Chemoautotrophic Growth: Growth of organisms using AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES for obtaining nutrients and chemotrophic processes for obtaining a primary energy supply. Chemotrophic processes are involved in deriving a primary energy supply from exogenous chemical sources. Chemotrophic autotrophs (chemoautotrophs) generally use inorganic chemicals as energy sources and as such are called chemolithoautotrophs. Most chemoautotrophs live in hostile environments, such as deep sea vents. They are mostly BACTERIA and ARCHAEA, and are the primary producers for those ecosystems.Epsilonproteobacteria: A group of proteobacteria consisting of chemoorganotrophs usually associated with the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM of humans and animals.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Bivalvia: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.Hydrothermal Vents: Hot springs on the ocean floor. They are commonly found near volcanically active places such as mid-oceanic ridges.Polychaeta: A class of marine annelids including sandworms, tube worms, clamworms, and fire worms. It includes also the genus Myxicola infundibulum.Oceanography: The science that deals with the ocean and its phenomena. (Webster, 3d ed)Ribulose-Bisphosphate Carboxylase: A carboxy-lyase that plays a key role in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the CALVIN-BENSON CYCLE by catalyzing the formation of 3-phosphoglycerate from ribulose 1,5-biphosphate and CARBON DIOXIDE. It can also utilize OXYGEN as a substrate to catalyze the synthesis of 2-phosphoglycolate and 3-phosphoglycerate in a process referred to as photorespiration.Volcanic Eruptions: The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Annelida: A phylum of metazoan invertebrates comprising the segmented worms, and including marine annelids (POLYCHAETA), freshwater annelids, earthworms (OLIGOCHAETA), and LEECHES. Only the leeches are of medical interest. (Dorland, 27th ed)Gills: Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.Evolution, Chemical: Chemical and physical transformation of the biogenic elements from their nucleosynthesis in stars to their incorporation and subsequent modification in planetary bodies and terrestrial biochemistry. It includes the mechanism of incorporation of biogenic elements into complex molecules and molecular systems, leading up to the origin of life.Autotrophic Processes: The processes by which organisms use simple inorganic substances such as gaseous or dissolved carbon dioxide and inorganic nitrogen as nutrient sources. Contrasts with heterotrophic processes which make use of organic materials as the nutrient supply source. Autotrophs can be either chemoautotrophs (or chemolithotrophs), largely ARCHAEA and BACTERIA, which also use simple inorganic substances for their metabolic energy reguirements; or photoautotrophs (or photolithotrophs), such as PLANTS and CYANOBACTERIA, which derive their energy from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (autotrophy; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrient and energy requirements.Sulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Mollusca: A phylum of the kingdom Metazoa. Mollusca have soft, unsegmented bodies with an anterior head, a dorsal visceral mass, and a ventral foot. Most are encased in a protective calcareous shell. It includes the classes GASTROPODA; BIVALVIA; CEPHALOPODA; Aplacophora; Scaphopoda; Polyplacophora; and Monoplacophora.Biogenesis: The origin of life. It includes studies of the potential basis for life in organic compounds but excludes studies of the development of altered forms of life through mutation and natural selection, which is BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION.Carbon Cycle: The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.Gammaproteobacteria: A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.Heterotrophic Processes: The processes by which organisms utilize organic substances as their nutrient sources. Contrasts with AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES which make use of simple inorganic substances as the nutrient supply source. Heterotrophs can be either chemoheterotrophs (or chemoorganotrophs) which also require organic substances such as glucose for their primary metabolic energy requirements, or photoheterotrophs (or photoorganotrophs) which derive their primary energy requirements from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; heterotrophy; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Pacific OceanCarbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Thermoanaerobacter: A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic bacteria in the family Thermoanaerobacteriaceae. Cultures consist of rods interspersed with coccoid cells.NevadaChromatiaceae: A family of phototrophic purple sulfur bacteria that deposit globules of elemental sulfur inside their cells. They are found in diverse aquatic environments.Nitrosomonas europaea: The type species of the genus NITROSOMONAS, a gram-negative chemolithotroph that oxidizes ammonia to nitrite. It is found in soil, sewage, freshwater, and on building walls, and especially in polluted areas where air contains high levels of nitrogen compounds.Hot Springs: Habitat of hot water naturally heated by underlying geologic processes. Surface hot springs have been used for BALNEOLOGY. Underwater hot springs are called HYDROTHERMAL VENTS.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Nitrification: A process facilitated by specialized bacteria involving the oxidation of ammonium to nitrite and nitrate.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Nitrosomonas: A genus of gram-negative, ellipsoidal or rod-shaped bacteria whose major source of energy and reducing power is from the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite. Its species occur in soils, oceans, lakes, rivers, and sewage disposal systems.Beggiatoa: A genus of colorless, filamentous bacteria in the family THIOTRICHACEAE whose cells contain inclusions of sulfur granules. When found in decaying seaweed beds and polluted water, its presence signals environmental degradation.Thiotrichaceae: A family of colorless sulfur bacteria in the order Thiotrichales, class GAMMAPROTEOBACTERIA.Myosin Type II: The subfamily of myosin proteins that are commonly found in muscle fibers. Myosin II is also involved a diverse array of cellular functions including cell division, transport within the GOLGI APPARATUS, and maintaining MICROVILLI structure.Nitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Calamus: A plant genus of the family ARECACEAE that should not be confused with ACORUS CALAMUS.Elevators and Escalators: Mechanical ascending and descending devices which convey objects and/or people.Diving: An activity in which the organism plunges into water. It includes scuba and bell diving. Diving as natural behavior of animals goes here, as well as diving in decompression experiments with humans or animals.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Spheniscidae: The sole family in the order Sphenisciformes, comprised of 17 species of penguins in six genera. They are flightless seabirds of the Southern Hemisphere, highly adapted for marine life.Decompression Sickness: A condition occurring as a result of exposure to a rapid fall in ambient pressure. Gases, nitrogen in particular, come out of solution and form bubbles in body fluid and blood. These gas bubbles accumulate in joint spaces and the peripheral circulation impairing tissue oxygenation causing disorientation, severe pain, and potentially death.Nitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.Rhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Nitrogenase: An enzyme system that catalyzes the fixing of nitrogen in soil bacteria and blue-green algae (CYANOBACTERIA). EC 1.18.6.1.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Methylococcaceae: A family of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria utilizing only one-carbon organic compounds and isolated from in soil and water.

Metabolite uptake, stoichiometry and chemoautotrophic function of the hydrothermal vent tubeworm Riftia pachyptila: responses to environmental variations in substrate concentrations and temperature. (1/69)

The hydrothermal vent tubeworm Riftia pachyptila is a dominant member of many hydrothermal vent communities along the East Pacific rise and is one of the fastest growing metazoans known. Riftia flourish in diffuse hydrothermal fluid flows, an environment with high spatial and temporal heterogeneity in physical and chemical conditions. To date, physiological and biochemical studies of Riftia have focused on Riftia's adaptations to its chemoautotrophic bacterial symbionts. However the relation between in situ physico-chemical heterogeneity and Riftia host and symbiont metabolism, in particular symbiont chemoautotrophic function, remain poorly understood. Accordingly, we conducted experiments using shipboard high-pressure respirometers to ascertain the effect of varying substrate concentrations and temperature on Riftia metabolite uptake and symbiont carbon fixation. Our results show that substrate concentrations can strongly govern Riftia oxygen and sulfide uptake rates, as well as net carbon uptake (which is a proxy for chemoautotrophic primary production). However, after sufficient exposure to sulfide and oxygen, Riftia were capable of sustaining symbiont autotrophic function for several hours in seawater devoid of sulfide or oxygen, enabling the association to support symbiont metabolism through brief periods of substrate deficiency. Overall, temperature had the largest influence on Riftia metabolite uptake and symbiont autotrophic metabolism. In sum, while Riftia requires sufficient availability of substrates to support symbiont chemoautotrophic function, it is extremely well poised to buffer the temporal and spatial heterogeneity in environmental substrate concentrations, alleviating the influence of environmental heterogeneity on symbiont chemoautotrophic function.  (+info)

From volcanic origins of chemoautotrophic life to Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya. (2/69)

The theory of a chemoautotrophic origin of life in a volcanic iron-sulphur world postulates a pioneer organism at sites of reducing volcanic exhalations. The pioneer organism is characterized by a composite structure with an inorganic substructure and an organic superstructure. Within the surfaces of the inorganic substructure iron, cobalt, nickel and other transition metal centres with sulphido, carbonyl and other ligands were catalytically active and promoted the growth of the organic superstructure through carbon fixation, driven by the reducing potential of the volcanic exhalations. This pioneer metabolism was reproductive by an autocatalytic feedback mechanism. Some organic products served as ligands for activating catalytic metal centres whence they arose. The unitary structure-function relationship of the pioneer organism later gave rise to two major strands of evolution: cellularization and emergence of the genetic machinery. This early phase of evolution ended with segregation of the domains Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya from a rapidly evolving population of pre-cells. Thus, life started with an initial, direct, deterministic chemical mechanism of evolution giving rise to a later, indirect, stochastic, genetic mechanism of evolution and the upward evolution of life by increase of complexity is grounded ultimately in the synthetic redox chemistry of the pioneer organism.  (+info)

