Administration of antineoplastic agents together with an embolizing vehicle. This allows slow release of the agent as well as obstruction of the blood supply to the neoplasm.
Ethyl ester of iodinated fatty acid of poppyseed oil. It contains 37% organically bound iodine and has been used as a diagnostic aid (radiopaque medium) and as an antineoplastic agent when part of the iodine is 131-I. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A preparation of oil that contains covalently bound IODINE. It is commonly used as a RADIOCONTRAST AGENT and as a suspension medium for CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC AGENTS.
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
Sterile, gelatin-base surgical sponge applied topically as an adjunct to hemostasis when the control of bleeding by conventional procedures is ineffective to reduce capillary ooze or is impractical. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p797)
A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.
A polymer prepared from polyvinyl acetates by replacement of the acetate groups with hydroxyl groups. It is used as a pharmaceutic aid and ophthalmic lubricant as well as in the manufacture of surface coatings artificial sponges, cosmetics, and other products.
Regional infusion of drugs via an arterial catheter. Often a pump is used to impel the drug through the catheter. Used in therapy of cancer, upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage, infection, and peripheral vascular disease.
Minimally invasive procedures guided with the aid of magnetic resonance imaging to visualize tissue structures.
A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.
Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)
An antineoplastic antibiotic produced by Streptomyces caespitosus. It is one of the bi- or tri-functional ALKYLATING AGENTS causing cross-linking of DNA and inhibition of DNA synthesis.
The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.
Removal of tissue with electrical current delivered via electrodes positioned at the distal end of a catheter. Energy sources are commonly direct current (DC-shock) or alternating current at radiofrequencies (usually 750 kHz). The technique is used most often to ablate the AV junction and/or accessory pathways in order to interrupt AV conduction and produce AV block in the treatment of various tachyarrhythmias.
A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.
Unstable isotopes of yttrium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Y atoms with atomic weights 82-88 and 90-96 are radioactive yttrium isotopes.
The minimum acceptable patient care, based on statutes, court decisions, policies, or professional guidelines.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
A branch of the external carotid artery which distributes to the deep structures of the face (internal maxillary) and to the side of the face and nose (external maxillary).
Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Gauze material used to absorb body fluids during surgery. Referred to as GOSSYPIBOMA if accidentally retained in the body following surgery.
Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.
Agents acting to arrest the flow of blood. Absorbable hemostatics arrest bleeding either by the formation of an artificial clot or by providing a mechanical matrix that facilitates clotting when applied directly to the bleeding surface. These agents function more at the capillary level and are not effective at stemming arterial or venous bleeding under any significant intravascular pressure.
Insertion of a catheter into a peripheral artery, vein, or airway for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.
The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.
An important compound functioning as a component of the coenzyme NAD. Its primary significance is in the prevention and/or cure of blacktongue and PELLAGRA. Most animals cannot manufacture this compound in amounts sufficient to prevent nutritional deficiency and it therefore must be supplemented through dietary intake.
Compounds that include the amino-N-phenylamide structure.
Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.
A method of delineating blood vessels by subtracting a tissue background image from an image of tissue plus intravascular contrast material that attenuates the X-ray photons. The background image is determined from a digitized image taken a few moments before injection of the contrast material. The resulting angiogram is a high-contrast image of the vessel. This subtraction technique allows extraction of a high-intensity signal from the superimposed background information. The image is thus the result of the differential absorption of X-rays by different tissues.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Organic salts and esters of benzenesulfonic acid.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Cyclobutanes are saturated hydrocarbons consisting of a four-carbon ring with only carbon-carbon sigma bonds, making up the smallest cycloalkane ring that can adopt a puckered conformation to alleviate angle strain. (25 words)
The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.
Delivery of drugs into an artery.
Clinical protocols used to inhibit the growth or spread of NEOPLASMS.
Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.
Abnormal passage communicating with the STOMACH.
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
A malignant tumor arising from the epithelium of the BILE DUCTS.
The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.
Examination of the portal circulation by the use of X-ray films after injection of radiopaque material.
Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.
Prospective patient listings for appointments or treatments.
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
Tumors whose cells possess secretory granules and originate from the neuroectoderm, i.e., the cells of the ectoblast or epiblast that program the neuroendocrine system. Common properties across most neuroendocrine tumors include ectopic hormone production (often via APUD CELLS), the presence of tumor-associated antigens, and isozyme composition.
Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
An anthracycline which is the 4'-epi-isomer of doxorubicin. The compound exerts its antitumor effects by interference with the synthesis and function of DNA.
Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Passages within the liver for the conveyance of bile. Includes right and left hepatic ducts even though these may join outside the liver to form the common hepatic duct.
Care alleviating symptoms without curing the underlying disease. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Radiotherapy where there is improved dose homogeneity within the tumor and reduced dosage to uninvolved structures. The precise shaping of dose distribution is achieved via the use of computer-controlled multileaf collimators.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.

Tumour ablation and hepatic decompensation rates in multi-agent chemoembolization of hepatocellular carcinoma. (1/507)

Thirty-seven cirrhotic patients with 62 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) foci--most Child-Pugh class B or C and/or with large, inoperable tumours--underwent 148 sessions of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) using lipiodol, doxorubicin and cisplatin. Treatment efficacy was assessed by serial hepatic arteriography in 34/37 (91.9%) patients and abdominal CT scanning in 3/37 (8.1%) patients. Child-Pugh status was determined prior to each treatment session. Varying degrees of control of tumour neovascularity occurred for a median 390 days (range 90 to > 1680 days) in 33/34 (97.1%) patients in whom progress hepatic arteriography was performed. Ablation of tumour neovascularity occurred in 6/6 (100%), 4/12 (33.3%) and 6/16 (37.5%) patients with HCC diameters < 4 cm, 4-7 cm and > 8 cm, respectively (p < 0.02). Significantly more sessions were required for ablation of larger tumours (p < 0.05). Recurrent HCC was detected in 50% of patients after a median 240 days (range 60-1120 days). Deterioration in Child-Pugh status followed a session of TACE on 19/148 (12.8%) occasions but resulted in unscheduled hospitalization on only 4/148 (2.7%) occasions, the highest incidence (8.3%) in Child-Pugh C patients. Actuarial survival was 27/36 (75.0%) at 6 months, 17/34 (50.0%) at 12 months, 14/34 (41.2%) at 18 months, 9/31 (29.0%) at 24 months and 4/27 (14.8%) at 36 months. Multi-agent TACE with lipiodol, doxorubicin and cisplatin provides a useful anti-tumour effect, even in cirrhotic patients with large HCCs. The incidence of clinically significant deterioration in hepatic function due to ischaemia of non-tumorous liver is acceptably low, even in Child-Pugh C patients.  (+info)

Medullary thyroid carcinoma with multiple hepatic metastases: treatment with transcatheter arterial embolization and percutaneous ethanol injection. (2/507)

A 54-year-old man with medullary thyroid carcinoma in the thyroid gland was unable to undergo total thyroidectomy because the tumor had invaded the mediastinum. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy were given. Seven years later, intractable diarrhea and abdominal pain appeared, and computed tomography demonstrated hypervascular tumors in the thyroid gland and in the liver. The tumors were successfully treated with percutaneous ethanol injection to a lesion in the thyroid gland and transcatheter arterial embolization followed by percutaneous ethanol injection to tumors in the liver. Transcatheter arterial embolization and percutaneous ethanol injection may be valuable in treating medullary thyroid carcinoma.  (+info)

Feasibility and toxicity of chemoembolization for children with liver tumors. (3/507)

PURPOSE: To determine the feasibility, toxicity, and efficacy of hepatic arterial chemoembolization (HACE) in pediatric patients with refractory primary malignancies of the liver. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Six patients with hepatoblastoma (HB), three with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and two with undifferentiated sarcoma of the liver were treated with HACE every 2 to 4 weeks until their tumors became surgically resectable or they showed signs of disease progression. All but one newly diagnosed patient with HCC had previously received systemic chemotherapy. RESULTS: All patients with HB and HCC responded to HACE, as measured by imaging studies and alpha-fetoprotein levels. Surgical resection (complete or microscopic residual disease) was feasible in five of 11 patients, and three patients remain alive with no evidence of disease. Elevated liver transaminase and bilirubin levels were seen after each one of the 46 courses of HACE. Other toxicities included fever, pain, nausea, vomiting, and transient coagulopathy. CONCLUSION: HACE is feasible, well tolerated, and effective in inducing surgical resectability of primary hepatic tumors in children.  (+info)

Resection of nonresectable liver metastases from colorectal cancer after percutaneous portal vein embolization. (4/507)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of preoperative portal vein embolization (PVE) on the long-term outcome of liver resection for colorectal metastases. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Preoperative PVE of the liver induces hypertrophy of the remnant liver and increases the safety of hepatectomy. METHODS: Thirty patients underwent preoperative PVE and 88 patients did not before resection of four or more liver segments. PVE was performed when the estimated rate of remnant functional liver parenchyma (ERRFLP) assessed by CT scan volumetry was less than 40%. RESULTS: PVE was feasible in all patients. There were no deaths. The complication rate was 3%. The post-PVE ERRFLP was significantly increased compared with the pre-PVE value. Liver resection was performed after PVE in 19 patients (63%), with surgical death and complication rates of 4% and 7% respectively. PVE increased the number of resections of more than four segments by 19% (17/88). Actuarial survival rates after hepatectomy with or without previous PVE were comparable: 81%, 67%, and 40% versus 88%, 61%, and 38% at 1, 3, and 5 years respectively. CONCLUSIONS: PVE allows more patients with previously unresectable liver tumors to benefit from resection. Long-term survival is comparable to that after resection without PVE.  (+info)

Malignant insulinoma which expressed a unique creatine kinase isoenzyme: clinical value of arterial embolization as a palliative therapy. (5/507)

A 76-year-old man with hypoglycemic coma was diagnosed as malignant insulinoma with multiple hepatic metastases. Embolization was done for two-thirds of the hepatic mass and it rapidly lowered the serum immunoreactive insulin. He was discharged without medication and has been free from hypoglycemia. After the embolization, the serum creatine kinase (CK) level increased transiently although there was no evidence of myocardial infarction. On electrophoresis, the CK activity showed an abnormal peak, suggesting mitochondrial CK. CK release after embolization has been reported in only a few cases with endocrine tumors, which might indicate some relationship between active energy metabolism and mitochondrial CK.  (+info)

