An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.
Organic chemistry methodology that mimics the modular nature of various biosynthetic processes. It uses highly reliable and selective reactions designed to "click" i.e., rapidly join small modular units together in high yield, without offensive byproducts. In combination with COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES, it is used for the synthesis of new compounds and combinatorial libraries.
A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.
Stable sulfur atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sulfur, but differ in atomic weight. S-33, 34, and 36 are stable sulfur isotopes.
The specialty of ANALYTIC CHEMISTRY applied to assays of physiologically important substances found in blood, urine, tissues, and other biological fluids for the purpose of aiding the physician in making a diagnosis or following therapy.
The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Severe irritant and vesicant of skin, eyes, and lungs. It may cause blindness and lethal lung edema and was formerly used as a war gas. The substance has been proposed as a cytostatic and for treatment of psoriasis. It has been listed as a known carcinogen in the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985) (Merck, 11th ed).
Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
Inorganic salts of thiosulfuric acid possessing the general formula R2S2O3.
Inorganic oxides of sulfur.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
Laboratory tests demonstrating the presence of physiologically significant substances in the blood, urine, tissue, and body fluids with application to the diagnosis or therapy of disease.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
A phylum of anoxygenic, phototrophic bacteria including the family Chlorobiaceae. They occur in aquatic sediments, sulfur springs, and hot springs and utilize reduced sulfur compounds instead of oxygen.
The branch of chemistry dealing with detection (qualitative) and determination (quantitative) of substances. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A technology, in which sets of reactions for solution or solid-phase synthesis, is used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.
Oxidoreductases with specificity for oxidation or reduction of SULFUR COMPOUNDS.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Sulfur hexafluoride. An inert gas used mainly as a test gas in respiratory physiology. Other uses include its injection in vitreoretinal surgery to restore the vitreous chamber and as a tracer in monitoring the dispersion and deposition of air pollutants.
A family of phototrophic purple sulfur bacteria that deposit globules of elemental sulfur inside their cells. They are found in diverse aquatic environments.
Chemicals that are used to cause the disturbance, disease, or death of humans during WARFARE.
Enzymes which transfer sulfur atoms to various acceptor molecules. EC 2.8.1.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
Inorganic or organic acids that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.
A flammable, poisonous gas with a characteristic odor of rotten eggs. It is used in the manufacture of chemicals, in metallurgy, and as an analytical reagent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Hydrocarbons with at least one triple bond in the linear portion, of the general formula Cn-H2n-2.
A genus of phototrophic, obligately anaerobic bacteria in the family Chlorobiaceae. They are found in hydrogen sulfide-containing mud and water environments.
An examination of chemicals in the blood.
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
Inorganic salts of sulfurous acid.
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
Methods used for the chemical synthesis of compounds. Included under this heading are laboratory methods used to synthesize a variety of chemicals and drugs.
A genus of gram-negative, ovoid to rod-shaped bacteria that is phototrophic. All species use ammonia as a nitrogen source. Some strains are found only in sulfide-containing freshwater habitats exposed to light while others may occur in marine, estuarine, and freshwater environments.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Chemical and physical transformation of the biogenic elements from their nucleosynthesis in stars to their incorporation and subsequent modification in planetary bodies and terrestrial biochemistry. It includes the mechanism of incorporation of biogenic elements into complex molecules and molecular systems, leading up to the origin of life.
Sulfur compounds in which the sulfur atom is attached to three organic radicals and an electronegative element or radical.
Pollution prevention through the design of effective chemical products that have low or no toxicity and use of chemical processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances.
The conformation, properties, reaction processes, and the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds.
A genus of gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria in the class GAMMAPROTEOBACTERIA. They are obligately acidophilic and aerobic, using reduced SULFUR COMPOUNDS to support AUTOTROPHIC GROWTH.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.
An enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of cysteine in microorganisms and plants from O-acetyl-L-serine and hydrogen sulfide. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.2.99.8.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
A group of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria that is able to oxidize acetate completely to carbon dioxide using elemental sulfur as the electron acceptor.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of the planetary sulfur atom of thiosulfate ion to cyanide ion to form thiocyanate ion. EC 2.8.1.1.
An enzyme found primarily in SULFUR-REDUCING BACTERIA where it plays an important role in the anaerobic carbon oxidation pathway.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that derives energy from the oxidation of one or more reduced sulfur compounds. Many former species have been reclassified to other classes of PROTEOBACTERIA.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of sulfur atoms (2.8.1), sulfur groups (2.8.2) or coenzyme A (2.8.3). EC 2.8.
The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A family of colorless sulfur bacteria in the order Thiotrichales, class GAMMAPROTEOBACTERIA.
A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.
A group of proteobacteria consisting of chemoorganotrophs usually associated with the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM of humans and animals.
An enzyme that catalyzes the activation of sulfate ions by ATP to form adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate and pyrophosphate. This reaction constitutes the first enzymatic step in sulfate utilization following the uptake of sulfate. EC 2.7.7.4.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.
A multifunctional pyridoxal phosphate enzyme. In the final step in the biosynthesis of cysteine it catalyzes the cleavage of cystathionine to yield cysteine, ammonia, and 2-ketobutyrate. EC 4.4.1.1.
Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A metallic element with the atomic symbol Mo, atomic number 42, and atomic weight 95.94. It is an essential trace element, being a component of the enzymes xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and nitrate reductase. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.
The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.
A genus of facultatively anaerobic coccoid ARCHAEA, in the family SULFOLOBACEAE. Cells are highly irregular in shape and thermoacidophilic. Lithotrophic growth occurs aerobically via sulfur oxidation in some species. Distribution includes solfataric springs and fields, mudholes, and geothermically heated acidic marine environments.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The study of the composition, chemical structures, and chemical reactions of living things.
