4R5 HIV-1 strains. Our data provide the first evidence that CCR8 functions as an HIV-1 coreceptor on primary human cells and suggest that CCR8 may contribute to HIV-1-induced thymic pathogenesis.  (+info)

CC chemokine I-309 is the principal monocyte chemoattractant induced by apolipoprotein(a) in human vascular endothelial cells. (7/82)

BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is a risk factor for atherosclerosis; however, the mechanisms are unclear. We previously reported that Lp(a) stimulated human vascular endothelial cells to produce monocyte chemotactic activity. The apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)] portion of Lp(a) was the active moiety. METHODS AND RESULTS: We now describe the identification of the chemotactic activity as being due to the CC chemokine I-309. The carboxy-terminal domain of apo(a) containing 6 type-4 kringles (types 5 to 10), kringle V, and the protease domain was demonstrated to contain the I-309-inducing portion. Polyclonal and monoclonal anti-I-309 antibodies as well as an antibody against a portion of the extracellular domain of CCR8, the I-309 receptor, inhibited the increase in monocyte chemotactic activity induced by apo(a). I-309 antisense oligonucleotides also inhibited the induction of endothelial monocyte chemotactic activity by apo(a). I-309 mRNA was identified in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Apo(a) induced an increase in I-309 protein in the endothelial cytoplasm and in the conditioned medium. Immunohistochemical studies have identified I-309 in endothelium, macrophages, and extracellular areas of human atherosclerotic plaques and have found that I-309 colocalized with apo(a). CONCLUSIONS: These data establish that I-309 is responsible for the monocyte chemotactic activity induced in human umbilical vein endothelial cells by Lp(a). The identification of the endothelial cell as a source for I-309 suggests that this chemokine may participate in vessel wall biology. Our data also suggest that I-309 may play a role in mediating the effects of Lp(a) in atherosclerosis.  (+info)

I-309 binds to and activates endothelial cell functions and acts as an angiogenic molecule in vivo. (8/82)

Several chemokines have been shown to act as angiogenic molecules or to modulate the activity of growth factors such as fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The detection of the CC chemokine receptor (CCR) 8 message in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and RNase protection assay (RPA), prompted us to investigate the potential role exerted by the CC chemokine I-309, a known ligand of such receptor, in both in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis assays. We show here that I-309 binds to endothelial cells, stimulates chemotaxis and invasion of these cells, and enhances HUVEC differentiation into capillary-like structures in an in vitro Matrigel assay. Furthermore, I-309 is an inducer of angiogenesis in vivo in both the rabbit cornea and the chick chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM).  (+info)

*Tumor necrosis factor alpha

positive regulation of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 production. • positive regulation of JUN kinase activity. • positive ... positive regulation of chemokine production. • cellular extravasation. • negative regulation of lipid storage. • negative ... positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • epithelial cell proliferation involved in salivary gland morphogenesis ... Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...

*Lymphokine

Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...

*TRAIL

Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...

*Interleukin 24

Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...

*CD154

... as well as chemokine and cytokine production, and expression of adhesion molecules such as E-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1. This ... Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...

*Interferon gamma

positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • regulation of insulin secretion. • extrinsic apoptotic signaling ... Copeland KF (2006). "Modulation of HIV-1 transcription by cytokines and chemokines". Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry. 5 (12 ... Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...

*Growth factor

Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...

*IL36B

Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...

*CXCL11

chemokine activity. • cytokine activity. • heparin binding. • protein binding. • CXCR3 chemokine receptor binding. ... C-X-C motif chemokine 11 is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also called Interferon-inducible T- ... "Entrez Gene: CXCL11 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11".. *^ a b Cole KE, Strick CA, Paradis TJ, Ogborne KT, Loetscher M, Gladue ... This chemokine elicits its effects on its target cells by interacting with the cell surface chemokine receptor CXCR3, with a ...

*Interferon alfa-2b

Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...

*4-1BB ligand

Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...