Risk factors, prevention, and management of postoperative recurrence after resection of hepatocellular carcinoma. (6/507)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the current knowledge on the risk factors for recurrence, efficacy of adjuvant therapy in preventing recurrence, and the optimal management of recurrence after resection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The long-term prognosis after resection of HCC remains unsatisfactory as a result of a high incidence of recurrence. Prevention and effective management of recurrence are the most important strategies to improve the long-term survival results. METHODS: A review of relevant English articles was undertaken based on a Medline search from January 1980 to July 1999. RESULTS: Pathologic factors indicative of tumor invasiveness such as venous invasion, presence of satellite nodules, large tumor size, and advanced pTNM stage, are the best-established risk factors for recurrence. Active hepatitis activity in the nontumorous liver and perioperative transfusion also appear to enhance recurrence. Recent molecular research has identified tumor biologic factors such as the proliferative and angiogenic activities of the tumor as new risk factors for recurrence. There is a lack of convincing evidence for the efficacy of neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy in preventing recurrence. Retrospective studies suggested that postoperative hepatic arterial chemotherapy might improve disease-free survival, but results were conflicting. For the management of postoperative recurrence, studies have consistently indicated that surgical resection should be the treatment of choice for localized recurrence, be it in the liver remnant or extrahepatic organs. Transarterial chemoembolization and percutaneous ethanol injection are widely used to prolong survival in patients with unresectable intrahepatic recurrence, and combined therapy with these two modalities may offer additional benefit. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge of the risk factors for postoperative recurrence provides a basis for logical approaches to prevention. Minimal surgical manipulation of tumors to prevent tumor cell dissemination, avoidance of perioperative blood transfusion, and suppression of chronic hepatitis activity in the liver remnant are strategies that may be useful in preventing recurrence. The efficacy of postoperative adjuvant regional chemotherapy deserves further evaluation. New concepts on the influence of tumor biologic factors such as angiogenic activity on recurrence of HCC suggest a potential role of novel approaches such as antiangiogenesis for adjuvant therapy in the future. Currently, the most realistic approach in prolonging survival after resection of HCC is early detection and aggressive management of recurrence. Randomized trials are needed to define the roles of various treatment modalities for recurrence and the benefit of multimodality therapy.  (+info)

Uterine fibroid embolization. (7/507)

Interventional radiologists have performed uterine artery embolization to treat women with emergency uterine bleeding since the 1970s. In this procedure, the physician guides a small angiographic catheter into the uterine arteries and injects a stream of tiny particles that decreases blood flow to the uterus. It is now considered a safe and highly effective nonsurgical treatment of women with symptomatic uterine fibroid tumors. Uterine fibroid embolization has several advantages over conventional hormonal suppression and surgical procedures, including avoidance of the side effects of drug therapy and the physical and psychologic trauma of surgery. In addition, after uterine fibroid embolization, patients can normally resume their usual activities several weeks earlier than they can after hysterectomy. Along with hysteroscopic resection, myolysis and laparoscopic myomectomy, uterine fibroid embolization widens treatment options for patients who desire to avoid hysterectomy.  (+info)

Nonsurgical treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. (8/507)

1. Outcome from nonsurgical treatment is directly related to stage of hepatocellular cancer (HCC) and degree of liver function impairment. 2. Ablative percutaneous procedures, such as alcohol injection or radiofrequency thermal therapy, are most effective in the destruction of solitary tumors of 3 cm or less. 3. In most cases, nonsurgical treatments are not curative, but may slow tumor progression and can provide palliation. 4. Arterial embolization or chemoembolization has an antitumor effect, but it has not been shown to affect patient outcome. 5. Radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormonal manipulation, and interferon have not been consistently effective in HCC. 6. Ablative procedures, embolization, and systemic chemotherapy should be avoided in patients with advanced cirrhosis.  (+info)

Chemoembolization, therapeutic is a medical procedure that involves the delivery of chemotherapy drugs directly to a tumor through its blood supply, followed by the blocking of the blood vessel leading to the tumor. This approach allows for a higher concentration of the chemotherapy drug to be delivered directly to the tumor while minimizing exposure to the rest of the body. The embolization component of the procedure involves blocking the blood vessel with various substances such as microspheres, gel foam, or coils, which can help to starve the tumor of oxygen and nutrients.

Therapeutic chemoembolization is typically used in the treatment of liver cancer, including primary liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma) and metastatic liver cancer. It may also be used in other types of cancer that have spread to the liver. The procedure can help to reduce the size of the tumor, relieve symptoms, and improve survival rates in some patients. However, like all medical procedures, it carries a risk of complications such as infection, bleeding, and damage to surrounding tissues.

Ethiodized oil is a type of poppy seed oil that has been chemically treated with iodine. It is a highly dense form of iodine, which is used as a radiocontrast medium for imaging studies, such as X-rays and CT scans. The iodine in the ethiodized oil absorbs the X-rays and makes certain structures in the body more visible on the images. It is typically used to help diagnose conditions related to the gastrointestinal tract, such as ulcers or tumors.

It's important to note that the use of ethiodized oil as a radiocontrast medium has declined in recent years due to the development of newer, safer contrast agents. Additionally, there are potential risks associated with its use, including allergic reactions and kidney damage, so it is typically used only when other options are not available or have been determined to be inappropriate.

Iodized oil is a type of oil, often sesame or soybean oil, that has been artificially enriched with the essential micromineral iodine. It is typically used as a medical treatment for iodine deficiency disorders, such as goiter and cretinism, and for preventing their occurrence.

The iodization process involves binding iodine to the oil molecules, which allows the iodine to be slowly released and absorbed by the body over an extended period of time. This makes it an effective long-term supplement for maintaining adequate iodine levels in the body. Iodized oil is usually administered via intramuscular injection, and its effects can last for several months to a year.

It's important to note that while iodized oil is a valuable tool in addressing iodine deficiency on an individual level, global public health initiatives have focused on adding iodine to table salt (known as iodization of salt) as a more widespread and sustainable solution for eliminating iodine deficiency disorders.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of primary liver cancer in adults. It originates from the hepatocytes, which are the main functional cells of the liver. This type of cancer is often associated with chronic liver diseases such as cirrhosis caused by hepatitis B or C virus infection, alcohol abuse, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and aflatoxin exposure.

The symptoms of HCC can vary but may include unexplained weight loss, lack of appetite, abdominal pain or swelling, jaundice, and fatigue. The diagnosis of HCC typically involves imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, as well as blood tests to measure alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels. Treatment options for Hepatocellular carcinoma depend on the stage and extent of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and liver function. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or liver transplantation.

Liver neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the liver that can be benign or malignant. Benign liver neoplasms are non-cancerous tumors that do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant liver neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can invade and destroy surrounding tissue and spread to other organs.

Liver neoplasms can be primary, meaning they originate in the liver, or secondary, meaning they have metastasized (spread) to the liver from another part of the body. Primary liver neoplasms can be further classified into different types based on their cell of origin and behavior, including hepatocellular carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, and hepatic hemangioma.

The diagnosis of liver neoplasms typically involves a combination of imaging studies, such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, and biopsy to confirm the type and stage of the tumor. Treatment options depend on the type and extent of the neoplasm and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or liver transplantation.

A gelatin sponge, absorbable is a surgical implant material that is derived from animal collagen. It is prepared in the form of a sterile, compressed sponge which can be expanded with the addition of fluids. The sponge is designed to absorb and hold surgical drainage, promote healing by providing a framework for the growth of new tissue, and then gradually break down and be absorbed by the body over time. It is often used in neurosurgery, plastic surgery, and other surgical specialties for its hemostatic (bleeding control) and supportive properties.

The hepatic artery is a branch of the celiac trunk or abdominal aorta that supplies oxygenated blood to the liver. It typically divides into two main branches, the right and left hepatic arteries, which further divide into smaller vessels to supply different regions of the liver. The hepatic artery also gives off branches to supply other organs such as the gallbladder, pancreas, and duodenum.

It's worth noting that there is significant variability in the anatomy of the hepatic artery, with some individuals having additional branches or variations in the origin of the vessel. This variability can have implications for surgical procedures involving the liver and surrounding organs.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Polyvinyl Alcohol" is not a medical term. It is a chemical compound used in various industrial and commercial applications, including the production of adhesives, paints, and medical devices. Polyvinyl Alcohol is a type of synthetic polymer made from the polymerization of vinyl acetate monomer, followed by alcoholysis to replace the acetate groups with hydroxyl groups.

In a medical context, Polyvinyl Alcohol might be used in certain medical devices or applications, such as contact lenses, eye drops, and drug delivery systems, due to its biocompatibility and resistance to protein absorption. However, it is not a term commonly used to describe a medical condition or treatment.

Intra-arterial infusion is a medical procedure in which a liquid medication or fluid is delivered directly into an artery. This technique is used to deliver drugs directly to a specific organ or region of the body, bypassing the usual systemic circulation and allowing for higher concentrations of the drug to reach the target area. It is often used in cancer treatment to deliver chemotherapeutic agents directly to tumors, as well as in other conditions such as severe infections or inflammation.

Intra-arterial infusions are typically administered through a catheter that is inserted into an artery, usually under the guidance of imaging techniques such as fluoroscopy, CT, or MRI. The procedure requires careful monitoring and precise control to ensure proper placement of the catheter and accurate delivery of the medication.

It's important to note that intra-arterial infusions are different from intra venous (IV) infusions, where medications are delivered into a vein instead of an artery. The choice between intra-arterial and intra-venous infusion depends on various factors such as the type of medication being used, the location of the target area, and the patient's overall medical condition.

Interventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique that combines the diagnostic capabilities of MRI with minimally invasive image-guided procedures. It uses a strong magnetic field, radio waves, and computer software to produce detailed images of the body's internal structures and soft tissues.

In interventional MRI, the technology is used in real-time to guide the placement of needles, catheters, or other medical instruments for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. This can include biopsies, tumor ablations, or targeted drug deliveries. The primary advantage of interventional MRI over traditional interventional radiology techniques is its ability to provide high-resolution imaging without the use of radiation, making it a safer option for certain patients. However, it requires specialized equipment and trained personnel to perform these procedures.

Therapeutic embolization is a medical procedure that involves intentionally blocking or obstructing blood vessels to stop excessive bleeding or block the flow of blood to a tumor or abnormal tissue. This is typically accomplished by injecting small particles, such as microspheres or coils, into the targeted blood vessel through a catheter, which is inserted into a larger blood vessel and guided to the desired location using imaging techniques like X-ray or CT scanning. The goal of therapeutic embolization is to reduce the size of a tumor, control bleeding, or block off abnormal blood vessels that are causing problems.

Microspheres are tiny, spherical particles that range in size from 1 to 1000 micrometers in diameter. They are made of biocompatible and biodegradable materials such as polymers, glass, or ceramics. In medical terms, microspheres have various applications, including drug delivery systems, medical imaging, and tissue engineering.

In drug delivery, microspheres can be used to encapsulate drugs and release them slowly over time, improving the efficacy of the treatment while reducing side effects. They can also be used for targeted drug delivery, where the microspheres are designed to accumulate in specific tissues or organs.

In medical imaging, microspheres can be labeled with radioactive isotopes or magnetic materials and used as contrast agents to enhance the visibility of tissues or organs during imaging procedures such as X-ray, CT, MRI, or PET scans.

In tissue engineering, microspheres can serve as a scaffold for cell growth and differentiation, promoting the regeneration of damaged tissues or organs. Overall, microspheres have great potential in various medical applications due to their unique properties and versatility.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Hepatectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of part or all of the liver. This procedure can be performed for various reasons, such as removing cancerous or non-cancerous tumors, treating liver trauma, or donating a portion of the liver to another person in need of a transplant (live donor hepatectomy). The extent of the hepatectomy depends on the medical condition and overall health of the patient. It is a complex procedure that requires significant expertise and experience from the surgical team due to the liver's unique anatomy, blood supply, and regenerative capabilities.

