Methods used for the chemical synthesis of compounds. Included under this heading are laboratory methods used to synthesize a variety of chemicals and drugs.
Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.
A technology, in which sets of reactions for solution or solid-phase synthesis, is used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.
Organic chemistry methodology that mimics the modular nature of various biosynthetic processes. It uses highly reliable and selective reactions designed to "click" i.e., rapidly join small modular units together in high yield, without offensive byproducts. In combination with COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES, it is used for the synthesis of new compounds and combinatorial libraries.
The specialty of ANALYTIC CHEMISTRY applied to assays of physiologically important substances found in blood, urine, tissues, and other biological fluids for the purpose of aiding the physician in making a diagnosis or following therapy.
The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A field of biological research combining engineering in the formulation, design, and building (synthesis) of novel biological structures, functions, and systems.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
Laboratory tests demonstrating the presence of physiologically significant substances in the blood, urine, tissue, and body fluids with application to the diagnosis or therapy of disease.
Biologically functional sequences of DNA chemically synthesized in vitro.
The branch of chemistry dealing with detection (qualitative) and determination (quantitative) of substances. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Hydrocarbons with at least one triple bond in the linear portion, of the general formula Cn-H2n-2.
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
An examination of chemicals in the blood.
The Nobel Prize is not a medical term, but a prestigious international award given annually in several categories, including Physiology or Medicine, for significant contributions to humanity that have conferred the greatest benefit to mankind.
The conformation, properties, reaction processes, and the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds.
Pollution prevention through the design of effective chemical products that have low or no toxicity and use of chemical processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Chemical and physical transformation of the biogenic elements from their nucleosynthesis in stars to their incorporation and subsequent modification in planetary bodies and terrestrial biochemistry. It includes the mechanism of incorporation of biogenic elements into complex molecules and molecular systems, leading up to the origin of life.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The study of the composition, chemical structures, and chemical reactions of living things.
Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).

Synthesis and characterization of the inclusion complex of dicationic ionic liquid and beta-cyclodextrin. (1/188)

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Enantioselective total synthesis and confirmation of the absolute and relative stereochemistry of streptorubin B. (2/188)

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Bis-N-heterocyclic carbene palladium(IV) tetrachloride complexes: synthesis, reactivity, and mechanisms of direct chlorinations and oxidations of organic substrates. (3/188)

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Novel carbon-carbon bond formations for biocatalysis. (4/188)

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Application of sequential Cu(I)/Pd(0)-catalysis to solution-phase parallel synthesis of combinatorial libraries of dihydroindeno[1,2-c]isoquinolines. (5/188)

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Design, synthesis, and validation of a beta-turn mimetic library targeting protein-protein and peptide-receptor interactions. (6/188)

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Total synthesis and absolute stereochemical assignment of kibdelone C. (7/188)

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A sequential strand-displacement strategy enables efficient six-step DNA-templated synthesis. (8/188)

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Synthetic chemistry techniques refer to the methods and processes used in the laboratory to synthesize or create new chemical compounds or molecules. This can involve a wide range of procedures, including various types of reactions, separations, purifications, and characterizations. The goal of synthetic chemistry is often to produce a specific compound with desired properties, such as a drug molecule with therapeutic activity or a materials compound with unique physical or chemical characteristics. Synthetic chemists use their knowledge of organic, inorganic, physical, and analytical chemistry to design and execute efficient and effective syntheses, and they may employ automation, computational modeling, and other advanced tools to aid in their work.

Analytical chemistry techniques are a collection of methods and tools used to identify and quantify the chemical composition of matter. These techniques can be used to analyze the presence and amount of various chemicals in a sample, including ions, molecules, and atoms. Some common analytical chemistry techniques include:

1. Spectroscopy: This technique uses the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and matter to identify and quantify chemical species. There are many different types of spectroscopy, including UV-Vis, infrared (IR), fluorescence, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.
2. Chromatography: This technique separates the components of a mixture based on their physical or chemical properties, such as size, charge, or polarity. Common types of chromatography include gas chromatography (GC), liquid chromatography (LC), and thin-layer chromatography (TLC).
3. Mass spectrometry: This technique uses the mass-to-charge ratio of ions to identify and quantify chemical species. It can be used in combination with other techniques, such as GC or LC, to provide structural information about unknown compounds.
4. Electrochemical methods: These techniques use the movement of electrons to measure the concentration of chemical species. Examples include potentiometry, voltammetry, and amperometry.
5. Thermal analysis: This technique uses changes in the physical or chemical properties of a sample as it is heated or cooled to identify and quantify chemical species. Examples include differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

These are just a few examples of the many analytical chemistry techniques that are available. Each technique has its own strengths and limitations, and the choice of which to use will depend on the specific needs of the analysis.

Combinatorial chemistry techniques are a group of methods used in the field of chemistry to synthesize and optimize large libraries of chemical compounds in a rapid and efficient manner. These techniques involve the systematic combination of different building blocks, or reagents, in various arrangements to generate a diverse array of molecules. This approach allows chemists to quickly explore a wide chemical space and identify potential lead compounds for drug discovery, materials science, and other applications.

There are several common combinatorial chemistry techniques, including:

1. **Split-Pool Synthesis:** In this method, a large collection of starting materials is divided into smaller groups, and each group undergoes a series of chemical reactions with different reagents. The resulting products from each group are then pooled together and redistributed for additional rounds of reactions. This process creates a vast number of unique compounds through the iterative combination of building blocks.
2. **Parallel Synthesis:** In parallel synthesis, multiple reactions are carried out simultaneously in separate reaction vessels. Each vessel contains a distinct set of starting materials and reagents, allowing for the efficient generation of a series of related compounds. This method is particularly useful when exploring structure-activity relationships (SAR) or optimizing lead compounds.
3. **Encoded Libraries:** To facilitate the rapid identification of active compounds within large libraries, encoded library techniques incorporate unique tags or barcodes into each molecule. These tags allow for the simultaneous synthesis and screening of compounds, as the identity of an active compound can be determined by decoding its corresponding tag.
4. **DNA-Encoded Libraries (DELs):** DELs are a specific type of encoded library that uses DNA molecules to encode and track chemical compounds. In this approach, each unique compound is linked to a distinct DNA sequence, enabling the rapid identification of active compounds through DNA sequencing techniques.
5. **Solid-Phase Synthesis:** This technique involves the attachment of starting materials to a solid support, such as beads or resins, allowing for the stepwise addition of reagents and building blocks. The solid support facilitates easy separation, purification, and screening of compounds, making it an ideal method for combinatorial chemistry applications.

Combinatorial chemistry techniques have revolutionized drug discovery and development by enabling the rapid synthesis, screening, and optimization of large libraries of chemical compounds. These methods continue to play a crucial role in modern medicinal chemistry and materials science research.

Click chemistry is a term used to describe a group of chemical reactions that are fast, high-yielding, and highly selective. These reactions typically involve the formation of covalent bonds between two molecules in a simple and efficient manner, often through the use of a catalyst. The concept of click chemistry was first introduced by K. B. Sharpless, who won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2001 for his work on chiral catalysis.

In the context of medical research and drug development, click chemistry has emerged as a valuable tool for rapidly synthesizing and optimizing small molecule compounds with therapeutic potential. By using click chemistry reactions to quickly and efficiently link different chemical building blocks together, researchers can rapidly generate large libraries of potential drug candidates and then screen them for biological activity. This approach has been used to discover new drugs for a variety of diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and neurological disorders.

One common type of click chemistry reaction is the copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction, which involves the reaction between an azide and an alkyne to form a triazole ring. This reaction is highly selective and can be carried out under mild conditions, making it a popular choice for chemical synthesis in the life sciences. Other types of click chemistry reactions include the Diels-Alder cycloaddition, the thiol-ene reaction, and the Staudinger ligation.

Overall, click chemistry has had a significant impact on medical research and drug development by enabling the rapid and efficient synthesis of complex small molecule compounds with therapeutic potential. Its versatility and selectivity make it a powerful tool for researchers seeking to discover new drugs and better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying human disease.

Clinical chemistry is a branch of medical laboratory science that deals with the chemical analysis of biological specimens such as blood, urine, and tissue samples to provide information about the health status of a patient. It involves the use of various analytical techniques and instruments to measure different chemicals, enzymes, hormones, and other substances in the body. The results of these tests help healthcare professionals diagnose and monitor diseases, evaluate therapy effectiveness, and make informed decisions about patient care. Clinical chemists work closely with physicians, nurses, and other healthcare providers to ensure accurate and timely test results, which are crucial for proper medical diagnosis and treatment.

Organic chemistry is a branch of chemistry that deals with the study of carbon-containing compounds, their synthesis, reactions, properties, and structures. These compounds can include both naturally occurring substances (such as sugars, proteins, and nucleic acids) and synthetic materials (such as plastics, dyes, and pharmaceuticals). A key characteristic of organic molecules is the presence of covalent bonds between carbon atoms or between carbon and other elements like hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and halogens. The field of organic chemistry has played a crucial role in advancing our understanding of chemical processes and has led to numerous technological and medical innovations.

Synthetic biology is not a medical term per se, but rather it falls under the broader field of biology and bioengineering. Synthetic biology is an interdisciplinary field that combines principles from biology, engineering, chemistry, physics, and computer science to design and construct new biological parts, devices, and systems that do not exist in nature or re-design existing natural biological systems for useful purposes.

In simpler terms, synthetic biology involves the creation of artificial biological components such as genes, proteins, and cells, or the modification of existing ones to perform specific functions. These engineered biological systems can be used for a wide range of applications, including medical research, diagnostics, therapeutics, and environmental remediation.