*CCR8 (gene)

"The assignment of chemokine-chemokine receptor pairs: TARC and MIP-1 beta are not ligands for human CC-chemokine receptor 8". ... The ligand of the CCR8 is CCL1. CCL8 also functions as a CCR8 agonist. Studies of this receptor and its ligands suggested its ... "The assignment of chemokine-chemokine receptor pairs: TARC and MIP-1 beta are not ligands for human CC-chemokine receptor 8". ... This gene is located at the chemokine receptor gene cluster region. CC chemokine receptors GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...

*Interleukin 31

IL-31 plays a role in this disease by inducing chemokine genes CCL1, CCL17, and CCL22. The chemokines transcribed from these ...

*Index of immunology articles

... immunology Cancer immunoprevention Cancer immunotherapy Cantuzumab ravtansine Cathelicidin CC chemokine receptors CCBP2 CCL1 ... C-C chemokine receptor type 6 C-C chemokine receptor type 7 Calreticulin Cancer ... CD4 CD4+ T cells and antitumor immunity CD74 CD94/NKG2 Cell-mediated immunity CELSR1 Central tolerance Chemokine Chemokine ... CR6261 CroFab Cross-presentation Cross-reactivity Cryptic self epitopes Cryptotope CX3CL1 CX3CR1 CXC chemokine receptors CXCL1 ...

*Chromosome 17 (human)

Several CC chemokines: CCL1, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL7, CCL8, CCL11, CCL13, CCL14, CCL15, CCL16, CCL18, and CCL23 The ... C-C motif chemokine ligand 4 like 1 (17q12) DDX52: DExD-box helicase 52 (17q12) ERBB2 loca leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2, ...

*CCL1

Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 1 (CCL1) is a small glycoprotein secreted by activated T cells that belongs to a family ... CCL1 attracts monocytes, NK cells, and immature B cells and dendritic cells by interacting with a cell surface chemokine ... This chemokine resides in a large cluster of CC chemokines on human chromosome 17. Miller MD, Krangel MS (April 1992). "The ... the receptor for the human CC chemokine I-309". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (28): 17251-4. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.28.17251. PMID 9211859. ...

*Chemokine

C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... CCL1 for the ligand 1 of the CC-family of chemokines, and CCR1 for its respective receptor. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) ... The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other chemokines in that it has ... CXCR that bind CXC chemokines, CCR that bind CC chemokines, CX3CR1 that binds the sole CX3C chemokine (CX3CL1), and XCR1 that ...

*CCL1 - Википедија, слободна енциклопедија

... the receptor for the human CC chemokine I-309". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (28): 17251-4. PMID 9211859.. ... CCL1 privlači monocite, NK ćelije, nezrele B ćelije i dendritske ćelije putem interakcije sa hemokin receptorom na površini ... Преузето из „https://sr.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=CCL1&oldid=12335510" ...

*C-C chemokine receptor type 6

chemokine receptor activity. • receptor activity. • protein binding. • C-C chemokine receptor activity. • C-C chemokine binding ... Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene.[5] CCR6 ... "Entrez Gene: CCR6 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 6".. *^ Wang K, Zhang H, Kugathasan S, Annese V, Bradfield JP, Russell RK, ... "Chemokine Receptors: CCR6". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ...

*CC chemokine receptors

The ligands for this receptor are CCL1 and CCL16. CCR9 was previously called orphan receptor GPR 9-6 and is very highly ... The CC chemokine receptors all work by activating the G protein Gi. CCR1 was the first CC chemokine receptor identified and ... The orphan chemokine receptor G protein-coupled receptor-2 (GPR-2, CCR10) binds the skin-associated chemokine CCL27 (CTACK/ALP/ ... Human CC chemokine liver-expressed chemokine/CCL16 is a functional ligand for CCR1, CCR2 and CCR5, and constitutively expressed ...

*Chemokine

C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... C chemokinesEdit. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other ... CC chemokinesEdit. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins have two adjacent cysteines (amino acids), near their amino ... CXC chemokinesEdit. The two N-terminal cysteines of CXC chemokines (or α-chemokines) are separated by one amino acid, ...