Processes by which phototrophic organisms use sunlight as their primary energy source. Contrasts with chemotrophic processes which do not depend on light and function in deriving energy from exogenous chemical sources. Photoautotrophy (or photolithotrophy) is the ability to use sunlight as energy to fix inorganic nutrients to be used for other organic requirements. Photoautotrophs include all GREEN PLANTS; GREEN ALGAE; CYANOBACTERIA; and green and PURPLE SULFUR BACTERIA. Photoheterotrophs or photoorganotrophs require a supply of organic nutrients for their organic requirements but use sunlight as their primary energy source; examples include certain PURPLE NONSULFUR BACTERIA. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or phototrophy) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.
A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Proteins that have one or more tightly bound metal ions forming part of their structure. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of a phenol sulfate to yield a phenol and sulfate. Arylsulfatase A, B, and C have been separated. A deficiency of arylsulfatases is one of the causes of metachromatic leukodystrophy (LEUKODYSTROPHY, METACHROMATIC). EC 3.1.6.1.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
Creation and development of bodies within solar systems, includes study of early planetary geology.
Hot springs on the ocean floor. They are commonly found near volcanically active places such as mid-oceanic ridges.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Finely divided solid matter with particle sizes smaller than a micrometeorite, thus with diameters much smaller than a millimeter, moving in interplanetary space. (NASA Thesaurus, 1994)
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The study of the energy of electrons ejected from matter by the photoelectric effect, i.e., as a direct result of absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation. As the energies of the electrons are characteristic of a specific element, the measurement of the energy of these electrons is a technique used to determine the chemical composition of surfaces.
The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in definite quantities called quanta (E) which vary in size and are defined by the equation E=hv in which h is Planck's constant and v is the frequency of the radiation.
Unstable isotopes of sulfur that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. S 29-31, 35, 37, and 38 are radioactive sulfur isotopes.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Inorganic compounds that contain selenium as an integral part of the molecule.
A photoactivable URIDINE analog that is used as an affinity label.
Analysis of the energy absorbed across a spectrum of x-ray energies/wavelengths to determine the chemical structure and electronic states of the absorbing medium.
A strictly autotrophic species of bacteria that oxidizes sulfur and thiosulfate to sulfuric acid. It was formerly called Thiobacillus thiooxidans.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
Pyrrole containing pigments found in photosynthetic bacteria.
Relating to the size of solids.
A sulfuric acid dimer, formed by disulfide linkage. This compound has been used to prolong coagulation time and as an antidote in cyanide poisoning.
Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.
The origin of life. It includes studies of the potential basis for life in organic compounds but excludes studies of the development of altered forms of life through mutation and natural selection, which is BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION.
The spectrometric analysis of fluorescent X-RAYS, i.e. X-rays emitted after bombarding matter with high energy particles such as PROTONS; ELECTRONS; or higher energy X-rays. Identification of ELEMENTS by this technique is based on the specific type of X-rays that are emitted which are characteristic of the specific elements in the material being analyzed. The characteristic X-rays are distinguished and/or quantified by either wavelength dispersive or energy dispersive methods.
An offensive, foul breath odor resulting from a variety of causes such as poor oral hygiene, dental or oral infections, or the ingestion of certain foods.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).
A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Neutral or negatively charged ligands bonded to metal cations or neutral atoms. The number of ligand atoms to which the metal center is directly bonded is the metal cation's coordination number, and this number is always greater than the regular valence or oxidation number of the metal. A coordination complex can be negative, neutral, or positively charged.
The interdisciplinary science that studies evolutionary biology, including the origin and evolution of the major elements required for life, their processing in the interstellar medium and in protostellar systems. This field also includes the study of chemical evolution and the subsequent interactions between evolving biota and planetary evolution as well as the field of biology that deals with the study of extraterrestrial life.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The reactions, changes in structure and composition, the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds, and the associated energy changes.
A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
A vitamin found in green vegetables. It is used in the treatment of peptic ulcers, colitis, and gastritis and has an effect on secretory, acid-forming, and enzymatic functions of the intestinal tract.
Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.
A conditionally essential nutrient, important during mammalian development. It is present in milk but is isolated mostly from ox bile and strongly conjugates bile acids.
The group of celestial bodies, including the EARTH, orbiting around and gravitationally bound by the sun. It includes eight planets, one minor planet, and 34 natural satellites, more than 1,000 observed comets, and thousands of lesser bodies known as MINOR PLANETS (asteroids) and METEOROIDS. (From Academic American Encyclopedia, 1983)
Any solid objects moving in interplanetary space that are smaller than a planet or asteroid but larger than a molecule. Meteorites are any meteoroid that has fallen to a planetary surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
Any of the monobasic inorganic or organic acids of sulfur with the general formula RSO(OH). (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
The processes by which organisms use simple inorganic substances such as gaseous or dissolved carbon dioxide and inorganic nitrogen as nutrient sources. Contrasts with heterotrophic processes which make use of organic materials as the nutrient supply source. Autotrophs can be either chemoautotrophs (or chemolithotrophs), largely ARCHAEA and BACTERIA, which also use simple inorganic substances for their metabolic energy reguirements; or photoautotrophs (or photolithotrophs), such as PLANTS and CYANOBACTERIA, which derive their energy from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (autotrophy; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrient and energy requirements.
Substances that comprise all matter. Each element is made up of atoms that are identical in number of electrons and protons and in nuclear charge, but may differ in mass or number of neutrons.
A genus of anoxygenic, photosynthetic, nonmotile, spherical to slightly ovoid bacterial cells occurring singly, or in aggregates of two or four, and usually surrounded with slime. It is found in stagnant water, mud of ponds, estuaries, and microbial mats of salt marshes. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.
A species of gram-negative, coccoid, mostly chemolithoautotrophic bacteria, in the family RHODOBACTERACEAE. Some strains can grow anaerobically.
The first artificially produced element and a radioactive fission product of URANIUM. Technetium has the atomic symbol Tc, atomic number 43, and atomic weight 98.91. All technetium isotopes are radioactive. Technetium 99m (m=metastable) which is the decay product of Molybdenum 99, has a half-life of about 6 hours and is used diagnostically as a radioactive imaging agent. Technetium 99 which is a decay product of technetium 99m, has a half-life of 210,000 years.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-oxygen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. EC 4.2.