Examples of synthetic biology in medicine include the development of synthetic gene circuits that can detect and respond to disease-causing agents or the creation of artificial cells that can produce therapeutic proteins or drugs. However, it's important to note that while synthetic biology holds great promise for improving human health, it also raises ethical, safety, and regulatory concerns that need to be carefully considered and addressed.

In the context of medicine, "chemistry" often refers to the field of study concerned with the properties, composition, and structure of elements and compounds, as well as their reactions with one another. It is a fundamental science that underlies much of modern medicine, including pharmacology (the study of drugs), toxicology (the study of poisons), and biochemistry (the study of the chemical processes that occur within living organisms).

In addition to its role as a basic science, chemistry is also used in medical testing and diagnosis. For example, clinical chemistry involves the analysis of bodily fluids such as blood and urine to detect and measure various substances, such as glucose, cholesterol, and electrolytes, that can provide important information about a person's health status.

Overall, chemistry plays a critical role in understanding the mechanisms of diseases, developing new treatments, and improving diagnostic tests and techniques.

Clinical chemistry tests are a type of laboratory test that measure the levels of various chemicals or substances in the body. These tests can be used to help diagnose and monitor a wide range of medical conditions, including diabetes, liver disease, heart disease, and kidney disease. Some common clinical chemistry tests include:

1. Blood glucose test: Measures the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood. This test is commonly used to diagnose and monitor diabetes.
2. Electrolyte panel: Measures the levels of important electrolytes such as sodium, potassium, chloride, and bicarbonate in the blood. Imbalances in these electrolytes can indicate a variety of medical conditions.
3. Liver function tests (LFTs): Measure the levels of various enzymes and proteins produced by the liver. Abnormal results can indicate liver damage or disease.
4. Kidney function tests: Measure the levels of various substances such as creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in the blood. Elevated levels of these substances can indicate kidney dysfunction or disease.
5. Lipid panel: Measures the levels of different types of cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood. Abnormal results can indicate an increased risk of heart disease.
6. Thyroid function tests: Measure the levels of hormones produced by the thyroid gland. Abnormal results can indicate thyroid dysfunction or disease.

Clinical chemistry tests are usually performed on a sample of blood, urine, or other bodily fluid. The results of these tests can provide important information to help doctors diagnose and manage medical conditions.

Synthetic genes are artificially created DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) molecules that do not exist in nature. They are designed and constructed through genetic engineering techniques to encode specific functionalities or properties that do not occur in the original organism's genome. These synthetic genes can be used for various purposes, such as introducing new traits into organisms, producing novel enzymes or proteins, or developing new biotechnological applications.

The creation of synthetic genes involves designing and synthesizing DNA sequences that code for desired proteins or regulatory elements. This is achieved through chemical synthesis methods or using automated DNA synthesizers that can produce short DNA fragments, which are then assembled into longer sequences to form the complete synthetic gene. Once created, these synthetic genes can be introduced into living cells through various techniques like transfection or transformation, enabling the expression of the desired protein or functional trait.

Analytical chemistry is a branch of chemistry that focuses on the identification and quantification of chemical components within a sample. This field involves developing and using various analytical techniques and methods to determine the presence, concentration, structure, and purity of different chemicals or compounds in a mixture.

Some common analytical techniques include:

1. Spectroscopy: Using light or other electromagnetic radiation to study the interaction between matter and energy, providing information about the composition, structure, and properties of a sample. Examples include UV-Vis, IR, NMR, and mass spectrometry.
2. Chromatography: A separation technique that separates components in a mixture based on their interactions with a mobile phase (gas or liquid) and a stationary phase (solid or liquid). Common methods include gas chromatography (GC), liquid chromatography (LC), and thin-layer chromatography (TLC).
3. Electrochemical analysis: Measuring the electrical properties of a sample, such as potential, current, or resistance, to determine its composition or concentration. Examples include potentiometry, voltammetry, and conductometry.
4. Thermal analysis: Examining the physical and chemical changes that occur in a sample when it is heated or cooled, providing information about its composition, structure, and properties. Techniques include differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA).
5. Spectrometry: Measuring the intensity of light dispersed by a sample as a function of wavelength or frequency to determine its composition, structure, or properties. Examples include atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF).

Analytical chemists often work in various industries, such as pharmaceuticals, food, environmental testing, and forensics, to ensure product quality, safety, and compliance with regulations. They may also contribute to research and development efforts by developing new analytical methods or improving existing ones.

Molecular structure, in the context of biochemistry and molecular biology, refers to the arrangement and organization of atoms and chemical bonds within a molecule. It describes the three-dimensional layout of the constituent elements, including their spatial relationships, bond lengths, and angles. Understanding molecular structure is crucial for elucidating the functions and reactivities of biological macromolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates. Various experimental techniques, like X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), are employed to determine molecular structures at atomic resolution, providing valuable insights into their biological roles and potential therapeutic targets.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Peptides are short chains of amino acid residues linked by covalent bonds, known as peptide bonds. They are formed when two or more amino acids are joined together through a condensation reaction, which results in the elimination of a water molecule and the formation of an amide bond between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another.

Peptides can vary in length from two to about fifty amino acids, and they are often classified based on their size. For example, dipeptides contain two amino acids, tripeptides contain three, and so on. Oligopeptides typically contain up to ten amino acids, while polypeptides can contain dozens or even hundreds of amino acids.

Peptides play many important roles in the body, including serving as hormones, neurotransmitters, enzymes, and antibiotics. They are also used in medical research and therapeutic applications, such as drug delivery and tissue engineering.

Alkynes are a type of hydrocarbons that contain at least one carbon-carbon triple bond in their molecular structure. The general chemical formula for alkynes is CnH2n-2, where n represents the number of carbon atoms in the molecule.

The simplest and shortest alkyne is ethyne, also known as acetylene, which has two carbon atoms and four hydrogen atoms (C2H2). Ethyne is a gas at room temperature and pressure, and it is commonly used as a fuel in welding torches.

Alkynes are unsaturated hydrocarbons, meaning that they have the potential to undergo chemical reactions that add atoms or groups of atoms to the molecule. In particular, alkynes can be converted into alkenes (hydrocarbons with a carbon-carbon double bond) through a process called partial reduction, or they can be fully reduced to alkanes (hydrocarbons with only single bonds between carbon atoms) through a process called complete reduction.

Alkynes are important intermediates in the chemical industry and are used to produce a wide range of products, including plastics, resins, fibers, and pharmaceuticals. They can be synthesized from other hydrocarbons through various chemical reactions, such as dehydrogenation, oxidative coupling, or metathesis.

Pharmaceutical chemistry is a branch of chemistry that deals with the design, synthesis, and development of chemical entities used as medications. It involves the study of drugs' physical, chemical, and biological properties, as well as their interactions with living organisms. This field also encompasses understanding the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) of drugs in the body, which are critical factors in drug design and development. Pharmaceutical chemists often work closely with biologists, medical professionals, and engineers to develop new medications and improve existing ones.

Blood chemical analysis, also known as clinical chemistry or chemistry panel, is a series of tests that measure the levels of various chemicals in the blood. These tests can help evaluate the function of organs such as the kidneys and liver, and can also detect conditions such as diabetes and heart disease.

The tests typically include:

* Glucose: to check for diabetes
* Electrolytes (such as sodium, potassium, chloride, and bicarbonate): to check the body's fluid and electrolyte balance
* Calcium: to check for problems with bones, nerves, or kidneys
* Creatinine: to check for kidney function
* Urea Nitrogen (BUN): to check for kidney function
* Albumin: to check for liver function and nutrition status
* ALT (Alanine Transaminase) and AST (Aspartate Transaminase): to check for liver function
* Alkaline Phosphatase: to check for liver or bone disease
* Total Bilirubin: to check for liver function and gallbladder function
* Cholesterol: to check for heart disease risk
* Triglycerides: to check for heart disease risk

These tests are usually ordered by a doctor as part of a routine check-up, or to help diagnose and monitor specific medical conditions. The results of the blood chemical analysis are compared to reference ranges provided by the laboratory performing the test, which take into account factors such as age, sex, and race.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Nobel Prize" is not a medical definition. The Nobel Prize is an international award given annually in several categories, and one of those categories is physiology or medicine. The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine is awarded to individuals who have made significant discoveries of outstanding importance in the fields of life sciences and medicine. It is one of the most prestigious awards in these fields.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question as "Organic chemistry phenomena" is a broad term and not a medical definition. However, I can provide you with an explanation of organic chemistry phenomena in a general context.

Organic chemistry is the study of carbon-containing compounds, their synthesis, reactions, properties, and structures. The term "organic" was originally used to describe biological materials, but now it refers to any compound that contains carbon atoms bonded to hydrogen atoms, except for some simple oxides, sulfides, and halides.

Organic chemistry phenomena encompass a wide range of processes and events related to organic compounds. These can include:

1. Structural properties: Understanding the arrangement of atoms in organic molecules and how they influence chemical behavior and reactivity.
2. Stereochemistry: The study of three-dimensional spatial arrangements of atoms in organic molecules, which can significantly impact their properties and biological activity.
3. Functional groups: Recognizing and understanding the behavior of specific groupings of atoms within organic molecules that determine their chemical reactivity.
4. Reaction mechanisms: Investigating and describing the step-by-step processes by which organic reactions occur, including the movement of electrons, formation and breaking of bonds, and energy changes.
5. Synthetic methodologies: Developing strategies and techniques for creating complex organic molecules from simpler precursors, often involving multiple steps and protecting group strategies.
6. Physical properties: Examining how factors such as molecular weight, polarity, solubility, and melting/boiling points affect the behavior of organic compounds in various conditions.
7. Spectroscopic analysis: Utilizing techniques like NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance), IR (Infrared) spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry to analyze the structure and composition of organic molecules.
8. Biochemistry and medicinal chemistry: Exploring how organic compounds interact with biological systems, including drug design, development, and delivery.