Physiological proteomics of the uncultured endosymbiont of Riftia pachyptila. (3/69)

The bacterial endosymbiont of the deep-sea tube worm Riftia pachyptila has never been successfully cultivated outside its host. In the absence of cultivation data, we have taken a proteomic approach based on the metagenome sequence to study the metabolism of this peculiar microorganism in detail. As one result, we found that three major sulfide oxidation proteins constitute approximately 12% of the total cytosolic proteome, which highlights the essential role of these enzymes for the symbiont's energy metabolism. Unexpectedly, the symbiont uses the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle in addition to the previously identified Calvin cycle for CO2 fixation.  (+info)

The Calyptogena magnifica chemoautotrophic symbiont genome. (4/69)

Chemoautotrophic endosymbionts are the metabolic cornerstone of hydrothermal vent communities, providing invertebrate hosts with nearly all of their nutrition. The Calyptogena magnifica (Bivalvia: Vesicomyidae) symbiont, Candidatus Ruthia magnifica, is the first intracellular sulfur-oxidizing endosymbiont to have its genome sequenced, revealing a suite of metabolic capabilities. The genome encodes major chemoautotrophic pathways as well as pathways for biosynthesis of vitamins, cofactors, and all 20 amino acids required by the clam.  (+info)

Alkalilimnicola ehrlichii sp. nov., a novel, arsenite-oxidizing haloalkaliphilic gammaproteobacterium capable of chemoautotrophic or heterotrophic growth with nitrate or oxygen as the electron acceptor. (5/69)

A facultative chemoautotrophic bacterium, strain MLHE-1(T), was isolated from Mono Lake, an alkaline hypersaline soda lake in California, USA. Cells of strain MLHE-1(T) were Gram-negative, short motile rods that grew with inorganic electron donors (arsenite, hydrogen, sulfide or thiosulfate) coupled with the reduction of nitrate to nitrite. No aerobic growth was attained with arsenite or sulfide, but hydrogen sustained both aerobic and anaerobic growth. No growth occurred when nitrite or nitrous oxide was substituted for nitrate. Heterotrophic growth was observed under aerobic and anaerobic (nitrate) conditions. Cells of strain MLHE-1(T) could oxidize but not grow on CO, while CH(4) neither supported growth nor was it oxidized. When grown chemoautotrophically, strain MLHE-1(T) assimilated inorganic carbon via the Calvin-Benson-Bassham reductive pentose phosphate pathway, with the activity of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBisCO) functioning optimally at 0.1 M NaCl and at pH 7.3. Strain MLHE-1(T) grew over broad ranges of pH (7.3-10.0; optimum, 9.3), salinity (15-190 g l(-1); optimum 30 g l(-1)) and temperature (13-40 degrees C; optimum, 30 degrees C). Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences placed strain MLHE-1(T) in the class Gammaproteobacteria (family Ectothiorhodospiraceae) and most closely related to Alkalispirillum mobile (98.5 %) and Alkalilimnicola halodurans (98.6 %), although none of these three haloalkaliphilic micro-organisms were capable of photoautotrophic growth and only strain MLHE-1(T) was able to oxidize As(III). On the basis of physiological characteristics and DNA-DNA hybridization data, it is suggested that strain MLHE-1(T) represents a novel species within the genus Alkalilimnicola for which the name Alkalilimnicola ehrlichii is proposed. The type strain is MLHE-1(T) (=DSM 17681(T)=ATCC BAA-1101(T)). Aspects of the annotated full genome of Alkalilimnicola ehrlichii are discussed in the light of its physiology.  (+info)

Ignicoccus hospitalis sp. nov., the host of 'Nanoarchaeum equitans'. (6/69)

A novel chemolithoautotrophic and hyperthermophilic member of the genus Ignicoccus was isolated from a submarine hydrothermal system at the Kolbeinsey Ridge, to the north of Iceland. The new isolate showed high similarity to the two species described to date, Ignicoccus islandicus and Ignicoccus pacificus, in its physiological properties as well as in its unique cell architecture. However, phylogenetic analysis and investigations on the protein composition of the outer membrane demonstrated that the new isolate was clearly distinct from I. islandicus and I. pacificus. Furthermore, it is the only organism known so far which is able to serve as a host for 'Nanoarchaeum equitans', the only cultivated member of the 'Nanoarchaeota'. Therefore, the new isolate represents a novel species of the genus Ignicoccus, which we name Ignicoccus hospitalis sp. nov. (type strain KIN4/I(T)=DSM 18386(T)=JCM 14125(T)).  (+info)

Thiocyanate hydrolase, the primary enzyme initiating thiocyanate degradation in the novel obligately chemolithoautotrophic halophilic sulfur-oxidizing bacterium Thiohalophilus thiocyanoxidans. (7/69)

Thiohalophilus thiocyanoxidans is a first halophilic sulfur-oxidizing chemolithoautotrophic bacterium capable of growth with thiocyanate as an electron donor at salinity up to 4 M NaCl. The cells, grown with thiocyanate, but not with thiosulfate, contained an enzyme complex hydrolyzing thiocyanate to sulfide and ammonia under anaerobic conditions with carbonyl sulfide as an intermediate. Despite the fact of utilization of the <>, high cyanase activity was also detected in thiocyanate-induced cells. Three-stage column chromotography resulted in a highly purified thiocyanate-hydrolyzing protein with an apparent molecular mass of 140 kDa that consists of three subunits with masses 17, 19 and 29 kDa. The enzyme is a Co,Fe-containing protein resembling on its function and subunit composition the enzyme thiocyanate hydrolase from the Betaproteobacterium Thiobacillus thioparus. Cyanase, copurified with thiocyanate hydrolase, is a bisubstrate multisubunit enzyme with an apparent subunit molecular mass of 14 kDa. A possible role of cyanase in thiocyanate degradation by T. thiocyanoxidans is discussed.  (+info)

Genome of the epsilonproteobacterial chemolithoautotroph Sulfurimonas denitrificans. (8/69)

Sulfur-oxidizing epsilonproteobacteria are common in a variety of sulfidogenic environments. These autotrophic and mixotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria are believed to contribute substantially to the oxidative portion of the global sulfur cycle. In order to better understand the ecology and roles of sulfur-oxidizing epsilonproteobacteria, in particular those of the widespread genus Sulfurimonas, in biogeochemical cycles, the genome of Sulfurimonas denitrificans DSM1251 was sequenced. This genome has many features, including a larger size (2.2 Mbp), that suggest a greater degree of metabolic versatility or responsiveness to the environment than seen for most of the other sequenced epsilonproteobacteria. A branched electron transport chain is apparent, with genes encoding complexes for the oxidation of hydrogen, reduced sulfur compounds, and formate and the reduction of nitrate and oxygen. Genes are present for a complete, autotrophic reductive citric acid cycle. Many genes are present that could facilitate growth in the spatially and temporally heterogeneous sediment habitat from where Sulfurimonas denitrificans was originally isolated. Many resistance-nodulation-development family transporter genes (10 total) are present; of these, several are predicted to encode heavy metal efflux transporters. An elaborate arsenal of sensory and regulatory protein-encoding genes is in place, as are genes necessary to prevent and respond to oxidative stress.  (+info)