The science concerned with celestial bodies and the observation and interpretation of the radiation received in the vicinity of the earth from the component parts of the universe (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Habitat of hot water naturally heated by underlying geologic processes. Surface hot springs have been used for BALNEOLOGY. Underwater hot springs are called HYDROTHERMAL VENTS.
The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
A MOLYBDENUM requiring enzyme that catalyzes the terminal reaction in the oxidative degradation of SULFUR AMINO ACIDS with the formation of a sulfate. A deficiency of sulfite oxidase results in sulfocysteinuria.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Small molecules that are required for the catalytic function of ENZYMES. Many VITAMINS are coenzymes.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
5'-Adenylic acid, monoanhydride with sulfuric acid. The initial compound formed by the action of ATP sulfurylase on sulfate ions after sulfate uptake. Synonyms: adenosine sulfatophosphate; APS.
Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.
Organic and inorganic compounds that contain iron as an integral part of the molecule.
"Sulfur". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a25_507.pub2. High- ... Gypsum may act as a source of sulfur for plant growth, and in the early 19th century, it was regarded as an almost miraculous ... This can lead to accumulation of elemental sulfur in oil-bearing formations, such as salt domes, where it can be mined using ... It is often associated with the minerals halite and sulfur. Gypsum is the most common sulfate mineral. Pure gypsum is white, ...
Eli Zysman-Colman David N. Harpp "Dialkoxy Disulfides And Their Branch-bonded Thionosulfite Isomers" J. Sulfur Chemistry 2004, ... International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (2005). Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry (IUPAC Recommendations 2005). ... Four isomers are possible for R2S2O2, at least restricting sulfur to di- and tetravalency: (RO)2S=S, ROSSOR, RS(O)2SR, and RS(O ... In acidic conditions it will form hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide as well. Some of these react to form pentathionate and ...
... or hypodithionous acid is a reduced sulfur oxyacid with sulfur in a formal oxidation state of +1. The ... Patai, Saul (2004). The Chemistry of Peroxides. 3 part 1. John Wiley & Sons. p. 296. ISBN 9781118412718.. ... Unlike many of these other reduced sulfur acids, dihydroxydisulfane can be formed in a pure state by reacting hydrogen sulfide ... Patai, Saul (2015-04-20). The Chemistry of Peroxides. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781118412718. Baumeister, Edgar; Oberhammer, ...
Sulfur. Encyclopedia of Earth, eds. A.Jorgensen and C.J.Cleveland, National Council for Science and the environment, Washington ... in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a15_193.pub2. ISBN 978-3527306732 ... Idealized equations for these two steps are: 2 PbS + 3 O2 → 2 PbO + 2 SO2 PbO + C → Pb + CO The sulfur dioxide is converted to ... "The Quantum Mechanics of Larger Semiconductor Clusters ("Quantum Dots")". Annual Review of Physical Chemistry. 41 (1): 477-496 ...
doi:10.1016/0040-4039(96)00941-0. Stadlbauer, W.; Kappe, T. (1999). "The Chemistry of Carbon Subsulfide". Sulfur Reports. 21 (4 ... In addition, reactions of C3S2 can yield highly condensed sulfur-containing compounds, e.g. the reaction of C3S2 with 2- ... Cernicharo, J.; Guelin, M.; Hein, H.; Kahane, C. (1987). "Sulfur in IRC + 10216". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 181 (1): L9-L12. ...
Thompson, Q. E. (August 1965). "Organic Esters of Bivalent Sulfur. 111. Sulfoxylates". The Journal of Organic Chemistry. 30: ... Sulfoxylic acid contains sulfur in an oxidation state of +2. Sulfur monoxide (SO) can be considered as a theoretical anhydride ... Sulfoxylate is oxidised to sulfur dioxide radical anion and then to sulfur dioxide. SO2− 2 + O2 → SO•− 2 + O•− 2 SO•− 2 + O2 → ... Sulfoxylic acid (H2SO2) (also known as hyposulfurous acid or sulfur dihydroxide) is an unstable oxoacid of sulfur in an ...
P. W. Schenk (1963). "Sulfur, Selenium, Tellurium". In G. Brauer (ed.). Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry, 2nd Ed. 1 ... ISBN 978-0-08-037941-8. P. W. Schenk (1963). "Sulfur, Selenium, Tellurium". In G. Brauer (ed.). Handbook of Preparative ... Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). ... More specialized routes involve reactions of sulfur chlorides with bisulfite salts: SCl2 + 2 HSO− 3 → [O3SSSO3]2− + 2 HCl S2Cl2 ...
It is isoelectronic to sulfur dichloride. Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). ... The S 3 molecule, known as trisulfur, sulfur trimer, thiozone, or triatomic sulfur, is a cherry-red allotrope of sulfur. It ... Above 1,200 °C (2,190 °F) S 3 is the second most common molecule after S 2 in gaseous sulfur. In liquid sulfur the molecule is ... Steudel, Ralf (2003). "Cluster anions S− n and S2− n". Elemental Sulfur and Sulfur-Rich Compounds. 2. p. 16. ISBN 9783540403784 ...
Steudel, Ralf (2007). "Sulfur: Organic Polysulfanes". Encyclopedia of Inorganic Chemistry. Encyclopedia of Inorganic Chemistry ... The sodium-sulfur battery and the lithium-sulfur battery require high temperatures to maintain liquid polysulfide and Na+- ... The process of crosslinking the polymer chains in these polymers with sulfur is called vulcanization. The sulfur chains attach ... The alkali metal polysulfides arise by treatment of a solution of sulfide, e.g. sodium sulfide, with elemental sulfur: S2− + n ...