While not a medical definition per se, understanding organic chemistry phenomena is crucial for many areas within medicine, such as pharmaceutical research, toxicology, and biochemistry.

"Green Chemistry Technology," also known as "Sustainable Chemistry," refers to the design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances. It aims to minimize negative impacts on human health and the environment, while maximizing economic benefits. This is achieved through the application of principles such as preventing waste, designing safer chemicals, using renewable feedstocks, and minimizing energy use. Green Chemistry Technology involves the development and implementation of novel chemical reactions, catalysts, and processes that are inherently safer and more environmentally benign than traditional methods.

Stereoisomerism is a type of isomerism (structural arrangement of atoms) in which molecules have the same molecular formula and sequence of bonded atoms, but differ in the three-dimensional orientation of their atoms in space. This occurs when the molecule contains asymmetric carbon atoms or other rigid structures that prevent free rotation, leading to distinct spatial arrangements of groups of atoms around a central point. Stereoisomers can have different chemical and physical properties, such as optical activity, boiling points, and reactivities, due to differences in their shape and the way they interact with other molecules.

There are two main types of stereoisomerism: enantiomers (mirror-image isomers) and diastereomers (non-mirror-image isomers). Enantiomers are pairs of stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other, but cannot be superimposed on one another. Diastereomers, on the other hand, are non-mirror-image stereoisomers that have different physical and chemical properties.

Stereoisomerism is an important concept in chemistry and biology, as it can affect the biological activity of molecules, such as drugs and natural products. For example, some enantiomers of a drug may be active, while others are inactive or even toxic. Therefore, understanding stereoisomerism is crucial for designing and synthesizing effective and safe drugs.

Molecular models are three-dimensional representations of molecular structures that are used in the field of molecular biology and chemistry to visualize and understand the spatial arrangement of atoms and bonds within a molecule. These models can be physical or computer-generated and allow researchers to study the shape, size, and behavior of molecules, which is crucial for understanding their function and interactions with other molecules.

Physical molecular models are often made up of balls (representing atoms) connected by rods or sticks (representing bonds). These models can be constructed manually using materials such as plastic or wooden balls and rods, or they can be created using 3D printing technology.

Computer-generated molecular models, on the other hand, are created using specialized software that allows researchers to visualize and manipulate molecular structures in three dimensions. These models can be used to simulate molecular interactions, predict molecular behavior, and design new drugs or chemicals with specific properties. Overall, molecular models play a critical role in advancing our understanding of molecular structures and their functions.

Cyclization is a chemical process that involves forming a cyclic structure or ring-shaped molecule from a linear or open-chain compound. In the context of medicinal chemistry and drug design, cyclization reactions are often used to synthesize complex molecules, including drugs, by creating rings or fused ring systems within the molecule's structure.

Cyclization can occur through various mechanisms, such as intramolecular nucleophilic substitution, electrophilic addition, or radical reactions. The resulting cyclized compounds may exhibit different chemical and biological properties compared to their linear precursors, making them valuable targets for drug discovery and development.

In some cases, the cyclization process can lead to the formation of stereocenters within the molecule, which can impact its three-dimensional shape and how it interacts with biological targets. Therefore, controlling the stereochemistry during cyclization reactions is crucial in medicinal chemistry to optimize the desired biological activity.

Overall, cyclization plays a significant role in the design and synthesis of many pharmaceutical compounds, enabling the creation of complex structures that can interact specifically with biological targets for therapeutic purposes.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Surface properties in the context of medical science refer to the characteristics and features of the outermost layer or surface of a biological material or structure, such as cells, tissues, organs, or medical devices. These properties can include physical attributes like roughness, smoothness, hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity, and electrical conductivity, as well as chemical properties like charge, reactivity, and composition.

In the field of biomaterials science, understanding surface properties is crucial for designing medical implants, devices, and drug delivery systems that can interact safely and effectively with biological tissues and fluids. Surface modifications, such as coatings or chemical treatments, can be used to alter surface properties and enhance biocompatibility, improve lubricity, reduce fouling, or promote specific cellular responses like adhesion, proliferation, or differentiation.

Similarly, in the field of cell biology, understanding surface properties is essential for studying cell-cell interactions, cell signaling, and cell behavior. Cells can sense and respond to changes in their environment, including variations in surface properties, which can influence cell shape, motility, and function. Therefore, characterizing and manipulating surface properties can provide valuable insights into the mechanisms of cellular processes and offer new strategies for developing therapies and treatments for various diseases.

Physical chemistry is a branch of chemistry that deals with the fundamental principles and laws governing the behavior of matter and energy at the molecular and atomic levels. It combines elements of physics, chemistry, mathematics, and engineering to study the properties, composition, structure, and transformation of matter. Key areas of focus in physical chemistry include thermodynamics, kinetics, quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, electrochemistry, and spectroscopy.

In essence, physical chemists aim to understand how and why chemical reactions occur, what drives them, and how they can be controlled or predicted. This knowledge is crucial for developing new materials, medicines, energy technologies, and other applications that benefit society.

A peptide fragment is a short chain of amino acids that is derived from a larger peptide or protein through various biological or chemical processes. These fragments can result from the natural breakdown of proteins in the body during regular physiological processes, such as digestion, or they can be produced experimentally in a laboratory setting for research or therapeutic purposes.

Peptide fragments are often used in research to map the structure and function of larger peptides and proteins, as well as to study their interactions with other molecules. In some cases, peptide fragments may also have biological activity of their own and can be developed into drugs or diagnostic tools. For example, certain peptide fragments derived from hormones or neurotransmitters may bind to receptors in the body and mimic or block the effects of the full-length molecule.

Oligopeptides are defined in medicine and biochemistry as short chains of amino acids, typically containing fewer than 20 amino acid residues. These small peptides are important components in various biological processes, such as serving as signaling molecules, enzyme inhibitors, or structural elements in some proteins. They can be found naturally in foods and may also be synthesized for use in medical research and therapeutic applications.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

"Drug design" is the process of creating and developing a new medication or therapeutic agent to treat or prevent a specific disease or condition. It involves identifying potential targets within the body, such as proteins or enzymes that are involved in the disease process, and then designing small molecules or biologics that can interact with these targets to produce a desired effect.

The drug design process typically involves several stages, including:

1. Target identification: Researchers identify a specific molecular target that is involved in the disease process.
2. Lead identification: Using computational methods and high-throughput screening techniques, researchers identify small molecules or biologics that can interact with the target.
3. Lead optimization: Researchers modify the chemical structure of the lead compound to improve its ability to interact with the target, as well as its safety and pharmacokinetic properties.
4. Preclinical testing: The optimized lead compound is tested in vitro (in a test tube or petri dish) and in vivo (in animals) to evaluate its safety and efficacy.
5. Clinical trials: If the preclinical testing is successful, the drug moves on to clinical trials in humans to further evaluate its safety and efficacy.

The ultimate goal of drug design is to create a new medication that is safe, effective, and can be used to improve the lives of patients with a specific disease or condition.

A chemical model is a simplified representation or description of a chemical system, based on the laws of chemistry and physics. It is used to explain and predict the behavior of chemicals and chemical reactions. Chemical models can take many forms, including mathematical equations, diagrams, and computer simulations. They are often used in research, education, and industry to understand complex chemical processes and develop new products and technologies.

For example, a chemical model might be used to describe the way that atoms and molecules interact in a particular reaction, or to predict the properties of a new material. Chemical models can also be used to study the behavior of chemicals at the molecular level, such as how they bind to each other or how they are affected by changes in temperature or pressure.

It is important to note that chemical models are simplifications of reality and may not always accurately represent every aspect of a chemical system. They should be used with caution and validated against experimental data whenever possible.

Catalysis is the process of increasing the rate of a chemical reaction by adding a substance known as a catalyst, which remains unchanged at the end of the reaction. A catalyst lowers the activation energy required for the reaction to occur, thereby allowing the reaction to proceed more quickly and efficiently. This can be particularly important in biological systems, where enzymes act as catalysts to speed up metabolic reactions that are essential for life.

In the context of medical definitions, polymers are large molecules composed of repeating subunits called monomers. These long chains of monomers can have various structures and properties, depending on the type of monomer units and how they are linked together. In medicine, polymers are used in a wide range of applications, including drug delivery systems, medical devices, and tissue engineering scaffolds. Some examples of polymers used in medicine include polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and biodegradable polymers such as polylactic acid (PLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL).

Chemical evolution is a term that refers to the set of processes thought to have given rise to life from simple inorganic compounds. It is a prebiotic process, meaning it occurred before the existence of life. The fundamental idea behind chemical evolution is that simple chemicals underwent a series of transformations, eventually leading to the formation of complex organic molecules necessary for life, such as amino acids, nucleotides, and lipids. These building blocks then came together to form the first self-replicating entities, which are considered the precursors to modern cells.

The concept of chemical evolution is based on several key observations and experiments. For example, it has been shown that simple inorganic compounds can be transformed into more complex organic molecules under conditions believed to have existed on early Earth, such as those found near hydrothermal vents or in the presence of ultraviolet radiation. Additionally, experiments using simulated prebiotic conditions have produced a variety of biologically relevant molecules, supporting the plausibility of chemical evolution.

It is important to note that chemical evolution does not necessarily imply that life emerged spontaneously or randomly; rather, it suggests that natural processes led to the formation of complex molecules that eventually gave rise to living organisms. The exact mechanisms and pathways by which this occurred are still subjects of ongoing research and debate in the scientific community.

