A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR10 RECEPTORS. It is constitutively expressed in the skin and may play a role in T-CELL trafficking during cutaneous INFLAMMATION.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards TH2 CELLS and TC2 CELLS.
A CC-type chemokine that is found at high levels in the THYMUS and has specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It is synthesized by DENDRITIC CELLS; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; KERATINOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards T LYMPHOCYTES and B LYMPHOCYTES.
A CC-type chemokine that is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS; MONOCYTES; and LYMPHOCYTES. It is a potent and selective eosinophil chemotaxin that is stored in and released from PLATELETS and activated T-LYMPHOCYTES. Chemokine CCL5 is specific for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR3 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS. The acronym RANTES refers to Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR6 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS; T-LYMPHOCYTES; and B-LYMPHOCYTES.
A CC-type chemokine secreted by activated MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CCR8 RECEPTORS.
Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.
Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
A monocyte chemoattractant protein that has activity towards a broad variety of immune cell types. Chemokine CCL7 has specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR2 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS.
Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL27. They may play a specialized role in the cutaneous homing of LYMPHOCYTES.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.
CCR receptors with specificity for a broad variety of CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in MONOCYTES; tissue MACROPHAGES; NEUTROPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS.
A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON and is chemotactic for MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
A monocyte chemoattractant protein that attracts MONOCYTES; LYMPHOCYTES; BASOPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS. Chemokine CCL8 has specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS.
Chemokine receptors that are specific for CC CHEMOKINES.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL2 and several other CCL2-related chemokines. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; BASOPHILS; and NK CELLS.
A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL1. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES.
A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL17 and CHEMOKINE CCL22. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; MAST CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and NK CELLS.
Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.
A CX3C chemokine that is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells. The soluble form of chemokine CX3CL1 can be released from cell surface by proteolysis and act as a chemoattractant that may be involved in the extravasation of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. The membrane form of the protein may also play a role in cell adhesion.
Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL11 and a variety of other CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; BASOPHILS; and MAST CELLS.
An INTEFERON-inducible CXC chemokine that is specific for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.
CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON. It is a chemotactic factor for activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
A CXC chemokine that has stimulatory and chemotactic activities towards NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR1 RECEPTORS and CXCR2 RECEPTORS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
A CXC chemokine that is predominantly expressed in EPITHELIAL CELLS. It has specificity for the CXCR2 RECEPTORS and is involved in the recruitment and activation of NEUTROPHILS.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
CXCR receptors that are expressed on the surface of a number of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; NK CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and a subset of B-LYMPHOCYTES. The receptors are activated by CHEMOKINE CXCL9; CHEMOKINE CXCL10; and CHEMOKINE CXCL11.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and T-LYMPHOCYTES. These receptors also bind several other CXC CHEMOKINES.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A chronic inflammatory genetically determined disease of the skin marked by increased ability to form reagin (IgE), with increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis and asthma, and hereditary disposition to a lowered threshold for pruritus. It is manifested by lichenification, excoriation, and crusting, mainly on the flexural surfaces of the elbow and knee. In infants it is known as infantile eczema.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Chemokines that are chemoattractants for monocytes. These CC chemokines (cysteines adjacent) number at least three including CHEMOKINE CCL2.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL20. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and BASOPHILS.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Chemokine receptors that are specific for CXC CHEMOKINES.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Group of chemokines with the first two cysteines separated by three amino acids. CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural killer cells, monocytes, and activated T-cells.
CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.
Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.
Cytotaxins liberated from normal or invading cells that specifically attract eosinophils; they may be complement fragments, lymphokines, neutrophil products, histamine or other; the best known is the tetrapeptide ECF-A, released mainly by mast cells.
The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.
Unbroken cellular lining (intima) of the lymph vessels (e.g., the high endothelial lymphatic venules). It is more permeable than vascular endothelium, lacking selective absorption and functioning mainly to remove plasma proteins that have filtered through the capillaries into the tissue spaces.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.

Role of the C-C chemokine, TCA3, in the protective anticryptococcal cell-mediated immune response. (1/82)

Activated T lymphocytes play a crucial role in orchestrating cellular infiltration during a cell-mediated immune (CMI) reaction. TCA3, a C-C chemokine, is produced by Ag-activated T cells and is chemotactic for neutrophils and macrophages, two cell types in a murine CMI reaction. Using a gelatin sponge model for delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), we show that TCA3 is a component of the expression phase of an anticryptococcal CMI response in mice. TCA3 mRNA levels are augmented in anticryptococcal DTH reactions at the same time peak influxes of neutrophils and lymphocytes are observed. Neutralization of TCA3 in immunized mice results in reduced numbers of neutrophils and lymphocytes at DTH reaction sites. However, when rTCA3 is injected into sponges in naive mice, only neutrophils are attracted into the sponges, indicating TCA3 is chemotactic for neutrophils, but not lymphocytes. We show that TCA3 is indirectly attracting lymphocytes into DTH-reactive sponges by affecting at least one other chemokine that is chemotactic for lymphocytes. Of the two lymphocyte-attracting chemokines assessed, monocyte-chemotactic protein-1 and macrophage-inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha), only MIP-1alpha was reduced when TCA3 was neutralized, indicating that TCA3 affects the levels of MIP-1alpha, which attracts lymphocytes into the sponges. TCA3 also plays a role in protection against Cryptococcus neoformans in the lungs and brains of infected mice, as evidenced by the fact that neutralization of TCA3 results in increased C. neoformans CFU in those two organs.  (+info)

Sequence polymorphisms in the chemokines Scya1 (TCA-3), Scya2 (monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1), and Scya12 (MCP-5) are candidates for eae7, a locus controlling susceptibility to monophasic remitting/nonrelapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. (2/82)

Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), the principal animal model of multiple sclerosis, is genetically controlled. To date, 13 disease-modifying loci have been identified in the mouse by whole genome scanning using an F2 intercross between EAE-susceptible SJL/J and EAE-resistant B10.S/DvTe mice. Two quantitative trait loci (QTL), eae6 and eae7, on chromosome 11 were identified by classical marker-specific linkage analysis and interval mapping. Both QTL were reported to be associated with severity and duration of clinical signs. eae7 was subsequently shown to be a unique locus controlling the development of monophasic remitting/nonrelapsing EAE. In this study, composite interval mapping resolved eae6 into two linked QTL: eae6a at 0-13 cM is associated with disease severity, and eae6b at 19-28 cM associated with the duration of clinical signs. Additionally, composite interval mapping significantly refined the locations of eae6a, eae6b, and eae7, thereby facilitating systematic candidate gene screening by cDNA sequencing of SJL/J and B10.S/DvTe alleles. Sequence polymorphisms were not seen in Lif and IL12 beta, candidate genes for eae6a and eae6b, respectively. Similarly, cDNA sequence polymorphisms in Nos2, Scya3, Scya4, Scya5, Scya6, Scya7, Scya9, Scya10, and Scya11 were excluded as candidates for eae7. However, multiple sequence polymorphisms resulting in significant amino acid substitutions were identified in Scya1 (TCA-3), Scya2 (monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1), and Scya12 (MCP-5). Given the role of chemokines in EAE, these sequence polymorphisms are promising candidates for eae7, a locus associated with severity of clinical signs and susceptibility to the shorter, less severe monophasic remitting/nonrelapsing form of disease.  (+info)

IFN-gamma shapes immune invasion of the central nervous system via regulation of chemokines. (3/82)

Dynamic interplay between cytokines and chemokines directs trafficking of leukocyte subpopulations to tissues in autoimmune inflammation. We have examined the role of IFN-gamma in directing chemokine production and leukocyte infiltration to the CNS in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice are resistant to induction of EAE by immunization with myelin basic protein. However, IFN-gamma-deficient (BALB/c) and IFN-gammaR-deficient (C57BL/6) mice developed rapidly progressing lethal disease. Widespread demyelination and disseminated leukocytic infiltration of spinal cord were seen, unlike the focal perivascular infiltrates in SJL/J mice. Gr-1+ neutrophils predominated in CNS, and CD4+ T cells with an activated (CD69+, CD25+) phenotype and eosinophils were also present. RANTES and macrophage chemoattractant protein-1, normally up-regulated in EAE, were undetectable in IFN-gamma- and IFN-gammaR-deficient mice. Macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and T cell activation gene-3, both neutrophil-attracting chemokines, were strongly up-regulated. There was no induction of the Th2 cytokines, IL-4, IL-10, or IL-13. RNase protection assays and RT-PCR showed the prevalence of IL-2, IL-3, and IL-15, but no increase in IL-12p40 mRNA levels in IFN-gamma- or IFN-gammaR-deficient mice with EAE. Lymph node cells from IFN-gamma-deficient mice proliferated in response to myelin basic protein, whereas BALB/c lymph node cells did not. These findings show a regulatory role for IFN-gamma in EAE, acting on T cell proliferation and directing chemokine production, with profound implications for the onset and progression of disease.  (+info)