... in Elemental Sulfur and Sulfur-Rich Compounds II (Topics in Current Chemistry) 2003, Volume 231, pp 99-125. doi:10.1007/b13182 ... Chemistry of sulfur. III. The preparation and properties of hydrogen trisulfide. Zeitschrift fuer Anorganische Chemie, 1947. ... It decomposes readily to hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and elemental sulfur. It is produced by distillation of the polysulfane oil ...
Warren Chew; David N. Harpp (1993). "Recent aspects of thiirane chemistry". Journal of Sulfur Chemistry. 15 (1): 1-39. doi: ... R. J. Cremlyn "An Introduction to Organosulfur Chemistry" John Wiley and Sons: Chichester (1996). ISBN 0-471-95512-4. Gunars ... It is the smallest sulfur-containing heterocycle and the simplest episulfide. Like many organosulfur compounds, this species ... Comprehensive Heterocyclic Chemistry II. 1A. pp. 173-240. doi:10.1016/B978-008096518-5.00005-8.CS1 maint: uses authors ...
Analytical Chemistry. 52 (9): 1452-1459. doi:10.1021/ac50059a018. Burkhardt, Donald (1965). "Sulfur trioxide production, ... Iredelle Dillard Hinds, John (1908). Inorganic Chemistry: With the Elements of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry. New York: ... The compound is also present in a catalyst in conjunction with vanadium(V) oxide in the industrial production of sulfur ... A semi-structural formula for the pyrosulfate anion is O3SOSO32−. The oxidation state of sulfur in this compound is +6. ...
Wiberg, Egon; Wiberg, Nils (2001). "Sulfur Compounds of Nitrogen". Inorganic Chemistry. Academic Press. pp. 675-677. ISBN 978-0 ... Also sulfur compounds (such as thioethers) can be aminated with hydroxylamine-O-sulfonic acid to sulfinimines (isosteric with ... Hydroxylamines and Sulfur Analogues, and Hydrazines. Science of Synthesis: Houben-Weyl Methods of Molecular Transformations. ...
Journal of Sulfur Chemistry. 25: 291-316. doi:10.1080/17415990410001710163. S2CID 95468251.. ... The compound has no particular application, unlike the related sulfur compound disulfur dichloride. The molecular structure is ... F. Fehér (1963). "Dibromodisulfane". In G. Brauer (ed.). Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry, 2nd Ed. 1. NY, NY: ...
The major industrial synthesis involves the reaction of sulfur trioxide and sulfur dichloride: SO3 + SCl2 → SOCl2 + SO2 Other ... 1996). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (76th ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. pp. 5-10. ISBN 0-8493-0476-8. NIOSH Pocket ... This geometry is attributed to the effects of the lone pair on the central sulfur(IV) center. In the solid state SOCl2 forms ... Thionyl chloride reacts exothermically with water to form sulfur dioxide and hydrochloric acid: SOCl2 + H2O → 2 HCl + SO2 By a ...
"CASTING SULPHUR PIPE". Industrial & Engineering Chemistry. 30, no. 7: 759-764. Bencowitz, Isaac, and Henry T. Hotchkiss. 1924 ... "Sulfur-Asphalt Dispersions". Industrial & Engineering Chemistry. 33, no. 9: 1165-1168. Bencowitz, Isaac. 1925. "Vapor Pressure ... In 1927 he moved to Houston, Texas and began a thirty-four-year career with the Texas Gulf Sulfur Company. He served and was ... Bencowitz's PhD in chemistry proved indispensable in the treatment of damaged books and documents. In addition to his ...
Sulfur excretion after ingestion". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 58 (2): 373-375. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(18)85352-2. Gye, W ... Journal of Biological Chemistry. 56 (1): 157-169. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(18)85612-5. Mueller, J. H. (1923). "A new sulfur- ... He was then a chemistry instructor at the University of Louisville for two years before receiving his master's degree in 1914. ... Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) (See Harvey Society.) Mueller, J. H. (1945). "The chemistry and metabolism of bacteria ...
Berresheim, H.; Wine, P.H. and Davies D.D. (1995). "Sulfur in the Atmosphere". In Composition, Chemistry and Climate of the ... and limited sulfur dioxide emissions from 110 of the largest power plants to a combined total of 8.7 million tons of sulfur ... Hydrolysis Sulfur dioxide dissolves in water and then, like carbon dioxide, hydrolyses in a series of equilibrium reactions: ... Lime or limestone in slurry form is also injected into the tower to mix with the stack gases and combine with the sulfur ...
Each sulfur atom of the S2F10 molecule is octahedral, and surrounded by five fluorine atoms. S2F10 is highly toxic, with ... Winter, R.; Nixon, P.; Gard, G. (January 1998). "A new preparation of disulfur decafluoride". Journal of Fluorine Chemistry. 87 ... S 2F 10 + N 2F 4 → 2 SF 5NF 2 In the presence of excess chlorine gas, S 2F 10 reacts to form sulfur chloride pentafluoride (SF ... It is a colorless liquid with a burnt match smell similar to sulfur dioxide. Disulfur decafluoride is produced by photolysis of ...
Sulfur dioxide is scrubbed before the remaining gases are emitted through the chimney stack. An economical way of scrubbing SO2 ... Wirsching, Franz (2000). "Calcium Sulfate". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/ ... Hudson, JL (1980). Sulfur Oxidation in Scrubber Systems. University of Virginia. Miller, Bruce (2004). Coal Energy Systems. ...
2005). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5. NIOSH Pocket Guide to ... Yost, D. M.; Simons, J. H. (1939). "Sulfur, Selenium, and Tellurium Hexafluorides". Inorganic Syntheses. 1: 121-122. doi: ... Krebs, B.; Bonmann, S.; Eidenschink, I. (1994). "Selenium-Inorganic Chemistry". In King, R. B. (ed.). Encyclopedia of Inorganic ... Langner, B. E. "Selenium and Selenium Compounds". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi: ...