In the context of medical and biological sciences, a "binding site" refers to a specific location on a protein, molecule, or cell where another molecule can attach or bind. This binding interaction can lead to various functional changes in the original protein or molecule. The other molecule that binds to the binding site is often referred to as a ligand, which can be a small molecule, ion, or even another protein.

The binding between a ligand and its target binding site can be specific and selective, meaning that only certain ligands can bind to particular binding sites with high affinity. This specificity plays a crucial role in various biological processes, such as signal transduction, enzyme catalysis, or drug action.

In the case of drug development, understanding the location and properties of binding sites on target proteins is essential for designing drugs that can selectively bind to these sites and modulate protein function. This knowledge can help create more effective and safer therapeutic options for various diseases.

Oxidation-Reduction (redox) reactions are a type of chemical reaction involving a transfer of electrons between two species. The substance that loses electrons in the reaction is oxidized, and the substance that gains electrons is reduced. Oxidation and reduction always occur together in a redox reaction, hence the term "oxidation-reduction."

In biological systems, redox reactions play a crucial role in many cellular processes, including energy production, metabolism, and signaling. The transfer of electrons in these reactions is often facilitated by specialized molecules called electron carriers, such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+/NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD/FADH2).

The oxidation state of an element in a compound is a measure of the number of electrons that have been gained or lost relative to its neutral state. In redox reactions, the oxidation state of one or more elements changes as they gain or lose electrons. The substance that is oxidized has a higher oxidation state, while the substance that is reduced has a lower oxidation state.

Overall, oxidation-reduction reactions are fundamental to the functioning of living organisms and are involved in many important biological processes.

Biochemistry is the branch of science that deals with the chemical processes and substances that occur within living organisms. It involves studying the structures, functions, and interactions of biological macromolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and lipids, and how they work together to carry out cellular functions. Biochemistry also investigates the chemical reactions that transform energy and matter within cells, including metabolic pathways, signal transduction, and gene expression. Understanding biochemical processes is essential for understanding the functioning of biological systems and has important applications in medicine, agriculture, and environmental science.

An azide is a chemical compound that contains the functional group -N=N+=N-, which consists of three nitrogen atoms joined by covalent bonds. In organic chemistry, azides are often used as reagents in various chemical reactions, such as the azide-alkyne cycloaddition (also known as the "click reaction").

In medical terminology, azides may refer to a class of drugs that contain an azido group and are used for their pharmacological effects. For example, sodium nitroprusside is a vasodilator drug that contains an azido group and is used to treat hypertensive emergencies.

However, it's worth noting that azides can also be toxic and potentially explosive under certain conditions, so they must be handled with care in laboratory settings.

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the genetic material present in the cells of organisms where it is responsible for the storage and transmission of hereditary information. DNA is a long molecule that consists of two strands coiled together to form a double helix. Each strand is made up of a series of four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - that are linked together by phosphate and sugar groups. The sequence of these bases along the length of the molecule encodes genetic information, with A always pairing with T and C always pairing with G. This base-pairing allows for the replication and transcription of DNA, which are essential processes in the functioning and reproduction of all living organisms.

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) is a non-invasive diagnostic technique that provides information about the biochemical composition of tissues, including their metabolic state. It is often used in conjunction with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to analyze various metabolites within body tissues, such as the brain, heart, liver, and muscles.

During MRS, a strong magnetic field, radio waves, and a computer are used to produce detailed images and data about the concentration of specific metabolites in the targeted tissue or organ. This technique can help detect abnormalities related to energy metabolism, neurotransmitter levels, pH balance, and other biochemical processes, which can be useful for diagnosing and monitoring various medical conditions, including cancer, neurological disorders, and metabolic diseases.

There are different types of MRS, such as Proton (^1^H) MRS, Phosphorus-31 (^31^P) MRS, and Carbon-13 (^13^C) MRS, each focusing on specific elements or metabolites within the body. The choice of MRS technique depends on the clinical question being addressed and the type of information needed for diagnosis or monitoring purposes.