*Chromosome 17

Several CC chemokines: CCL1, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL7, CCL8, CCL11, CCL13, CCL14, CCL15, CCL16, CCL18, and CCL23 ...

*CCL18

Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 18 (CCL18) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family. The functions of CCL18 have ... Furthermore, CCL18 binding is competitive with CCR8's previously described ligand, CCL1, further suggesting that CCL18 binds ... It was previously known as Pulmonary and activation-regulated chemokine (PARC), dendritic cell (DC)-chemokine 1 (DC-CK1), ... Chemokines are classed as a special type of cytokine that is involved in immune cell trafficking. CCL18 in particular has some ...

*साँचा:Cytokines - विकिपीडिया

Chemokine. CCL. CCL1 · CCL2 · CCL3 · CCL4 · CCL5 · CCL6 · CCL7 · CCL8 · CCL9 · CCL11 · CCL12 · CCL13 · CCL14 · CCL15 · CCL16 · ...

*Interleukin 8 receptor, alpha

C-X-C chemokine receptor activity. • interleukin-8 binding. • G-protein coupled receptor activity. • chemokine receptor ... This name and the corresponding gene symbol IL8RA have been replaced by the HGNC approved name C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 1 ... "Chemokine Receptors: CXCR1". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ... chemokine-mediated signaling pathway. • interleukin-8-mediated signaling pathway. • neutrophil degranulation. • chemotaxis. ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 1 (CCL1) is a small glycoprotein secreted by activated T cells that belongs to a family inflammatory cytokines known as chemokines. CCL1 attracts monocytes, NK cells, and immature B cells and dendritic cells by interacting with a cell surface chemokine receptor called CCR8. This chemokine resides in a large cluster of CC chemokines on human chromosome 17. Miller MD, Krangel MS (April 1992). "The human cytokine I-309 is a monocyte chemoattractant". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89 (7): 2950-4. doi:10.1073/pnas.89.7.2950. PMC 48781 . PMID 1557400. Roos RS, Loetscher M, Legler DF, Clark-Lewis I, Baggiolini M, Moser B (July 1997). "Identification of CCR8, the receptor for the human CC chemokine I-309". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (28): 17251-4. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.28.17251. PMID 9211859 ...
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Nicotiana tabacum TCA-1 protein: a tobacco nuclear protein; MW 40 kDa; salicylic acid induces binding to a 10 bp sequence which is highly conserved amongst stress-inducible genes; aa sequence has been determined
I-309兔多克隆抗体(ab97320)可与人样本反应并经WB实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
Transcription factor that recognizes and binds to the enhancer heptamer motif 5-TGA[CG]TCA-3. Promotes activity of NR5A1 when phosphorylated by HIPK3 leading to increased steroidogenic gene expression upon cAMP signaling pathway stimulation ...
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RayBio|sup|®|/sup| C-Series Human Chemokine Antibody Array 1 Kit. Detects 38 Human Chemokines. Suitable for all liquid sample types.
Looking for online definition of SCYA18 in the Medical Dictionary? SCYA18 explanation free. What is SCYA18? Meaning of SCYA18 medical term. What does SCYA18 mean?
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Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 26 (CCL26) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family that is also called Eotaxin-3, Macrophage inflammatory protein 4-alpha (MIP-4-alpha), Thymic stroma chemokine-1 (TSC-1), and IMAC. It is expressed by several tissues including heart, lung and ovary, and in endothelial cells that have been stimulated with the cytokine interleukin 4. CCL26 is chemotactic for eosinophils and basophils and elicits its effects by binding to the cell surface chemokine receptor CCR3. This gene for chemokine is located on human chromosome 7. Shinkai et al. A novel human CC chemokine, eotaxin-3, which is expressed in IL-4-stimulated vascular endothelial cells, exhibits potent activity toward eosinophils. J. Immunol. 163:1602-1610, 1999. Guo et al. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel human CC chemokine, SCYA26. Genomics 58:313-317, 1999. Kitaura et al. Molecular cloning of a novel human CC chemokine (Eotaxin-3) that is a functional ligand of CC chemokine receptor ...
Recombinant Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 17 (CCL17) 蛋白. 宿主: 人. 宿主: 大肠杆菌(E. Coli). 产品编号 ABIN2469118.
Recombinant human CCL22/MDC, fused to His-tag at N-terminus, was expressed as insoluble protein aggregate inE.coliand purified by conventional chromatography, after refolding of the isolated inclusion bodies in a renaturation buffer. MW =10.3 kDa (90aa).
Reaktivität: Meerschweinchen - Probe: Serum, Cell Culture Supernatant. | Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 8 (CCL8) ELISA Kit (ABIN628807).
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Fast, simple luminescent calcium flux assays using an AequoScreen cell line stably-transfected with human chemokine XCR1 receptor.
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Abstract 4368: Tumor cell entry into the lymph node is controlled by CCL1 chemokine expressed by lymph node lymphatic sinuses |...Abstract 4368: Tumor cell entry into the lymph node is controlled by CCL1 chemokine expressed by lymph node lymphatic sinuses |...