"Biologically oriented organic sulfur chemistry. II. Formation of hemimercaptals or hemimercaptoles (.alpha.-hydroxy sulfides) ... Cox, J. M.; Owen, L. N. (1967). "Cyclic hemithioacetals: analogues of thiosugars with sulphur in the ring". Journal of the ... Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (43): 41086-41093. doi:10.1074/jbc.M208069200. PMID 12186880.. ... as a means of latentiating thiols". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 12 (4): 624-628. doi:10.1021/jm00304a014. Thornalley, PJ ( ...
Davis, Franklin A (2006). "Adventures in sulfur-nitrogen chemistry". Journal of Organic Chemistry. 71 (24): 8993-9003. doi: ... Davis, Franklin A; Friedman, Arthur J.; Kluger, Edward W (1974). "Chemistry of the sulfur-Nitrogen Bond. VIII. N- ... While this method played an important role in initiating chiral N-sulfinyl imine chemistry, it utility is limited by the ... Davis, Franklin A; Reddy, Thimma R.; Han, Wei; Carroll, P. J (1992). "Chemistry of Oxaziridines. 17. N-(Phenylsulfonyl)(3,3- ...
Reid, E. Emmet (1958). Organic Chemistry of Bivalent Sulfur. 1. New York: Chemical Publishing Company, Inc. pp. 32-33, 38. ... The compounds remain in the liquor and are burned in the recovery boiler, where the sulfur is recovered as sodium sulfide. ... Marine bacteria appear to obtain most of the sulfur in their proteins by the breakdown of DMSP and incorporation of ...
Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry, 2nd Ed. 1. NY, NY: Academic Press. p. 180. Yost, Don M. (2007) [1939]. "Sulfur, ... F. A. Cotton, G. Wilkinson, C.A. Murillo, and M. Bochmann; Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, John Wiley & Sons, 1999. G.J. Hathaway ... Its physical properties resemble those of sulfur and selenium. It is less volatile, however, due to the increase in ... K.W. Bagnall, The Chemistry of Selenium, Tellurium and Polonium, Elsevier Publishing, New York, 1966. R.T. Sanderson, Chemical ...
Steudel, Ralf; Eckert, Bodo (2003). "Solid Sulfur Allotropes Sulfur Allotropes". Topics in Current Chemistry. 230: 1-80. doi: ... Cp2TiS5 reacts with sulfur and selenium chlorides, ExCl2, to afford titanocene dichloride and various S5+x and S5Sex rings. ... It is of academic interest as a precursor to unusual allotropes of elemental sulfur as well as some related inorganic rings. ... Cotton, F. Albert; Wilkinson, Geoffrey; Murillo, Carlos A.; Bochmann, Manfred (1999). Advanced Inorganic Chemistry (6th ed.). ...
Reid EE (1958). Organic Chemistry of Bivalent Sulfur. 1. New York: Chemical Publishing Company, Inc. pp. 398-399. Nesterova G, ... 7. Metabolism of sulfur compounds (3rd ed.). New York: Academic Press. p. 545. ISBN 9780323162081. ...
"Adventures in Sulfur-Nitrogen Chemistry". Journal of Organic Chemistry. 71 (24): 8993. doi:10.1021/jo061027p. Davis, Franklin A ... Franklin Arnold Davis (born April 1, 1939) is the Laura H. Carnell Professor of Chemistry at Temple University in Philadelphia ... He is most notable for his development of sulfur-nitrogen reagents including N-sulfonyloxaziridine for oxidations and ...
Eigler, S.; Dotzer, C.; Hof, F.; Bauer, W.; Hirsch, A. (2013). "Sulfur Species in Graphene Oxide". Chemistry: A European ... It is also being studied as a high surface area conducting agent in lithium-sulfur battery cathodes. The functional groups on ... Dreyer, D. R.; Park, S.; Bielawski, C. W.; Ruoff, R. S. (2010). "The chemistry of graphene oxide". Chemical Society Reviews. 39 ... Mouhat, Félix; Coudert, François-Xavier; Bocquet, Marie-Laure (2020-03-26). "Structure and chemistry of graphene oxide in ...
... consisting of a ring of six sulfur atoms. It is thus a simple cyclosulfane and an allotrope of sulfur. It is also the final ... Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. p. 656. ISBN 978-0-08- ... Hexasulfur adopts a chair configuration similar to that of cyclohexane, with bond angles of 102.2°. The sulfur atoms are ... member of the thiane heterocyclic series, where every carbon is substituted with a sulfur atom. The name hexasulfur is the most ...
In chemistry, a ketone /ˈkiːtoʊn/ is a functional group with the structure RC(=O)R', where R and R' can be a variety of carbon- ... In the case of aryl-alkyl ketones, with sulfur and an amine give amides in the Willgerodt reaction ... The term oxo is used widely through chemistry. For example, it also refers to an oxygen atom bonded to a transition metal (a ... Its enolate is a common ligand in coordination chemistry. Unsaturated ketonesEdit. Ketones containing alkene and alkyne units ...
Antonio Clericuzio (2000). Elements, Principles and Corpuscles: A Study of Atomism and Chemistry in the Seventeenth Century. ... Moreover, the Fluddean tripartite theory concluded that Paracelsus' own conception of the three primary principles-Sulphur, ... Between 1598 and 1604, Fludd studied medicine, chemistry and hermeticism on the European mainland following his graduation. His ...
Developed before knowledge of atoms and molecules, or of basic chemistry, which shows that repeated dilution as practiced in ... including sulfur, arsenic, lead and copper sulfate[clarification needed]. Safety concerns have been raised about Ayurveda, with ...
It was determined to have 712 carbon, 1,130 hydrogen, 243 oxygen, two sulfur atoms, and at least one iron atom. This gave ...
1981). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (62nd ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0462-8.. , p. D-166. ... Sulfur. 1.8 Chlorine. 1.75 Copper. 1.4 Van der Waals radii taken from. Bondi's compilation (1964).[2]. Values from other ... Huheey, James E.; Keiter, Ellen A.; Keiter, Richard L. (1997). Inorganic Chemistry: Principles of Structure and Reactivity (4th ...