Mitomycin is an antineoplastic antibiotic derived from Streptomyces caespitosus. It is primarily used in cancer chemotherapy, particularly in the treatment of various carcinomas including gastrointestinal tract malignancies and breast cancer. Mitomycin works by forming cross-links in DNA, thereby inhibiting its replication and transcription, which ultimately leads to cell death.

In addition to its systemic use, mitomycin is also used topically in ophthalmology for the treatment of certain eye conditions such as glaucoma and various ocular surface disorders. The topical application of mitomycin can help reduce scarring and fibrosis by inhibiting the proliferation of fibroblasts.

It's important to note that mitomycin has a narrow therapeutic index, meaning there is only a small range between an effective dose and a toxic one. Therefore, its use should be closely monitored to minimize side effects, which can include myelosuppression, mucositis, alopecia, and potential secondary malignancies.

Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a protein produced by the yolk sac and the liver during fetal development. In adults, AFP is normally present in very low levels in the blood. However, abnormal production of AFP can occur in certain medical conditions, such as:

* Liver cancer or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)
* Germ cell tumors, including non-seminomatous testicular cancer and ovarian cancer
* Hepatitis or liver inflammation
* Certain types of benign liver disease, such as cirrhosis or hepatic adenomas

Elevated levels of AFP in the blood can be detected through a simple blood test. This test is often used as a tumor marker to help diagnose and monitor certain types of cancer, particularly HCC. However, it's important to note that an elevated AFP level alone is not enough to diagnose cancer, and further testing is usually needed to confirm the diagnosis. Additionally, some non-cancerous conditions can also cause elevated AFP levels, so it's important to interpret the test results in the context of the individual's medical history and other diagnostic tests.

Catheter ablation is a medical procedure in which specific areas of heart tissue that are causing arrhythmias (irregular heartbeats) are destroyed or ablated using heat energy (radiofrequency ablation), cold energy (cryoablation), or other methods. The procedure involves threading one or more catheters through the blood vessels to the heart, where the tip of the catheter can be used to selectively destroy the problematic tissue. Catheter ablation is often used to treat atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, and other types of arrhythmias that originate in the heart's upper chambers (atria). It may also be used to treat certain types of arrhythmias that originate in the heart's lower chambers (ventricles), such as ventricular tachycardia.

The goal of catheter ablation is to eliminate or reduce the frequency and severity of arrhythmias, thereby improving symptoms and quality of life. In some cases, it may also help to reduce the risk of stroke and other complications associated with arrhythmias. Catheter ablation is typically performed by a specialist in heart rhythm disorders (electrophysiologist) in a hospital or outpatient setting under local anesthesia and sedation. The procedure can take several hours to complete, depending on the complexity of the arrhythmia being treated.

It's important to note that while catheter ablation is generally safe and effective, it does carry some risks, such as bleeding, infection, damage to nearby structures, and the possibility of recurrent arrhythmias. Patients should discuss the potential benefits and risks of the procedure with their healthcare provider before making a decision about treatment.

The portal vein is the large venous trunk that carries blood from the gastrointestinal tract, spleen, pancreas, and gallbladder to the liver. It is formed by the union of the superior mesenteric vein (draining the small intestine and a portion of the large intestine) and the splenic vein (draining the spleen and pancreas). The portal vein then divides into right and left branches within the liver, where the blood flows through the sinusoids and gets enriched with oxygen and nutrients before being drained by the hepatic veins into the inferior vena cava. This unique arrangement allows the liver to process and detoxify the absorbed nutrients, remove waste products, and regulate metabolic homeostasis.

Yttrium radioisotopes are radioactive isotopes or variants of the element Yttrium, which is a rare earth metal. These radioisotopes are artificially produced and have unstable nuclei that emit radiation in the form of gamma rays or high-speed particles. Examples of yttrium radioisotopes include Yttrium-90 and Yttrium-86, which are used in medical applications such as radiotherapy for cancer treatment and molecular imaging for diagnostic purposes.

Yttrium-90 is a pure beta emitter with a half-life of 64.1 hours, making it useful for targeted radionuclide therapy. It can be used to treat liver tumors, leukemia, and lymphoma by attaching it to monoclonal antibodies or other targeting agents that selectively bind to cancer cells.

Yttrium-86 is a positron emitter with a half-life of 14.7 hours, making it useful for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. It can be used to label radiopharmaceuticals and track their distribution in the body, providing information on the location and extent of disease.

It is important to note that handling and use of radioisotopes require specialized training and equipment due to their potential radiation hazards.

The "Standard of Care" is a legal term that refers to the level and type of medical care that a reasonably prudent physician with similar training and expertise would provide under similar circumstances. It serves as a benchmark for determining whether a healthcare provider has been negligent in their duties. In other words, if a healthcare professional fails to meet the standard of care and their patient is harmed as a result, they may be held liable for medical malpractice.

It's important to note that the standard of care can vary depending on factors such as the patient's age, medical condition, and geographic location. Additionally, the standard of care is not static and evolves over time as new medical research and technologies become available. Healthcare professionals are expected to stay current with advances in their field and provide care that reflects the most up-to-date standards.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

Antineoplastic agents are a class of drugs used to treat malignant neoplasms or cancer. These agents work by inhibiting the growth and proliferation of cancer cells, either by killing them or preventing their division and replication. Antineoplastic agents can be classified based on their mechanism of action, such as alkylating agents, antimetabolites, topoisomerase inhibitors, mitotic inhibitors, and targeted therapy agents.

Alkylating agents work by adding alkyl groups to DNA, which can cause cross-linking of DNA strands and ultimately lead to cell death. Antimetabolites interfere with the metabolic processes necessary for DNA synthesis and replication, while topoisomerase inhibitors prevent the relaxation of supercoiled DNA during replication. Mitotic inhibitors disrupt the normal functioning of the mitotic spindle, which is essential for cell division. Targeted therapy agents are designed to target specific molecular abnormalities in cancer cells, such as mutated oncogenes or dysregulated signaling pathways.

It's important to note that antineoplastic agents can also affect normal cells and tissues, leading to various side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and myelosuppression (suppression of bone marrow function). Therefore, the use of these drugs requires careful monitoring and management of their potential adverse effects.

Combined modality therapy (CMT) is a medical treatment approach that utilizes more than one method or type of therapy simultaneously or in close succession, with the goal of enhancing the overall effectiveness of the treatment. In the context of cancer care, CMT often refers to the combination of two or more primary treatment modalities, such as surgery, radiation therapy, and systemic therapies (chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, etc.).

The rationale behind using combined modality therapy is that each treatment method can target cancer cells in different ways, potentially increasing the likelihood of eliminating all cancer cells and reducing the risk of recurrence. The specific combination and sequence of treatments will depend on various factors, including the type and stage of cancer, patient's overall health, and individual preferences.

For example, a common CMT approach for locally advanced rectal cancer may involve preoperative (neoadjuvant) chemoradiation therapy, followed by surgery to remove the tumor, and then postoperative (adjuvant) chemotherapy. This combined approach allows for the reduction of the tumor size before surgery, increases the likelihood of complete tumor removal, and targets any remaining microscopic cancer cells with systemic chemotherapy.

It is essential to consult with a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals to determine the most appropriate CMT plan for each individual patient, considering both the potential benefits and risks associated with each treatment method.

The maxillary artery is a branch of the external carotid artery that supplies the deep structures of the face and head. It originates from the external carotid artery just below the neck of the mandible and passes laterally to enter the parotid gland. Within the gland, it gives off several branches, including the deep auricular, anterior tympanic, and middle meningeal arteries.

After leaving the parotid gland, the maxillary artery travels through the infratemporal fossa, where it gives off several more branches, including the inferior alveolar, buccinator, and masseteric arteries. These vessels supply blood to the teeth, gums, and muscles of mastication.

The maxillary artery also gives off the sphenopalatine artery, which supplies the nasal cavity, nasopharynx, and palate. Additionally, it provides branches that supply the meninges, dura mater, and brain. Overall, the maxillary artery plays a critical role in providing blood flow to many structures in the head and neck region.

Doxorubicin is a type of chemotherapy medication known as an anthracycline. It works by interfering with the DNA in cancer cells, which prevents them from growing and multiplying. Doxorubicin is used to treat a wide variety of cancers, including leukemia, lymphoma, breast cancer, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, and many others. It may be given alone or in combination with other chemotherapy drugs.

Doxorubicin is usually administered through a vein (intravenously) and can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hair loss, mouth sores, and increased risk of infection. It can also cause damage to the heart muscle, which can lead to heart failure in some cases. For this reason, doctors may monitor patients' heart function closely while they are receiving doxorubicin treatment.

It is important for patients to discuss the potential risks and benefits of doxorubicin therapy with their healthcare provider before starting treatment.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Surgical sponges are absorbent, sterile materials used in medical procedures to soak up bodily fluids and help maintain a clean surgical field. They are typically made from gauze material and come in various sizes and shapes to accommodate different surgical needs. Surgical sponges are carefully counted before and after a procedure to ensure that none are accidentally left inside the patient's body.

Antibiotics are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth.

Antineoplastics, also known as chemotherapeutic agents, are a class of drugs used to treat cancer. These medications target and destroy rapidly dividing cells, such as cancer cells, although they can also affect other quickly dividing cells in the body, such as those in the hair follicles or digestive tract, which can lead to side effects.

Antibiotics and antineoplastics are two different classes of drugs with distinct mechanisms of action and uses. It is important to use them appropriately and under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Hemostatics are substances or agents that promote bleeding cessation or prevent the spread of bleeding. They can act in various ways, such as by stimulating the body's natural clotting mechanisms, constricting blood vessels to reduce blood flow, or forming a physical barrier to block the bleeding site.

Hemostatics are often used in medical settings to manage wounds, injuries, and surgical procedures. They can be applied directly to the wound as a powder, paste, or gauze, or they can be administered systemically through intravenous injection. Examples of hemostatic agents include fibrin sealants, collagen-based products, thrombin, and oxidized regenerated cellulose.

It's important to note that while hemostatics can be effective in controlling bleeding, they should be used with caution and only under the guidance of a healthcare professional. Inappropriate use or overuse of hemostatic agents can lead to complications such as excessive clotting, thrombosis, or tissue damage.

Peripheral catheterization is a medical procedure that involves the insertion of a thin, flexible tube (catheter) into a peripheral vein, which is a blood vessel located outside of the chest and abdomen. This type of catheterization is typically performed to administer medications, fluids, or nutritional support, or to monitor various physiological parameters such as central venous pressure.

Peripheral catheters are usually inserted into veins in the hands or arms, although they can also be placed in other peripheral veins. The procedure is typically performed using aseptic technique to minimize the risk of infection. Once the catheter is in place, it may be secured with a dressing or suture to prevent movement and dislodgement.