Abstract 4368: Tumor cell entry into the lymph node is controlled by CCL1 chemokine expressed by lymph node lymphatic sinuses. ... Abstract 4368: Tumor cell entry into the lymph node is controlled by CCL1 chemokine expressed by lymph node lymphatic sinuses ... Abstract 4368: Tumor cell entry into the lymph node is controlled by CCL1 chemokine expressed by lymph node lymphatic sinuses ... Abstract 4368: Tumor cell entry into the lymph node is controlled by CCL1 chemokine expressed by lymph node lymphatic sinuses ...
more infohttp://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/72/8_Supplement/4368

ccl1 Protein, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 1 - Creative BioMartccl1 Protein, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 1 - Creative BioMart

... is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that was previously called GRO1 oncogene, GROα, KC, Neutrophil- ... CCL1-19H. Recombinant Human CCL1, Fc tagged. HEK293. Human. Fc. +Inquiry. CCL1-605H. Recombinant Human CCL1 protein. E.coli. ... Ccl1-621M. Recombinant Mouse Ccl1, Fc tagged. HEK293. Mouse. Fc. +Inquiry. CCL1-678R. Recombinant Rhesus monkey CCL1 Protein, ... Recombinant Human CCL1, His-tagged. E. coli. Human. His. +Inquiry. CCL1-29H. Recombinant Human Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 1. ...
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Differential regulation of chemokine production by Fcgamma receptor engagement in human monocytes: association of CCL1 with a...Differential regulation of chemokine production by Fcgamma receptor engagement in human monocytes: association of CCL1 with a...

CCL1; I-309) is a CC chemokine that interacts with CC chemokine receptor 8, which is preferentially expressed in polarized T ... Thus, CCL1 is a CC chemokine with a unique pattern of regulation associated with a distinct form of M2 (Type 2, M2b) monocyte ... CCL1 was present in synovial fluids and macrophages in juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Thus, regulation of CCL1 in human ... was designed to characterize the production of CCL1 in monocytes compared with the production of other chemokines (CCL2, CCL22 ...
more infohttps://www.ndorms.ox.ac.uk/publications/544778

CCL1 Gene - GeneCards | CCL1 Protein | CCL1 AntibodyCCL1 Gene - GeneCards | CCL1 Protein | CCL1 Antibody

C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The ... GeneCards Summary for CCL1 Gene CCL1 (C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with CCL1 ... Animal Models for CCL1 Gene. MGI Knock Outs for CCL1:. * Ccl1 Ccl1,tm1Sman, ... Evolution for CCL1 Gene. ENSEMBL:. Gene Tree for CCL1 (if available). TreeFam:. Gene Tree for CCL1 (if available). Aminode:. ...
more infohttps://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=CCL1&keywords=GH17J034200&prefilter=genomic_location