Sulfur Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium ... "Environmental Chemistry.com. Retrieved 2011-05-18.. *^ a b Barbalace, Kenneth. "Periodic Table of Elements Sorted by Boiling ... "Royal Society of Chemistry. Retrieved 4 July 2011.. *^ Dolg, Michael. "Lanthanides and Actinides" (PDF). Max-Planck-Institut ... "Environmental Chemistry.com. Retrieved 2007-04-14.. *^ "WebElements Periodic Table of the Elements". Webelements.com. Retrieved ...
Sulfur's usefulness as a topical remedy for acne dates back to at least the reign of Cleopatra (69-30 BCE).[178] The sixth- ... Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry. 21. pp. 179-188. doi:10.1016/S0065-7743(08)61128-8. ISBN 9780120405213. . ISSN 0065-7743 ... "Topical azelaic acid, salicylic acid, nicotinamide, sulphur, zinc and fruit acid (alpha-hydroxy acid) for acne". Cochrane ...
Sulfur Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Airn Cobalt Nickel Capper Zinc Gallium ... 2005). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5. .. ... 2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/ ... "NIST Chemistry WebBook. National Institute of Standards and Technology. Retrieved 23 January 2013.. ...
The 3-X Mode: Convenient Route to 3-Oxazolines". The Journal of Organic Chemistry. 61 (11): 3749-3752. doi:10.1021/jo9518866. ... Thiazoline: where the oxygen is replaced by sulphur. Other pages *Aminorex a drug bearing an oxazoline ring ... Wiley, Richard H.; Bennett, Leonard L. (1949). "The Chemistry of the Oxazolines". Chemical Reviews. 44 (3): 447-476. doi: ... Gant, Thomas G.; Meyers, A.I. (1994). "The chemistry of 2-oxazolines (1985-present)". Tetrahedron. 50 (8): 2297-2360. doi: ...
"Chemistry of Thyroxine: Constitution and Synthesis of Desiodo-Thyroxine". The Biochemical Journal. 20 (2): 300-13. doi:10.1042 ...
Dialihkan dari Sulfur). Ini adalah versi stabil, diperiksa pada tanggal 20 September 2019. Ada 1 perubahan tertunda menunggu ... Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (PDF). CRC press. 2000. ... Belerang atau sulfur adalah unsur kimia dalam tabel periodik yang memiliki lambang S dan nomor atom 16. Belerang merupakan ...
sulfur compound metabolic process. • metanephric S-shaped body morphogenesis. • metanephros development. • cellular response to ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (5): 3395-402. doi:10.1074/jbc.M205977200. PMID 12441357.. ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 272 (49): 30678-87. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.49.30678. PMID 9388203.. ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (44): 34100-5. doi:10.1074/jbc.M003043200. PMID 10924503.. ...
Food Chemistry. 161: 296-304. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.04.014. ISSN 0308-8146. PMID 24837953.. ... and sulfur may be used for nutrient-poor soils.[2] ...
Sulfur Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium ... "Chemistry: Principles, Patterns, and Applications with Student Access Kit for Mastering General Chemistry (1st ed.). Prentice ... Royal Society of Chemistry. "Visual Elements: Group 1 - The Alkali Metals". Visual Elements. Royal Society of Chemistry. ... "Inorganic Chemistry" by Cotton and Wilkinson *^ a b c d e Pyykkö, Pekka (2011). "A suggested periodic table up to Z ≤ 172, ...
Asid Nitrid dan sulfur, alkali, the garam merkuri, antimony, dan bismuth: Dipisahkan oleh Geber.[10] ... Book of the Chemistry of Perfume).[93] ... Mineral asid: Mineral asid-asid nitrid, asid sulfur, dan asid ... Asid sulfur: Terdahulunya dicoined sebagai minyak vitriol ia ditemukan oleh Geber (Jabir ibn Hayyan).[20] ... Ethanol, asid sulfur, dan amonia asli: Dipisahkan oleh ahli kimia Arab.[16] ...
Sulfur Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Airn Cobalt Nickel Capper Zinc Gallium ... 2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/ ...
Hofenk de Graff, Judith H. (2004). The Colourful Past: Origins, Chemistry and Identification of Natural Dyestuffs. London: ...
Analytical chemistry applications[edit]. Activated carbon, in 50% w/w combination with celite, is used as stationary phase in ... Activated carbon, often infused with sulfur[18] or iodine, is widely used to trap mercury emissions from coal-fired power ... Bradley RH, Sutherland I, Sheng E (1996). "Carbon surface: Area, porosity, chemistry, and energy". Journal of Colloid and ... Lim JL, Okada M (2005). "Regeneration of granular activated carbon using ultrasound". Ultrasonic-Sono-Chemistry. 12 (4): 277- ...
Soil chemistry studies the chemical characteristics of soil. Soil chemistry is affected by mineral composition, organic matter ... Pages in category "Soil chemistry". The following 34 pages are in this category, out of 34 total. This list may not reflect ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Soil_chemistry&oldid=547819471" ...
a b c Therald Moeller, Inorganic Chemistry, Asia Publishing House, 1958 edition p.474 ... Sulfur dibromide - Br2S. *Sulfur dioxide - SO2. *Sulfur hexafluoride - SF6 ...
ed.). Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry. pp. 1-19. ISBN 9780854042319. .. *^ Parsons, Ian (October 2006). "International ... A few minerals are chemical elements, including sulfur, copper, silver, and gold, but the vast majority are compounds. The ... Mineralogy[n 1] is a subject of geology specializing in the scientific study of the chemistry, crystal structure, and physical ... Since 1960, most chemistry analysis is done using instruments. One of these, atomic absorption spectroscopy, is similar to wet ...