Recent studies suggest that unidentified prokaryotes fix inorganic carbon at globally significant rates in the immense dark ocean. Using single-cell sorting and whole-genome amplification of prokaryotes from two subtropical gyres, we obtained genomic DNA from 738 cells representing most cosmopolitan lineages. Multiple cells of Deltaproteobacteria cluster SAR324, Gammaproteobacteria clusters ARCTIC96BD-19 and Agg47, and some Oceanospirillales from the lower mesopelagic contained ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase and sulfur oxidation genes. These results corroborated community DNA and RNA profiling from diverse geographic regions. The SAR324 genomes also suggested C1 metabolism and a particle-associated life-style. Microautoradiography and fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed bicarbonate uptake and particle association of SAR324 cells. Our study suggests potential chemolithoautotrophy in several uncultured Proteobacteria lineages that are ubiquitous in the dark oxygenated ...
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A moderately salt-tolerant and obligately alkaliphilic, chemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacterium, strain HL-EbGr7T, was isolated from a full-scale bioreactor removing H2S from biogas under oxygen-limited conditions. Another strain, ALJ17, closely related to HL-EbGr7T, was isolated from a Kenyan soda lake. Cells of the isolates were relatively long, slender rods, motile by a polar flagellum. Although both strains were obligately aerobic, micro-oxic conditions were preferred, especially at the beginning of growth. Chemolithoautotrophic growth was observed with sulfide and thiosulfate in a pH range of 8.0-10.5 (optimum at pH 10.0) and a salinity range of 0.2-1.5 M total Na+ (optimum at 0.4 M). The genome sequence of strain HL-EbGr7T demonstrated the presence of genes encoding the reverse Dsr pathway and a truncated Sox pathway for sulfur oxidation and enzymes of the Calvin-Benson cycle of autotrophic CO2 assimilation with ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) type I. The dominant
Sulfur is an essential element for life and the metabolism of organic sulfur compounds plays an important role in the global sulfur cycle. Sulfur occurs in various oxidation states ranging from +6 in sulfate to -2 in sulfide (H2S). Sulfate reduction can occur in both an energy consuming assimilatory pathway and an energy producing dissimilatory pathway. The assimilatory pathway, which is found in a wide range of organisms, produces reduced sulfur compounds for the biosynthesis of S-containing amino acids and does not lead to direct excretion of sulfide. In the dissimilatory pathway, which is restricted to obligatory anaerobic bacterial and archaeal lineages, sulfate (or sulfur) is the terminal electron acceptor of the respiratory chain producing large quantities of inorganic sulfide. Both pathways start from the activation of sulfate by reaction with ATP to form adenylyl sulfate (APS). In the assimilatory pathway [MD:M00176] APS is converted to 3-phosphoadenylyl sulfate (PAPS) and then reduced ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nucleotide sequence and expression of a deep-sea ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase gene cloned from a chemoautotrophic bacterial endosymbiont. AU - Stein, Jeffrey L.. AU - Haygood, Margo. AU - Felbeck, Horst. PY - 1990/11. Y1 - 1990/11. N2 - The gene coding for ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase [RuBisCO; 3-phospho-D-glycerate carboxy-lyase (dimerizing), EC 4.1.1.39] was cloned from a sulfur-oxidizing chemoautotrophic bacterium that resides as an endosymbiont within the gill tissues of Alvinoconcha hessleri, a gastropod inhabiting deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the cloned fragment demonstrated that the genes encoding the large (RbcL) and small (RbcS) subunits of the symbiont RuBisCO were organized similarly to the RuBisCO operons of free-living photo- and chemoautotrophic prokaryotes. The symbiont rbcL gene shared the highest degree of nucleotide sequence identity with the cyanobacterium Anabaena (69%) while the rbcS nucleotide sequence shared ...
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ABSTRACT: Vertical distributions of viable (most probable number, MPN) aerobic chemoautotrophic thiobacilli-like sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (ca. 70 samples in triplicate for MPN counts) and dark 14C-bicarbonate incorporation rates were analyzed in a series of sulfide-rich lakes. A special device for sampling sharply stratified populations on the scale of a few centimeters was used. Detailed analyses focused on the oxic-anoxic transition zone where aerobic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria should display positive chemotaxis, and in both fully oxic epilimnia and sulfide-rich anoxic hypolimnia. Kinetics of sulfide and thiosulfate potential oxidations in the presence of oxygen were followed in microcosm enrichments in one of the lakes. The highest MPN counts (,104 to 105 cells ml-1) were observed at the oxic-anoxic interfaces and in the depleted hypolimnia (1.3 ± 4.4 × 104 cells ml-1), whereas 1 order of magnitude lower concentrations were detected in the epilimnia (1.0 ± 2.3× 103 cells ml-1). Dark ...
... and plants that can convert visible light into chemi- cal energy. In addition, chemoautotrophic bacteria can produce organic molecules from CO2 in the ab- sence of light. They use ...
Metabolic network showing the number of O. carboxidovorans proteins identified in each COG category in the current study.Proteins (referred by locus tag number
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Indigenous bacteria found in the sediment of the Emerald Basin (depth of 215 m, Atlantic Ocean) located offshore of Halifax Harbour (Nova Scotia, Canada) were previously found to be able to degrade the explosive compound hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). In the present study, a novel obligately respiratory, denitrifying and RDX-mineralizing bacterium, designated strain HAW-EB4T, was isolated from the marine sediment. This bacterium utilized peptone, yeast extract, Casamino acids, esters (Tweens 20, 40 and 80), sugars (N-acetyl-d-glucosamine, ribose), several C2 and C3 acids (acetate, pyruvate, lactate, propionate) and amino acids (serine, proline) as sole carbon and energy sources. Aerobically grown cells (in marine broth 2216 at 10 °C) contained C14 : 0 (6 %), iso-C15 : 0 (12 %), C16 : 0 (20 %), C16 : 1 ω7 (37 %), C18 : 1 ω7 (7 %) and C20 : 5 ω3 (7 %) as major membrane fatty acids, and Q7 (28·1 %) and MK-7 (60·9 %) as dominant respiratory quinones, consistent with deep-sea species of
A new mesophilic, chemolithoautotrophic, sulfur-oxidizing bacterium, strain Milos-BII1T, was isolated from a sediment sample taken from a shallow-water hydrothermal vent in the Aegean Sea with thiosulfate as electron donor and CO2 as carbon source. Based on the almost complete sequence of the 16S rRNA gene, strain Milos-BII1T forms a phylogenetic cluster with Thiobacillus hydrothermalis, Thiobacillus neapolitanus, Thiobacillus halophilus and Thiobacillus sp. W5, all of which are obligately chemolithoautotrophic bacteria. Because of their phylogenetic relatedness and their physiological similarities it is proposed to transfer these organisms to a newly established genus within the gamma-subclass of the Proteobacteria, Halothiobacillus gen. nov. (Kelly and Wood 2000). Strain Milos-BII1T represents a new species of this genus, named Halothiobacillus kellyi. Cells were Gram-negative rods and highly motile. The organism was obligately autotrophic and strictly aerobic. Nitrate was not used as electron ...
A metaproteomic survey of surface coastal waters near Palmer Station on the Antarctic Peninsula, West Antarctica, was performed, revealing marked differences in the functional capacity of summer and winter communities of bacterioplankton. Proteins from Flavobacteria were more abundant in the summer metaproteome, whereas winter was characterized by proteins from ammonia-oxidizing Marine Group I Crenarchaeota. Proteins prevalent in both seasons were from SAR11 and Rhodobacterales clades of Alphaproteobacteria, as well as many lineages of Gammaproteobacteria. The metaproteome data were used to elucidate the main metabolic and energy generation pathways and transport processes occurring at the microbial level in each season. In summer, autotrophic carbon assimilation appears to be driven by oxygenic photoautotrophy, consistent with high light availability and intensity. In contrast, during the dark polar winter, the metaproteome supported the occurrence of chemolithoautotrophy via the ...
Oxygen Sensitivity of Anammox and Coupled N-Cycle Processes in Oxygen Minimum Zones. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The goal of the Arabian Sea section of the TARA oceans expedition was to study large particulate matter (LPM , 100 μm) distributions and possible impact of associated midwater biological processes on vertical carbon export through the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of this region. We propose that observed spatial patterns in LPM distribution resulted from the timing and location of surface phytoplankton bloom, lateral transport, microbial processes in the core of the OMZ, and enhanced biological processes mediated by bacteria and zooplankton at the lower oxycline. Indeed, satellite-derived net primary production maps showed that the northern stations of the transect were under the influence of a previous major bloom event while the most southern stations were in a more oligotrophic situation. Lagrangian simulations of particle transport showed that deep particles of the northern stations could originate from the surface bloom while the southern stations could be considered as driven by 1-D vertical ...
Ligia L. Perez-Cruz, Maria Luisa Machain-Castillo; Benthic foraminifera of the oxygen minimum zone, continental shelf of the Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico. Journal of Foraminiferal Research ; 20 (4): 312-325. doi: https://doi.org/10.2113/gsjfr.20.4.312. Download citation file:. ...
Originally isolated from the biomass of an Alvinella pompejana episymbiont community collected at 13 degrees N along the East Pacific Rise Axial Caldera ...