Peripheral catheterization is a relatively safe and common procedure that is routinely performed in hospitals, clinics, and other healthcare settings. However, like any medical procedure, it carries a small risk of complications such as infection, bleeding, or damage to the vein or surrounding tissues.

Liver transplantation is a surgical procedure in which a diseased or failing liver is replaced with a healthy one from a deceased donor or, less commonly, a portion of a liver from a living donor. The goal of the procedure is to restore normal liver function and improve the patient's overall health and quality of life.

Liver transplantation may be recommended for individuals with end-stage liver disease, acute liver failure, certain genetic liver disorders, or liver cancers that cannot be treated effectively with other therapies. The procedure involves complex surgery to remove the diseased liver and implant the new one, followed by a period of recovery and close medical monitoring to ensure proper function and minimize the risk of complications.

The success of liver transplantation has improved significantly in recent years due to advances in surgical techniques, immunosuppressive medications, and post-transplant care. However, it remains a major operation with significant risks and challenges, including the need for lifelong immunosuppression to prevent rejection of the new liver, as well as potential complications such as infection, bleeding, and organ failure.

Niacinamide, also known as nicotinamide, is a form of vitamin B3 (niacin). It is a water-soluble vitamin that is involved in energy production and DNA repair in the body. Niacinamide can be found in various foods such as meat, fish, milk, eggs, green vegetables, and cereal grains.

As a medical definition, niacinamide is a nutritional supplement and medication used to prevent or treat pellagra, a disease caused by niacin deficiency. It can also be used to improve skin conditions such as acne, rosacea, and hyperpigmentation, and has been studied for its potential benefits in treating diabetes, cancer, and Alzheimer's disease.

Niacinamide works by acting as a precursor to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), a coenzyme involved in many cellular processes such as energy metabolism, DNA repair, and gene expression. Niacinamide has anti-inflammatory properties and can help regulate the immune system, making it useful for treating inflammatory skin conditions.

It is important to note that niacinamide should not be confused with niacin (also known as nicotinic acid), which is another form of vitamin B3 that has different effects on the body. Niacin can cause flushing and other side effects at higher doses, while niacinamide does not have these effects.

Phenylurea compounds are a class of chemical compounds that contain a phenyl group (a functional group consisting of a six-membered aromatic ring with a hydrogen atom and a single bond to a carbon atom or other group) linked to a urea moiety. Urea is an organic compound that contains a carbonyl functional group connected to two amine groups.

Phenylurea compounds are commonly used as herbicides, fungicides, and insecticides in agriculture due to their ability to inhibit certain enzymes and disrupt plant growth processes. Some examples of phenylurea compounds include chlorotoluron, diuron, linuron, and monuron.

It is important to note that some phenylurea compounds have been found to be toxic to non-target organisms, including mammals, birds, and fish, and can pose environmental risks if not used properly. Therefore, it is essential to follow the recommended guidelines for their use and disposal to minimize potential health and ecological impacts.

Preoperative care refers to the series of procedures, interventions, and preparations that are conducted before a surgical operation. The primary goal of preoperative care is to ensure the patient's well-being, optimize their physical condition, reduce potential risks, and prepare them mentally and emotionally for the upcoming surgery.

Preoperative care typically includes:

1. Preoperative assessment: A thorough evaluation of the patient's overall health status, including medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and diagnostic imaging, to identify any potential risk factors or comorbidities that may impact the surgical procedure and postoperative recovery.
2. Informed consent: The process of ensuring the patient understands the nature of the surgery, its purpose, associated risks, benefits, and alternative treatment options. The patient signs a consent form indicating they have been informed and voluntarily agree to undergo the surgery.
3. Preoperative instructions: Guidelines provided to the patient regarding their diet, medication use, and other activities in the days leading up to the surgery. These instructions may include fasting guidelines, discontinuing certain medications, or arranging for transportation after the procedure.
4. Anesthesia consultation: A meeting with the anesthesiologist to discuss the type of anesthesia that will be used during the surgery and address any concerns related to anesthesia risks, side effects, or postoperative pain management.
5. Preparation of the surgical site: Cleaning and shaving the area where the incision will be made, as well as administering appropriate antimicrobial agents to minimize the risk of infection.
6. Medical optimization: Addressing any underlying medical conditions or correcting abnormalities that may negatively impact the surgical outcome. This may involve adjusting medications, treating infections, or managing chronic diseases such as diabetes.
7. Emotional and psychological support: Providing counseling, reassurance, and education to help alleviate anxiety, fear, or emotional distress related to the surgery.
8. Preoperative holding area: The patient is transferred to a designated area near the operating room where they are prepared for surgery by changing into a gown, having intravenous (IV) lines inserted, and receiving monitoring equipment.

By following these preoperative care guidelines, healthcare professionals aim to ensure that patients undergo safe and successful surgical procedures with optimal outcomes.

Contrast media are substances that are administered to a patient in order to improve the visibility of internal body structures or processes in medical imaging techniques such as X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, and ultrasounds. These media can be introduced into the body through various routes, including oral, rectal, or intravenous administration.

Contrast media work by altering the appearance of bodily structures in imaging studies. For example, when a patient undergoes an X-ray examination, contrast media can be used to highlight specific organs, tissues, or blood vessels, making them more visible on the resulting images. In CT and MRI scans, contrast media can help to enhance the differences between normal and abnormal tissues, allowing for more accurate diagnosis and treatment planning.

There are several types of contrast media available, each with its own specific properties and uses. Some common examples include barium sulfate, which is used as a contrast medium in X-ray studies of the gastrointestinal tract, and iodinated contrast media, which are commonly used in CT scans to highlight blood vessels and other structures.

While contrast media are generally considered safe, they can sometimes cause adverse reactions, ranging from mild symptoms such as nausea or hives to more serious complications such as anaphylaxis or kidney damage. As a result, it is important for healthcare providers to carefully evaluate each patient's medical history and individual risk factors before administering contrast media.

Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is a medical imaging technique used to visualize the blood vessels and blood flow within the body. It combines the use of X-ray technology with digital image processing to produce detailed images of the vascular system.

In DSA, a contrast agent is injected into the patient's bloodstream through a catheter, which is typically inserted into an artery in the leg and guided to the area of interest using fluoroscopy. As the contrast agent flows through the blood vessels, X-ray images are taken at multiple time points.

The digital subtraction process involves taking a baseline image without contrast and then subtracting it from subsequent images taken with contrast. This allows for the removal of background structures and noise, resulting in clearer images of the blood vessels. DSA can be used to diagnose and evaluate various vascular conditions, such as aneurysms, stenosis, and tumors, and can also guide interventional procedures such as angioplasty and stenting.

Medical survival rate is a statistical measure used to determine the percentage of patients who are still alive for a specific period of time after their diagnosis or treatment for a certain condition or disease. It is often expressed as a five-year survival rate, which refers to the proportion of people who are alive five years after their diagnosis. Survival rates can be affected by many factors, including the stage of the disease at diagnosis, the patient's age and overall health, the effectiveness of treatment, and other health conditions that the patient may have. It is important to note that survival rates are statistical estimates and do not necessarily predict an individual patient's prognosis.

Benzenesulfonates are organic compounds that contain a benzene ring substituted with a sulfonate group. In chemistry, a sulfonate group is a functional group consisting of a sulfur atom connected to three oxygen atoms (-SO3). Benzenesulfonates are often used as detergents, emulsifiers, and phase transfer catalysts in various chemical reactions. They can also be found in some pharmaceuticals and dyes.

Survival analysis is a branch of statistics that deals with the analysis of time to event data. It is used to estimate the time it takes for a certain event of interest to occur, such as death, disease recurrence, or treatment failure. The event of interest is called the "failure" event, and survival analysis estimates the probability of not experiencing the failure event until a certain point in time, also known as the "survival" probability.

Survival analysis can provide important information about the effectiveness of treatments, the prognosis of patients, and the identification of risk factors associated with the event of interest. It can handle censored data, which is common in medical research where some participants may drop out or be lost to follow-up before the event of interest occurs.

Survival analysis typically involves estimating the survival function, which describes the probability of surviving beyond a certain time point, as well as hazard functions, which describe the instantaneous rate of failure at a given time point. Other important concepts in survival analysis include median survival times, restricted mean survival times, and various statistical tests to compare survival curves between groups.

Cyclobutanes are a class of organic compounds that contain a four-membered carbon ring. The carbons in this ring are bonded to each other in a cyclic arrangement, forming a square-like structure. These compounds can be found naturally or synthesized in the laboratory and play important roles in various chemical reactions and biological processes.

Cyclobutanes are relatively uncommon in nature due to the strain associated with having four carbons in a small ring. This strain makes the molecules more reactive, which can lead to interesting chemical properties. For example, cyclobutanes can undergo ring-opening reactions when exposed to heat or light, leading to the formation of new chemical bonds and the release of energy.

In biology, cyclobutane rings are found in certain types of DNA damage, such as those caused by ultraviolet (UV) radiation. These damages can lead to mutations and may contribute to the development of skin cancer. However, cells have mechanisms for repairing this type of DNA damage, helping to prevent these negative outcomes.

Overall, while cyclobutanes are relatively simple molecules, they have important implications in chemistry and biology, making them a fascinating area of study.

Necrosis is the premature death of cells or tissues due to damage or injury, such as from infection, trauma, infarction (lack of blood supply), or toxic substances. It's a pathological process that results in the uncontrolled and passive degradation of cellular components, ultimately leading to the release of intracellular contents into the extracellular space. This can cause local inflammation and may lead to further tissue damage if not treated promptly.

There are different types of necrosis, including coagulative, liquefactive, caseous, fat, fibrinoid, and gangrenous necrosis, each with distinct histological features depending on the underlying cause and the affected tissues or organs.

Intra-arterial injection is a type of medical procedure where a medication or contrast agent is delivered directly into an artery. This technique is used for various therapeutic and diagnostic purposes.

For instance, intra-arterial chemotherapy may be used to deliver cancer drugs directly to the site of a tumor, while intra-arterial thrombolysis involves the administration of clot-busting medications to treat arterial blockages caused by blood clots. Intra-arterial injections are also used in diagnostic imaging procedures such as angiography, where a contrast agent is injected into an artery to visualize the blood vessels and identify any abnormalities.

It's important to note that intra-arterial injections require precise placement of the needle or catheter into the artery, and are typically performed by trained medical professionals using specialized equipment.

Antineoplastic protocols refer to the standardized treatment plans used in cancer therapy that involve the use of antineoplastic agents or drugs. These protocols are developed based on clinical research and evidence-based medicine, and they outline the specific types, dosages, schedules, and routes of administration of antineoplastic drugs for the treatment of various types of cancer.

The main goal of antineoplastic protocols is to optimize the effectiveness of cancer therapy while minimizing toxicity and adverse effects. They may involve single-agent or multi-agent chemotherapy, as well as other forms of cancer treatment such as radiation therapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapy. Antineoplastic protocols are often individualized based on the patient's age, performance status, tumor type and stage, genetic makeup, and other factors that may affect their response to treatment.