When grain is used, sulfur dioxide is added to prevent spoilage. Gelatinization[edit]. By heating the ground, cleaned feedstock ... W. P. Edwards, The Science of Sugar Confectionery, Royal Society of Chemistry, 2000, pp. 26-27. ...
a b c John Newlands, Chemistry Review, November 2003, pp15-16 *^ IUPAC article on periodic table Archived 2008-02-13 at the ... zinc and sulfur, which formed the basis for the modern list of elements. Lavoisier's list also included 'light' and 'caloric', ... Lavoisier's Traité Élémentaire de Chimie (Elementary Treatise of Chemistry), which was written in 1789 and first translated ... der Chemie zu Marburg" [Excerpt of a letter from Court Advisor Wurzer, Professor of Chemistry at Marburg]. Annalen der Physik ( ...
Corbridge, D. E. C. (1995-02-01). Phosphorus: An Outline of Its Chemistry, Biochemistry, and Technology (5th ed.). Amsterdam: ... sulfur and magnesium) make up only about 0.85% of the weight of the body.[citation needed] Together these eleven chemical ... Lippard, Stephen J.; Jeremy M. Berg (1994). Principles of Bioinorganic Chemistry. Mill Valley, CA: University Science Books. p ... Humphrey Bowen (1979) Environmental Chemistry of the Elements. Academic Press, ISBN 0-12-120450-2. ...
4). In addition, there are small quantities of various contaminants including sulfur oxides (SO. x), mono-nitrogen oxides (NO. ... Donetsk Basin by the Donetsk Institute of Coal Chemistry.[5] ... and reduces sulfur dioxide (SO. 2) and nitrogen oxide (NO. x) ...
In the sulfur cycle, archaea that grow by oxidizing sulfur compounds release this element from rocks, making it available to ... allowing their use in environmentally friendly processes in green chemistry that synthesize organic compounds.[203] This ... Some archaea obtain energy from inorganic compounds such as sulfur or ammonia (they are lithotrophs). These include nitrifiers ... Archaea recycle elements such as carbon, nitrogen and sulfur through their various habitats. Although these activities are ...
The resulting product is a straight-chain hydrocarbon with a high cetane number, low in aromatics and sulfur and does not ... R. E. Teixeira (2012). "Energy-efficient extraction of fuel and chemical feedstocks from algae". Green Chemistry. 14 (2): 419- ...
Any of these categories may be no-clean, or not, depending on the chemistry selected and the standard that the manufacturer ... Carbon monoxide and halogen gases (for example carbon tetrafluoride, sulfur hexafluoride, or dichlorodifluoromethane) require ... "An Investigation of the Chemistry of Citric Acid in Military Soldering Applications" (PDF). 1995-06-19.. ... due to different soldering temperatures and different chemistry of the oxides involved. ...
W.R.McWhinnie (1995) Tellurium - Inorganic chemistry Encyclopedia of Inorganic Chemistry Ed. R. Bruce King (1994) John Wiley & ... Sulfur dioxide. Selenium dioxide Related tellurium oxides. Tellurium trioxide. Tellurium monoxide Except where otherwise noted ... K. W. Bagnall (1966). The Chemistry of Selenium, Tellurium and Polonium. London: Elsevier. pp. 59-60. ISBN 0-08-018855-9. .. ... Atta-ur-Rahman (2008). Studies in Natural Products Chemistry, Volume 35. Elsevier. p. 905. ISBN 978-0-444-53181-0. .. ...
2011). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (92nd ed.). CRC Press. ISBN 978-1439855119. .. ... Iron-sulfur world theory. *Kerogen. *Molecules in stars. *Nexus for Exoplanet System Science ... Timms, P. L. (1999). "The chemistry of volatile waste from silicon wafer processing". Journal of the Chemical Society, Dalton ... Simmler, W. "Silicon Compounds, Inorganic". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/ ...
In this experiment you can observe the effect of heating sulfur slowly from room temperature. Changes in colour and consistency ... Sulfur, S8(s) - see CLEAPSS Hazcard. The sulfur used must be roll sulfur, crushed to a powder. To crush the rolls of sulfur, ... The sulfur liquefies again to a very dark red-brown liquid. Note that during this heating the sulfur may catch fire and sulfur ... Allotropes of sulfur. Demonstration. Sulfur is heated slowly and steadily from room temperature, so that all the changes in ...
... iron and sulfur, to form the compound, iron sulfide. The two solids are mixed and heated in a test-tube (or ignition tube). The ... Iron and sulfur reaction Experiment Exciting elements video containing the iron and sulfur reaction Video Duration : 00:14:12 ... The experiment is also part of the Royal Society of Chemistrys Continuing Professional Development course: Chemistry for non- ... Practical chemistryExpositionMixturesSeparation of mixturesChemical change/reactionsReactions involving metalsRedox ...
Buy Adv Sulfur Chemistry 2 by Rayner from Waterstones today! Click and Collect from your local Waterstones or get FREE UK ... Adv Sulfur Chemistry 2 (Hardback). Rayner (author) Sign in to write a review ... This volume is a testament to the continuing importance of sulfur chemistry, and the tremendous progress that has been made in ... OCR AS/A Level Chemistry A 2015: OCR AS/A level Chemistry A Student Book 1 + ActiveBook Student Book 1 + ActiveBook ...
Sulfur-Centered Reactive Intermediates in Chemistry and Biology. [Chryssostomos Chatgilialoglu; Klaus-Dieter Asmus] ... Structure and Reaction Mechanisms in Sulphur-Radical Chemistry Revealed by E.S.R. Spectroscopy.- Sulfur-Centered Three-Electron ... schema:name "Sulfur-Centered Reactive Intermediates in Chemistry and Biology"@en ;. schema:productID "851741634" ;. schema: ... Sulfur-Centered Reactive Intermediates in Chemistry and Biology. Author:. Chryssostomos Chatgilialoglu; Klaus-Dieter Asmus. ...
Sulfur polymer composites were prepared by the reaction of canola oil and elemental sulfur in the presence of the NPK ... Sulfur polymer composites were prepared by the reaction of canola oil and elemental sulfur in the presence of the NPK ... Sulfur polymer composites as controlled-release fertilisers M. Mann, J. E. Kruger, F. Andari, J. McErlean, J. R. Gascooke, J. A ... Original citation] - Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) on behalf of the Centre National de la ...