Huber, H., Jannasch, H., Rachel, R., Fuchs, T., and Stetter, K.O. 1997. Archaeoglobus veneficus sp. nov., a novel facultative chemolithoautotrophic hyperthermophilic sulfite reducer, isolated from abyssal black smokers. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 20:374-380 ...
... (OMZ) are the places in the world ocean where oxygen saturation in the water column is at its lowest. This zone typically occurs at depths of about 200 to 1,000 meters. The AOG lab is interested in OMZs because of their importance in controlling carbon and nitrogen cycling in the oceans. OMZ water is exposed to the rain of sinking organic matter, which we evaluate using our drifting net traps and in situ incubators. Bacteria and archea feed on this organic matter and oxygen is used. Thus, the concentration of oxygen in deep water is dependent on the amount of oxygen it had when it was at the surface minus depletion by deep sea organisms.. In many OMZ regions oxygen actually reaches zero, in which case the OMZ can be called an ODZ (oxygen deficient zone). ODZs provide appropriate conditions to enable substantial nitrogen loss because in the absence of oxygen, nitrate represents the next best electron acceptor available for respiration. Starting with organic nitrogen ...
Multidisciplinary ocean observing activities provide critical ocean information to satisfy ever-changing socioeconomic needs and require coordinated implementation. The upper oxycline (transition between high and low oxygen waters) is fundamentally important for the ecosystem structure and can be a useful proxy for multiple observing objectives connected to eastern boundary systems (EBSs) that neighbor oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). The variability of the oxycline and its impact on the ecosystem (VOICE) initiative demonstrates how societal benefits drive the need for integration and optimization of biological, biogeochemical, and physical components of regional ocean observing related to EBS. In liaison with the Global Ocean Oxygen Network, VOICE creates a roadmap toward observation-model syntheses for a comprehensive understanding of selected oxycline-dependent objectives. Local to global effects, such as habitat compression or deoxygenation trends, prompt for comprehensive observing of the oxycline on
Fish scales accumulating in marine laminated sediments can provide a record of population variability of small pelagic fishes. Although some studies have noted signs of scale degradation that could affect estimates of population variability, there are presently no well-developed means to evaluate degradation. We developed several indices as indicators of fish scale preservation in two box-cores that we collected off Pisco (14°S), one at 301 m near the center of the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), and the other at 201 m near the upper limit of the OMZ. These indices include (1) an index of fish scale integrity (estimate of scale wholeness relative to fragmentation), (2) the fungi-free area of fish scales and vertebrae, (3) the ratio of fish scales to vertebrae (as well as fish scales to vertebrae and bones), and (4) the ratio of whole scales to fragments. We address whether lower numbers of anchovy scales occurring in association with reduced total organic carbon fluxes and higher bottom-water oxygen ...
Carbon fixation is a part of the photosynthesis process that occurs during the second half, also known as the Calvin cycle. Carbon fixation itself refers to a large number of different carbon-related...
... serves as the only dedicated medium for the publication of peer-reviewed research on all phases of geochemistry in which organic...
McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314 ...
Definition of carbon fixation - the incorporation of carbon into organic compounds by living organisms, chiefly by photosynthesis in green plants.
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The biocathodic reduction of nitrate in Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) is an alternative to remove nitrogen in low carbon to nitrogen wastewater and relies entirely on microbial activity. In this paper the community composition of denitrifiers in the cathode of a MFC is analysed in relation to added electron acceptors (nitrate and nitrite) and organic matter in the cathode. Nitrate reducers and nitrite reducers were highly affected by the operational conditions and displayed high diversity. The number of retrieved species-level Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) for narG, napA, nirS and nirK genes was 11, 10, 31 and 22, respectively. In contrast, nitrous oxide reducers remained virtually unchanged at all conditions. About 90% of the retrieved nosZ sequences grouped in a single OTU with a high similarity with Oligotropha carboxidovorans nosZ gene. nirS-containing denitrifiers were dominant at all conditions and accounted for a significant amount of the total bacterial density. Current production ...
Some regions of the deep ocean floor support abundant populations of organisms, despite being overlain by water that contains very little oxygen, according to an international study led by scientists at the United Kingdoms National Oceanography Center, Southampton. But global warming is likely to exacerbate oxygen depletion and thereby reduce biodiversity in these regions, they warn.. The sunlit surface waters tend to be well oxygenated as a result of their connection with the atmosphere. Here, tiny marine algae called phytoplankton thrive. When they die and sink, they are degraded by bacteria, using oxygen from the water column.. In regions of high plant growth, this can result in the natural development of mid-water oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), especially where oxygen is not replenished by mixing of the water column. Where they touch the continental slope, OMZs create strong seafloor oxygen gradients at depths between 100 and 1000 m.. In addition to low oxygen, sediments within OMZs often ...
Estimates of macrofaunal secondary production and normalized biomass size-spectra (NBSS) were constructed for macrobenthic communities associated with the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) in four areas of the continental margin off Chile. The presence of low oxygen conditions in the Humboldt Current System (HCS) off Chile was shown to have important effects on the size structure and secondary production of the benthic communities living in this ecosystem. The distribution of normalized biomass by size was linear (log2log2 scale) at all stations. The slope of the NBSS ranged from -0.481 to-0.908. There were significant differences between the slopes of the NBS-spectra from the stations located in the OMZ (slope = - 0.837) and those located outside the OMZ(slope = - 0.463) (p , 0.05). The results of this study suggest that low oxygen conditions (, 0.5 ml L-1) appear to influence biomass size-spectra, because small organisms are better able to satisfy their metabolic demands. The annual secondary ...
The Humboldt (jumbo) squid, Dosidicus gigas, is a part-time resident of the permanent oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and, thereby, it encounters oxygen levels below its critical oxygen partial pressure. To better understand the ventilatory mechanisms that accompany the process of metabolic suppression in these top oceanic predators, we exposed juvenile D. gigas to the oxygen levels found in the OMZ (1% O2, 1kPa, 10ºC) and measured metabolic rates, activity cycling patterns, swimming mode, escape-jet (burst) frequency, mantle contraction frequency and strength, stroke volume and oxygen extraction efficiency. In normoxia, the metabolic rates varied between 14 to 29 µmol O2 g (ww)-1 h-1, depending on the level of activity. The mantle contraction frequency and strength was linearly correlated and increased significantly with activity level. Additionally, an increased stroke volume and ventilatory volume per minute were observed, followed by a mantle hyperinflation ...
Chemoautotrophic symbioses, in which endosymbiotic bacteria are the major source of organic carbon for the host, are found in marine habitats where sulfide and oxygen coexist. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of pH, alternate sulfur sources, and electron acceptors on carbon fixation and to investigate which form(s) of inorganic carbon is taken up and fixed by the gamma-proteobacterial endosymbionts of the protobranch bivalve Solemya velum. Symbiont-enriched suspensions were generated by homogenization of S. velum gills, followed by velocity centrifugation to pellet the symbiont cells. Carbon fixation was measured by incubating the cells with (14)C-labeled dissolved inorganic carbon. When oxygen was present, both sulfide and thiosulfate stimulated carbon fixation; however, elevated levels of either sulfide (|0.5 mM) or oxygen (1 mM) were inhibitory. In the absence of oxygen, nitrate did not enhance carbon fixation rates when sulfide was present. Symbionts fixed carbon most rapidly
A sulfur-oxidizing bacterial group called SUP05 will play an increasingly important role in carbon and nutrient cycling in the worlds oceans as oxygen minimum zones expand, according to research published this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Symbiosis, defined broadly as a long-term interaction between species, is among the most pervasive evolutionary and ecological strategies in marine ecosystems, impacting fundamental processes such as speciation, ecosystem structuring, primary production, nutrient cycling, and disease. Marine microbial symbioses span a striking diversity of hosts and symbionts from all three Domains of life. These associations vary widely in key biological factors, including the extent to which symbionts affect host fitness (e.g., mutualism vs. commensalism vs. parasitism), integrate into host tissue, and exchange genetic material with free-living microorganisms. Though such factors have been explored for certain well-studied associations, most marine symbioses remain understudied.. Our research explores the diversity, evolution, and function of symbioses between bacteria and animals. We focus primarily on marine symbioses, notably associations between deep-sea invertebrates and intracellular chemoautotrophic ...