... separation and quantitative techniques; synthetic chemistry and biology; informatics (data analysis, statistics, bio, genomic ... 3. "Journals Ranked by Impact: Chemistry, Analytical." 2017 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Sciences ed.). Clarivate ... "Chemistry, Analytical" category,[3] and 30 out of 77 journals in the "Biochemical Research Methods" category.[4] 1. Eglen, ...
Two styles have evolved in the use of gloveboxes for synthetic chemistry. In a more conservative mode, they are used solely to ... Air-free techniques refer to a range of manipulations in the chemistry laboratory for the handling of compounds that are air- ... The most straightforward type of air-free technique is the use of a glovebox. A glove bag uses the same idea, but is usually a ... A common theme among these techniques is the use of a fine (100-10−3 Torr) or high (10−3-10−6 Torr) vacuum to remove air, and ...
It is nearly impossible to align Schwann cells by external physical techniques; thus, the discovery of an alternative technique ... The hydrogel may be composed of either biological or synthetic polymers. Both biological and synthetic polymers have their ... They can be either degradable or non-degradable as determined by their chemistry, but degradable is more desirable whenever ... A molding technique was created by Wang et al. for forming a nerve guidance conduit with a multi-channel inner matrix and an ...
This process, known as liquid-liquid extraction, is an important technique in synthetic chemistry. Recycling is used to ensure ... Rogers, Elizabeth; Stovall, Iris (2000). "Fundamentals of Chemistry: Solubility". Department of Chemistry. University of ... using the technique of liquid-liquid extraction. This applies in vast areas of chemistry from drug synthesis to spent nuclear ... In chemistry, solubility is the ability of a substance, the solute, to form a solution with another substance, the solvent. ...
1935 Wallace Carothers leads a team of chemists at DuPont who invent nylon, one of the most commercially successful synthetic ... 1964 Richard R. Ernst performs experiments that will lead to the development of the technique of Fourier transform NMR. This ... History of chemistry Nobel Prize in chemistry List of Nobel laureates in Chemistry Timeline of chemical elements discoveries " ... cite web}}: Missing or empty ,url= (help) "Carl Wilhelm Scheele". History of Gas Chemistry. Center for Microscale Gas Chemistry ...
Synthetic Methods of Organometallic and Inorganic Chemistry - Volume 1: Literature, Laboratory Techniques, and Common Starting ... Synthetic Methods of Organometallic and Inorganic Chemistry - Volume 1: Literature, Laboratory Techniques, and Common Starting ... Synthetic Methods of Organometallic and Inorganic Chemistry - Volume 1: Literature, Laboratory Techniques, and Common Starting ... Synthetic Methods of Organometallic and Inorganic Chemistry - Volume 1: Literature, Laboratory Techniques, and Common Starting ...
Synthetic Methods of Organometallic and Inorganic Chemistry - Volume 1: Literature, Laboratory Techniques, and Common Starting ... Synthetic Methods of Organometallic and Inorganic Chemistry - Volume 1: Literature, Laboratory Techniques, and Common Starting ... van Tamelen, Eugene E.; Pappas, S. P. (1962). "Chemistry of Dewar Benzene. 1,2,5-Tri-t-Butylbicyclo[2.2.0]Hexa-2,5-Diene". J. ... From the perspective of organometallic chemistry, the species can be viewed as having a carbon(IV) centre (C4+ ) bound to an ...
Laskin works in gas phase ion chemistry. She has been involved with the development of analytical techniques to better ... characterize synthetic and natural polymers. She showed that the soft-landing of mass-selected ions is a powerful technique to ... She has said that she had a very good chemistry teacher at high school. She moved to Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic ... "Purdue Chemistry: Julia Laskin Research Group: Ion Soft Landing Overview". www.chem.purdue.edu. Retrieved 2021-09-19. "PNNL: ...
For his synthesis of a firm union among theoretical chemistry, synthetic organic chemistry, and modern instrumental techniques ... Wsterochemical control of synthetic reactions, host-guest chemistry, cyclopean chemistry, phenonium ions and internal return, ... Included are investigations in electro-analytical chemistry, electron spin resonance, electro-organic chemistry, ... for the application of macromolecular chemistry to the production of synthetic rubber and in the use of ablative heat shields ...
During his habilitation, techniques for the high-pressure and high-temperature chemistry of carbon-containing substrates were ... was a German chemist known for the Bergius process for producing synthetic fuel from coal, Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1931, ... Before studying chemistry, Bergius was sent to work for 6 months at the Friedrich Wilhelms steel works in Mülheim. His studies ... Before World War II several plants were built with an annual capacity of 4 million tons of synthetic fuel. The hydrolysis of ...
It has become a powerful technique to analyze structural information about precursor ions during MS/MS for synthetic polymers. ... ECD's single bond cleavage tendency makes the interpretation of product ion scans simple and easy for polymer chemistry. ... This technique was observed with insulin and ribonuclease, which led them to cleave up to three disulfide bonds and increase ... It is one of the most widely used techniques for activation and dissociation of mass selected precursor ion in MS/MS. It ...
She attended Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where she received her Doctor of Philosophy in synthetic organic chemistry ... Applying techniques such as Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer and nuclear magnetic resonance, she has elucidated how ... Imperiali's work became focused on problems at the chemistry-biology interface, using chemistry to better understand the ... She is an elected member of the National Academy of Sciences and a Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry. Imperiali was ...
"Is Simpler Better? Synthetic Nicotinamide Cofactor Analogues for Redox Chemistry", Caroline E. Paul, Isabel W. C. E. Arends, ... Analogues serve as an alternative to traditional regeneration techniques. " ... Synthetic Nicotinamide Cofactor Analogues for Redox Chemistry". ACS Catalysis. 4 (3): 788-797. doi:10.1021/cs4011056. ISSN 2155 ... These synthetic cofactors have since been used to better understand the mechanisms of reactions especially when it comes to ...
First, new synthetic techniques were required to handle diborane and many of its derivatives, which are both pyrophoric and ... The development of the chemistry of boranes led to innovations in synthetic methods as well as structure and bonding. ... Brown was awarded the Nobel prize in Chemistry in 1979 for this work. Borane clusters are classified as follows, where n is the ... In the US, a team led by Schlesinger developed the basic chemistry of the anionic boron hydrides and the related aluminium ...
Fegan A, White B, Carlson JC, Wagner CR (June 2010). "Chemically controlled protein assembly: techniques and applications". ... Spencer DM, Wandless TJ, Schreiber SL, Crabtree GR (November 1993). "Controlling signal transduction with synthetic ligands". ... April 2013). "Chemical development of intracellular protein heterodimerizers". Chemistry & Biology. 20 (4): 549-57. doi:10.1016 ... "Controlling protein association and subcellular localization with a synthetic ligand that induces heterodimerization of ...
Methods and techniques to study the bioinorganic chemistry of metal-peptide complexes linked to neurodegenerative diseases. ... In recent years, ITC has been used in more industrially applicable areas, such as drug discovery and testing synthetic ... The technique was developed by H. D. Johnston in 1968 as a part of his Ph.D. dissertation at Brigham Young University, and was ... "Application of isothermal titration calorimetry in bioinorganic chemistry". Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry. 15 (8): ...
A convenient synthetic route uses the THF-adducts of the iodide salts AnI3(THF)4 as starting materials. Metal bis( ... Fisher, K. J.; Drago, R. S. (1975). "Trends in the Acidities of the Zinc Family Elements". Inorganic Chemistry. 14 (11): 2804- ... These compounds react vigorously with water, and should be manipulated with air-free technique. Michael Lappert, Andrey ... Andersen, Richard A. (1979). "Tris((hexamethyldisilyl)amido)uranium(III): Preparation and Coordination Chemistry". Inorganic ...
This work won him the Nobel prize for Chemistry in 1931. After World War I Bosch extended high-pressure techniques to the ... demonstration of a method to fix nitrogen using high-pressure chemistry through the Haber-Bosch process to produce synthetic ... Human Touch of Chemistry. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. "Carl Bosch". The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1931. ... He was a pioneer in the field of high-pressure industrial chemistry and founder of IG Farben, at one point the world's largest ...
Novel or enhanced synthetic techniques can often provide improved environmental performance or enable better adherence to the ... Green chemistry, similar to sustainable chemistry or circular chemistry, is an area of chemistry and chemical engineering ... Chemistry portal Bioremediation - a technique that generally falls outside the scope of green chemistry Environmental ... "Green chemistry tools to influence a medicinal chemistry and research chemistry based organisation". Green Chem. 10: 31-36. doi ...
Genetic engineering techniques, based on recombinant DNA technology, are a precursor of today's synthetic biology which extends ... Other research directions within the field of artificial life include artificial chemistry as well as traditionally biological ... Synthetic biology aims at engineering synthetic biological components, with the ultimate goal of assembling whole biological ... the prospect of creating synthetic genomes with the purpose of building entirely artificial synthetic organisms became a ...
A diverse range of synthetic techniques, such as the ceramic method and chemical vapour depostion, make solid-state materials. ... Solid-state chemistry, also sometimes referred as materials chemistry, is the study of the synthesis, structure, and properties ... Solid-state chemistry is especially concerned with the synthesis of novel materials, as well as the science of identification ... Thus, synthetic fibers spun out of organic polymers and polymer/ceramic/metal composite materials and fiber-reinforced polymers ...
The "armed-disarmed" principle in glycosylation chemistry, by Bertram Fraser-Reid. Construction of the largest ever synthetic ... A patented technique that speeds up the production of malt from grain and which is used by the British brewing industry. Sir ... apply the technique of tomography, in astronomy. make theoretical hydrodynamic simulations of the Algol binary stars. discover ... Jamaican inventions and discoveries are items, processes, ideas, techniques or discoveries which owe their existence either ...
... as a result of which special spectroscopic devices and techniques have been developed to distinguish synthetic and natural ... In the early stages of diamond synthesis, the founding figure of modern chemistry, Antoine Lavoisier, played a significant role ... Synthetic diamond is already used as radiation detection device. It is radiation hard and has a wide bandgap of 5.5 eV (at room ... Synthetic diamonds for use as gemstones are grown by HPHT or CVD methods, and represented approximately 2% of the gem-quality ...
... experiencing the inconvenience of gathering natural sea water and the concurrent development of analytical chemistry techniques ... Synthetic salt mixes were developed to replicate the chemical environment of the tropical ocean, including trace elements and ... Advanced Marine Aquarium Techniques, by Jay Hemdal The Conscientious Marine Aquarist, by Robert Fenner Invertebrates: A Quick ... It is often beneficial (and necessary) for the aquarist to research the water chemistry parameters for the specific organism ...
... in the research group of Elias James Corey at the Harvard University Department of Chemistry which uses AI techniques to ... LHASA in this case is an acronym for Logic and Heuristics Applied to Synthetic Analysis. This program was one of the first to ...
Refractive indices and optical dispersion of 103 synthetic and mineral oxides and silicates measured by a small-prism technique ... Inorganic Chemistry 10, 723-727. Prewitt CT, Shannon RD, Rogers DB (1971) Chemistry of Nobel Metal Oxides. II. Chemistry of ... Inorganic Chemistry 10,.719-723. Shannon RD; Rogers DB, Prewitt, CT (1971) Chemistry of noble metal oxide. I. Syntheses and ... Inorganic Chemistry 8, 1985-1993. Rogers DB, Shannon RD, Sleight AW, Gillson JL (1969) Crystal chemistry of metal dioxides with ...