Tumor necrosis factor alpha - WikipediaTumor necrosis factor alpha - Wikipedia

positive regulation of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 production. • positive regulation of JUN kinase activity. • positive ... positive regulation of chemokine production. • cellular extravasation. • negative regulation of lipid storage. • negative ... positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • epithelial cell proliferation involved in salivary gland morphogenesis ... Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TNF-alpha

Lymphokine - WikipediaLymphokine - Wikipedia

Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lymphokine

Porcine CCL1 (Chemokine C-C-Motif Ligand 1) ELISA Kit Manufacturers in DelhiPorcine CCL1 (Chemokine C-C-Motif Ligand 1) ELISA Kit Manufacturers in Delhi

Chemokine C-C-Motif Ligand 1) ELISA Kit OSCAR DIAGNOSTIC SERVICES PVT. LTD.is an India based Company in Delhi. ... Porcine CCL1 (Chemokine C-C-Motif Ligand 1) ELISA Kit » Porcine CCL1 (Chemokine C-C-Motif Ligand 1) ELISA Kit. Porcine CCL1 ( ... Porcine CCL1 (Chemokine C-C-Motif Ligand 1) ELISA Kit. Porcine CCL1 (Chemokine C-C-Motif Ligand 1) ELISA Kit. Porcine CCL1 ( ... Porcine CCL1 (Chemokine C-C-Motif Ligand 1) ELISA Kit. Porcine CCL1 (Chemokine C-C-Motif Ligand 1) ELISA Kit. Porcine CCL1 ( ...
more infohttps://www.odspl.com/sub-product/Porcine+CCL1+%28Chemokine+C-C-Motif+Ligand+1%29+ELISA+Kit.php

Vaccines  | Free Full-Text | Chemokines as Cancer Vaccine Adjuvants | HTMLVaccines | Free Full-Text | Chemokines as Cancer Vaccine Adjuvants | HTML

This review will focus on recent murine and human studies that use chemokines as therapeutic anti-cancer vaccine adjuvants. ... Recent discoveries in the many biological roles of chemokines in tumor immunology allow their exploitation in enhancing ... This knowledge, combined with advances in gene therapy and virology, allows researchers to employ chemokines as potential ... CCL1. I-309. CCR8. inflammatory and angiogenic. CCL2. MCP-1/MCAF/TDCF. CCR2. inflammatory and angiogenic. ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/2076-393X/1/4/444/htm

Plasma chemokines are biomarkers of disease severity, higher bacterial burden and delayed sputum culture conversion in...Plasma chemokines are biomarkers of disease severity, higher bacterial burden and delayed sputum culture conversion in...

PTB individuals with bilateral or cavitary disease displayed significantly elevated levels of CCL1, CCL3, CXCL1, CXCL10 and ... Whether chemokines can perform the same role in PTB is not known. We examined the plasma levels of chemokines in individuals ... Finally, the chemokines were significantly reduced following successful ATT. Our data demonstrate that PTB is associated with ... We also examined the chemokines in PTB individuals at the end of anti-tuberculous chemotherapy (ATT). PTB individuals exhibited ...
more infohttps://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-54803-w?error=cookies_not_supported&code=839fa44a-57ea-4749-9d84-deb7d6dc2491

Chemokine - WikipediaChemokine - Wikipedia

C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... C chemokinesEdit. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other ... CC chemokinesEdit. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins have two adjacent cysteines (amino acids), near their amino ... CXC chemokinesEdit. The two N-terminal cysteines of CXC chemokines (or α-chemokines) are separated by one amino acid, ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemokines

Anti-I-309 antibody (ab109788) | AbcamAnti-I-309 antibody (ab109788) | Abcam

CCL1_HUMAN antibody. *Chemokine CC Motif Ligand 1 antibody. *inflammatory cytokine I-309 antibody ... Amino-terminal extension of CCL1 by a single amino acid generates a partial agonist.. J Biol Chem 281:36652-61 (2006). Read ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.com/i-309-antibody-ab109788.html

Chemokine Levels in Subretinal Fluid Obtained during Scleral Buckling Surgery after Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment | IOVS |...Chemokine Levels in Subretinal Fluid Obtained during Scleral Buckling Surgery after Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment | IOVS |...