Human NK cells express CC chemokine receptors 4 and 8 and respond to thymus and activation-regulated chemokine, macrophage-derived chemokine, and I-309. (4/82)

NK cells respond to various chemokines, suggesting that they express receptors for these chemokines. In this paper, we show that IL-2-activated NK (IANK) cells express CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4) and CCR8, as determined by flow cytometric, immunoblot, and RNase protection assays. Macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC), the ligand for CCR4, induces the phosphorylation of CCR4 within 0.5 min of activating IANK cells with this ligand. This is corroborated with the recruitment of G protein-coupled receptor kinases 2 and 3 and their association with CCR4 in IANK cell membranes. Also, CCR4 is internalized between 5 and 45 min but reappears in the membranes after 60 min of stimulation with MDC. MDC, thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC), and I-309 induce the chemotaxis of IANK cells, an activity that is inhibited upon pretreatment of these cells with pertussis toxin, suggesting that receptors for these chemokines are coupled to pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins. In the calcium release assay, cross-desensitization experiments showed that TARC completely desensitizes the calcium flux response induced by MDC or I-309, whereas both MDC and I-309 partially desensitize the calcium flux response induced by TARC. These results suggest that TARC utilizes CCR4 and CCR8. Our results are the first to show that IL-2-activated NK cells express CCR4 and CCR8, suggesting that these receptors are not exclusive for Th2 cells.  (+info)

Respiratory syncytial virus G and/or SH glycoproteins modify CC and CXC chemokine mRNA expression in the BALB/c mouse. (5/82)

Chemokine mRNA expression by pulmonary leukocytes following infection of BALB/c mice with two strains of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and one strain of parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV-3) was determined. The results suggest that RSV G and/or SH proteins inhibit early MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, MIP-2, MCP-1, and IP-10 mRNA expression. TCA-3 mRNA expression was found to be increased during PIV-3 infection.  (+info)

CCR8 on human thymocytes functions as a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 coreceptor. (6/82)

To determine whether human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) coreceptors besides CXCR4 and CCR5 are involved in HIV-1 infection of the thymus, we focused on CCR8, a receptor for the chemokine I-309, because of its high expression in the thymus. Similar levels of CCR8 mRNA were detected in immature and mature primary human thymocytes. Consistent with this, [(125)I]I-309 was shown to bind specifically and with similar affinity to the surface of immature and mature human thymocytes. Fusion of human thymocytes with cells expressing HIV-1 X4 or X4R5 envelope glycoprotein was inhibited by I-309 in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, I-309 partially inhibited productive infection of human thymocytes by X4, R5, and X4R5 HIV-1 strains. Our data provide the first evidence that CCR8 functions as an HIV-1 coreceptor on primary human cells and suggest that CCR8 may contribute to HIV-1-induced thymic pathogenesis.  (+info)

CC chemokine I-309 is the principal monocyte chemoattractant induced by apolipoprotein(a) in human vascular endothelial cells. (7/82)

BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is a risk factor for atherosclerosis; however, the mechanisms are unclear. We previously reported that Lp(a) stimulated human vascular endothelial cells to produce monocyte chemotactic activity. The apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)] portion of Lp(a) was the active moiety. METHODS AND RESULTS: We now describe the identification of the chemotactic activity as being due to the CC chemokine I-309. The carboxy-terminal domain of apo(a) containing 6 type-4 kringles (types 5 to 10), kringle V, and the protease domain was demonstrated to contain the I-309-inducing portion. Polyclonal and monoclonal anti-I-309 antibodies as well as an antibody against a portion of the extracellular domain of CCR8, the I-309 receptor, inhibited the increase in monocyte chemotactic activity induced by apo(a). I-309 antisense oligonucleotides also inhibited the induction of endothelial monocyte chemotactic activity by apo(a). I-309 mRNA was identified in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Apo(a) induced an increase in I-309 protein in the endothelial cytoplasm and in the conditioned medium. Immunohistochemical studies have identified I-309 in endothelium, macrophages, and extracellular areas of human atherosclerotic plaques and have found that I-309 colocalized with apo(a). CONCLUSIONS: These data establish that I-309 is responsible for the monocyte chemotactic activity induced in human umbilical vein endothelial cells by Lp(a). The identification of the endothelial cell as a source for I-309 suggests that this chemokine may participate in vessel wall biology. Our data also suggest that I-309 may play a role in mediating the effects of Lp(a) in atherosclerosis.  (+info)

I-309 binds to and activates endothelial cell functions and acts as an angiogenic molecule in vivo. (8/82)

Several chemokines have been shown to act as angiogenic molecules or to modulate the activity of growth factors such as fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The detection of the CC chemokine receptor (CCR) 8 message in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and RNase protection assay (RPA), prompted us to investigate the potential role exerted by the CC chemokine I-309, a known ligand of such receptor, in both in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis assays. We show here that I-309 binds to endothelial cells, stimulates chemotaxis and invasion of these cells, and enhances HUVEC differentiation into capillary-like structures in an in vitro Matrigel assay. Furthermore, I-309 is an inducer of angiogenesis in vivo in both the rabbit cornea and the chick chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM).  (+info)

Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 1 (CCL1) is a small glycoprotein secreted by activated T cells that belongs to a family inflammatory cytokines known as chemokines. CCL1 attracts monocytes, NK cells, and immature B cells and dendritic cells by interacting with a cell surface chemokine receptor called CCR8. This chemokine resides in a large cluster of CC chemokines on human chromosome 17. Miller MD, Krangel MS (April 1992). The human cytokine I-309 is a monocyte chemoattractant. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89 (7): 2950-4. doi:10.1073/pnas.89.7.2950. PMC 48781 . PMID 1557400. Roos RS, Loetscher M, Legler DF, Clark-Lewis I, Baggiolini M, Moser B (July 1997). Identification of CCR8, the receptor for the human CC chemokine I-309. J. Biol. Chem. 272 (28): 17251-4. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.28.17251. PMID 9211859 ...
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Nicotiana tabacum TCA-1 protein: a tobacco nuclear protein; MW 40 kDa; salicylic acid induces binding to a 10 bp sequence which is highly conserved amongst stress-inducible genes; aa sequence has been determined
We previously reported the isolation and characterization of a cDNA clone, I-309, that encodes a small secreted protein produced by activated human T lymphocytes. This protein is structurally related to a large number of recently identified proteins that are secreted upon cellular activation. In this report we describe the isolation and characterization of the gene encoding I-309. The genomic organization is essentially identical to that found in the genes encoding the structurally similar proteins TCA-3, hJE/MCP-1, and mJE, strengthening the hypothesis that these genes are evolutionarily related. The region of the I-309 gene 5 of the mRNA cap site exhibits extensive nucleotide sequence homology with the same region of the murine gene TCA-3, providing additional evidence that I-309 and TCA-3 are likely to be homologs. Finally, panels of rodent-human somatic cell hybrids were used to map the I-309 gene to human chromosome 17. In conjunction with recent mapping data from other laboratories, this ...
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Transcription factor that recognizes and binds to the enhancer heptamer motif 5-TGA[CG]TCA-3. Promotes activity of NR5A1 when phosphorylated by HIPK3 leading to increased steroidogenic gene expression upon cAMP signaling pathway stimulation ...
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White JR, Imburgia C, Dul E, Appelbaum E, ODonnell K, OShannessy DJ, Brawner M, Fornwald J, Adamou J, Elshourbagy NA, Kaiser K, Foley JJ, Schmidt DB, Johanson K, Macphee C, Moores K, McNulty D, Scott GF, Schleimer RP, Sarau HM (1997). „Cloning and functional characterization of a novel human CC chemokine that binds to the CCR3 receptor and activates human eosinophils. J. Leukoc. Biol. 62 (5): 667-75. PMID 9365122 ...
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This line was initiated in 1972 by D.J. Giard, et al. through explant culture of lung carcinomatous tissue from a 58-year-old Caucasian male.
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Определение направления окислительно-восстановительных реакций. «Элемент Даниэля»
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 26 (CCL26) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family that is also called Eotaxin-3, Macrophage inflammatory protein 4-alpha (MIP-4-alpha), Thymic stroma chemokine-1 (TSC-1), and IMAC. It is expressed by several tissues including heart, lung and ovary, and in endothelial cells that have been stimulated with the cytokine interleukin 4. CCL26 is chemotactic for eosinophils and basophils and elicits its effects by binding to the cell surface chemokine receptor CCR3. This gene for chemokine is located on human chromosome 7. Shinkai et al. A novel human CC chemokine, eotaxin-3, which is expressed in IL-4-stimulated vascular endothelial cells, exhibits potent activity toward eosinophils. J. Immunol. 163:1602-1610, 1999. Guo et al. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel human CC chemokine, SCYA26. Genomics 58:313-317, 1999. Kitaura et al. Molecular cloning of a novel human CC chemokine (Eotaxin-3) that is a functional ligand of CC chemokine receptor ...
White JR, Imburgia C, Dul E, Appelbaum E, ODonnell K, OShannessy DJ, Brawner M, Fornwald J, Adamou J, Elshourbagy NA, Kaiser K, Foley JJ, Schmidt DB, Johanson K, Macphee C, Moores K, McNulty D, Scott GF, Schleimer RP, Sarau HM (November 1997). Cloning and functional characterization of a novel human CC chemokine that binds to the CCR3 receptor and activates human eosinophils. J. Leukoc. Biol. 62 (5): 667-75. PMID 9365122. Cite uses deprecated parameter ...
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Recombinant human CCL22/MDC, fused to His-tag at N-terminus, was expressed as insoluble protein aggregate inE.coliand purified by conventional chromatography, after refolding of the isolated inclusion bodies in a renaturation buffer. MW =10.3 kDa (90aa).
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This graph shows the total number of publications written about Chemokine CCL4 by people in this website by year, and whether Chemokine CCL4 was a major or minor topic of these publications ...
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Fast, simple luminescent calcium flux assays using an AequoScreen cell line stably-transfected with human chemokine XCR1 receptor.
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Chemokine CCL11; CCL11 Chemokine. On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from either several symptoms or a full patient history. A similarity measure between symptoms and diseases is provided.
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positive regulation of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 production. • positive regulation of JUN kinase activity. • positive ... positive regulation of chemokine production. • cellular extravasation. • negative regulation of lipid storage. • negative ... positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • epithelial cell proliferation involved in salivary gland morphogenesis ... Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
... as well as chemokine and cytokine production, and expression of adhesion molecules such as E-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1. This ... Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • regulation of insulin secretion. • extrinsic apoptotic signaling ... Copeland KF (2006). "Modulation of HIV-1 transcription by cytokines and chemokines". Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry. 5 (12 ... Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
chemokine activity. • cytokine activity. • heparin binding. • protein binding. • CXCR3 chemokine receptor binding. ... C-X-C motif chemokine 11 is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also called Interferon-inducible T- ... "Entrez Gene: CXCL11 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11".. *^ a b Cole KE, Strick CA, Paradis TJ, Ogborne KT, Loetscher M, Gladue ... This chemokine elicits its effects on its target cells by interacting with the cell surface chemokine receptor CXCR3, with a ...
Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
IL-31 plays a role in this disease by inducing chemokine genes CCL1, CCL17, and CCL22. The chemokines transcribed from these ...
"The assignment of chemokine-chemokine receptor pairs: TARC and MIP-1 beta are not ligands for human CC-chemokine receptor 8". ... The ligand of the CCR8 is CCL1. CCL8 also functions as a CCR8 agonist. Studies of this receptor and its ligands suggested its ... "The assignment of chemokine-chemokine receptor pairs: TARC and MIP-1 beta are not ligands for human CC-chemokine receptor 8". ... This gene is located at the chemokine receptor gene cluster region. CC chemokine receptors GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...
... immunology Cancer immunoprevention Cancer immunotherapy Cantuzumab ravtansine Cathelicidin CC chemokine receptors CCBP2 CCL1 ... Breakthrough infection Broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies Bursa of Fabricius C-C chemokine receptor type 6 C-C chemokine ... CD4 CD4+ T cells and antitumor immunity CD74 CD94/NKG2 Cell-mediated immunity CELSR1 Central tolerance Chemokine Chemokine ... CR6261 CroFab Cross-presentation Cross-reactivity Cryptic self epitopes Cryptotope CX3CL1 CX3CR1 CXC chemokine receptors CXCL1 ...
... encoding protein Zinc finger protein 207 Several CC chemokines: CCL1, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL7, CCL8, CCL11, CCL13, CCL14, ... C-C motif chemokine ligand 4 like 1 (17q12) DDX52: DExD-box helicase 52 (17q12) ERBB2 loca leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2, ...
... is a small glycoprotein that belongs to the CC chemokine family. CCL1 is encoded by CCL1 gene which is one of the several ... CCL1 is secreted by activated monocytes/macrophages, T lymphocytes and endothelial cells. CCL1 binds to the chemokine receptor ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 1 (CCL1) is also known as small inducible cytokine A1 and I-309 in humans. ... In addition to other chemokines, such as CCL2, CCL3, and CCL4, the presence of CCL1 has been reported in the development of ...
C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... CCL1 for the ligand 1 of the CC-family of chemokines, and CCR1 for its respective receptor. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) ... The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other chemokines in that it has ... CXCR that bind CXC chemokines, CCR that bind CC chemokines, CX3CR1 that binds the sole CX3C chemokine (CX3CL1), and XCR1 that ...
The ligands for this receptor are CCL1 and CCL16 CCR9 was previously called orphan receptor GPR 9-6 and is very highly ... The CC chemokine receptors all work by activating the G protein Gi. CCR1 was the first CC chemokine receptor identified and ... CC chemokine receptors (or beta chemokine receptors) are integral membrane proteins that specifically bind and respond to ... May 1997). "Molecular cloning of a novel human CC chemokine EBI1-ligand chemokine that is a specific functional ligand for EBI1 ...