Research begun at Princeton University found that the numerous small sea animals that migrate from the surface to deeper water every day consume vast amounts of what little oxygen is available in the oceans aptly named "oxygen minimum zone" daily. The findings reveal a crucial and underappreciated role that animals have in ocean chemistry on a global scale. The figure above shows the various depths (in meters) that animals migrate to during the day to escape predators. Red indicates the shallowest depths of 200 meters (650 feet), and blue represents the deepest of 600 meters (2,000 feet). The black numbers on the map represent the difference (in moles, used to measure chemical content) between the oxygen at the surface and at around 500 meters deep, which is the best parameter for predicting migration depth. (Courtesy of Daniele Bianchi ...
Biology Assignment Help, Nutrition - autotrophic nutrition, AUTOTROPHI C NUTRITION Preparation of organic food from the inorganic materials in the living body. May be photoautrophic, e.g. Euglena virdisima. May be chemoautotrophic e.g. Nitrifying bacteria.
Essential elements food security | Inorganic geochemistry facility | Analytical geochemistry | BGS laboratory capability | Science facilities | British Geological Survey (BGS)
Al-Mutairi, H. and Landry, M. R.: Active export of carbon and nitrogen at station ALOHA by diel migrant zooplankton, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 48, 2083-2103, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0967-0645(00)00174-0, 2001. Andersen, V., Devey, C., Gubanova, A., Picheral, M., Melnikov, V., Tsarin, S., and Prieur, L.: Vertical distributions of zooplankton across the Almeria-Oran frontal zone (Mediterranean Sea), J. Plankton Res., 26, 275-293, https://doi.org/10.1093/plankt/fbh036, 2004. Antezana, T.: Vertical distribution and diel migration of Euphausia mucronata in the oxygen minimum layer of the Humboldt Current, Oceanogr. East. Pacific II, 2, 13-28, 2002. Antezana, T.: Species-specific patterns of diel migration into the Oxygen Minimum Zone by euphausiids in the Humboldt Current Ecosystem, Prog. Oceanogr., 83, 228-236, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2009.07.039, 2009. Antezana, T.: Euphausia mucronata: A keystone herbivore and prey of the Humboldt Current System, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 57, 652-662, ...
Iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) are essential cofactors for microbial metalloenzymes, but little is known about the metalloenyzme inventory of anaerobic marine microbial communities despite their importance to the nitrogen cycle. We compared dissolved O2, NO3−, NO2−, Fe and Cu concentrations with nucleic acid sequences encoding Fe and Cu-binding proteins in 21 metagenomes and 9 metatranscriptomes from Eastern Tropical North and South Pacific oxygen minimum zones and 7 metagenomes from the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Station. Dissolved Fe concentrations increased sharply at upper oxic-anoxic transition zones, with the highest Fe:Cu molar ratio (1.8) occurring at the anoxic core of the Eastern Tropical North Pacific oxygen minimum zone and matching the predicted maximum ratio based on data from diverse ocean sites. The relative abundance of genes encoding Fe-binding proteins was negatively correlated with O2, driven by significant increases in genes encoding Fe-proteins involved in dissimilatory ...
Phenotypic and phylogenetic comparisons of the generaBeggiatoa and Thioploca. Until recently, massive natural occurrence of filaments ofBeggiatoa or Thioploca spp. have been identified based solely on their characteristic morphologies by using (i) the presence (Thioploca spp.) or absence (Beggiatoa spp.) of a single sheath around multiple filaments and (ii) filament widths as the major criteria (Table 1). No strain of a wide marine Beggiatoa orThioploca sp. has been obtained in pure culture. The physiological properties of these genera can, therefore, be determined only from observations of natural populations. Such studies have revealed several metabolic similarities. These similarities include chemoautotrophic carbon metabolism (20, 24, 29, 31), sulfide oxidation (20, 25), and concentration of nitrate in the vacuolate cells at levels several-thousand-fold above ambient nitrate levels (5, 24). Teske et al. (38) described the phylogenetic position of vacuolate, unusually wideThioploca filaments ...
Hyperthermophilic, sulfur-metabolizing organism. Cells are irregular spheres with a glycoprotein envelope and monopolar flagella. They grow between 60 and 95 degrees Celsius but their optimum is 83 degrees Celsius. They can be either organoheterotrophic using a variety of carbon and energy sources or they can also be lithoautotrophic using hydrogen, thiosulphate and carbon dioxide. (HAMAP: ARCFU ...
A window into the mantle: analyzing the geochemistry of melt inclusions from the volcanic island of Mangaia. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Valentin R. Troll, Chair of Petrology at Uppsala University, Sweden | Igneous petrology & geochemistry / High-T-isotope geochemistry / Micro-analytical methodologies / Mineral-thermobarometry / Geochemical and isotope modelling / Experimental volcanology and petrology
Evidence for an extensive hydrothermal plume in the Tonga-Fiji region of the South Pacific. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems. 5:n/a-n/a. 2004 ...
Hydrothermal vent communities have not been observed on the Chile margin (yet!), but they are hypothesized to exist since they usually occur on spreading centers, such as the Chile Ridge, which is being subducted under the Chile continent. The water ejected from hydrothermal vents can vary from 20º to 400ºC (68º to 752ºF) and is rich in reduced compounds like sulfide and methane. Hard substrate is formed by cooled basalt (volcanic rock), precipitated metal sulfides, and organisms, such as tube worms and bivalves.. The fastest growing tube worms in the world, Riftia pachyptila, settle where they have access to the flow of warm, sulfide-rich water, which they take up in their bright red plumes. They have been observed to grow almost 2 m (6.6 ft) in one year, which starkly contrasts with Lamellibrachia tube worms at seeps that might grow several centimeters per year. Mussels (e.g., Bathymodiolus thermophilius) are also common at East Pacific vent communities, and they contain both sulfide- and ...
Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wurde versucht, die A1AO ATP-Synthase von I. hospitalis zu reinigen und die Untereinheitenzusammensetzung des Komplexes zu bestimmen. Obwohl der gekoppelte Komplex erfolgreich durch das Detergenz DDM (n-Dodecyl-β-D-Maltopyranosid) aus der Membran herausgelöst werden konnte, war eine Reinigung des Gesamtkomplexes bisher nicht möglich. Zahlreiche Versuche, das Enzym über säulenchromatographische Verfahren zu reinigen, führten lediglich zu einer Anreicherung der dissoziierten A1- und AO-Subkomplexe der ATP-Synthase. Eine Identifizierung der Untereinheiten war durch eine Kombination von 2D-Native/SDS-PAGE, Western-Blot-Analysen und MALDI-TOF MS/MS möglich. So konnte die in vivo Expression von acht annotierten Untereinheiten der ATP-Synthase (A, B, C, D, E, F, a(I) und c(K)) bestätigt und das Protein Igni1215 als Bestandteil der ATP-Synthase (Untereinheit H) identifiziert werden. Die beiden erhaltenen Subkomplexe bestanden aus A, B, E und F (A1) und aus C, D, H und a ...
I. E. Huertas, A. F. Ríos, J. García‐Lafuente, G. Navarro, A. Makaoui, A. Sánchez‐Román, S. Rodriguez‐Galvez, A. Orbi, J. Ruíz, F. F. ...
BCs new Center for Isotope Geochemistry gives the Department of Earth & Environmental Sciences and other researchers the latest technology to study earth materials dating as far back as 4 billion years.
Nitrifying biofilters degrading the four regulated trihalomethanes (THMs) trichloromethane (TCM), bromodichloromethane (BDCM), dibromochloromethane (DBCM), and tribromomethane (TBM) -were analyzed for the presence and activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). Biofilter performance and batch kinetic tests performed on biofilm removed during backwashing verified that the biofilters contained organisms capable of degrading the four regulated THMs commonly found in treated drinking water. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) and amoA sequence analysis provided evidence that the Nitrosomonas oligotropha was the only AOB present. N. oligotropha is typically associated with drinking water distribution system AOB communities, and their presence in these biofilters might indicate that their tolerance to THMs is another reason for their dominance in chloraminated drinking water systems. ...
The hydrothermal vent zoarcid fish Thermarces cerberus is a top predator that inhabits deep-sea hydrothermal vents on the East Pacific Rise (EPR). Bacterial chemoautotrophy at these sites supports abundant animal communities. Paradoxically, these chemoautotrophic bacteria are not known to produce polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), dietary nutrients essential for all marine vertebrates. To understand how T cerberus successfully exploits the vent environment and obtains essential PUFA, we compared its fatty acid composition to those of its invertebrate prey. Levels of 20 : 5(n - 3) and 22 : 6(n - 3) in muscle and ovary tissues of T. cerberus were low and contained higher amounts of 20 : 5(n - 3) than 22 : 6(n - 3). This is in contrast to most marine fish where 22 : 6(n - 3) typically dominates. Prey items include the limpet (Lepetodrilus elevates) and amphipods (Halice hesmonectes and Ventiella sulfuris) and all contained PUFA dominated by 20: 5(n - 3) in amounts likely to support the ...
Little is still known of the impacts of protist grazing on bacterioplankton communities in the dark ocean. Furthermore, the accuracy of assessments of in situ microbial activities, including protist grazing, can be affected by sampling artifacts introduced during sample retrieval and downstream manipulations. Potential artifacts may be increased when working with deep-sea samples or samples from chemically unique water columns such as oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). OMZs are oxygen-depleted regions in the ocean, where oxygen concentrations can drop to