"Bakelite: The World's First Synthetic Plastic". Retrieved February 23, 2015. https://www.chemistry-online.com/organic-chemistry ... ISBN 978-1-4831-0263-4. Tickell, F. G. (2011). The techniques of sedimentary mineralogy. Elsevier. p. 57. ISBN 978-0-08-086914- ... "Chemistry in its element - bakelite". Royal Society of Chemistry - RSC.org. Archived from the original on May 4, 2014. ... Ellis, Carleton (1923). Synthetic resins and their plastics. New York: The Chemical Catalog Co. pp. 164-165. American Institute ...
Recognizing that most synthetic polymers are mixtures, rather than pure substances, he developed pioneering techniques for the ... "ACS Award in Polymer Chemistry". ACS Chemistry for Life. Retrieved 29 June 2015. "Honorary doctors". Technical University of ... Tirrell earned a B.S. in chemistry at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1974. He received a Ph.D. in 1978 from ... Tirrell was a faculty member in the department of chemistry at Carnegie-Mellon University from 1978 to 1984. He served as the ...
In this regard, chemical biology researchers have shown that DNA can serve as a template for synthetic chemistry, self- ... The discipline involves the application of chemical techniques, analysis, and often small molecules produced through synthetic ... historical and philosophical roots in medicinal chemistry, supramolecular chemistry, bioorganic chemistry, pharmacology, ... Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry - The Tetrahedron Journal for Research at the Interface of Chemistry and Biology ChemBioChem ...
Most of the synthetic approaches to bicyclomycin have started with a preformed 2,5-diketopiperazine. Williams synthesis starts ... Brogan AP, Widger WR, Bensadek D, Riba-Garcia I, Gaskell SJ, Kohn H (March 2005). "Development of a technique to determine ... Borthwick AD (2012). "2,5-Diketopiperazines: Synthesis, Reactions, Medicinal Chemistry, and Bioactive Natural Products". ... In an attempt to increase the potency and its antimicrobial spectrum, a series of synthetic and semisynthetic derivatives were ...
"Chemistry Techniques, Synthetic" by people in UAMS Profiles by year, and whether "Chemistry Techniques, Synthetic" was a major ... Chemistry Techniques, Synthetic*Chemistry Techniques, Synthetic. *Chemistry Technique, Synthetic. *Synthetic Chemistry ... "Chemistry Techniques, Synthetic" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Chemistry Techniques, Synthetic" by people in Profiles over the past ten ...
... the gateway for chemistry articles, news and more. ... Read the latest materials chemistry news on Materials Today: ... New nano-sized synthetic scaffolding technique. Scientists, have tapped oil and water to create scaffolds of self-assembling, ...
Receptor chemistry; Cell signaling chemistry; Drug design through understanding of disease processes; Synthetic biology; New ... high throughput screening techniques; Small molecular array fabrication; Chemical genomics; Chemical and biological approaches ... Plant cell based chemistry; Bacterial and viral cell based chemistry; Chemistry of cellular processes in plants/animals; ... Current Chemical Biology aims to publish full-length and mini reviews on exciting new developments at the chemistry-biology ...
... separation and quantitative techniques; synthetic chemistry and biology; informatics (data analysis, statistics, bio, genomic ... 3. "Journals Ranked by Impact: Chemistry, Analytical." 2017 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Sciences ed.). Clarivate ... "Chemistry, Analytical" category,[3] and 30 out of 77 journals in the "Biochemical Research Methods" category.[4] 1. Eglen, ...
Chemistry Techniques, Synthetic * Cricetinae * Cricetulus * Drug Design* * Humans * Ligands * Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1 / ...
Chromatography is a code of techniques used to... ... Industry prefers synthetic and natural type media over ... and hydrophobic interaction techniques. The widely used techniques are ion-exchange and affinity chromatography largely ... Chromatography is a code of techniques used to purify as well as separate bimolecular substances such as proteins. Resin is the ... Food analytics could be other major drivers for the market, due to its usage in nutritional and nutraceuticals chemistry. It ...
Research Techniques: Synthetic Organic and Medicinal Chemistry, Nucleic Acid Chemistry, Oligonucleotide Synthesis and ... Research Technique: Synthetic Organic and Medicinal Chemistry Research Interests: Synthesis of novel heterocycles as potential ... Research Techniques: Organic Chemistry Methodologies; Small Molecule Synthesis, Purification and Characterization; Enzyme ... Research Techniques: Lab Managing; Protein Expression; Protein Crystallization; Enzyme Inhibition Research Interest: Using ...
Methods and Techniques to Develop Synthetic Polymer Chemistry Polymerization reaction measurement is crucial to produce ... Techniques to Synthesize Breakthrough Molecules. Advances in organic chemistry allow researchers to expand R&D of molecules and ... Highly Reactive Chemistries Highly reactive chemistry is a terminology used to describe chemical reactions that are ... Organometallic Synthesis and Chemistry Organometallic Synthesis, or Organometallic Chemistry, refers to the process of creating ...
... the Facility for Synthetic Chemistry for the Alexa Fluor 647-HaloTag ligand. We acknowledge S. Grant (University of Edinburgh) ... Bates for discussions about single-molecule techniques; H. Ta for help with DNA origami; D. Kamin and I. Herfort for support ... Department of NanoBiophotonics, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Göttingen, Germany. Klaus C. Gwosch, Jasmin K. ...
Chemistry Technique Is Warp Drive for Creating Better Synthetic Molecules for Medicine ...
Chemistry Techniques, Synthetic. Ellinwood DC, El-Mansy MF, Plagmann LS, Stevens JF, Maier CS, Gombart AF, Blakemore PR. 2017. ...
Techniques used span from synthetic chemistry to protein expression and biochemical assays. Another focus of her research is in ... DAmelias research interests focus on using the principles of polymer chemistry and material science for the synthesis and ... Biochemical and microbiological techniques are used: growth selection, genetic engineering, recombinant expression, affinity ... These studies use a range of techniques, from computational modelling, to biological assays, to Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ...
Part 3. Synthetic and Bio-organic Chemistry *An introduction to chemical synthesis with particular reference to addition and ... The importance of molecular shape and how chemists determine the structure of compounds using spectroscopic techniques ... Synthetic and Bio-organic Chemistry - an introduction to chemical synthesis with particular reference to addition and ... Synthetic and Bio-organic Chemistry - an introduction to chemical synthesis with particular reference to addition and ...
View all of the courses required to complete your major in Chemistry, including research and teaching assistant requirements. ... Laboratory: basic techniques and synthetic procedures and modern spectroscopic methods of structure determination; as part of ... Past offerings have included advanced organic chemistry, scientific glassblowing, medicinal chemistry, organometallic chemistry ... Laboratory: basic techniques and synthetic procedures and modern spectroscopic methods of structure determination. Three class ...
Enhancement of the biocatalysts of interest for synthetic organic chemistry.. * Acclimatization of non-natural compounds as ... and/or selects microorganisms endowed with new metabolic capabilities for application objectives using the techniques of ... A Synthetic Alternative to Canonical One-Carbon Metabolism. Bouzon M, Perret A, Loreau O, Delmas V, Perchat N, Weissenbach J, ... In Vivo Assimilation of One-Carbon via a Synthetic Reductive Glycine Pathway in Escherichia coli. ...
Synthetic organic and medicinal chemistry: free radical chemistry, asymmetric synthesis of anticancer agents ... bioinformatics techniques and being able to work with pharmacokinetic parameters and to employ bioanalytical techniques. ... Development of spectrometry-based techniques to measure biomarkers of DNA, protein and lipid damage and DNA repair ... Learn about research that uses cutting-edge experimental techniques and direct engagement with biomedical communities ...
Describe the synthetic chemistry of carbocations, anions and radical species and describe some of the mechanisms involved in ... To demonstrate their practical skills and techniques to a good level of ability. * To give an oral presentation based on an ... To complement some of the lecture material presented and to provide experience in synthetic organic chemistry and, in ... USCH-AFB03 : BSc(Hons) Chemistry with Management (Year 2). * USCH-AAB04 : BSc(Hons) Chemistry with Management with Study year ...
... we are involved in developing new hyperpolarisation techniques (Signal Amplification By Reversible Exchange, SABRE). These are ... and the development of new catalytic systems to widen the substrate scope of the technique. ... SABRE hyperpolarisation of organic moleculesIn collaboration with the Biophysical Chemistry group of the Institute for ... I Organization of the Molecular Chemistry Cluster *II Useful Information *III Safety Regulations *Appendix *Bruker NMR *Tubes ...
Organic synthetic technique, experimental design, heterogeneous catalysis, sustainable chemistry principles, data analysis ... method development and materials chemistry. Students will learn organic chemistry techniques, experimental design with an ... "First-Semester Organic Chemistry During COVID-19: Prioritizing Group Work, Flexibility, and Student Engagement." L. A. ... This work will be ideal for any students that want to learn more about implementing sustainable methods in organic chemistry. ...
An advanced laboratory course designed to incorporate modern synthetic techniques of both organic and inorganic chemistry. ... Experiments will focus on demonstrating the overlap of these two synthetic fields. (0-1-5) Offered winter semester of odd- ...
"It requires the use of special synthetic techniques such as surface organometallic chemistry and atomic layer deposition. ... Chemistry Climate Science Dinosaurs DOE Science News Engineering Materials Science Physics Space View all Science Channels ...
By itself, Lipshutzs work developing synthetic techniques for doing chemistry in water is interesting and has value. But for ... Left to their own devices, the natural result of physics and chemistry is death, not life. So how are we still breathing? On ... James Tour, a world-leading synthetic organic chemist at Rice University. Dr. Tour has recently been engaged in a series of ... When scientists claim they have simulated early earth chemistry to create life from non-life, are they being honest? This ...
The techniques used for formulating new synthetic processes incorporate a wide range of chemical methodology. These ... This extremely broad discipline begins with the application of chemistry to the scale-up of new synthetic processes from the ... In so doing, process development crosses the boundaries between synthetic organic chemistry, process technology and chemical ... Process development remains a challenging area, central to research conducted into modern synthetic organic chemistry, its ...
... illustrate that machine control of flow chemistry can improve synthetic outcomes beyond what is possible with manual techniques ... Yoshida, J.-i, Takahashi, Y. & Nagaki, A. Flash chemistry: flow chemistry that cannot be done in batch. Chem. Commun. 49, 9896- ... 6: Synthetic PMO can be engineered to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication.. ... With this technique, we produce candidate PMOs for diseases with no current treatment in a matter of hours with our automated ...
Structure Elucidation Using Degradative and Synthetic Chemistry: The Classical Approach *Structure Elucidation Using Spectral ... Techniques: The Modern Approach *Natural Products from Marine Sources *Biogenesis of Secondary Metabolites ... though not exactly the part of the curriculum of chemistry of natural products, but are essential to understand the chemistry ... Global Clinical Chemistry Analyzer Market Size, Trends, and Growth Opportunity, by Product, by Test Type, by Technology, by End ...