chemokine receptor activity. • receptor activity. • protein binding. • C-C chemokine receptor activity. • C-C chemokine binding ... Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene.[5] CCR6 ... "Entrez Gene: CCR6 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 6".. *^ Wang K, Zhang H, Kugathasan S, Annese V, Bradfield JP, Russell RK, ... "Chemokine Receptors: CCR6". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ...
... the receptor for the human CC chemokine I-309". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (28): 17251-4. PMID 9211859.. ... CCL1 privlači monocite, NK ćelije, nezrele B ćelije i dendritske ćelije putem interakcije sa hemokin receptorom na površini ... Преузето из „https://sr.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=CCL1&oldid=12335510" ...
C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... C chemokinesEdit. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other ... CC chemokinesEdit. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins have two adjacent cysteines (amino acids), near their amino ... CXC chemokinesEdit. The two N-terminal cysteines of CXC chemokines (or α-chemokines) are separated by one amino acid, ...
Several CC chemokines: CCL1, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL7, CCL8, CCL11, CCL13, CCL14, CCL15, CCL16, CCL18, and CCL23 ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 18 (CCL18) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family. The functions of CCL18 have ... Furthermore, CCL18 binding is competitive with CCR8's previously described ligand, CCL1, further suggesting that CCL18 binds ... It was previously known as Pulmonary and activation-regulated chemokine (PARC), dendritic cell (DC)-chemokine 1 (DC-CK1), ... Chemokines are classed as a special type of cytokine that is involved in immune cell trafficking. CCL18 in particular has some ...
Chemokine. CCL. CCL1 · CCL2 · CCL3 · CCL4 · CCL5 · CCL6 · CCL7 · CCL8 · CCL9 · CCL11 · CCL12 · CCL13 · CCL14 · CCL15 · CCL16 · ...
C-X-C chemokine receptor activity. • interleukin-8 binding. • G-protein coupled receptor activity. • chemokine receptor ... This name and the corresponding gene symbol IL8RA have been replaced by the HGNC approved name C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 1 ... "Chemokine Receptors: CXCR1". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ... chemokine-mediated signaling pathway. • interleukin-8-mediated signaling pathway. • neutrophil degranulation. • chemotaxis. ...
Abstract 4368: Tumor cell entry into the lymph node is controlled by CCL1 chemokine expressed by lymph node lymphatic sinuses. ... Abstract 4368: Tumor cell entry into the lymph node is controlled by CCL1 chemokine expressed by lymph node lymphatic sinuses ... Abstract 4368: Tumor cell entry into the lymph node is controlled by CCL1 chemokine expressed by lymph node lymphatic sinuses ... Abstract 4368: Tumor cell entry into the lymph node is controlled by CCL1 chemokine expressed by lymph node lymphatic sinuses ...
... is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that was previously called GRO1 oncogene, GROα, KC, Neutrophil- ... CCL1-19H. Recombinant Human CCL1, Fc tagged. HEK293. Human. Fc. +Inquiry. CCL1-605H. Recombinant Human CCL1 protein. E.coli. ... Ccl1-621M. Recombinant Mouse Ccl1, Fc tagged. HEK293. Mouse. Fc. +Inquiry. CCL1-678R. Recombinant Rhesus monkey CCL1 Protein, ... Recombinant Human CCL1, His-tagged. E. coli. Human. His. +Inquiry. CCL1-29H. Recombinant Human Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 1. ...
CCL1), SCYA1; I-309; TCA3; P500; SISe; Small Inducible Cytokine A1; T Lymphocyte Secreted Protein I-309 , Products for research ... Polyclonal Antibody to Chemokine C-C-Motif Ligand 1 ( ... ELISA Kit for Chemokine C-C-Motif Ligand 1 (CCL1). Enzyme- ... CCL1). The antibody is a rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against CCL1. It has been selected for its ability to recognize CCL1 ... Polyclonal Antibody to Chemokine C-C-Motif Ligand 1 (CCL1). SCYA1; I-309; TCA3; P500; SISe; Small Inducible Cytokine A1; T ...
Alias: CCL1/I-309/P500/SCYA1/SCYA2/TCA-3/C-C motif chemokine 1/chemokine(C-C motif) ligand 1/I-309/inflammatory cytokine I-309/ ... Alias: CCL1/I-309/P500/SCYA1/SCYA2/TCA-3/C-C motif chemokine 1/chemokine(C-C motif) ligand 1/I-309/inflammatory cytokine I-309/ ... Should the Mouse Chemokine C-C-Motif Ligand 1 (CCL1) ELISA Kit is proven to show malperformance, you will receive a refund or a ... Should the Mouse Chemokine C-C-Motif Ligand 1 (CCL1) ELISA Kit is proven to show malperformance, you will receive a refund or a ...
C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The ... GeneCards Summary for CCL1 Gene CCL1 (C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with CCL1 ... Animal Models for CCL1 Gene. MGI Knock Outs for CCL1:. * Ccl1 Ccl1,tm1Sman, ... Evolution for CCL1 Gene. ENSEMBL:. Gene Tree for CCL1 (if available). TreeFam:. Gene Tree for CCL1 (if available). Aminode:. ...
positive regulation of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 production. • positive regulation of JUN kinase activity. • positive ... positive regulation of chemokine production. • cellular extravasation. • negative regulation of lipid storage. • negative ... positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • epithelial cell proliferation involved in salivary gland morphogenesis ... Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
Chemokine C-C-Motif Ligand 1) ELISA Kit OSCAR DIAGNOSTIC SERVICES PVT. LTD.is an India based Company in Delhi. ... Porcine CCL1 (Chemokine C-C-Motif Ligand 1) ELISA Kit » Porcine CCL1 (Chemokine C-C-Motif Ligand 1) ELISA Kit. Porcine CCL1 ( ... Porcine CCL1 (Chemokine C-C-Motif Ligand 1) ELISA Kit. Porcine CCL1 (Chemokine C-C-Motif Ligand 1) ELISA Kit. Porcine CCL1 ( ... Porcine CCL1 (Chemokine C-C-Motif Ligand 1) ELISA Kit. Porcine CCL1 (Chemokine C-C-Motif Ligand 1) ELISA Kit. Porcine CCL1 ( ...
This review will focus on recent murine and human studies that use chemokines as therapeutic anti-cancer vaccine adjuvants. ... Recent discoveries in the many biological roles of chemokines in tumor immunology allow their exploitation in enhancing ... This knowledge, combined with advances in gene therapy and virology, allows researchers to employ chemokines as potential ... CCL1. I-309. CCR8. inflammatory and angiogenic. CCL2. MCP-1/MCAF/TDCF. CCR2. inflammatory and angiogenic. ...
PTB individuals with bilateral or cavitary disease displayed significantly elevated levels of CCL1, CCL3, CXCL1, CXCL10 and ... Whether chemokines can perform the same role in PTB is not known. We examined the plasma levels of chemokines in individuals ... Finally, the chemokines were significantly reduced following successful ATT. Our data demonstrate that PTB is associated with ... We also examined the chemokines in PTB individuals at the end of anti-tuberculous chemotherapy (ATT). PTB individuals exhibited ...
C-terminal clipping of chemokine CCL1/I-309 enhances CCR8-mediated intracellular calcium release and anti-apoptotic activity ...
CCL1; I-309) is a CC chemokine that interacts with CC chemokine receptor 8, which is preferentially expressed in polarized T ... Thus, CCL1 is a CC chemokine with a unique pattern of regulation associated with a distinct form of M2 (Type 2, M2b) monocyte ... CCL1 was present in synovial fluids and macrophages in juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Thus, regulation of CCL1 in human ... was designed to characterize the production of CCL1 in monocytes compared with the production of other chemokines (CCL2, CCL22 ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Tumor cell entry into the lymph node is controlled by CCL1 chemokine expressed by ... Tumor cell entry into the lymph node is controlled by CCL1 chemokine expressed by lymph node lymphatic sinuses. ...
C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... C chemokinesEdit. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other ... CC chemokinesEdit. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins have two adjacent cysteines (amino acids), near their amino ... CXC chemokinesEdit. The two N-terminal cysteines of CXC chemokines (or α-chemokines) are separated by one amino acid, ...
Ccl1 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 1 MGI:98258 .yui-skin-sam .yui-dt th{ background:url(http://www.informatics.jax.org/webshare/ ...
Recombinant Human CCL1 protein is an Escherichia coli Full length protein 24 to 96 aa range, , 85% purity and validated in SDS- ... C-C motif chemokine 1. *Ccl1. *CCL1_HUMAN. *Chemokine CC Motif Ligand 1 ...
C-C motif chemokine 1. *Ccl1. *CCL1_HUMAN. *Chemokine CC Motif Ligand 1 ...
C-C motif chemokine 22 K12964 CCL4; C-C motif chemokine 4 K14625 CCL20; C-C motif chemokine 20 K05514 CCL1; C-C motif chemokine ... C motif chemokine 1 K05508 CX3CL1; C-X3-C motif chemokine 1 K05514 CCL1; C-C motif chemokine 1 K14624 CCL2; C-C motif chemokine ... K05514 CCL1; C-C motif chemokine 1 K13072 CCL25; C-C motif chemokine 25 K05512 CCL19; C-C motif chemokine 19 K16062 CCL21; C-C ... 688605 Ccl1; C-C motif chemokine 1 precursor 360750 Ccl25; C-C motif chemokine 25 precursor 362506 Ccl19; C-C motif chemokine ...
CCL1. I-309. CCR8. T, NK. ND. CCL2. MCP-1. CCR2, CCR10. M, m, T, NK, b. 900 ± 132. 6,101 (128-8,777). 2,740 ± 2,460. 890 (286- ... the CXC chemokines CXCL8, CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL12; and CX3CL1. This set represented all chemokines present in the chemokine ... CCL1. I-309. CCR8. T, NK. ND. CCL2. MCP-1. CCR2, CCR10. M, m, T, NK, b. 900 ± 132. 6,101 (128-8,777). 2,740 ± 2,460. 890 (286- ... Generally, CC chemokines potently attract monocytes, T lymphocytes, eosinophils, and basophils, whereas CXC chemokines are ...
CCL1. It is involved in T-cell. PKM2-ARRDC1. CCL1/CCR8 axis promotes PKM2. (160). ... Among the four types of chemokines, there are two highly homologous XC chemokines: XC motif chemokine ligand 1 (XCL1) and XCL2 ... Chemokine receptors. Chemokines. Functions. Signaling pathways. Role in HCC. (Refs.). CXCR1. CXCL6,. Chemotactic neutrophils. - ... chemokines can bind to the atypical chemokine receptor (ACKR) subfamily, which is a key regulator of the chemokine network, and ...
C-C motif chemokine ligand 1. Predicted locationi. All transcripts of all genes have been analyzed regarding the location(s) of ...
Recombinant Human I-309 (CCL1). Catalog Number: 300-37 Subcategory: Chemokines See Pricing ... the most commonly researched inducers of chemotaxis are chemokines, or cytokines secreted by cells for the purpose of driving ... the Chemokines functioning to direct cellular movement.. Explore relevant products below. ...