This article describes the occurrence, structure,arrangement and function of bacterial intracytoplasmic membranes (ICMS) including magnetosomes of magnetotactic bacteria, the thylakoids of cyanobacteria and chloroxybacteria, the ICMS of purple bacteria and chemoautotrophic bacteria, the chlorosomes of green bacteria and the anammoxosome of ammonia‐oxidising bacteria
Members of the order Decapoda are mostly gonochoric. Mating behavior: Precopulatory courtship ritual is common (through olfactory and tactile cues); usually indirect sperm transfer (Ref. 833). ...
Lineage: cellular organisms; Bacteria; Proteobacteria; delta/epsilon subdivisions; Epsilonproteobacteria; Campylobacterales; Helicobacteraceae; Sulfurimonas; unclassified ...
Located in the Geology Department in Carnegie Science Hall, the college's Environmental Geochemistry Laboratory hosts a suite of instrumentation used
associations are meant to be specific and meaningful, i.e. proteins jointly contribute to a shared function; this does not necessarily mean they are physically binding each other. ...
associations are meant to be specific and meaningful, i.e. proteins jointly contribute to a shared function; this does not necessarily mean they are physically binding each other. ...
Individual research project under the guidance of a faculty member or committee. Readings: Arranged Requirements: To be determined by the sponsoring faculty member or committee. Consent of department chair required. Class Meeting: Arranged Authorization required Instructor: Professor Marla Sandys, Criminal Justice Department ...
nov., a novel, arsenite-oxidizing haloalkaliphilic gammaproteobacterium capable of chemoautotrophic or heterotrophic growth ... is a species of arsenite-oxidizing haloalkaliphilic gammaproteobacterium capable of chemoautotrophic or heterotrophic growth. ...
nov., a Chemoautotrophic Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacterium Tolerant of High Ammonium Isolated from Composted Cattle Manure". Microbes ... This feature may explain enhanced growth of AOB in the presence of urea in acidic environments. Some sources regard ... Nitrosomonas is a genus of rod-shaped chemoautotrophic bacteria. This organism oxidizes ammonia into nitrite as a metabolic ...
Finally, sulfophilic bacteria reduce the bones releasing hydrogen sulphide enabling the growth of chemoautotrophic organisms, ... Because whales generally have slow growth rates, are slow to reach sexual maturity, and have a low reproductive output, ...
... although it has been demonstrated that some chemoautotrophic ammonium oxidizing bacteria are capable of growth on urea as a ...
Although both ions and vitamins are rare, thiamine or ions such as potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium aid the growth of the ... Fungi portal Mycorrhizal fungi and soil carbon storage Chemoautotrophic nutrition Detritivore Holozoic nutrition Parasitic ... This facilitates the passage of such materials throughout the organism and allows for growth and, if necessary, repair. In ... Presence of oxygen: Very few saprotrophic organisms can endure anaerobic conditions as evidenced by their growth above media ...
This can possibly be explained by the smaller amount of molecular hydrogen required to sustain growth in a bacterial cell as ... Members of the genus Sulfurimonas live in a wide range of environments, and play a vital role in chemoautotrophic processes, ... use a wide variety of electron donors for growth including sulfide, sulfur, thiosulfate, and sulfite. However, as shown below, ... Molecular hydrogen is observed to yield a higher growth rate and is favored by Sulfurimonas paralvinellae over free reduced ...
Rinke, Christian; Lee, Raymond; Katz, Sigrid; Bright, Monika (2007-09-22). "The effects of sulphide on growth and behaviour of ... Christian Rinke, Jörg A. Ott und Monika Bright: "Nutritional processes in the chemoautotrophic Zoothamnium niveum symbioses", ... chemoautotrophic bacteria". European Journal of Protistology. 32 (1): 18-30. doi:10.1016/s0932-4739(96)80036-8. Bright, Monika ... "The Ecology of a Novel Symbiosis Between a Marine Peritrich Ciliate and Chemoautotrophic Bacteria". Marine Ecology. 19 (3): 229 ...
Finally, R. palustris is also capable of fixing nitrogen for growth. This metabolic versatility has raised interest in the ... chemoautotrophic and chemoheterotrophic. R. palustris is usually found as a wad of slimy masses and cultures appear from pale ...
Growth rates for methanotrophic mussels at cold seep sites have been reported (Fisher, 1995). General growth rates were found ... Goffredi S. K. & Barry J. P. (2000). "Factors regulating productivity in chemoautotrophic symbioses; with emphasis on ... ranging from no growth of 13 individuals measured one year to a maximum growth of 9.6 cm/yr (3.8 in/yr) in a Lamellibrachia ... Adult mussel growth rates were similar to mussels from a littoral environment at similar temperatures. Fisher also found that ...
They appear to migrate upwards when covered by a thin layer of sediment but this is an illusion caused by the colony's growth; ... so Seilacher suggested that the organisms may have survived by symbiosis with photosynthetic or chemoautotrophic organisms. ... The biota comprises deep-sea-dwelling rangeomorphs such as Charnia, all of which share a fractal growth pattern. They were ... Finally, Ediacaran fossils from classic localities of the Flinders Ranges have been found in growth position within red ...
Finally, sulfophilic bacteria reduce the bones releasing hydrogen sulfide enabling the growth of chemoautotrophic organisms, ... a streamlined body and the growth of flukes on the tail (Protocetus 43 mya), the migration of the nostrils toward the top of ... The size and rapid growth of the industry has led to complex and continuing debates with the whaling industry about the best ...
Tube worm growth resembles that of hydroponically grown fungi more than it does that of typical animals which need to "eat". ... 1981). "Prokaryotic Cells in the Hydrothermal Vent Tube Worm Riftia pachyptila Jones: Possible Chemoautotrophic Symbionts". ... Riftia pachyptila has the fastest growth rate of any known marine invertebrate. These organisms have been known to colonize a ... "Rapid growth at deep-sea vents". Nature. 371 (6499): 663. doi:10.1038/371663a0. "Tube Worms In Deep Sea Discovered To Have ...
Günter Wächtershäuser, G (2006). "From volcanic origins of chemoautotrophic life to Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya". ... "In situ time-resolved X-ray diffraction of iron sulfides during hydrothermal pyrite growth". Chemical Geology. 167 (1-2): 53-63 ... a hypothesis for the evolutionary transitions from abiotic geochemistry to chemoautotrophic prokaryotes, and from prokaryotes ...
Finally, sulfophilic bacteria reduce the bones releasing hydrogen sulfide enabling the growth of chemoautotrophic organisms, ... John C George; Jeffrey Bada; Judith Zeh; Laura Scott; Stephen E Brown; Todd O'Hara; Robert Suydam (1999). "Age and growth ... "Growth of two gray whale calves" (PDF). Aquatic Mammals: 231-233. Retrieved 6 September 2015 ...
Wächtershäuser G (October 2006). "From volcanic origins of chemoautotrophic life to Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya". ... "Large colonial organisms with coordinated growth in oxygenated environments 2.1 Gyr ago". Nature. 466 (7302): 100-104. Bibcode: ...
July 1, 2010). "Large colonial organisms with coordinated growth in oxygenated environments 2.1 Gyr ago". Nature. 466 (7302): ... a hypothesis for the evolutionary transitions from abiotic geochemistry to chemoautotrophic prokaryotes, and from prokaryotes ... Growth, and Division". Science. 302 (5645): 618-622. Bibcode:2003Sci...302..618H. doi:10.1126/science.1089904. PMID 14576428. ... these instructions and use them for growth, maintenance and self-replication. The discovery that some RNA molecules can ...
The growth of speleology is directly linked with that of the sport of caving, both because of the stimulation of public ... but chemical energy liberated from limestone and other minerals by chemoautotrophic bacteria. Cave organisms fall into three ...
Chemolithotrophic growth can be dramatically fast, such as Hydrogenovibrio crunogenus with a doubling time around one hour. The ... Regardless of the catalytic method used, chemoautotrophic bacteria provide a significant but frequently overlooked food source ...
... growth and breakup". Earth-Science Reviews. 67 (1-2): 91-123. Bibcode:2004ESRv...67...91Z. doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2004.02.003 ... a hypothesis for the evolutionary transitions from abiotic geochemistry to chemoautotrophic prokaryotes, and from prokaryotes ... these instructions and use them for growth, maintenance, and self-replication. The discovery that a kind of RNA molecule called ... Growth, and Division". Science. 302 (5645): 618-622. Bibcode:2003Sci...302..618H. doi:10.1126/science.1089904. PMID 14576428. ...
Acetaldehyde is fairly volatile, and mutants deficient in the BMC shell have been observed to have a growth defect and release ... Carboxysomes are present in all cyanobacteria and many other photo- and chemoautotrophic bacteria. Cyanobacteria are globally ... Propanol and propionate can be used as substrates for growth. Ethanolamine utilization (EUT) BMCs are encoded in many diverse ... "Minimal Functions and Physiological Conditions Required for Growth of Salmonella enterica on Ethanolamine in the Absence of the ...
Vent growths on the order of 30 cm (1 ft) per day have been recorded. An April 2007 exploration of the deep-sea vents off the ... The water from the hydrothermal vent is rich in dissolved minerals and supports a large population of chemoautotrophic bacteria ...
a b c d e Clegg & Mackean (2006, p. 296), fig 14.17-A diagram explaining the optimal conditions needed for successful growth ... Chemoautotrophic nutrition. *Photoautotrophic nutrition. *Holozoic nutrition. *Parasitic nutrition. *Mycorrhizal fungi and soil ... This facilitates the passage of such materials throughout the organism and allows for growth and, if necessary, repair.[2] ... Presence of oxygen: Very few saprotrophic organisms can endure anaerobic conditions as evidenced by their growth above media ...