Laboratory work in basic techniques, synthetic methods, qualitative, spectroscopic, and chromatographic analysis techniques. ... coordination chemistry, kinetics, nuclear chemistry, organic chemistry, and the chemistry of family groups of the periodic ... CHEM 12B - Organic Chemistry II. 5 units. Continuation of Chemistry 12A with an introduction to the chemistry of aromatics, ... Chemistry 12A is the first semester in a year-long course in organic chemistry designed for students majoring in chemistry and ...
Journal Agricultural Food Chemistry, 57, 5933-5938.. da Silva, J. M., Klososki, S. J., Silva, R., Raices, R. S. L., Silva, M. C ... Slagman, S., Zuilhof, H., & Franssen, M. C. R. (2018). Laccase-mediated grafting on biopolymers and synthetic polymers: a ... advances in interactions between polyphenols and plant cell wall polysaccharides as studied using an adsorption technique. Food ... Food Chemistry, 214, 259-268.. Tawfick, M. M., Xie, H., Zhao, C., Shao, P., & Farag, M. A. (2022). Inulin fructans in diet: ...
The laboratory builds on the 200-level laboratory courses and involves aspects of advanced synthetic techniques as well as ... CHEM 205 Equilibrium and Analytical Chemistry An introduction to the modern quantitative techniques of analysis in chemical ... CHEM 273 Chemistry and Society A pragmatic approach to chemistry for non-science majors. Basic problem solving (e.g. ... CHEM 321 Physical Chemistry I An introduction to thermodynamics and quantum chemistry. The macroscopic behavior of matter as ...
Synthetic Techniques Based on Combinatorial Chemistry. We have introduced synthetic techniques based on combinatorial chemistry ... Additionally, improvements of synthetic methods allows for scale-up as well as previously undefined synthetic processes. ... Synthetic Target. - Pharmaceutical Raw Materials and Intermediates. - API. - Chemical Library. Quantities. TCI can help you ... Backed by numerous synthetic achievements, TCI designs and synthesizes the chemical library with our own unique know-how. If ...
  • Current Chemical Biology aims to publish full-length and mini reviews on exciting new developments at the chemistry-biology interface, covering topics relating to Chemical Synthesis, Science at Chemistry-Biology Interface and Chemical Mechanisms of Biological Systems. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Dr. D'Amelia's research interests focus on using the principles of polymer chemistry and material science for the synthesis and physical characterization of organic polymers, specifically Polyvinyl Alkyl Esters (PVAE) and Polysiloxanes (Silicones). (hofstra.edu)
  • Synthetic and Bio-organic Chemistry - an introduction to chemical synthesis with particular reference to addition and substitution reactions. (edu.au)
  • Concepts of combinatorial chemistry for the synthesis of libraries of heterocycles. (bath.ac.uk)
  • The proposed research will provide student researchers valuable skills in organic synthesis, method development and materials chemistry. (isu.edu)
  • Changes to the chemistry of PMO synthesis are greatly needed to enable the rapid drug development. (nature.com)
  • Continuation of Chemistry 12A with an introduction to the chemistry of aromatics, amines, enols and enolate ions, carboxylic acids, aldehydes, ketones and biochemical topics focusing on structure, synthesis and mechanisms of reaction. (laspositascollege.edu)
  • Synthesis covers a central part of the organic chemistry spectrum and ethos. (iupac.org)
  • Synthetic inorganic and organometallic chemistry: Synthesis of relevant species to catalysis and electrocatalysis, particularly for fuel production and utilization. (pnnl.gov)
  • Chromatography resins are available in three major types includes, synthetic, inorganic, and natural media. (prnewswire.co.uk)
  • Industry prefers synthetic and natural type media over inorganic chromatography resins. (prnewswire.co.uk)
  • Dr. Sobel's current research focuses on educational development for general and inorganic chemistry. (hofstra.edu)
  • An advanced laboratory course designed to incorporate modern synthetic techniques of both organic and inorganic chemistry. (gvsu.edu)
  • A thorough introduction to the world of inorganic chemistry, with emphasis on chemical properties, and periodic relationships. (knox.edu)
  • Inorganic Chemistry 59, no. 12:8638. (pnnl.gov)
  • The chemical biology theme draws together researchers from medicinal chemistry, synthetic organic and inorganic chemistry, and biophysics. (le.ac.uk)
  • It requires the use of special synthetic techniques such as surface organometallic chemistry and atomic layer deposition. (newswise.com)
  • The Master's program in Chemistry with a focus on Synthetic and Analytical Chemistry (SAKE) consists of 120 credits and offers you an opportunity to acquire advanced theoretical and practical knowledge and skills in analytical, organic, and organometallic chemistry, as well as coordination chemistry. (lu.se)
  • In looking for new catalysis we also develop the basic organometallic chemistry of e.g. pincer ligands and complexes. (lu.se)
  • 10. demonstrate proficiency in common chemistry laboratory techniques. (edu.au)
  • Laboratory: basic techniques and synthetic procedures and modern spectroscopic methods of structure determination. (beloit.edu)
  • The aim of the practical material is to extend and develop laboratory skills and techniques necessary for competent practical organic chemists. (bath.ac.uk)
  • How do industries translate laboratory-scale synthetic chemistry into commercial manufacturing processes? (soci.org)
  • This extremely broad discipline begins with the application of chemistry to the scale-up of new synthetic processes from the laboratory, and goes through to testing at a pilot plant and into full-scale commercial manufacture, before it plays a role in product life-cycle management. (soci.org)
  • Overall, topics includeed nine case studies from the pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries, microwave-assisted chemistry, purification methods using scavengers and membranes, flow chemistry, new uses for NMR, laboratory automation and spray drying. (soci.org)
  • Laboratory emphasizes quantitative techniques, including instrumentation, and qualitative analysis. (laspositascollege.edu)
  • The laboratory covers classical and modern techniques of preparation, separation, and identification. (knox.edu)
  • Development of research skills in chemistry through a semester-long intensive laboratory project. (hamilton.edu)
  • Emphasis on laboratory work focusing on advanced synthetic techniques and spectroscopic characterization. (hamilton.edu)
  • Students who intend to take further laboratory courses in chemistry should take CHEM 122 concurrently with CHEM 126 . (sfu.ca)
  • The Master's program in Chemistry with a focus on Physical Chemistry (FYKE) consists of 120 credits and aims to provide you with a broad and fundamental knowledge of physical and theoretical chemistry, as well as chemical physics, including advanced laboratory skills and deep theoretical understanding. (lu.se)
  • Laboratory team performance is monitored using several techniques. (cdc.gov)
  • We combine the toolbox of experimental and theoretical colloid chemistry with state-of-the-art characterization techniques, computer simulations and molecular biology methodologies. (lu.se)
  • major program is offered jointly by the Department of Chemistry and Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry. (sfu.ca)
  • Lead author Dr Yongcheng Jin (Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford) said: 'This advance marks a significant step towards the fabrication of materials with the full structure and function of natural brain tissues. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Senior author Dr Linna Zhou (Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford) said: 'Our droplet printing technique provides a means to engineer living 3D tissues with desired architectures, which brings us closer to the creation of personalized implantation treatments for brain injury. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Prerequisites: MATH 55 with a minimum grade of C or MATH 55B with a minimum grade of C and CHEM 31 with a minimum grade of C, the Chemistry 31 prerequisite can be fulfilled by demonstrating the appropriate skill level in the Chemistry Placement Process. (laspositascollege.edu)
  • CHEM 100, 101, and 102 provide the same fundamental concepts in Chemistry as described for CHEM 100A and CHEM 102A. (knox.edu)
  • Prereq: One BIOL course and one semester of chemistry from among CHEM 104, CHEM 106, CHEM 111, or CHEM 201. (mnsu.edu)
  • Prerequisite: Chemistry 12 with a minimum grade of C, or CHEM 109 or 111 with a minimum grade of C-. Students with credit for CHEM 120 or 125 may not take this course for further credit. (sfu.ca)
  • The Psybrary™ is MagicMed's library of novel psychedelic derivatives developed through the combination of synthetic biology and traditional chemistry techniques. (prnewswire.com)
  • The Subcommittee will seek to deliver the long-range goals of IUPAC, particularly within the vital interfacial area of molecular science that lies between organic chemistry and biology. (iupac.org)
  • It will support the application of the powerful methods of chemistry to current and emerging problems in biology to achieve understanding and, where appropriate, modification of the systems of living organisms at the molecular level. (iupac.org)
  • In Liberty University's Department of Biology & Chemistry, you will participate in labs taught by credentialed and experienced faculty. (liberty.edu)
  • This work provides students with hands-on, real-world, interdisciplinary training in both chemistry and biology. (liberty.edu)
  • Students will apply fundamental principles of stoichiometry, kinetics, and equilibrium learned in their chemistry and biology courses to the preparation and analysis of samples. (liberty.edu)
  • Students will acquire valuable chemistry and biology research experience through literature searches, in sample/standard preparation techniques, in the use of state-of-the-art instrumentation, as well as in data analysis, interpretation, and reporting. (liberty.edu)
  • Building on a core of biology, chemistry, math, and the liberal arts, the courses in the bachelor of science in biotechnology are taught from a molecular bioscience perspective with a focus on the central genetic dogma of molecular biology. (rit.edu)
  • Due to its interdisciplinary nature, the project "ProbesPTRM" has contributed to European excellence and competitiveness in many scientific disciplines such as synthetic chemistry, analytical chemistry, biochemistry, and cell biology. (europa.eu)
  • In collaboration with the Biophysical Chemistry group of the Institute for Molecules and Materials, we are involved in developing new hyperpolarisation techniques (Signal Amplification By Reversible Exchange, SABRE). (ru.nl)
  • Structure Determination - the importance of molecular shape and how chemists determine the structure of compounds using spectroscopic techniques including ultraviolet, infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. (edu.au)
  • Students will learn organic chemistry techniques, experimental design with an emphasis on safety considerations, data analysis, and spectroscopic techniques including NMR and GC. (isu.edu)
  • The structures of all derivatives were confirmed using different spectroscopic techniques including ¹H-NMR, ¹³C-NMR, Mass spectrometry, and elemental analysis. (researchgate.net)
  • Developing novel spectroscopic techniques for better tracking photochemical reaction trajectories. (fsu.edu)
  • Students in the Kudisch group develop expertise in building and implementing a battery of advanced spectroscopic techniques and will understand molecular photophysics with the depth and breadth necessary to shepherd physical understanding into the realm of modern synthetic photochemistry. (fsu.edu)
  • The techniques used for formulating new synthetic processes incorporate a wide range of chemical methodology. (soci.org)
  • These methodologies have been optimised in order to ensure the development of robust and efficient synthetic processes. (soci.org)
  • A number of presentations covered case histories of the development of important industrial processes, highlighting the elegant and practical chemistry which is required to take a development product to the stage of routine manufacture. (soci.org)
  • Additionally, improvements of synthetic methods allows for scale-up as well as previously undefined synthetic processes. (tcichemicals.com)
  • Study of biological processes at the suborganismal level including cell chemistry, metabolism, reproduction, genetics, and complex tissue physiology. (mnsu.edu)
  • By exploiting the underlying chemistry of biological processes, we are able to manipulate macromolecular function and activity facilitating translational research for drug development. (le.ac.uk)
  • We have introduced synthetic techniques based on combinatorial chemistry to synthesize various compounds efficiently. (tcichemicals.com)