Copeland KF (Dec 2005). "Modulation of HIV-1 transcription by cytokines and chemokines". Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry. 5 ... Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
Chemokines and their receptors play essential roles in immunology during inflammation and in homeostasis. ... Chemokines are a class of secreted molecules that induce chemotaxis (migration) of target cells. ... CCL1. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. a. b. b. ... Chemokine Receptor Biology poster. Order your copy of our ... Chemokines are also involved in the orchestration of wound healing.. For more information on inflammatory chemokines, see the ...
Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 13 (CCL13) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family. Its gene is located on human ... Naruse et al., A YAC contig of the human CC chemokine genes clustered on chromosome 17q11.2. Genomics. 1996, 34(2):236-40. ... Garcia-Zepeda EA, et al.. Human monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-4 is a novel CC chemokine with activities on monocytes, ... Blanpain et al., CCR5 binds multiple CC-chemokines: MCP-3 acts as a natural antagonist. Blood. 1999, 94:1899-905. ...
CCL1. CCL22. PIK3CA. ARRB2. SHC2. NCF1. ROCK2. CXCR2. CRKL. CCL28. PRKX. BCAR1. CCR3. GNG8. CXCL3. SHC4. AKT1. GNG5. CCL7. VAV1 ... Chemokines are small cytokines, or signaling proteins, secreted by cells. A major rol of chemokines is to act as ... c-C motif chemokine 12-like. CXCL12. CCR1. CX3CR1. GNG2. DOCK2. RAC1. GNB4. Jak-STAT signaling pathway. CCR2. PIK3R2. HRAS. ... Ontology Term : chemokine mediated signaling pathway added !. 90740. view. 23:30, 13 December 2016. Khanspers. New pathway. ...
We offer a plethora of Chemokines & Cytokine recombinant proteins to fit your research needs. Buy your recombinant proteins ... CCL1 Recombinant Protein Catalog Number: 91-077 Species: Human Source Species: E. coli ...
  • The present study, prompted by transcriptional profiling of human monocytes undergoing different forms of activation, was designed to characterize the production of CCL1 in monocytes compared with the production of other chemokines (CCL2, CCL22, and CCL18) differentially regulated by distinct activation signals. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In addition to other chemokines, such as CCL2, CCL3, and CCL4, the presence of CCL1 has been reported in the development of brain abscesses, most likely leading to an influx of lymphocytes and monocytes and thus to an adaptive immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus induced production in the lung of the proinflammatory chemokines CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, CXCL9, and CXCL10 with differential kinetics. (jimmunol.org)
  • PTB individuals exhibited significantly higher levels of CCL1, CCL3, CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL9 and CXCL10 in comparison to LTB and/or HC individuals. (nature.com)
  • PTB individuals with bilateral or cavitary disease displayed significantly elevated levels of CCL1, CCL3, CXCL1, CXCL10 and CXCL11 compared to those with unilateral or non-cavitary disease and also exhibited a significant positive relationship with bacterial burdens. (nature.com)
  • In addition, PTB individuals with slower culture conversion displayed significantly elevated levels of CCL1, CCL3, CXCL1 and CXCL9 at the time of PTB diagnosis and prior to ATT. (nature.com)
  • Moreover, the phenotype of liver macrophages from injured ccr8(-/-) animals was altered with increased expression of DC markers and enhanced expression of T-cell-attracting chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein 1-alpha (MIP-1α/CCL3). (nih.gov)
  • Our results showed that CCL3/MIP1α gene expression was upregulated in myocardium while CCL1/I-309 and CXCL9/Mig were highly expressed in valvular tissue. (bvsalud.org)
  • Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that was previously called GRO1 oncogene, GROα, KC, Neutrophil-activating protein 3 (NAP-3) and melanoma growth stimulating activity, alpha (MSGA-α). (creativebiomart.net)
  • We selected most pathways CCL1 participated on our site, such as Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, Chemokine signaling pathway, which may be useful for your reference. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include cytokine activity and chemokine activity . (genecards.org)
  • Cytokine proteins are classified as chemokines according to behavior and structural characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 1 (CCL1) is also known as small inducible cytokine A1 and I-309 in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interleukin (IL)-6, a multifunctional cytokine with regulatory functions in wound healing, and several chemokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) after rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). (arvojournals.org)
  • Chemokines are a class of small molecular proteins with similar structures, functions and chemotactic properties, and their molecular weights are ~10 kDa, and chemokines represent the largest member of the cytokine family ( 9 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Magnetic bead-based assays for detecting 46 mouse cytokine, chemokine, and growth factor biomarkers. (bio-rad.com)
  • From a clinical point of view, cytokine and chemokine secretion into the blood stream makes them very suitable as noninvasive clinical markers. (hindawi.com)
  • Chemokine receptor CCR8 is required for lipopolysaccharide-triggered cytokine production in mouse peritoneal macrophages. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Intercrine alpha family (small cytokine C-X-C) (chemokine CXC). (embl.de)
  • PerkinElmer offers the full range of cytokine assay kits, from interleukins, interferons (IFN), and chemokines to TNF and lymphokines, in an easy and ready-to-use format. (perkinelmer.com)
  • Several chemokine and cytokine genes were expressed as early as 3 h after infection, but by 12 h, 41 genes were expressed. (asm.org)
  • CCL1 (C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 1) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Analysis of gene expression in HREC (Figure 4) indicated that high glucose upregulated the transcript levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) (D), IL-8 (E), IL-10 (F), TNF-[alpha] (G), and C-C motif chemokine ligand 23 ( CCL23 ) (I). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Some inflammatory chemokines have proven essential in memory T cell generation [ 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Inflammatory chemokines function mainly as chemoattractants for leukocytes , recruiting monocytes , neutrophils and other effector cells from the blood to sites of infection or tissue damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain inflammatory chemokines activate cells to initiate an immune response or promote wound healing . (wikipedia.org)
  • These chemokines also have a more diverse range of functions compared to inflammatory chemokines. (biolegend.com)
  • In the event of infection, injury, or tissue damage, inflammatory chemokines are often released to address the problem. (biolegend.com)
  • Many inflammatory chemokines attract a wide variety of cells in both the innate and adaptive arms of immunity. (biolegend.com)
  • Inflammatory: inflammatory chemokines are produced in high concentrations during infection or injury and determine the migration of inflammatory leukocytes into the damaged area. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blocking studies showed that CCL1 is a key molecule mediating tumor cell chemotaxis to inflamed lymphatic endothelium. (aacrjournals.org)
  • For example, in addition to chemotaxis, chemokines modulate lymphocyte development, priming and effector function [ 2 ] and play a critical role in immune surveillance. (mdpi.com)
  • In addition to being known for mediating chemotaxis, chemokines are all approximately 8-10 kilodaltons in mass and have four cysteine residues in conserved locations that are key to forming their 3-dimensional shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • CCL1 binds to the chemokine receptor CCR8 and induces Ca2+ influx, chemotaxis and regulate apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, the potential application of chemokines in chemotaxis of exosomes as drug vehicles is discussed. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Exosomes containing chemokines or expressing receptors for chemokines may improve chemotaxis to HCC and may thus be exploited for targeted drug delivery. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Chemokines are a class of cytokines that induce chemotaxis (migration) of target cells. (biolegend.com)
  • While some chemotaxis is induced by inflammation or damaged cells, other chemokines function in homeostasis. (biolegend.com)
  • Although both can include a number of organic and inorganic substances, the most commonly researched inducers of chemotaxis are chemokines, or cytokines secreted by cells for the purpose of driving cellular movement and activation. (peprotech.com)
  • Considering the significance of chemotaxis in cellular movement during a number of biological processes, including immune response and development, it is of no surprise that a relatively large amount of emphasis has been placed upon research concerning chemotaxis and, more specifically, the Chemokines functioning to direct cellular movement. (peprotech.com)
  • This chemokine, a member of the CC subfamily, is secreted by activated T cells and displays chemotactic activity for monocytes but not for neutrophils. (genecards.org)
  • Differential regulation of chemokine production by Fcgamma receptor engagement in human monocytes: association of CCL1 with a distinct form of M2 monocyte activation (M2b, Type 2). (ox.ac.uk)
  • Induction of CCL1 in monocytes required engagement of Fc receptor for immunoglobulin G (FcgammaR)II and exposure to IL-1beta or LPS. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Thus, regulation of CCL1 in human monocytes is unique, with an obligate requirement of FcgammaR engagement and costimulation by signals (IL-1beta and LPS), which use the myeloid differentiation primary-response protein 88 adaptor protein. (ox.ac.uk)