"Large colonial organisms with coordinated growth in oxygenated environments 2.1 Gyr ago". Nature. 466 (7302): 100-104. Bibcode: ... "From volcanic origins of chemoautotrophic life to Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal ...
Chemoautotrophic bacteria are probable food source of Semisulcospira libertina, because δ13C and δ34S values were lower than in ... in Korean) Chang Y. J., Chang H. J. & Kim J. J. (2001). "Relative Growth of the Melanin Snail, Semisulcospira libertina ... Doi H., Takagi A., Mizota C., Okano J., Nakano S. & Kikuchi E. (2006). "Contribution of Chemoautotrophic Production to ...
Replicating vesicles as models of primitive cell growth and division. Current Opinion in Chemical Biology 2004, 8:660-664.PDF ( ... "On the origins of cells: a hypothesis for the evolutionary transitions from abiotic geochemistry to chemoautotrophic ...
... a hypothesis for the evolutionary transitions from abiotic geochemistry to chemoautotrophic prokaryotes,and from prokaryotes to ... zinc to exchange and hence become an internal messenger coordinating the action of other transcription factors during growth. ...
This pattern is called teloblastic growth.[7] Some groups of annelids, including all leeches,[14] have fixed maximum numbers of ... Lamellibrachian tube worms have no gut and gain nutrients from chemoautotrophic bacteria living inside them. ... The segments develop one at a time from a growth zone just ahead of the pygidium, so that an annelid's youngest segment is just ... As a result, the hindmost segment (before the growth zone and pygidium) has no structure that extracts its wastes, as there is ...
The temperature range for growth can vary from cold springs to hot vents while salinity can vary from fresh to ocean water. ... "A novel symbiosis between chemoautotrophic bacteria and a freshwater cave amphipod". The ISME Journal. 3 (8): 935-943. doi: ... "Unsuspected diversity of Niphargus amphipods in the chemoautotrophic cave ecosystem of Frasassi, central Italy". BMC ...
... represent spectacular adaptations to fluctuating environmental gradients and survival is often accomplished when growth is ... The ecology of a novel symbiosis between a marine peritrich ciliate and chemoautotrophic bacteria.Marine Ecology 19: 229-243. ... Growth and survival of peritrich ciliates in an urban stream.Oecologia 73: 16-20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Growth and differentiation of the colonies ofZoothamnium alternans (Clap and Lachm).Biological Bulletin 58: 28-51.CrossRef ...
Chemoautotrophic Growth * Chloroflexi / classification* * Chloroflexi / genetics * Chloroflexi / isolation & purification * ...
Growth occurred at pH(25 degrees C) 6.8-8.8, with optimum growth at pH 8.4; no growth occurred at pH 9.0 or above or at 6.5 or ... isolate 40KI RubisCO in the chemoautotrophic host R. eutropha was demonstrated. Use of an expression vector harboring the R. ... no growth occurred at a gas atmosphere of 0.2 % O(2). Chemo-organotrophic growth occurred with xylose, glucose, mannose, xylan ... The optimum growth was determined to occur at 28 °C, 0-4 % (w/v) NaCl and pH 7.0-8.0. Whole-cell hydrolysates of both strains ...
2008). Whole-genome transcriptional profiling of Bradyrhizobium japonicum during chemoautotrophic growth. J. Bacteriol. 190, ... In culture the maximal temperature for growth was 58°C, thus, growth at 66°C is not expected. The cyanobacteria found in ... Holo, H., and Sirevåg, R. (1986). Autotrophic growth and CO2 fixation in Chloroflexus aurantiacus. Arch. Microbiol. 145, 173- ... It has been shown that this cyanobacterium has an optimal temperature for growth and nitrogenase activity at 45-50°C (Alcamán ...
... indicating that the rice fields favor the growth of AOA. PNA highly varied from 0.43 to 3.57 μg NOX-N·g·dry·soil·h-1, and was ... growth of heterotrophic bacteria, and thus inhibit the chemoautotrophic ammonia oxidizers [34] . Although AOA might be capable ... The paddy soils are subjected to temporal or permanent flooding during the growth of rice, which makes them model systems to ... 28. Tourna, M., Freitag, T.E., Nicol, G.W. and Prosser, J.I. (2008) Growth, Activity and Temperature Responses of Ammonia- ...
nov., a Chemoautotrophic Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacterium Tolerant of High Ammonium Isolated from Composted Cattle Manure". Microbes ... This feature may explain enhanced growth of AOB in the presence of urea in acidic environments. Some sources regard ... Nitrosomonas is a genus of rod-shaped chemoautotrophic bacteria. This organism oxidizes ammonia into nitrite as a metabolic ...
nov., a novel, arsenite-oxidizing haloalkaliphilic gammaproteobacterium capable of chemoautotrophic or heterotrophic growth ... is a species of arsenite-oxidizing haloalkaliphilic gammaproteobacterium capable of chemoautotrophic or heterotrophic growth. ...
1986) Growth pattern and yield of a chemoautotrophic Beggiatoa sp. in oxygen-sulfide microgradients. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. ... ribosomes may reflect optimal growth conditions compared to the Chilean sediments, where growth may be restricted for certain ... These similarities include chemoautotrophic carbon metabolism (20, 24, 29, 31), sulfide oxidation (20, 25), and concentration ... strain XCL-2 was cultured from the Galapagos Rift vents in 1988 (28); the DNA base composition, growth rate at 33°C, and ...
nov., a novel, arsenite-oxidizing haloalkaliphilic gammaproteobacterium capable of chemoautotrophic or heterotrophic growth ... 2010) Exploring the low-pressure growth limit: Evolution of Bacillus subtilis in the laboratory to enhanced growth at 5 ... 2013) Growth of Serratia liquefaciens under 7 mbar, 0°C, and CO2-enriched anoxic atmospheres. Astrobiology 13(2):115-131. ... 2003) Effects of carbon dioxide on bacterial growth parameters in milk as measured by conductivity. J Dairy Sci 86(6):1932-1940 ...
nov., a novel, arsenite-oxidizing haloalkaliphilic gammaproteobacterium capable of chemoautotrophic or heterotrophic growth ...
Chemoautotrophic Growth / drug effects Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... A moderately acidophilic, facultative chemoautotrophic, As(III)-oxidizing Thiomonas sp. (strain 3As(T)) was previously shown, ... Spots that are circled showed significant differences of accumulation pattern when the two growth conditions were compared. ...
... carbonyl and other ligands were catalytically active and promoted the growth of the organic superstructure through carbon ... From volcanic origins of chemoautotrophic life to Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ... The theory of a chemoautotrophic origin of life in a volcanic iron-sulphur world postulates a pioneer organism at sites of ... From volcanic origins of chemoautotrophic life to Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya. Günter Wächtershäuser ...
... and that this is influenced by the electron donor provided and growth conditions used. These measurements, and comparison with ... and Acidimicrobium (Am.) ferrooxidans] also displayed iron cycling in vitro (Figure 4). Stratified acid streamer/mat growths ... In natural and man-made (biomining) environments, pyrite is a major energy resource for chemo-autotrophic acidophiles. Ferric ... and novel Firmicutes were more abundant in the lower depths of the streamer growths (Kimura et al., 2011). Johnson et al. (1993 ...
... of the CO2 fixation operons of Rhodobacter sphaeroides by the Prr/Reg two-component system during chemoautotrophic growth. J. ... During photoheterotrophic growth (i.e., anaerobic growth conditions in the presence of an organic carbon source), cbbII ... Up-regulated expression of the cbbI and cbbII operons during photoheterotrophic growth of a ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate ... Bacterial strains and plasmids, media, and growth conditions.The bacterial strains and plasmids used in this study are listed ...
nov., a novel, arseniteoxidizing haloalkaliphilic gammaproteobacterium capable of chemoautotrophic or heterotrophic growth with ... Blum, J.S., Culbertson, C.W., and Oremland, R.S., 1996, Anaerobic growth of bacterial strain SES3 with selenate as the electron ... Wang, M., Ford, R.M., and Harvey, R.W., 2008, Coupled effect of chemotaxis and growth on microbial distributions in organic- ... Bekins, B.A., Cozzarelli, I.M., and Curtis, G.P., 2005, A simple method for calculating growth rates of petroleum hydrocarbon ...
Inferred growth rates (average ~0.006 d−1) obtained from the same incubations were at least an order of magnitude lower than ... Chemoautotrophic CO2-fixation exceeded heterotrophic organic C-demand by a factor of ~1.5. Aerobic respiratory activity ... Low growth efficiency (8%) indicated that heterotrophic populations in SLW partition a majority of their carbon demand to ... and P substrates to support microbial growth. Here, we use a combination of physiological assays and models to assess the ...
But perhaps early in the corals life history, during settlement and its initial growth stages, the coral was reliant on seep ... This finding could mean that this snail has chemoautotrophic endosymbionts, a condition found in some close relatives in the ... the young coral larvae once settled and attached itself to the carbonate to the tips where the only evidence of active growth ...
At exponential growth, bacteria were harvested by short centrifugation (8,000 × g for 6 min), heat shocked at 42 °C for 1 min, ... 2009) A novel symbiosis between chemoautotrophic bacteria and a freshwater cave amphipod. ISME J 3:935-943. ... With 10 zooplankters·L−1, not uncommon for lakes during the growth season (29), up to 1010 bacteria/L could be associated with ... The life history of hitchhiking bacteria is inherently linked to that of their hosts, whereby bacteria growth and dispersal are ...
... suggests that RegA may bind to distinct regions in cbbII and in cbbI during photoautotrophic and chemoautotrophic growth. ... capsulatus is fully capable of derepressing pigment biosynthesis under chemiautotrophic growth conditions involving growth in ... Growth, pigmentation, and expression of the puf and puc operons in a light- responding-repressor (SPB)-disrupted Rhodobacter ... Under these growth conditions, carbon fixation is thought to function as an electron sink that bleeds off excess reducing power ...