It is important for healthcare providers to follow antineoplastic protocols carefully to ensure that patients receive safe and effective cancer therapy. Regular monitoring and assessment of the patient's response to treatment are also crucial components of antineoplastic protocols, as they allow healthcare providers to adjust the treatment plan as needed to maximize its benefits and minimize its risks.

Catheterization is a medical procedure in which a catheter (a flexible tube) is inserted into the body to treat various medical conditions or for diagnostic purposes. The specific definition can vary depending on the area of medicine and the particular procedure being discussed. Here are some common types of catheterization:

1. Urinary catheterization: This involves inserting a catheter through the urethra into the bladder to drain urine. It is often performed to manage urinary retention, monitor urine output in critically ill patients, or assist with surgical procedures.
2. Cardiac catheterization: A procedure where a catheter is inserted into a blood vessel, usually in the groin or arm, and guided to the heart. This allows for various diagnostic tests and treatments, such as measuring pressures within the heart chambers, assessing blood flow, or performing angioplasty and stenting of narrowed coronary arteries.
3. Central venous catheterization: A catheter is inserted into a large vein, typically in the neck, chest, or groin, to administer medications, fluids, or nutrition, or to monitor central venous pressure.
4. Peritoneal dialysis catheterization: A catheter is placed into the abdominal cavity for individuals undergoing peritoneal dialysis, a type of kidney replacement therapy.
5. Neurological catheterization: In some cases, a catheter may be inserted into the cerebrospinal fluid space (lumbar puncture) or the brain's ventricular system (ventriculostomy) to diagnose or treat various neurological conditions.

These are just a few examples of catheterization procedures in medicine. The specific definition and purpose will depend on the medical context and the particular organ or body system involved.

A gastric fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between the stomach and another organ or the skin surface. This condition can occur as a result of complications from surgery, injury, infection, or certain diseases such as cancer. Symptoms may include persistent drainage from the site of the fistula, pain, malnutrition, and infection. Treatment typically involves surgical repair of the fistula and management of any underlying conditions.

Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent used to treat various types of cancers, including testicular, ovarian, bladder, head and neck, lung, and cervical cancers. It is an inorganic platinum compound that contains a central platinum atom surrounded by two chloride atoms and two ammonia molecules in a cis configuration.

Cisplatin works by forming crosslinks between DNA strands, which disrupts the structure of DNA and prevents cancer cells from replicating. This ultimately leads to cell death and slows down or stops the growth of tumors. However, cisplatin can also cause damage to normal cells, leading to side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hearing loss, and kidney damage. Therefore, it is essential to monitor patients closely during treatment and manage any adverse effects promptly.

Cholangiocarcinoma is a type of cancer that arises from the cells that line the bile ducts, which are small tubes that carry digestive enzymes from the liver to the small intestine. It can occur in different parts of the bile duct system, including the bile ducts inside the liver (intrahepatic), the bile ducts outside the liver (extrahepatic), and the area where the bile ducts join the pancreas and small intestine (ampulla of Vater).

Cholangiocarcinoma is a relatively rare cancer, but its incidence has been increasing in recent years. It can be difficult to diagnose because its symptoms are often nonspecific and similar to those of other conditions, such as gallstones or pancreatitis. Treatment options depend on the location and stage of the cancer, and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Liver circulation, also known as hepatic circulation, refers to the blood flow through the liver. The liver receives blood from two sources: the hepatic artery and the portal vein.

The hepatic artery delivers oxygenated blood from the heart to the liver, accounting for about 25% of the liver's blood supply. The remaining 75% comes from the portal vein, which carries nutrient-rich, deoxygenated blood from the gastrointestinal tract, spleen, pancreas, and gallbladder to the liver.

In the liver, these two sources of blood mix in the sinusoids, small vessels with large spaces between the endothelial cells that line them. This allows for efficient exchange of substances between the blood and the hepatocytes (liver cells). The blood then leaves the liver through the hepatic veins, which merge into the inferior vena cava and return the blood to the heart.

The unique dual blood supply and extensive sinusoidal network in the liver enable it to perform various critical functions, such as detoxification, metabolism, synthesis, storage, and secretion of numerous substances, maintaining body homeostasis.

Neoplasm staging is a systematic process used in medicine to describe the extent of spread of a cancer, including the size and location of the original (primary) tumor and whether it has metastasized (spread) to other parts of the body. The most widely accepted system for this purpose is the TNM classification system developed by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC).

In this system, T stands for tumor, and it describes the size and extent of the primary tumor. N stands for nodes, and it indicates whether the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes. M stands for metastasis, and it shows whether the cancer has spread to distant parts of the body.

Each letter is followed by a number that provides more details about the extent of the disease. For example, a T1N0M0 cancer means that the primary tumor is small and has not spread to nearby lymph nodes or distant sites. The higher the numbers, the more advanced the cancer.

Staging helps doctors determine the most appropriate treatment for each patient and estimate the patient's prognosis. It is an essential tool for communication among members of the healthcare team and for comparing outcomes of treatments in clinical trials.

Liver cirrhosis is a chronic, progressive disease characterized by the replacement of normal liver tissue with scarred (fibrotic) tissue, leading to loss of function. The scarring is caused by long-term damage from various sources such as hepatitis, alcohol abuse, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and other causes. As the disease advances, it can lead to complications like portal hypertension, fluid accumulation in the abdomen (ascites), impaired brain function (hepatic encephalopathy), and increased risk of liver cancer. It is generally irreversible, but early detection and treatment of underlying causes may help slow down its progression.

Portography is a medical term that refers to an X-ray examination of the portal vein, which is the large blood vessel that carries blood from the digestive organs to the liver. In this procedure, a contrast dye is injected into the patient's veins, and then X-rays are taken to visualize the flow of the dye through the portal vein and its branches. This test can help diagnose various conditions that affect the liver and surrounding organs, such as cirrhosis, tumors, or blood clots in the portal vein. It is also known as a portovenogram or hepatic venography.

Angiography is a medical procedure in which an x-ray image is taken to visualize the internal structure of blood vessels, arteries, or veins. This is done by injecting a radiopaque contrast agent (dye) into the blood vessel using a thin, flexible catheter. The dye makes the blood vessels visible on an x-ray image, allowing doctors to diagnose and treat various medical conditions such as blockages, narrowing, or malformations of the blood vessels.

There are several types of angiography, including:

* Cardiac angiography (also called coronary angiography) - used to examine the blood vessels of the heart
* Cerebral angiography - used to examine the blood vessels of the brain
* Peripheral angiography - used to examine the blood vessels in the limbs or other parts of the body.

Angiography is typically performed by a radiologist, cardiologist, or vascular surgeon in a hospital setting. It can help diagnose conditions such as coronary artery disease, aneurysms, and peripheral arterial disease, among others.

A waiting list, in the context of healthcare and medicine, refers to a list of patients who are awaiting a particular medical service or procedure, such as surgery, consultation with a specialist, or therapy. These lists are often established when the demand for certain services exceeds the immediate supply of resources, including physician time, hospital beds, or specialized equipment.

Patients on waiting lists are typically ranked based on factors like the severity of their condition, the urgency of their need for treatment, and the date they were placed on the list. The goal is to ensure that those with the most pressing medical needs receive care as soon as possible, while also providing a fair and transparent system for allocating limited resources.

However, it's important to note that extended waiting times can have negative consequences for patients, including worsening of symptoms, decreased quality of life, and potential complications. As such, healthcare systems strive to minimize wait times through various strategies, such as increasing resource allocation, improving efficiency, and implementing alternative service delivery models.

The Kaplan-Meier estimate is a statistical method used to calculate the survival probability over time in a population. It is commonly used in medical research to analyze time-to-event data, such as the time until a patient experiences a specific event like disease progression or death. The Kaplan-Meier estimate takes into account censored data, which occurs when some individuals are lost to follow-up before experiencing the event of interest.

The method involves constructing a survival curve that shows the proportion of subjects still surviving at different time points. At each time point, the survival probability is calculated as the product of the conditional probabilities of surviving from one time point to the next. The Kaplan-Meier estimate provides an unbiased and consistent estimator of the survival function, even when censoring is present.

In summary, the Kaplan-Meier estimate is a crucial tool in medical research for analyzing time-to-event data and estimating survival probabilities over time while accounting for censored observations.

Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a diverse group of neoplasms that arise from cells of the neuroendocrine system, which is composed of dispersed neuroendocrine cells throughout the body, often in close association with nerves and blood vessels. These cells have the ability to produce and secrete hormones or hormone-like substances in response to various stimuli. NETs can occur in a variety of organs, including the lungs, pancreas, small intestine, colon, rectum, stomach, and thyroid gland, as well as in some less common sites such as the thymus, adrenal glands, and nervous system.

NETs can be functional or nonfunctional, depending on whether they produce and secrete hormones or hormone-like substances that cause specific symptoms related to hormonal excess. Functional NETs may give rise to a variety of clinical syndromes, such as carcinoid syndrome, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor syndrome (also known as Verner-Morrison or WDHA syndrome), and others. Nonfunctional NETs are more likely to present with symptoms related to the size and location of the tumor, such as abdominal pain, intestinal obstruction, or bleeding.

The diagnosis of NETs typically involves a combination of imaging studies, biochemical tests (e.g., measurement of serum hormone levels), and histopathological examination of tissue samples obtained through biopsy or surgical resection. Treatment options depend on the type, location, stage, and grade of the tumor, as well as the presence or absence of functional symptoms. They may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and/or peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT).

Experimental liver neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the liver that are intentionally created or manipulated in a laboratory setting for the purpose of studying their development, progression, and potential treatment options. These experimental models can be established using various methods such as chemical induction, genetic modification, or transplantation of cancerous cells or tissues. The goal of this research is to advance our understanding of liver cancer biology and develop novel therapies for liver neoplasms in humans. It's important to note that these experiments are conducted under strict ethical guidelines and regulations to minimize harm and ensure the humane treatment of animals involved in such studies.

Local neoplasm recurrence is the return or regrowth of a tumor in the same location where it was originally removed or treated. This means that cancer cells have survived the initial treatment and started to grow again in the same area. It's essential to monitor and detect any local recurrence as early as possible, as it can affect the prognosis and may require additional treatment.

Epirubicin is an anthracycline antibiotic used in cancer chemotherapy. It works by interfering with the DNA in cancer cells and preventing them from dividing and growing. Epirubicin is often used to treat breast cancer, lung cancer, stomach cancer, and ovarian cancer.

Like other anthracyclines, epirubicin can cause side effects such as hair loss, nausea and vomiting, mouth sores, and increased risk of infection due to damage to the bone marrow. It can also cause heart problems, including congestive heart failure, especially when given in high doses or when combined with other chemotherapy drugs that can also harm the heart.

Epirubicin is usually given by injection into a vein (intravenously) and is typically administered in cycles, with breaks between treatment periods to allow the body to recover from any side effects. The dose and schedule of epirubicin may vary depending on the type and stage of cancer being treated, as well as other factors such as the patient's overall health and any other medical conditions they may have.