CCL1. I-309. CCR8. T, NK. ND. CCL2. MCP-1. CCR2, CCR10. M, m, T, NK, b. 900 ± 132. 6,101 (128-8,777). 2,740 ± 2,460. 890 (286- ... the CXC chemokines CXCL8, CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL12; and CX3CL1. This set represented all chemokines present in the chemokine ... CCL1. I-309. CCR8. T, NK. ND. CCL2. MCP-1. CCR2, CCR10. M, m, T, NK, b. 900 ± 132. 6,101 (128-8,777). 2,740 ± 2,460. 890 (286- ... Generally, CC chemokines potently attract monocytes, T lymphocytes, eosinophils, and basophils, whereas CXC chemokines are ...
more infohttps://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2126872

Chemokines and Chemokine ReceptorsChemokines and Chemokine Receptors

Chemokines and their receptors play essential roles in immunology during inflammation and in homeostasis. ... Chemokines are a class of secreted molecules that induce chemotaxis (migration) of target cells. ... CCL1. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. a. b. b. ... Chemokine Receptor Biology poster. Order your copy of our ... Chemokines are also involved in the orchestration of wound healing.. For more information on inflammatory chemokines, see the ...
more infohttps://www.biolegend.com/en-us/chemokine-receptors

Ciliary neurotrophic factor - wikidocCiliary neurotrophic factor - wikidoc

Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
more infohttps://www.wikidoc.org/index.php/Ciliary_neurotrophic_factor

Colony-stimulating factor - wikidocColony-stimulating factor - wikidoc

Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
more infohttp://wikidoc.org/index.php/Colony-stimulating_factor

Interleukin 20 - wikidocInterleukin 20 - wikidoc

Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
more infohttp://wikidoc.org/index.php/Interleukin_20

Interleukin 7 - wikidocInterleukin 7 - wikidoc

Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
more infohttps://www.wikidoc.org/index.php/Interleukin_7

Chemotaxis research areaChemotaxis research area

Recombinant Human I-309 (CCL1). 카다로그 번호: 300-37 Subcategory: Chemokines See Pricing ... the most commonly researched inducers of chemotaxis are chemokines, or cytokines secreted by cells for the purpose of driving ... the Chemokines functioning to direct cellular movement.. Explore relevant products below. ...
more infohttps://www.peprotech.com/ko/chemotaxis

English UKEnglish UK

Recombinant Human I-309 (CCL1). Catalog Number: 300-37 Subcategory: Chemokines See Pricing ... the most commonly researched inducers of chemotaxis are chemokines, or cytokines secreted by cells for the purpose of driving ... the Chemokines functioning to direct cellular movement.. Explore relevant products below. ...
more infohttps://www.peprotech.com/gb/chemotaxis

CCL1 - Википедија, слободна енциклопедијаCCL1 - Википедија, слободна енциклопедија

... the receptor for the human CC chemokine I-309". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (28): 17251-4. PMID 9211859.. ... CCL1 privlači monocite, NK ćelije, nezrele B ćelije i dendritske ćelije putem interakcije sa hemokin receptorom na površini ... Преузето из „https://sr.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=CCL1&oldid=12335510" ...
more infohttps://sr.wikipedia.org/wiki/CCL1

US20110081408A1 - Anti-chemokine and associated receptors antibodies for inhibition of growth of neoplasms 
        - Google...US20110081408A1 - Anti-chemokine and associated receptors antibodies for inhibition of growth of neoplasms - Google...