Acetyl-CoA is the common precursor of fatty acid synthesis, so it is plausible that early cellular growth relied on retention ... Another scenario of the role of acetate kinase in the early stages of the evolution of life depends upon the chemoautotrophic ...
Growth of 30 feet in 18 months is not unusual. The tallest of these chimneys that has been measured was the height of a 15 ... See also Chemoautotrophic and chemolithotrophic bacteria; Extremophiles; Sulfur cycle in microorganisms. Cite this article Pick ...
This growth yield is similar to that obtained in in vitro experiments with enrichments of ANME-2 consortia (24). However, it is ... or chemoautotrophic fixation of seawater bicarbonate). It has also been proposed that methanogenesis could be an additional ... Growth and population dynamics of anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea and sulfate-reducing bacteria in a continuous-flow ... Growth and methane oxidation rates of anaerobic methanotrophic archaea in a continuous-flow bioreactor. Appl. Environ. ...
... or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD. ... Chemoautotrophic Growth. Diet. Digestive System Physiological Phenomena. Food. (. More. ). Narrower. (. 1. ). Nutrition ...
We hypothesize that chemoautrophic growth is strongly coupled to nitrate respiration in vent microbial communities. As part of ... might be responsible for a significant fraction of chemoautotrophic production, NO3--reduction rates have never been measured ...
Other trials also showed that shrimp growth rates were greatly improved (increase from 1.38 to 2.31 g/wk) when RWs were stocked ... Biofloc consists of a mix of chemoautotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria and photoautotrophic algae. Among the chemoautotrophs ... Even at higher stocking densities, survival and growth in the RAS trials were better than in ponds. At harvest, shrimp produced ... Biofloc alone, therefore, is insufficient to guarantee the level of growth and survival required by high-density shrimp culture ...
  • SILVERMAN M P, LUNDGREN D J. Studies on the chemoautotrophic iron bacterium Thiobacillus ferrooxidans (I): An improved medium and a harvesting procedure for securing high cellular yields [J]. Journal of Bacteriology, 1959, 77(5): 642-647. (springer.com)
  • The chemoautotrophic bacterium Ralstonia eutropha can utilize H 2 /CO 2 for growth under aerobic conditions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, the chemoautotrophic nutritional requirements of LB, entirely unsuspected for a medically important pathogenic bacterium, having dimorphic (both bacillary and mycelial) characters with spores, mycelia and granules and unique pathogenicity of multilation manifested through the virulence factor, the enzyme collagenase, made LB or M leprae the highly enigmatic bacterium for so long. (bvsalud.org)
  • produce fatty acids depleted in D compared to the water in the culture medium (growth water). (uu.nl)
  • Fatty acids produced by heterotrophs are enriched in D compared to growth water with εlipid/water between 82 and 359‰ when grown on glucose or acetate, respectively. (uu.nl)
  • Photoautotrophs (εlipid/water between −149 and −264‰) and chemoautotrophs (εlipid/water between −217 and −275‰) produce fatty acids depleted in D. Fatty acids become, in general, enriched by between 4 and 46‰ with growth phase which is minor compared to the influence of metabolisms. (uu.nl)
  • Moreover, this strain was able to oxidize As(III) also under chemoautotrophic conditions. (unimi.it)
  • Related to and (A) Phenotypic phase plane showing the feasible space given the measured growth rate (0.04 ± 0.01 h -1 ) of the evolved strain (blue line). (nih.gov)
  • General Information: This chemoautotrophic strain was isolated from Mono Lake in California, which contains arsenic and has high pH and salt concentrations. (up.ac.za)
  • Here we show 5′-bromo-2′ deoxyuridine (BrdU) pulse labelling of vegetative growing Zoothamnium niveum , a colonial ciliate obligately associated with thiotrophic ectosymbionts, and demonstrate age related growth profiles in three heteromorphic host cell types. (springer.com)
  • Chemolithoautotrophic, sulphide-oxidizing (thiotrophic) symbioses represent spectacular adaptations to fluctuating environmental gradients and survival is often accomplished when growth is fuelled by sufficient nourishment through the symbionts leading to fast cell proliferation. (springer.com)
  • The paddy soils are subjected to temporal or permanent flooding during the growth of rice, which makes them model systems to investigate the divergence of ammonia oxidizers communities in microaerobic niches of the surface soil. (scirp.org)
  • Measurements of specific rates of iron oxidation and reduction by acidophilic microorganisms show that different species vary in their capacities for iron oxido-reduction, and that this is influenced by the electron donor provided and growth conditions used. (frontiersin.org)
  • Growth and differentiation of the colonies of Zoothamnium alternans (Clap and Lachm). (springer.com)
  • In contrast, the concentration of soluble, bio-available iron often limits the growth of primary producing organisms in many aquatic (e.g., marine) and terrestrial (e.g., calcareous soils) environments. (frontiersin.org)
  • 2009. Factors controlling long-term survival and growth of naturalized Escherichia coli in temperate field soils. (umn.edu)
  • When it was sampled through its 800 m thick ice cover in 2013, the SLW water column was shallow (~2 m deep), oxygenated, and possessed sufficient concentrations of C, N, and P substrates to support microbial growth. (darkenergybiosphere.org)
  • Alkalinity also inhibits microbial growth, but isn't used to preserve foods. (cram.com)
  • axenic growth of organisms of a given species in the complete absence of members of any other species. (damasgate.com)
  • Inter ac tions among competing nema tode species a ff ec t population growth rates. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • With nearby open sandbeds, the Halophila acts as the pioneering species, being the first to establish itself in uncolonized sand acting to anchor the sand and preparing it for the Thalassia and Syringodium species to follow through rhizome growth. (cdmas.org)
  • It is only when sufficient growth by the previous species has stabilized and enriched the sandbed through their leaf litter that the large Enhalus species establishes itself, which it appears to do more frequently through seed dispersal than by rhizome growth. (cdmas.org)
  • Although both ions and vitamins are rare, thiamine or ions such as potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium aid the growth of the mycelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • For this reason, these isolates could potentially support plant growth in As-polluted soil and reduce stress symptoms. (unimi.it)
  • Very few saprotrophic organisms can endure anaerobic conditions as evidenced by their growth above media such as water or soil. (wikipedia.org)
  • R. capsulatus cbb I and cbb II are regulated independently, and their expression levels have been shown to vary depending on the growth conditions ( 13 , 14 , 24 , 25 , 29 , 43 ). (asm.org)
  • By contrast, there were many fewer proteins shared between growth in syngas and the other two growth conditions. (nih.gov)
  • Of the total 1977 proteins identified, only 190 were present in all three growth conditions, demonstrating the greater degree of change in the proteome required when O. carboxidovorans adapts from heterotrophy to chemolithoautotrophy. (nih.gov)
  • a b c d e Clegg & Mackean (2006 , p. 296), fig 14.17-A diagram explaining the optimal conditions needed for successful growth and repair. (wikipedia.org)
  • We found that adaptation to chemolithoautotrophic growth involved adaptations in cell envelope, oxidative homeostasis, and metabolic pathways such as glyoxylate shunt and amino acid/cofactor biosynthetic enzymes. (nih.gov)
  • Alkalilimnicola ehrlichei is capable of growth with arsenite [As(III)] as the electron donor with nitrate as electron acceptor. (up.ac.za)
  • As they degrade arsenic in the process, they use it for their own growth through energy generating processes such as arsenite acting as an electron donor while arsenate acts as an electron acceptor. (innovativepublication.com)
  • Canganella F, Gonzalez JM, Yanagibayashi M, Kato C and Horikoshi K (1997) Pressure and temperature effects on growth and viability of the thermophilic archaeon Thermococcus peptonophilus. (els.net)
  • Life in the deep-sea sediments is largely constrained by the limited and episodic food supply from the water column, possibly supplemented by benthic chemoautotrophic production ( 1 , 3 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • auxotroph a mutant microorganism that can be grown only upon minimal medium that has been supplemented with growth factors not required by wild-type strains. (damasgate.com)
  • Sensitivity of these strains was also studied with respect to pteridine, crystal violet and Tween 80 hydrolysis as further markers distinguishing between these 2 groups which could also be differentiated by their growth on TCBS or/and CLED media. (bvsalud.org)
  • Numerous As-resistant isolates possessed plant growth-promoting characteristics, being able to produce siderophores, IAA, and ACC deaminase. (unimi.it)
  • We know that "Life is the most unique, complex organisation of molecules, expressing itself through chemical reactions which lead to growth, development, responsiveness, adaptation and reproduction" that matter has achieved in our universe. (studyadda.com)
  • Inferred growth rates (average ~0.006 d −1 ) obtained from the same incubations were at least an order of magnitude lower than those measured in Antarctic surface lakes and oligotrophic areas of the ocean. (darkenergybiosphere.org)
  • This feature may explain enhanced growth of AOB in the presence of urea in acidic environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • The demand for protein from increasing world population - together with decreased fishery landings - has resulted in rapid growth of aquaculture. (biomin.net)