Bile duct neoplasms, also known as cholangiocarcinomas, refer to a group of malignancies that arise from the bile ducts. These are the tubes that carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder and small intestine. Bile duct neoplasms can be further classified based on their location as intrahepatic (within the liver), perihilar (at the junction of the left and right hepatic ducts), or distal (in the common bile duct).

These tumors are relatively rare, but their incidence has been increasing in recent years. They can cause a variety of symptoms, including jaundice, abdominal pain, weight loss, and fever. The diagnosis of bile duct neoplasms typically involves imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, as well as blood tests to assess liver function. In some cases, a biopsy may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment options for bile duct neoplasms depend on several factors, including the location and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Surgical resection is the preferred treatment for early-stage tumors, while chemotherapy and radiation therapy may be used in more advanced cases. For patients who are not candidates for surgery, palliative treatments such as stenting or bypass procedures may be recommended to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Intrahepatic bile ducts are the small tubular structures inside the liver that collect bile from the liver cells (hepatocytes). Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver that helps in the absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins from food. The intrahepatic bile ducts merge to form larger ducts, which eventually exit the liver and join with the cystic duct from the gallbladder to form the common bile duct. The common bile duct then empties into the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine, where bile aids in digestion. Intrahepatic bile ducts can become obstructed or damaged due to various conditions such as gallstones, tumors, or inflammation, leading to complications like jaundice, liver damage, and infection.

Palliative care is a type of medical care that focuses on relieving the pain, symptoms, and stress of serious illnesses. The goal is to improve quality of life for both the patient and their family. It is provided by a team of doctors, nurses, and other specialists who work together to address the physical, emotional, social, and spiritual needs of the patient. Palliative care can be provided at any stage of an illness, alongside curative treatments, and is not dependent on prognosis.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines palliative care as: "an approach that improves the quality of life of patients and their families facing the problems associated with life-threatening illness, through the prevention and relief of suffering by means of early identification and impeccable assessment and treatment of pain and other problems, physical, psychological and spiritual."

Conformal radiotherapy is a type of external beam radiation therapy that uses advanced technology to conform the radiation beam to the shape of the tumor, allowing for more precise and targeted treatment while minimizing exposure to healthy surrounding tissue. This can help reduce the risk of side effects and improve the therapeutic ratio. Conformal radiotherapy techniques include 3D conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). These techniques use sophisticated imaging and treatment planning systems to create a personalized treatment plan for each patient, based on the size, shape, and location of their tumor.

I'm happy to help! However, it seems there might be a bit of confusion here. Starch is not typically considered a medical term, but rather a nutritional and biochemical concept. Here's a brief explanation:

Starch is a complex carbohydrate that serves as the primary form of energy storage in plants. It is made up of long chains of glucose molecules and can be found in various foods such as grains, legumes, fruits, and vegetables. Amylase, an enzyme present in our saliva and digestive system, helps break down starch into simpler sugars during the digestion process so that our bodies can absorb them for energy.

I hope this clarifies any confusion! If you have any other questions or need further information on a medical topic, please don't hesitate to ask.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

Prognosis is a medical term that refers to the prediction of the likely outcome or course of a disease, including the chances of recovery or recurrence, based on the patient's symptoms, medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. It is an important aspect of clinical decision-making and patient communication, as it helps doctors and patients make informed decisions about treatment options, set realistic expectations, and plan for future care.

Prognosis can be expressed in various ways, such as percentages, categories (e.g., good, fair, poor), or survival rates, depending on the nature of the disease and the available evidence. However, it is important to note that prognosis is not an exact science and may vary depending on individual factors, such as age, overall health status, and response to treatment. Therefore, it should be used as a guide rather than a definitive forecast.