  • Journal of Physical Chemistry A 125, no. 30:6600-6610. (pnnl.gov)
  • 2020. "The H·/H- Redox Couple and Absolute Hydration Energy of H-." Journal of Physical Chemistry A 124, no. 29:6084-6095. (pnnl.gov)
  • This photonic reagent has the potential to be a game-changer in fine chemical production, but photons and photocatalysts come with unique mechanistic challenges at the intersection of synthetic chemistry and physical chemistry. (fsu.edu)
  • Process development remains a challenging area, central to research conducted into modern synthetic organic chemistry, its applications, and into other enabling technologies. (soci.org)
  • Dr. Appel's primary areas of expertise are thermochemical measurements, electrochemistry, catalyst design and synthetic chemistry, small molecule spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. (pnnl.gov)
  • 2] 22 out of 76 journals in the "Chemistry, Analytical" category,[3] and 30 out of 77 journals in the "Biochemical Research Methods" category. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, his group is developing fast and accurate NMR detection and quantification techniques for designer drug analysis, simple and low-cost extraction and HPLC cannabinoid quantification methods, and quantitative elemental analytical methods for gunshot residues with X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. (hofstra.edu)
  • This work will be ideal for any students that want to learn more about implementing sustainable methods in organic chemistry. (isu.edu)
  • This course will serve as an introduction to these scientific techniques, ranging from classic fingerprinting methods to modern methods of DNA analysis. (knox.edu)
  • As you learn advanced chemistry research methods, you will develop and execute a research project in a field of chemistry under the direction of a faculty member. (worcester.edu)
  • Experiments in analytical chemistry, including analysis of solution samples, titrimetric and electroanalytical methods. (sfu.ca)
  • The work includes the development of theoretical and computational techniques for multiscale modeling, and applications of these methods to study a variety of biomolecular systems over a multitude of scales. (helsinki.fi)
  • Synthetic chemistry capacity with professionals in organic chemistry experienced in diverse synthetic methods and techniques. (enamine.net)
  • Upon graduation, you will have mastered methods for cloning and purifying proteins, as well as techniques for investigating and analyzing them. (lu.se)
  • The main techniques used are standard chemical methods including extractions, chromatography, crystallizations as well as various analytical techniques such as NMR and IR spectrospcopy. (lu.se)
  • Biochemical and microbiological techniques are used: growth selection, genetic engineering, recombinant expression, affinity chromatography, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. (hofstra.edu)
  • These studies use a range of techniques, from computational modelling, to biological assays, to Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (NMR). (hofstra.edu)
  • Topics include traditional quantitative techniques as well as chromatography, spectroscopy, and lasers. (knox.edu)
  • Most commonly we use x-ray imaging, inelastic x-ray scattering spectroscopy, x-ray scattering, as well as absorption and emission spectroscopies for studying materials physics and chemistry. (helsinki.fi)
  • We have broad expertise in the development of chemical probes and compound libraries, and the application of frontier techniques in spectroelectrochemistry and single molecule spectroscopy. (le.ac.uk)
  • Pre-professional preparation requiring one term of quantitative analysis is satisfied by Chemistry 220. (beloit.edu)
  • An introduction to the modern quantitative techniques of analysis in chemical systems. (knox.edu)
  • 4U) Prerequisite: high school chemistry or physics. (beloit.edu)
  • Prerequisite: Chemistry 117 or facility with algebra and mole calculations. (beloit.edu)
  • Prerequisite: Chemistry 117 or 220. (beloit.edu)
  • Prerequisite: Chemistry 230. (beloit.edu)
  • The project combines several parallel research efforts connecting systems of synthetic and biological origin to highlight features of general applicability, and is also based on an extensive international collaboration involving several key research groups. (lu.se)
  • My work includes production of both synthetic and biological reference materials as well as chemical analysis of fossil speciemens. (lu.se)
  • Using them requires a detailed understanding of the process mechanisms and rates of reaction, defined through the use of thorough analytical techniques. (soci.org)
  • Together these promote the formulation and execution of Projects on relevant chemical problems, the staging of chemical conferences on important areas of chemistry, the education and professional development of chemists worldwide, the advancement of chemical industry, and the application of chemistry to meet the world's needs. (iupac.org)
  • In a world that is beginning to realize the potential for using light as a source of renewable energy to power the globe, synthetic chemists that synthesize life-saving pharmaceuticals and other fine chemicals are now employing photons to drive challenging chemical transformations. (fsu.edu)
  • To complement some of the lecture material presented and to provide experience in synthetic organic chemistry and, in particular, spectroscopic interpretation of structural features of compounds. (bath.ac.uk)
  • The last two chapters on polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic compounds, though not exactly the part of the curriculum of chemistry of natural products, but are essential to understand the chemistry of natural products. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Considering the importance of chemistry of such compounds, these two chapters have been included in this book. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Herein, a straightforward synthetic strategy mediated by Ugi reaction was developed to synthesize novel series of compounds as tyrosinase inhibitors. (researchgate.net)
  • The structures of all compounds were confirmed by FT‐IR, 1H‐NMR, 13C‐NMR, and CHNOS techniques. (researchgate.net)
  • Open to students with no high school chemistry or by placement. (knox.edu)
  • Introduction to the basic principles of chemistry including atomic and molecular structure, bonding, chemical reactions, stoichiometry, thermodynamics and states of matter. (mnsu.edu)
  • The concept of coordination sphere (CS) is central to the rational development of hierarchical molecular assemblies in modern chemistry. (lu.se)
  • A study of the fundamental concepts and principles of quantum chemistry. (hamilton.edu)
  • The principles of analytical chemistry and their practical application to solution samples. (sfu.ca)
  • The background chapters are followed by chapters on quantification, single nucleotide polymorphism, mutation detection, and application of the various chemistries to clinical use in pathogen detection, gene expression, and human genetic testing. (cdc.gov)
  • The present study conducted analyses of serum chemistries, immune phenotyping, gene expression, and histology to evaluate the systemic toxicity of a sub-chronic 28-day dermal exposure of alternative PFAS (1.25-5% or 31.25-125mg/kg/dose) in a murine model. (cdc.gov)
  • Review of aromatic chemistry. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Reactions and mechanisms of aromatic chemistry and the structures and reactions of alcohols, ethers, carboxylic acids, aldehydes, ketones. (worcester.edu)
  • Chromatography is a code of techniques used to purify as well as separate bimolecular substances such as proteins. (prnewswire.co.uk)
  • The widely used techniques are ion-exchange and affinity chromatography largely operated in pharmaceutical, food manufacturing, environmental analysis, and biotechnology. (prnewswire.co.uk)
  • The growth in terms of therapeutic antibodies demand, increasing utilization of separation & purifying techniques in the food industry, and emerging R&D activities in biopharmaceutical are the some of the factors contributing to the chromatography resins industry growth. (prnewswire.co.uk)
  • The adequate usage of chromatography equipment requires skill, knowledge, and expertise in different techniques. (prnewswire.co.uk)
  • For example, the pharmaceutical industry is experiencing a lack of adequate professional to work on chromatography equipment and their different techniques. (prnewswire.co.uk)
  • Dr. Allen's group uses GC/MS (Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometric Detection) for quantifying the total lipid content in samples obtained from algae biofuels companies who are developing cost-effective ways to optimize growth and harvesting techniques to convert the lipid fraction of the algae biomass into various types of biofuels. (liberty.edu)
  • Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a class of synthetic structurally diverse chemicals incorporated into industrial and consumer products. (cdc.gov)
  • Employment in a wide-range of chemical industries particularly with an emphasis on sustainable chemistry, teaching, and preparation for graduate school or professional schools. (isu.edu)
  • chapter 5 discusses the use of internal and external controls, with the emphasis on the design and optimization of a synthetic mimic as an internal control. (cdc.gov)
  • Describe the synthetic chemistry of carbocations, anions and radical species and describe some of the mechanisms involved in their reaction. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Eighteen chapters are devoted to the chemistry and basics of primary and secondary metabolites obtained from natural sources. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Scientists, have tapped oil and water to create scaffolds of self-assembling, synthetic proteins called peptoid nanosheets. (materialstoday.com)
  • To apply their experience in synthetic organic chemistry to other organic reactions. (bath.ac.uk)
  • The work in the group is in the general field of organotransition metal chemistry and the goal is to find and develop organometallic reactions with possible applications in catalysis. (lu.se)
  • Dr. Miller's research focus lies in 2D materials design, surface chemistry, and chemical interactions between two distinctly different species. (hofstra.edu)
  • Each year, GlaxoSmithKline, AstraZeneca and Pfizer sponsor a prize for academic Process Chemistry Research to be presented at the symposium. (soci.org)
  • The goal of the Chemical Physics Program is to encourage students to make connections across the chemistry and physics disciplines through extensive research opportunities and close collaboration between students and instructors. (hamilton.edu)
  • Versatile chemistry and the largest stock of valuable reagents enables Enamine to produce new functionalization of well-known drugs. (enamine.net)
  • Techniques used span from synthetic chemistry to protein expression and biochemical assays. (hofstra.edu)
  • That technique involves collection of aerosolized fluid on PTFE membrane filters and separation of the fluid from co-sampled particulate matter via extraction of the filter with a blend of dichloromethane:methanol:toluene. (cdc.gov)
  • The Subcommittee should handle problems concerning the many aspects of structural and mechanistic organic chemistry. (iupac.org)
  • Chemistry 12A is the first semester in a year-long course in organic chemistry designed for students majoring in chemistry and related disciplines. (laspositascollege.edu)
  • In so doing, process development crosses the boundaries between synthetic organic chemistry, process technology and chemical engineering. (soci.org)
  • Backed by numerous synthetic achievements, TCI designs and synthesizes the chemical library with our own unique know-how. (tcichemicals.com)
  • First-Semester Organic Chemistry During COVID-19: Prioritizing Group Work, Flexibility, and Student Engagement. (isu.edu)
  • We use specialised synthetic techniques, including high-vacuum, Schlenk and glove box work. (lu.se)
  • Within this work we also devote efforts on understanding the chemistry of metal hydrides. (lu.se)
  • There is ample discussion on how the various chemistries work, design parameters, and examples of specific applications. (cdc.gov)
  • Experiments will focus on demonstrating the overlap of these two synthetic fields. (gvsu.edu)
  • Chemistry came to add innovation, diversity and sustainability to fragrance raw materials. (mediamatic.net)
  • Elucidating the rules that govern ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT) based photoreactivity in myriad synthetic and sustainability contexts, and 3. (fsu.edu)