  • CCL1 is secreted by activated monocytes/macrophages, T lymphocytes and endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, CCL1 mainly acts as a chemoattractant for monocytes/macrophages, T lymphocytes, specially Th2-differentiated T cells and a subset of T regulatory cells in vitro into inflammatory siter. (wikipedia.org)
  • CCL1 stimulates a transient increase in the concentration of cytoplasmic free calcium in monocytes but not in other type of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • After binding to the receptors, chemokines primarily serve a role in migration of leukocytes, such as monocytes, eosinophils and dendritic cells (DCs) ( 11 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The chemokine receptor CCR8 can affect trafficking of monocytes/macrophages, monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) and T-helper cell (Th) subsets, but its role in liver diseases is currently unknown. (nih.gov)
  • The main CCR8-expressing cells in the liver were hepatic macrophages, and CCR8 was functionally necessary for CCL1-directed migration of inflammatory but not for nonclassical monocytes into the liver. (nih.gov)
  • Although numerous chemokines act on monocytes, none of them is specific for these cells. (rupress.org)
  • Chemokines are small secreted cytokines, primarily involved in the regulation of the motility of hematopoietic cells (cells of the immune system) in their specific homing to lymphoid organs in normal hematopoiesis and during inflammation [ 1 ], through the activation of specific G-protein coupled receptors [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Chemokines critically control the infiltration of immune cells upon liver injury, thereby promoting hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. (nih.gov)
  • Inhibition of CCR8 or its ligand, CCL1, might represent a successful therapeutic target to limit liver inflammation and fibrosis progression. (nih.gov)
  • The CCL8-CCR8 chemokine axis is therefore a crucial regulator of T(H)2 cell homing that drives IL-5-mediated chronic allergic inflammation. (nih.gov)
  • Expression analysis revealed 52 cytokines and chemokines primarily involved in proliferation and inflammation and differentially expressed not only in malignant and nonmalignant renal cells but also in the four RCC cell lines. (hindawi.com)
  • CCL1 (show CCL1 ELISA Kits )- CCR8 interaction may play a critical role in lymphocytic recruitment in IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis and type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis, leading to duct-centred inflammation and obliterative phlebitis. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Chemokines are involved in cancer-related inflammation and malignant progression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Elevated secretion of CCL1 by tumors and increased presence of CCR8 + myeloid cells in peripheral blood and cancer tissues indicate that CCL1/CCR8 axis is a component of cancer-related inflammation and may contribute to immune evasion. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We conclude that increased numbers of CCR8 + myeloid cells as well as enhanced production of CCL1 by primary tumors represent a common feature of bladder and renal carcinomas, thus implying relevance of CCR8/CCL1 axis to the cancer-related inflammation and immune evasion. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Its principal ligand, CCL1, is constitutively expressed by lymphatic endothelial cells in the lymph node and is further upregulated by inflammation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Collectively, our results show that a diverse milieu of chemokines is expressed in myocardium and valvular tissue lesions and emphasize the role of CXCL9/Mig in mediating T cell recruitment to the site of inflammation in the heart. (bvsalud.org)
  • c ) RNA hybridization blot comparing mRNA expression of MCP-family chemokines and CCL11 (eotaxin-1) in pooled organs of normal BALB/c mice, conducted once. (nih.gov)
  • Also, other proteins which involved in the same pathway with CCL1 were listed below. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Some of the functions are cooperated with other proteins, some of the functions could acted by CCL1 itself. (creativebiomart.net)
  • We selected most functions CCL1 had, and list some proteins which have the same functions with CCL1. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Chemokines form a superfamily of secreted proteins involved in immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes. (genecards.org)
  • Chemokines (Greek -kinos , movement) are a family of small cytokines , or signaling proteins secreted by cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • All of these proteins exert their biological effects by interacting with G protein -linked transmembrane receptors called chemokine receptors , that are selectively found on the surfaces of their target cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokines are small cytokines, or signaling proteins, secreted by cells. (wikipathways.org)
  • Chemokines are a family of small cytokines, or proteins secreted by cells, with a molecular mass between 8 and 10 kDa. (genscript.com)
  • GenScript offers a comprehensive catalog of chemokine proteins with excellent lot-to-lot consistency, superior activity and significantly low endotoxin levels. (genscript.com)
  • Among these signals, small molecular weight chemoattractant proteins known as chemokines are potentially important contributors as they participate in both directing leukocyte migration and function. (frontiersin.org)
  • Most chemokines bind to more than one receptor, while most receptors also display overlapping ligand specificity [ 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Chemokines bind to a variety of different receptors, which belong to the G-protein-binding receptor family, and there are ~23 types of chemokine receptors that have been discovered ( 10 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Use this table to quickly identify the chemokines that bind to each receptor. (biolegend.com)
  • Host chemokines bind to Staphylococcus aureus and stimulate protein A release. (peprotech.com)
  • Chemokines display high structural homology and overlapping functions and often bind more than one receptor. (hindawi.com)
  • Human "CC" chemokines (structurally characterized by four cysteines) includes 28 members, called CCL1-28 that bind at least 10 receptors (CCR1-10). (hindawi.com)
  • The crystal structure of vMIP-I was determined at 1.7A for comparison with other chemokines, especially those that bind CCR8, such as vMIP-II from KSHV, a CCR8 antagonist and the closest homolog (40% identical). (nih.gov)
  • Many chemokine receptors can bind several chemokines and alternatively, chemokines may bind to several receptors. (tonbobio.com)
  • The present invention provides a means of inhibiting the growth and metastasis of cancer cells by administering anti-chemokine antibodies. (google.com)
  • It is possible to identify the particular chemokines which are over-expressed in the tumor using methods of the invention and administer antibodies against that over-expressed chemokine. (google.com)
  • This invention relates to antibodies or the use of antibodies directed against certain chemokines. (google.com)
  • CCL1 was present in synovial fluids and macrophages in juvenile idiopathic arthritis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • BRAK is the first monocyte-selective chemokine, as other types of blood leukocytes or monocyte-derived dendritic cells and macrophages did not respond. (rupress.org)
  • The antibody is a rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against CCL1. (uscnk.com)
  • Mouse polyclonal antibody raised against a full-length human CCL1 protein. (abnova.com)
  • The following product was used in this experiment: CCL1 Polyclonal Antibody from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # PA5-78929, RRID AB_2746045. (thermofisher.com)
  • This antimicrobial gene is one of several chemokine genes clustered on the q-arm of chromosome 17. (genecards.org)
  • CCL1 is encoded by CCL1 gene which is one of the several chemokine genes clustered on the chromosome 17q11.2-q12 in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • CCL is the first human CCL chemokine that was identified by molecular cloning during searching for genes expressed by T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • a ) Relative positioning of the six MCP-cluster chemokine genes on human chromosome 17 and mouse chromosome 11, modified from the Ensembl site. (nih.gov)
  • Description: This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Human Chemokine C-C-Motif Ligand 1 (CCL1) in serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates, cell culture supernates and other biological fluids. (novosides.eu)
  • Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against a partial recombinant CCL1. (abnova.com)
  • RayBio ® C-Series Human Chemokine Antibody Array 1 Kit. (raybiotech.com)
  • Chemokines are a group of related chemoattractant peptides that are essential regulators of the immune system, both during homeostatic and inflammatory conditions. (mdpi.com)
  • Some chemokines are considered pro- inflammatory and can be induced during an immune response to recruit cells of the immune system to a site of infection , while others are considered homeostatic and are involved in controlling the migration of cells during normal processes of tissue maintenance or development . (wikipedia.org)
  • These are known as homeostatic chemokines and are produced and secreted without any need to stimulate their source cell(s). (wikipedia.org)
  • Homeostatic chemokines are constitutively expressed in particular organs or tissues. (biolegend.com)
  • Due to their function of targeting cells to specific organs, homeostatic chemokines can also be involved in cancer and metastasis. (biolegend.com)