Hepatic artery chemoembolization (HACE), sometimes called transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), combines hepatic artery ... Hepatic artery embolization, also known as trans-arterial embolization (TAE), is one of the several therapeutic methods to ... Arterial Chemotherapy Infusion of the Liver (and) Chemoembolization of the Liver (TACE)[3]). Leal, Julie N; Kingham, T. Peter ( ... The role of surgery and chemoembolization in the management of carcinoid. California Carcinoid Fighters Conference. October 25 ...
Currently, therapeutic doses of radiation can be targeted to tumors with great accuracy using linear accelerators in radiation ... When comparing SIRT with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), several studies have shown favorable results for SIRT, such as ... The intention was to develop a microsphere with therapeutic radiation dose similar to 90Y, but with better imaging properties, ... Targeted alpha-particle therapy Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization Cromheecke, M.; Konings, A. W.; Szabo, B. G.; Hoekstra ...
Ablative Chemoembolization: Combined injection of chemotherapy and embolic agents into the arterial blood supply of a tumor, ... By contrast, therapeutic IR procedures provide direct treatment-they include catheter-based medicine delivery, medical device ... In addition, the interventional radiologist has an array of both therapeutic and palliative interventions to offer the patient ... IR performs both diagnostic and therapeutic procedures through very small incisions or body orifices. Diagnostic IR procedures ...
... chemoembolization, therapeutic MeSH E02.565.280.853 - short-wave therapy MeSH E02.565.280.945 - ultrasonic therapy MeSH E02.565 ... therapeutic touch MeSH E02.190.901.968 - witchcraft MeSH E02.190.901.984 - yoga MeSH E02.218.085.090 - body piercing MeSH ... therapeutic touch MeSH E02.190.525.937 - yoga MeSH E02.190.599.186 - kinesiology, applied MeSH E02.190.599.233 - manipulation, ...
... as in peptide receptor radionuclide therapy for neuroendocrine tumors and in chemoembolization or radioactive microspheres ... a drug or other therapeutic agent with a narrow therapeutic range (i.e. having little difference between toxic and therapeutic ... The therapeutic index (TI; also referred to as therapeutic ratio) is a quantitative measurement of the relative safety of a ... The effective therapeutic index can be affected by targeting, in which the therapeutic agent is concentrated in its area of ...
Hepatic artery chemoembolization (HACE), sometimes called transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), combines hepatic artery ... Kvols LK (2002). "Carcinoid Tumors and the Carcinoid Syndrome: What's New in the Therapeutic Pipeline". Carcinoid Symposium ... ISBN 978-3-540-43462-7. Pommier R (October 2003). The role of surgery and chemoembolization in the management of carcinoid. ... "Arterial Chemotherapy Infusion of the Liver (and) Chemoembolization of the Liver (TACE)". Archived from the ...
When it bears a chemotherapy drug, the process is called chemoembolization. Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) is ... "Therapeutic percutaneous embolization for extra-axial vascular lesions of the head, neck, and spine." J Neurosurg. 1975 Sep;43( ... therapeutic), as a hemostatic treatment for bleeding or as a treatment for some types of cancer by deliberately blocking blood ... Treated either by particle infarction or transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). Uterine fibroids Arteriovenous ...
Recently,[when?] there has been an increasing interest in the use of Lipiodol as a therapeutic agent in the management of ... It is used in chemoembolization applications as a contrast agent in follow-up imaging. Lipiodol is also used in ... computed tomography in the management of hepatocellular carcinoma with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization". Journal of ...
Drug eluting bead chemoembolization (DEB-TACE): delivery of microparticles that are themselves loaded with the chemotherapy ... Therapeutic interventional oncology procedures may be classified further into ablation techniques that destroy neoplastic ... Salem, Riad; Lewandowski, Robert J. (June 2013). "Chemoembolization and radioembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma". ... First therapeutic embolization procedure (of a carotid-cavernous fistula); described by Brooks. 1960s - Radioisotopes such as ...
Monitoring TACE therapeutic results by contrast imaging techniques is performed as for ablative therapies initially after one ... Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is part of palliative therapies for HCC used in intermediate stages of the disease. It ... On the other hand, CE-CT is also limited by the presence of Lipiodol (iodine oil), therefore the evaluation of therapeutic ... CEUS also allows assessment of therapeutic effect immediately post-procedure (with the possibility of reintervention in case of ...
Devera M (21 Aug 2020). "Transarterial Chemoembolization Versus Proton Beam Radiotherapy for the Treatment of Hepatocellular ... biomarkers and therapeutic targets". Journal of Hepatology. 67 (3): 603-618. doi:10.1016/j.jhep.2017.04.009. PMID 28438689. ... February 2010). "Comparison of yttrium-90 radioembolization and transcatheter arterial chemoembolization for the treatment of ... chemoembolization or radioembolization).[citation needed] Surgical removal of the tumor is associated with better cancer ...
Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: CBCT with contrast confirms that the proper artery is selected to deliver the ... rather than therapeutic purposes) attached to a linear accelerator treatment machine was first developed in the late 1990s and ...
A liver support system or diachysis is a type of therapeutic device to assist in performing the functions of the liver. Such ... Liver Resection in hepatocellular carcinoma Transarterial Chemoembolization (TACE) Partial resection in living donor ... Pathophysiological basis of therapeutic options". Blood Purif. 20 (3): 252-261. doi:10.1159/000047017. PMID 11867872. S2CID ... a new therapeutic strategy for intoxication from protein-bound drugs". Intensive Care Medicine. 30 (3): 496-501. doi:10.1007/ ...
In the USSR a therapeutic proton beam with energies up to 200 MeV was obtained at the synchrocyclotron of JINR in Dubna in 1967 ... Md, Michael Devera (August 2020). "Transarterial Chemoembolization Versus Proton Beam Radiotherapy for the Treatment of ... A growing amount of data shows that proton therapy has great potential to increase therapeutic tolerance for patients with GI ... compared to therapeutic megavoltage (MeV) photon beams (~60%). X-ray radiation dose falls off gradually, needlessly harming ...
The therapeutic outcomes are improving due to the combined approach such as spreading the treatment target to non-bronchial ... Seki, Akihiko; Shimono, Chigusa (September 2017). "Transarterial chemoembolization for management of hemoptysis: initial ... and the evolution of therapeutic strategies. BAE has become the gold standard for hemoptysis for its dramatic improvement. ...
Fogarty S (March 2018). "Fertility Massage: an Unethical Practice?". International Journal of Therapeutic Massage & Bodywork. ... uterine arterial embolization or uterine arterial chemoembolization). The United States uses a multi dose protocol of ...
Chemoembolization, Therapeutic* * Female * Humans * Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis * Liver Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging* * Liver ... Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization of hepatocellular carcinoma: usefulness of coded phase-inversion harmonic sonography ... Of 19 nodules of hepatocellular carcinoma treated only by transcatheter arterial chemoembolization, 17 nodules showed ... even in nodules that had been observed to be completely filled with iodized oil 1 week after the chemoembolization. ...
Hepatic artery chemoembolization (HACE), sometimes called transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), combines hepatic artery ... Hepatic artery embolization, also known as trans-arterial embolization (TAE), is one of the several therapeutic methods to ... Arterial Chemotherapy Infusion of the Liver (and) Chemoembolization of the Liver (TACE)[3]). Leal, Julie N; Kingham, T. Peter ( ... The role of surgery and chemoembolization in the management of carcinoid. California Carcinoid Fighters Conference. October 25 ...
Newer therapeutic strategies have included chemoembolization, intra-arterial chemotherapy, and intraoperative cryotherapy. ... MDM4 inhibition: a novel therapeutic strategy to reactivate p53 in hepatoblastoma. Sci Rep. 2021 Feb 3. 11 (1):2967. [QxMD ... Targeting PIM kinase as a therapeutic strategy in human hepatoblastoma. Oncotarget. 2018 Apr 27. 9 (32):22665-22679. [QxMD ... is an option for benign lesions that have resulted in significant organ compromise with no other effective therapeutic modality ...
MR Imaging of Therapeutic Magnetic Microcarriers Guided by Magnetic Resonance Navigation for Targeted Liver Chemoembolization. ... Martel, S. (2014). Magnetic therapeutic delivery using navigable agents. Therapeutic Delivery, 5(2), 189-204. ... Martel, S. (2017). Methods and apparatus for dipole field navigation for direct targeting of therapeutic agents. (Demande de ... Martel, S. (2013). Combining Pulsed and DC Gradients in a Clinical MRI-Based Microrobotic Platform to Guide Therapeutic ...
... with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) in patients with HCC patients accompanied by thrombocytopenia. ,i,Patients and ... dynamic CT was performed every 3-4 months after PSE with TACE to evaluate the therapeutic effect of TACE. When patients showed ... R. Roversi, S. Ricci, P. I. Gambari et al., "Splenic embolization and hepatic chemoembolization: combined transcatheter ... Partial Splenic Embolization with Transarterial Chemoembolization in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma Accompanied by ...
Background To determine the safety and efficacy of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) combined with radiofrequency ablation ... Incidence and therapeutic frequency of extrahepatic collateral arteries in transcatheter arterial chemoembolization of ... Transarterial Chemoembolization Monotherapy Versus Combined Transarterial Chemoembolization-Microwave Ablation Therapy for ... Comparison of Transarterial Chemoembolization Alone and Combined Therapy with Transarterial Chemoembolization and ...
26 Vogl T J, Muller P K, Mack M G. et al . Liver metastases: Interventional therapeutic techniques and results, state of the ... Further advances can be expected by new multimodal therapy regimes such as downsizing (chemotherapy, chemoembolization) and ... Surgery in combination with other therapeutic modalities offers the highest chance for cure. Accurate patient selection on the ... therapeutic splitting (surgery and radiofrequency ablation). Schlüsselwörter. Kolorektales Karzinom - Lebermetastasen - ...
... and validation of sorafenib-eluting microspheres to enhance therapeutic efficacy of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization in ... Chemoembolization combined with radiofrequency ablation for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma larger than 3 cm: a ... Transarterial chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein tumor thrombus: a meta-analysis. BMC ... Effect of C-arm angiographic CT on transcatheter arterial chemoembolization of liver tumors. J Vasc Interv Radiol 2007; 18 (10 ...
Zhang X, Wang K, Wang M, Yang G, Ye X, Wu M, Cheng S. Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) combined with sorafenib versus ... On the other side, many efforts should be made to find new therapeutic targets and develop new drugs. Certainly, the future of ... Another new therapeutic approach regards arginine, which cannot be produced by HCC cells; thus, pegylated arginine diminase ( ... c-Met represents a potential therapeutic target for personalized treatment in hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology. 2011;54:879 ...
... and Therapeutic Interventions. Microorganisms. 2021;9. [PubMed] [DOI] [Cited in This Article: ] [Cited by in Crossref: 24] [ ... Retraction notice to: Clinical significance of the best response during repeated transarterial chemoembolization in the ... Review article: the gut microbiome as a therapeutic target in the pathogenesis and treatment of chronic liver disease. Aliment ... Beyond theory, quite a few studies have begun examining therapeutic inventions. AVT can effectively control or even reverse HBV ...
Therapeutic pain interventions. *Spine interventions *Kyphoplasty - treatment for compression fractures of the spine related to ... Chemoembolization -delivery of chemotherapy through the blood vessels directly to the liver tumor ... Fistulagram - diagnostic and therapeutic intervention on dialysis access fistulas and grafts to evaluate sites of dysfunction ... Peripheral arterial disease interventions - diagnostic and therapeutic interventions to evaluate sites of vessel narrowing or ...
Aim: To perform a quantitative, volumetric analysis of therapeutic effects of trans-arterial chemoembolization (TACE) in ... Conclusion: Quantification of therapeutic changes after TACE therapy is feasible using a semi-automated segmentation and ... Semi-automatic Volumetric Measurement of Treatment Response in Hepatocellular Carcinoma After Trans-arterial Chemoembolization ... Semi-automatic Volumetric Measurement of Treatment Response in Hepatocellular Carcinoma After Trans-arterial Chemoembolization. ...
... do not mention chemoembolization as a therapeutic option.. Trans-Arterial Chemo-Embolization Plus Sorafenib. Li and colleagues ... Chemoembolization. Aetna considers chemoembolization (CE) medically necessary for any of the following:. *For treatment of ... Drug-Eluting Beads Trans-Arterial Chemoembolization. *Baur J, Ritter CO, Germer CT, et al. Transarterial chemoembolization with ... The advantage of chemoembolization of the liver as an anti-neoplastic treatment for HCC is that it achieves high intra-tumoral ...
i,Objective,/i,. To evaluate the effectiveness of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) combined with lenvatinib and ... Y. Teng, X. Ding, W. Li, W. Sun, and J. Chen, "A retrospective study on therapeutic efficacy of transarterial chemoembolization ... J.-L. Raoul, M. Gilabert, and G. Piana, "How to define transarterial chemoembolization failure or refractoriness: a European ... M. Kudo, O. Matsui, N. Izumi et al., "Transarterial chemoembolization failure/refractoriness: JSH-LCSGJ criteria 2014 update," ...
Imaging can play an important role in choosing the most appropriate therapeutic strategy. ... and minimally invasive catheter techniques such as superselective chemoembolization. ...
For many therapeutic interventions, imaging has become an essential component of initial diagnosis, as well as the monitoring ... or chemo-embolization where chemotherapy plus embolizing agents are infused at high concentration directly into the tumor ... The readily available pre-procedural medical image data can also be employed for patient-specific simulation of therapeutic ... Other examples include radiation therapy, various cardiac interventions [1], therapeutic ultrasound, or localized thermal ...
Chemoembolization, Therapeutic, Kidney Neoplasms, Lung Neoplasms, Bone Diseases, Diagnostic Imaging, Drainage, Carotid Arteries ... Therapeutic Approaches, Ulcer, Varicose Ulcer, Diabetic Foot, Nervous System Diseases, Cardiovascular Surgical Procedures, ...
Therapeutic Procedures. *Intraarterial Procedures *Chemoembolization (TACE). *Chemoembolization (DEB). *Radioembolization. * ... Chemoembolization is one of the older procedures that we perform dating back to 1980. And it became standard of care because, ... Some of these therapies are regional, as when treating cancers involving several areas of the liver with chemoembolization or ... Transarterial Chemoembolization, Microwave Ablation and Irreversible Electroporation (IRE), Interviews with Scientific Leaders ...
Chemoembolization, Therapeutic MeSH Chemotherapy, Cancer, Regional Perfusion MeSH Cytotoxins MeSH Infusions, Intra-Arterial ... admin: various administration procedures are available, as CHEMOTHERAPY, CANCER, REGIONAL PERFUSION; CHEMOEMBOLIZATION, ... THERAPEUTIC and INFUSIONS, INTRA-ARTERIAL; for combined anticancer agents, ANTINEOPLASTIC COMBINED CHEMOTHERAPY PROTOCOLS is ...
The treatment uses PRP (Platelet-Rich-Plasma), which with stem cell therapy is the novel therapeutic approach for restoring the ...
... via the inferior phrenic artery has been recognized to have its own therapeutic role without causing serious procedural ... Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) via the inferior phrenic artery has been recognized to have its own therapeutic ... Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) via the right inferior phrenic artery. a Axial CT scan performed 16 months ... Kim, J.S., Lee, H.N., Lee, W.H. et al. Diaphragmatic perforation after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization of ...