It is possible to identify the particular chemokines which are over-expressed in the tumor using methods of the invention and ... The present invention provides a means of inhibiting the growth and metastasis of cancer cells by administering anti-chemokine ... that binds to a chemokine or chemokine receptor selected from the group consisting of CCL1, CCL4, CCL17, CCL19, CCL21, CCL22, ... that binds to a chemokine or chemokine receptor selected from the group consisting of CCL1, CCL4, CCL17, CCL19, CCL21, CCL22, ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/US20110081408A1/en
  • The present study, prompted by transcriptional profiling of human monocytes undergoing different forms of activation, was designed to characterize the production of CCL1 in monocytes compared with the production of other chemokines (CCL2, CCL22, and CCL18) differentially regulated by distinct activation signals. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Primary tumor-derived exosomal RNAs, which are enriched in small nuclear RNAs, activate TLR3 in lung epithelial cells, consequently inducing chemokine (zeige CCL1 ELISA Kits ) secretion in the lung and promoting neutrophil recruitment. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • My earlier research demonstrated that skin cells are able to recognize danger signals and upon activation keratinocytes they organize an immune response via the secretion of inflammatory mediators and chemokines. (ki.se)
  • The present invention provides a means of inhibiting the growth and metastasis of cancer cells by administering anti-chemokine antibodies. (google.com)
  • The early activation marker CD69 regulates the expression of chemokines and CD4 T cell accumulation in intestine. (nih.gov)
  • However, expression of chemokines and chemokine receptors associated with the Th1/Th2 imbalance, particularly relating to immune regulation by modified application of glucocorticoids, has yet to be explored. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is possible to identify the particular chemokines which are over-expressed in the tumor using methods of the invention and administer antibodies against that over-expressed chemokine. (google.com)
  • This invention relates to antibodies or the use of antibodies directed against certain chemokines. (google.com)
  • Once at the site of injury, immune cells can react by releasing additional cytokines and chemokines, bringing more cells into the fold. (biolegend.com)
  • Cytokines and chemokines are widely involved in cancer cell progression and thus represent promising candidate factors for new biomarkers. (hindawi.com)
  • This is the first study examining the expression of 84 cytokines and chemokines in four RCC cell lines compared to that in a nonmalignant renal cell line. (hindawi.com)
  • Among other mechanisms, cytokines and chemokines are suspected to play a crucial role in proliferation and progression of various malignancies. (hindawi.com)
  • Even though some studies suggested an impact in RCC, the role of cytokines and chemokines in RCC progression is poorly understood [ 1 , 11 , 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • After classification of the RCC cells in cell lines of high and low cell growth rates, a transcriptional profiling specific for 84 cytokines and chemokines (Table 1 ) was carried out and compared to the corresponding cell growth properties. (hindawi.com)
  • The aim of this analysis was to identify cell growth-associated cytokines and chemokines by comparison of malignant and nonmalignant expression patterns, particularly with regard to the identification of putative biomarkers for RCC progression. (hindawi.com)
  • Establishment of the TB granuloma is controlled by the synchronized expression of various chemokines. (nature.com)
  • Various chemokines and IL-6 are upregulated in patients in whom fibrotic membranes develop after primary RRD repair and may therefore be involved in the future development of postoperative PVR. (arvojournals.org)
  • There has been a great deal of work published on the induction of various chemokines and cytokines using in vitro culture systems. (asm.org)
  • There have been numerous in vitro studies showing that chlamydiae can elicit various chemokines and cytokines from tissue culture cells (reviewed in reference 19 ). (asm.org)
  • Thus, CCL1 is a CC chemokine with a unique pattern of regulation associated with a distinct form of M2 (Type 2, M2b) monocyte activation, which participates in macrophage-dependent regulatory circuits of innate and adaptive immunity. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The chemokines are labelled selectively at or near the C -terminus of the protein in a selective manner which ensures that only a single dye molecule is incorporated. (almacgroup.com)
  • Due to their function of targeting cells to specific organs, homeostatic chemokines can also be involved in cancer and metastasis. (biolegend.com)
  • In addition, chemokine receptors play a prominent role in cancer development (e.g., by inducing cellular proliferation or by modifying cellular migration patterns), resulting in cancer metastasis ( Balkwill, 2004 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • While a function of chemokines is to regulate lymphocyte trafficking, the view that chemokines act simply as "chemotactic cytokines" has evolved to include the many critical roles they play in regulating innate and adaptive immune responses. (mdpi.com)