  • Chemokines are functionally divided into two groups: Homeostatic: are constitutively produced in certain tissues and are responsible for basal leukocyte migration. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main function of chemokines is to manage the migration of leukocytes (homing) in the respective anatomical locations in inflammatory and homeostatic processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Basal: homeostatic chemokines are basal produced in the thymus and lymphoid tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their homeostatic function in homing is best exemplified by the chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 (expressed within lymph nodes and on lymphatic endothelial cells) and their receptor CCR7 (expressed on cells destined for homing in cells to these organs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Among other homeostatic chemokine receptors include: CCR9, CCR10, and CXCR5, which are important as part of the cell addresses for tissue-specific homing of leukocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • For the first time, these findings define a chemokine system for homeostatic T cell traffic in normal human skin. (rupress.org)
  • Expression in normal skin keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts as well as lamina propria cells in normal intestinal tissues suggests a homeostatic rather than an inflammatory function for this chemokine. (rupress.org)
  • More importantly, the increased level of CXCR5, a homeostatic chemokine receptor, in the RA synovium suggests that non-inflammatory receptor-ligand pairs might play an important role in the pathogenesis of RA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Once at the site of injury, immune cells can react by releasing additional cytokines and chemokines, bringing more cells into the fold. (biolegend.com)
  • Cytokines and chemokines are widely involved in cancer cell progression and thus represent promising candidate factors for new biomarkers. (hindawi.com)
  • This is the first study examining the expression of 84 cytokines and chemokines in four RCC cell lines compared to that in a nonmalignant renal cell line. (hindawi.com)
  • Among other mechanisms, cytokines and chemokines are suspected to play a crucial role in proliferation and progression of various malignancies. (hindawi.com)
  • Even though some studies suggested an impact in RCC, the role of cytokines and chemokines in RCC progression is poorly understood [ 1 , 11 , 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • After classification of the RCC cells in cell lines of high and low cell growth rates, a transcriptional profiling specific for 84 cytokines and chemokines (Table 1 ) was carried out and compared to the corresponding cell growth properties. (hindawi.com)
  • The aim of this analysis was to identify cell growth-associated cytokines and chemokines by comparison of malignant and nonmalignant expression patterns, particularly with regard to the identification of putative biomarkers for RCC progression. (hindawi.com)
  • The major role of chemokines is to act as a chemoattractant to guide the migration of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokines are small chemoattractant peptides mainly involved in the immune responses. (hindawi.com)
  • Mouse CCL8 is a CC chemokine of the monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP) family whose biological activity and receptor usage have remained elusive. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we show that breast and kidney-expressed chemokine (BRAK) is a highly selective monocyte chemoattractant. (rupress.org)
  • Chemokines receptors are seven transmembrane spanning G protein-coupled receptors that allow cells to migrate towards increasing chemokine gradients. (biolegend.com)
  • Chemokine signals are transduced by G-protein coupled receptors, which dissociate to activate diverse downstream pathways resulting in cellular polarization and actin reorganization. (wikipathways.org)
  • CCR8 encodes a member of the beta chemokine receptor family, which is predicted to be a seven transmembrane protein similar to G protein-coupled receptors. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Chemokine activities are mediated by seven-transmembrane-domain, G protein coupled receptors, five of which were discovered in the past three years. (embl.de)
  • In addition to binding endogenous chemokines, these viral G protein-coupled receptors (vGPCRs) have acquired the ability to signal in a constitutive manner. (aspetjournals.org)
  • CCL1 involved in several pathways and played different roles in them. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Chemokines are involved in the inflammatory response, tumor immune response, proliferation, invasion and metastasis via modulation of various signaling pathways. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Click on one of the chemokine subfamilies shown in the Explore Pathways box below to see the specific chemokines that belong to each group, their receptors, and the different immune cell types that have been shown to express the chemokine receptors. (rndsystems.com)
  • Chemokines are involved in normal pathways of inflammatory responses as well as in pathological inflammatory responses of autoimmune diseases. (tonbobio.com)
  • Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • This knowledge, combined with advances in gene therapy and virology, allows researchers to employ chemokines as potential vaccine adjuvants. (mdpi.com)
  • For example, CCL1 transcription was increased in primary human CD4+ T cells expressing T cell immunoglobulin and protein 3 containing the mucin domain (TIM-3) and was identified as a differentially transcribed gene in CD4+ cells T cells expressing TIM-3 that play a role in the regulation anti-tumor immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CCL1 gene are associated with exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). (wikipedia.org)
  • Marked increase in CC chemokine gene expression in both human and mouse mast cell transcriptomes following Fcepsilon receptor I cross-linking: an interspecies comparison. (peprotech.com)
  • Interferon-gamma inducible protein 10 kD (IP-10) is a highly inducible, primary response gene that belongs to the C-X-C chemokine superfamily. (embl.de)
  • The mRNA expression of chemokine receptors and their ligands was determined using gene microarrays and PCR. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Human CC chemokine CCL23 enhances expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and invasion of vascular endothelial cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In vitro, tumor migration to lymphatic endothelium (LECs) was inhibited by blocking CCR8 or CCL1. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Recombinant CCL1 promoted migration of CCR8+ tumor cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Pro-inflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-1α and LPS increased CCL1 production by LECs as well as tumor cell migration to LECs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A major rol of chemokines is to act as chemoattractants in guiding migration of cells. (wikipathways.org)
  • Migration of naïve and activated lymphocytes is regulated by the expression of various molecules such as chemokine receptors and ligands. (nih.gov)
  • Efficient in vitro migration of CD69-deficient CD4 T cells toward the chemokine stimuli was the result of increased expression and/or affinity of chemokine receptors. (nih.gov)
  • Chemokines are chemoattractants that exert their activity through recruitment, migration and trafficking of cells bearing chemokine receptors into areas of inflammatory loci. (tonbobio.com)
  • In addition, chemokine receptors play a prominent role in cancer development (e.g., by inducing cellular proliferation or by modifying cellular migration patterns), resulting in cancer metastasis ( Balkwill, 2004 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Importantly, CCL1 is constitutively expressed at strategic cutaneous locations, including dermal microvessels and epidermal antigen-presenting cells. (rupress.org)
  • 1997). "Cloning and characterization of a specific receptor for the novel CC chemokine MIP-3alpha from lung dendritic cells" . (wikipedia.org)
  • 1997). "CCR6, a CC chemokine receptor that interacts with macrophage inflammatory protein 3alpha and is highly expressed in human dendritic cells" . (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent discoveries in the many biological roles of chemokines in tumor immunology allow their exploitation in enhancing recruitment of antigen presenting cells (APCs) and effector cells to appropriate anatomical sites. (mdpi.com)
  • On the other hand, the chemokine system also plays a crucial role in the induction of antitumor immune responses and optimal effector function regulation of immune cells [ 1 , 4 , 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Chemokines are felt to play a major role latent TB infection (LTB) as they appear to be critical in the formation and maintenance of quiescent granulomas 4 and in the recruitment of cells from the periphery for positioning within the granuloma 5 . (nature.com)
  • I-309) is a CC chemokine that interacts with CC chemokine receptor 8, which is preferentially expressed in polarized T helper cell type 2 and Tc2 cells, in eosinophils, and in T regulatory cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Chemokines released by infected or damaged cells form a concentration gradient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Attracted cells move through the gradient towards the higher concentration of chemokine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells that are attracted by chemokines follow a signal of increasing chemokine concentration towards the source of the chemokine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some chemokines control cells of the immune system during processes of immune surveillance, such as directing lymphocytes to the lymph nodes so they can screen for invasion of pathogens by interacting with antigen-presenting cells residing in these tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other chemokines are inflammatory and are released from a wide variety of cells in response to bacterial infection, viruses and agents that cause physical damage such as silica or the urate crystals that occur in gout . (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, CCL1 inhibits apoptosis in thymic cell lines by the RAS/MAPK pathway but can prevent dexamethasone-induced apoptosis in cultured murine thymic lymphoma cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • CCL1 is also overexpressed in ATL cells and mediates an autocrine antiapoptotic loop along CCR8 for in vivo growth and survival of leukemic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, CCl1 has also been studied as a possible potent inhibitor of fusion of cells and cells mediated by HIV-1 envelope and viral infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokines and their receptors were initially thought to allow for an interaction between immune cells and the inflammatory sites ( 11 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Attracted cells move toward areas of higher concentrations of the chemokine. (biolegend.com)