CUHK unlocks the secret of cancer pain Identifying a new therapeutic key to ending the sorrow ... Tags:Simon YUWinnie YEOKit Fai LEEliver cancerablative chemoembolizationradiologyDepartment of Imaging and Interventional ... Mr YEUNG (right) and Mr WONG (left) both received Ablative Chemoembolization four years ago to kill the tumours in their livers ... Ablative Chemoembolization can deliver concentrated chemotherapeutic drugs to liver cancer tissue through catheter and other ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Global Illumination Rendering for High-Quality Volume Visualization in the Medical Domain. AU - Voglreiter, Philip. AU - Wallner, Jürgen. AU - Reinbacher, Knut. AU - Schwenzer-Zimmerer, Katja. AU - Schmalstieg, Dieter. AU - Egger, Jan. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. M3 - Conference paper. BT - face 2 face - science meets art. ER - ...
Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) is a widely employed treatment for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). ... Unusual or unexpected effect of treatment, Diagnostic / therapeutic accidents. DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.939195 ... Complications of Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Case Report of Bronchobiliary Fistula ...
Forner A, Llovet JM, Bruix J. Chemoembolization for intermediate HCC: is there proof of survival benefit? J Hepatol. 2012;56: ... Li JT, Liao ZX, Ping J, Xu D, Wang H. Molecular mechanism of hepatic stellate cell activation and antifibrotic therapeutic ... transarterial chemoembolization treatment can be offered (median survival rate 16-20 mo)[200]. In advanced disease, HCC is ... Exome sequencing of hepatocellular carcinomas identifies new mutational signatures and potential therapeutic targets. Nat Genet ...
... after balloon-occluded transcatheter arterial chemoembolization using miriplatin (B-TACE) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). ... Partial or complete perfusion defect on BO-CTHA was an independent factor associated with poor therapeutic effect. ... the hemodynamic changes under balloon occlusion of the hepatic artery and to identify predictors of the short-term therapeutic ... Table 2 Therapeutic effect after balloon-occluded transcatheter arterial chemoembolization using miriplatin for hepatocellular ...
Hepatic artery chemoembolization for the treatment of liver metastases from neuroendocrine tumors: a long-term follow-up in 123 ... The rarity of malignant insulinoma limits reports on therapeutic strategies and outcome. The treatment and follow-up of 10 ... Hepatic arterial chemoembolization with streptozotocin in patients with metastatic digestive endocrine tumours.. Eur J ... CONCLUSION: Hepatic arterial chemoembolization with STZ is an effective treatment for patients with liver metastases caused by ...
Chemoembolization, Therapeutic. *Chest Tubes. *Child, Preschool. *Cholangiocarcinoma. *Cholangiography. *Cholangitis, ...
Keywords: liver tumor, hepatocellular carcinoma, transcatheter arterial chemoembolization, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, ... suggesting that targeting both HIF-1α and VEGF could represent a potential therapeutic strategy in combination with TACE in the ... cell line McA RH-7777 to stimulate hypoxia to mimic the hypoxic conditions induced by transcatheter arterial chemoembolization ...
  • Hepatic artery chemoembolization (HACE), sometimes called transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), combines hepatic artery embolization with hepatic artery chemo infusion. (
  • We retrospectively evaluated the long-term effects of partial splenic embolization (PSE) with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) in patients with HCC patients accompanied by thrombocytopenia. (
  • Since cirrhotic patients with severe thrombocytopenia are at greater risk for bleeding, treatments against HCC such as liver transplantation, resection, local ablation therapy, and transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) can be performed following a platelet transfusion in those patients. (
  • Background To determine the safety and efficacy of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) combined with radiofrequency ablation (hereafter, TACE-RFA) in treating Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) Stage A or B (hereafter, BCLC A/B) hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients, and to explore the range of tumor sizes suitable for combination therapy. (
  • In recent years, transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) as a palliative therapy has been recognized as the standard method for patients with unresectable HCC [11,12]. (
  • This review summarizes the different IR treatment options in HCC, including various ablative therapies, Transarterial Chemoembolization (TACE), Transarterial Radioembolization (TARE), Portal Vein embolization, emphasizing patient selection, procedural considerations and response evaluation. (
  • Aim: To perform a quantitative, volumetric analysis of therapeutic effects of trans-arterial chemoembolization (TACE) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. (
  • Conclusion: Quantification of therapeutic changes after TACE therapy is feasible using a semi-automated segmentation and evaluation tool. (
  • To evaluate the effectiveness of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) combined with lenvatinib and sintilimab in treating patients with midstage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). (
  • At present, both the European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) [ 2 ] and the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) [ 3 ] recommend transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) as the standard treatment option for patients with intermediate-stage (BCLC stage B) HCC. (
  • Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) via the inferior phrenic artery has been recognized to have its own therapeutic role without causing serious procedural complications. (
  • Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) is a standard locoregional treatment for intermediate-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) [ 1 ]. (
  • Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) via the right inferior phrenic artery. (
  • To clarify the hemodynamic changes under balloon occlusion of the hepatic artery and to identify predictors of the short-term therapeutic effect (TE) after balloon-occluded transcatheter arterial chemoembolization using miriplatin (B-TACE) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). (
  • CoCl2 was used in rat liver tumor cell line McA RH-7777 to stimulate hypoxia to mimic the hypoxic conditions induced by transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). (
  • Our findings showed that HIF-1α play an important role in the stimulation of the secreted VEGF expression under hypoxic conditions, suggesting that targeting both HIF-1α and VEGF could represent a potential therapeutic strategy in combination with TACE in the treatment of liver tumors. (
  • Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) combined with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) was investigated for larger HCC. (
  • This study was designed to evaluate the therapeutic effect of PBT on unresectable HCC in comparison with TACE combined with RFA. (
  • We investigated the outcomes of early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients who showed a complete response (CR) to initial transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), with a focus on the role of scheduled TACE repetition. (
  • Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is the most commonly used nonsurgical treatment modality for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) [ 1 ]. (
  • Patients with more advanced disease are currently offered palliative treatment, including localized transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) or systemic chemotherapy. (
  • Combined SBRT and immunotherapy resulted in significantly superior survival and less toxicity compared with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) [ 14 ]. (
  • BACKGROUND: Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and sorafenib are the therapeutic commonplace for intermediate and superior stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) sufferers respectively. (
  • Also included will be trans-arterial chemoembolization (TACE) and Sorafenib for patients with intermediate and advanced-stage cancer, respectively. (
  • Intra-arterial transcatheter embolotherapies are recommended for non-surgical patients in the intermediate HCC stage, while sorafenib is the standard systemic herapy for patients with advanced HCC and well-preserved liver function and those with intermediate-stage HCC who progress following trans-arterial chemoembolization (TACE). (
  • Image guidance methods to gain access to the deep interstices of most organs and organ systems through use of balloons, catheters, microcatheters, stents, therapeutic embolization (deliberately clogging up a blood vessel), etc. for procedures like biopsy, TACE / chemoembolization, radiofrequency ablation and opening of biliary and urinary tract obstruction. (
  • The purpose of our study was to assess the value of coded phase-inversion harmonic sonography performed approximately 1 week after the patients had undergone transcatheter arterial chemoembolization with iodized oil for hepatocellular carcinoma. (
  • Of 19 nodules of hepatocellular carcinoma treated only by transcatheter arterial chemoembolization, 17 nodules showed enhancement on coded phase-inversion harmonic sonography, suggesting incomplete responses. (
  • For example, run a basic search for chemoembolization and hepatocellular carcinoma. (
  • Since the term chemoembolization does not appear in the title, abstract, or any other field, prior to when this citation was indexed for MEDLINE it would be missed by a search for chemoembolization and hepatocellular carcinoma. (
  • In patients with hepatocellular carcinoma not amenable to surgical intervention a variety of different therapeutic interventions have been investigated. (
  • OXD-T antimetabolite with different therapeutic doses of administration affected the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma. (
  • Prediction of Early Treatment Response to Initial Conventional Transarterial Chemoembolization Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma by Machine-Learning Model Based on Computed Tomography. (
  • We studied 40 patients with 44 nodules measuring 1.5-11.0 cm in diameter (mean +/- SD, 3.9 +/- 2.0 cm) who underwent transcatheter arterial chemoembolization. (
  • These include direct ablation of the tumour using agents such as ethanol or acetic acid, transcatheter arterial chemoembolization, or systemic chemotherapy. (
  • Hepatic artery embolization, also known as trans-arterial embolization (TAE), is one of the several therapeutic methods to treat primary liver tumors or metastases to the liver. (
  • Drug-eluting beads trans-arterial chemoembolization for leiomyosarcoma, liver metastases from colorectal cancer, and for primary and liver-dominant metastatic disease of the liver. (
  • Further advances can be expected by new multimodal therapy regimes such as downsizing (chemotherapy, chemoembolization) and therapeutic splitting (surgery and radiofrequency ablation). (
  • 9 Options for treating localized renal cell carcinoma include nephrectomy (open or laparoscopic, total or partial), laparoscopic and percutaneous ablation (for example, radiofrequency ablation, cryotherapy), and minimally invasive catheter techniques such as superselective chemoembolization. (
  • In these patients, local ablative therapies, including radiofrequency ablation (RFA), chemoembolization, and potentially novel chemotherapeutic agents, may extend life and provide palliation. (
  • Chemoembolization is used to deliver large chemotherapy drugs directly into your tumor. (
  • TARE may compete with systemic chemotherapy, sorafenib, in intermediate stage patients with prior chemoembolization failure or advanced patients with tumoral macrovascular invasion with no extra-hepatic spread and good liver function. (
  • 2002. Carcinoid Tumors and the Carcinoid Syndrome: What's New in the Therapeutic Pipeline. (
  • Application of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies as checkpoint inhibitors is rapidly becoming a promising therapeutic approach in treating tumors, and some of them have successfully been commercialized in the past few years [ 10 ]. (
  • Some of these therapies are regional, as when treating cancers involving several areas of the liver with chemoembolization or radioembolization. (
  • Radioembolization is the best for people who are not suitable candidates for percutaneous ablation or chemoembolization. (
  • He treats primary and metastatic liver cancer using various therapeutic techniques including radioembolization, thermal ablation, and chemoembolization. (
  • In the first-line setting, Su and colleagues recommend atezolizumab (Tecentriq) plus bevacizumab (Avastin) over the previous therapeutic standby, sorafenib (Nexavar), in patients with advanced HCC and preserved liver function. (
  • For those with intermediate, or stage B, disease, the panel says patients should receive transarterial chemoembolization as first-line therapy and recommend against the use of adjuvant sorafenib. (
  • Pre-operative hepatic artery chemoembolization followed by orthotopic liver transplantation for HCC. (
  • In fact radical surgery and liver transplantation, the most radical therapeutic approaches, are indicated only in case of early diagnosis. (
  • Other examples include radiation therapy, various cardiac interventions [1], therapeutic ultrasound, or localized thermal therapies. (
  • Even local therapies, such as transarterial chemoembolization, find limited indications, leading to an important problem regarding treatment of advanced disease. (
  • A study conducted by a multidisciplinary team of the Faculty of Medicine at The Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK) has proved that a new transarterial treatment named "Ablative Chemoembolization" (ACE) could prolong the progression-free survival of liver cancer patients at the intermediate stage by twice the length of time, compared with "conventional transarterial chemoembolization" (cTACE). (
  • The future of the treatment of this neoplasia is linked to our ability to understand its mechanisms of resistance and to find novel therapeutic targets, with the objective to purpose individualized approaches to patients affected by advanced HCC. (
  • In order to guide the therapeutic approach and to predict the prognosis of patients with HCC, different staging systems are used. (
  • Despite accumulating evidence regarding its mechanisms and potential therapeutic approaches, hepatic I/R is still a leading cause of organ dysfunction, morbidity, and resource utilization, especially in those patients with underlying parenchymal abnormali-ties. (
  • Chemoembolization (CE) for other indications including palliative treatment of liver metastases from other non-neuroendocrine primaries (e.g., breast cancer, cervical cancer, colon cancer, esophageal cancer, melanoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, or unknown primaries) and CE of the pancreas for pancreatic cancer. (
  • For many therapeutic interventions, imaging has become an essential component of initial diagnosis, as well as the monitoring of treatment progress and outcome. (
  • The readily available pre-procedural medical image data can also be employed for patient-specific simulation of therapeutic interventions based on computational models. (
  • Quintana D, Salsamendi J, Kwolek K, Munera F. Interventional radiology: diagnostic and therapeutic roles. (
  • Skin Electrical Resistance as a Diagnostic and Therapeutic Biomarker of Breast Cancer Measuring Lymphatic Regions. (
  • Progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), therapeutic response, and complications were compared between the two groups. (
  • Partial or complete perfusion defect on BO-CTHA was an independent factor associated with poor therapeutic effect. (
  • The therapeutic effects were assessed as local progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). (
  • This record can be found with these search terms only because the MeSH term Chemoembolization, Therapeutic has been applied. (
  • The role of surgery and chemoembolization in the management of carcinoid. (
  • October 25, Kvols LK. (
  • Surgery in combination with other therapeutic modalities offers the highest chance for cure. (
  • Finally, this review article discusses the present therapeutic and treatment options for HCC such as resection, transplantation, or ablation used to treat early stage cancer. (
  • Therapeutic strategies tackling I/R injury could not only improve post-surgical organ function, but also allow a reduction in the risk of cancer recurrence. (
  • Despite the spread of HCC, its treatment it's still a hard challenge, due to high rate of late diagnosis and to lack of therapeutic options for advanced disease. (
  • Imaging can play an important role in choosing the most appropriate therapeutic strategy. (
  • Coded phase-inversion harmonic sonography, a technique based on a combination of phase-inversion harmonics and coded technology, was performed with a contrast agent approximately 1 week after chemoembolization. (
  • Quantification and 3D localization of magnetically navigated superparamagnetic particles using MRI in phantom and swine chemoembolization models. (