  • Upon sensing the inflammatory chemokine, cells will extravasate from the blood vessel and follow the gradient to its source. (biolegend.com)
  • In this species, proinflammatory chemokines may coordinate a rapid and highly effective innate antiviral response in the lung, but NK cells and adaptive cellular immunity are not required for viral clearance. (jimmunol.org)
  • Attracted by CCL1 and CCL20, Treg cells (turquoise) enter the brain after a stroke. (alzforum.org)
  • Autoantigens signal through chemokine receptors: uveitis antigens induce CXCR3- and CXCR5-expressing lymphocytes and immature dendritic cells to migrate. (peprotech.com)
  • Hematopoietic stem cells are uniquely selective in their migratory response to chemokines. (peprotech.com)
  • Human CCL1, the known endogenous CCR8 ligand, and CCL18 competed for binding to CCR8-transfected cells. (harvard.edu)
  • Further, CCL1 and CCL18 induced heterologous cross-desensitization of CCR8-transfected cells and human Th2 cells. (harvard.edu)
  • We found that genetic deletion of CD69 in mice increases the expression of the chemokines CCL-1, CXCL-10 and CCL-19 in CD4(+) T cells and/or CD4(-) cells. (nih.gov)
  • Primary tumor-derived exosomal RNAs, which are enriched in small nuclear RNAs, activate TLR3 in lung epithelial cells, consequently inducing chemokine (zeige CCL1 ELISA Kits ) secretion in the lung and promoting neutrophil recruitment. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • However, delivery of chemokine ligands (CCL) 17/22 via the airway selectively recruited airway Tregs and attenuated vaccine-augmented disease, reducing weight loss and inhibiting local recruitment of pathogenic CD4 + T cells. (pnas.org)
  • The CCL1-CCR8 axis is an important checkpoint for melanoma lymph node metastasis, as an inhibition of CCR8 leads to arrest of melanoma cells in collecting lymphatic vessels and prevents lymph node metastasis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • My earlier research demonstrated that skin cells are able to recognize danger signals and upon activation keratinocytes they organize an immune response via the secretion of inflammatory mediators and chemokines. (ki.se)
  • Major progress has been made in the understanding of chemokine actions on T lymphocytes that respond to several CC chemokines but also to IP10 and Mig, two CXC chemokines that selectively attract T cells via a novel receptor. (embl.de)
  • Here, we show that the majority of human T cells in healthy skin express the chemokine receptor CCR8 and respond to its selective ligand I-309/CCL1. (rupress.org)
  • later observed that chlamydial infection of epithelial cells in vitro resulted in the production of interleukin 8 (IL-8), an important chemokine for PMNs, 20 to 24 h postinfection and required that the organisms be viable ( 26 ). (asm.org)
  • There have been numerous in vitro studies showing that chlamydiae can elicit various chemokines and cytokines from tissue culture cells (reviewed in reference 19 ). (asm.org)
  • These data identify a novel function for CCL1/CCR8 in metastasis and lymph node LECs as a critical check-point for entry of metastases into the lymph nodes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • It has been found that chemokine networks may serve pivotal roles in inducing organ-specific metastasis ( 8 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Here we show that CCL8 is highly expressed in the skin, where it serves as an agonist for the chemokine receptor CCR8 but not for CCR2. (nih.gov)
  • This distinguishes CCL8 from all other MCP chemokines. (nih.gov)
  • Viral macrophage inflammatory protein I (vMIP-I) is a chemokine encoded by the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) that selectively activates the CC chemokine receptor 8 (CCR8), for which the endogenous ligand is CCL1. (nih.gov)
  • It appears Tregs were recruited to the brain by chemokines CCL1 and CCL20, ligands for Treg receptors CCR8 and CCR6, respectively. (alzforum.org)
  • This pathway was inferred from Mus musculus pathway "Chemokine signaling pathway", WP2292 revision 89521, with a 91.0% conversion rate. (wikipathways.org)
  • To decipher the role of chemokines in TB infection and disease, we measured the levels of chemokines in PTB, LTB and HC individuals. (nature.com)
  • Thus, CCL1 is a CC chemokine with a unique pattern of regulation associated with a distinct form of M2 (Type 2, M2b) monocyte activation, which participates in macrophage-dependent regulatory circuits of innate and adaptive immunity. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The immunobiology of interferon-gamma inducible protein 10 kD (IP-10): a novel, pleiotropic member of the C-X-C chemokine superfamily. (embl.de)
  • The Chemokine Superfamily is made up of 4 classes based on the arrangement of the conserved cysteine (C) residues found in the mature protein: C (gamma), CC (beta), CXC and CX3C (delta) chemokine groups. (tonbobio.com)
  • For example, CCL1 and CCR8 mRNA expression has been detected in the CNS of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). (wikipedia.org)
  • The early activation marker CD69 regulates the expression of chemokines and CD4 T cell accumulation in intestine. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we investigated the expression of chemokines and chemokine receptors in cardiac tissue biopsies obtained from chronic RHD patients. (bvsalud.org)
  • ZK 756326 inhibited the binding of the CCR8 ligand I-309 (CCL1), with an IC(50) value of 1.8 μM. (adooq.com)
  • Unlike some CC chemokines, whose biologically active form in solution is a non-disulfide-linked dimer, the biologically active form of I-309 is monomeric. (peprotech.com)
  • The chemokines are labelled selectively at or near the C -terminus of the protein in a selective manner which ensures that only a single dye molecule is incorporated. (almacgroup.com)
  • To date, >50 chemokines have been found, which can be divided into four families: CXC, CX3C, CC and XC, according to the different positions of the conserved N‑terminal cysteine residues. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • 50 chemokines have been identified, which can be divided into four families: CXC, CX3C, CC and XC, based on the different positions of the conserved N-terminal cysteine residues ( 9 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Members of the chemokine family are divided into four groups depending on the location of their first two cysteine residues. (genscript.com)
  • Recombinant Human I-309 is an 8.5 kDa protein consisting of 74 amino acid residues that include six cysteine residues, of which four are the highly conserved cysteine residues present in CC chemokines. (peprotech.com)
  • Structurally, chemokines are classified into four groups (C, CC, CXC, and CX3C) according to the number and location of the conserved cysteine residues in the primary structure of these molecules (Figure 1 ). (hindawi.com)
  • Role of Conserved Disulfide Bridges and Aromatic Residues in Extracellular Loop 2 of Chemokine Receptor CCR8 for Chemokine and Small Molecule Binding. (peprotech.com)
  • The CC chemokine ligand 18 (CCL18) is one of the most highly expressed chemokines in human chronic inflammatory diseases. (harvard.edu)
  • An appreciation of the role of CCL18 in these diseases has been hampered by the lack of an identified chemokine receptor. (harvard.edu)
  • We report that the human chemokine receptor CCR8 is a CCL18 receptor. (harvard.edu)
  • Identifying CCR8 as a chemokine receptor for CCL18 will help clarify the biological role of this highly expressed chemokine in human disease. (harvard.edu)
  • The human and viral chemokine receptors belong to class A 7 transmembrane (TM) receptors which are characterized by several structural motifs like the DRY-motif in TM3 and the C-terminal tail. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • for example, CCL20 can act also as pro-inflammatory chemokine. (wikipedia.org)
  • We found that a large subset of metastatic melanomas express chemokine receptor CCR8. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In mouse and human tissues CCL1 protein was detected in lymph node lymphatic sinuses, but not in the peripheral lymphatics. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Specific chemokine receptors are often required to gain entry (or exit) from certain organs and tissues like the thymus and bone marrow. (biolegend.com)
  • It was shown that the chemokine network plays crucial functions in the tumorigenesis in several tissues. (hindawi.com)
  • Leukocyte traffic through secondary lymphoid tissues is finely tuned by chemokines. (rupress.org)
  • Furthermore, cross-talk or heterodimerization with endogenous chemokine receptors represent other ways for vGPCRs to modify intracellular signaling and cellular functions. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Should the Mouse Chemokine C-C-Motif Ligand 1 (CCL1) ELISA Kit is proven to show malperformance, you will receive a refund or a free replacement. (novosides.eu)
  • While a function of chemokines is to regulate lymphocyte trafficking, the view that chemokines act simply as "chemotactic cytokines" has evolved to include the many critical roles they play in regulating innate and adaptive immune responses. (mdpi.com)
  • Thus, chemokines and their receptors directly or indirectly shape the tumor cell microenvironment, and regulate the biological behavior of the tumor. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • More recently, chemokines were also demonstrated to regulate extra-immunological functions. (hindawi.com)
  • Interleukin 8, the first chemokine to be characterized, was discovered nearly ten years ago. (embl.de)
  • Belongs to the intercrine beta (chemokine CC) family. (abcam.com)
  • Human herpesvirus 7 open reading frames U12 and U51 encode functional beta-chemokine receptors. (peprotech.com)