A combination of vapor phase infrared spectroscopy and ab initio calculations has been used to show that sulfur is weaker than ... Hydrogen bonding to divalent sulfur D. L. Howard and H. G. Kjaergaard, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2008, 10, 4113 DOI: 10.1039/ ... a Department of Chemistry, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin, New Zealand E-mail: [email protected] ... and ab initio calculations has been used to show that sulfur is weaker than, but nearly equivalent to, oxygen as a hydrogen ...
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The production of sulphuric acid from sulphur was first commercialized in 1763 by, of all people, Dr. Joshua Ward, an English ... The Right Chemistry: Sulphur has a long, colourful past. The production of sulphuric acid from sulphur was first commercialized ... Share this Story: The Right Chemistry: Sulphur has a long, colourful past. *. Copy Link ... Share this Story: The Right Chemistry: Sulphur has a long, colourful past. *. Copy Link ...
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Old theories on hypervalency of sulfur and the nature of the chalcogen-chalcogen bond are now questioned. At the same time, ... This review examines the nature of thiosulfoxide (sulfane, S0) sulfur, the history of its regulatory role, its generation in ... The functions include synthesis of cofactors (molybdenum cofactor, iron-sulfur clusters), sulfuration of tRNA, modulation of ... there is a rapidly expanding literature on the effects of sulfur in regulating biological systems. The two fields are inter- ...
Methods that involve reducing so2 to elemental sulfur appear promising since this product can be easily handled, shipped, and ... The chemistry of current or potential so2 removal processes can be placed into four categories: (1) reduction, (2) liquefaction ... Sulfur Dioxide: Its Chemistry as Related to Methods for Removing It from Waste Gases.. ... The chemistry of current or potential so2 removal processes can be placed into four categories: (1) reduction, (2) liquefaction ...
Sulfur Chemistry and Applications Conference scheduled on April 22-23, 2021 in April 2021 in Tokyo is for the researchers, ... Sulfur chemistry. Sulfur compounds. Organic sulfur chemistry. Synthesis and reactions of sulfur compounds. Mechanisms of ... Sulfur Chemistry and Applications. ICSCA 2021: 15. International Conference on Sulfur Chemistry and Applications April 22-23, ... Sulfur and sulfur related materials in engineering applications. Sulfur, health, safety and security considerations ...
Now, a thiol group is in some respects similar to an alcohol, with a sulfur atom replacing the oxygen. So we decided to test ... The second thing is that the oxidation results in a rather reactive compound with a thioaldehyde group, which is a sulfur ... I know that a similar finding with an amine-oxidizing enzyme sparked new chemistry and the creation of a company that now ... They published their findings together in Angewandte Chemie, one of the worlds leading chemistry journals. The discovery may ...
Iron-Sulfur Clusters in Chemistry and Biology.... Multi-volumed work. Iron-Sulfur Clusters in Chemistry and Biology. Ed. by ... and why it is important to understand the chemistry and biogenesis of iron sulfur proteins. In addition to their vital ... Understanding iron sulfur proteins is important for understanding a rapidly expanding group of metabolic pathways important in ... Multiple rare human diseases with different clinical presentations are caused by mutations of genes in the iron sulfur cluster ...
In this paper we focus on the twenty-one sulphur bearing species (ions, isotopomers and deuteration) that have been detected in ... and conclude that a strong sulphur depletion is necessary to fully reproduce our observations of the prototypical pre-stellar ... modelling have been performed and we used the nautilus chemical code updated with the most recent chemical network for sulphur ... Sulphur chemistry in the L1544 pre-stellar core Charlotte Vastel 1 David Quénard Romane Le Gal Valentine Wakelam 2 Aina ...
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Sulphur recovery is becoming more and more important due to falling emission limits and is usually realised using the Claus ... The raw material for sulphuric acid production is elemental sulphur, which is produced during the processing of fossil raw ... Sulphur Chemistry. The raw material for sulphuric acid production is elemental sulphur, which is produced during the processing ... Claus Process Contact Process Sulfur Sulfuric Acid Spent Acid Spent Acid Regeneration Sulfuric Acid ...
Chemistry is seldom as simple as it looks. Polymer chemistry takes the complexity up a notch. Nylon chemistry is about much ... In contrast, sulfur is cheap and abundant as a refining byproduct and is very simple to turn into plastics. "Sulfur you can get ... of Chemistry and Biochemistry; UA optical sciences professor Robert Norwood; and UA chemistry and biochemistry professor ... At that time, Pyun and his colleagues were focused on using waste sulfur from the petroleum refining industry as a low-cost ...
Atmospheric chemistry of chlorine and sulfur compounds proceedings of a symposium held at the Robert A. Taft Sanitary ... Atmospheric chemistry of chlorine and sulfur compounds proceedings of a symposium held at the Robert A. Taft Sanitary ... Atmospheric chemistry of chlorine and sulfur compounds.. [Washington] American Geophysical Union, 1959. (DLC) 59060039. (OCoLC) ... rdfs:label "Atmospheric chemistry of chlorine and sulfur compounds." ;. schema:description "Print version:" ;. schema: ...
Inorganic chemistry 2005-4-30 Spectroscopic approaches to elucidating novel iron-sulfur chemistry in the radical-Sam protein ... which use iron-sulfur clusters and S-adenosylmethionine to initiate H atom abstraction reactions. This remarkable chemistry ... current evidence points to novel chemistry involving a site-differentiated [4Fe-4S] cluster. The focus of this forum article is ...
Sulfur fertilization affects onion quality and flavor chemistry during storage.. Forney, C.F., Jordan, M.A., Campbell-Palmer, L ... Both sulfur fertilizer treatments increased the sulfur content of both Frontier and Prince onion bulbs by an average of 25 ... Sulfur fertilization affects onion quality and flavor chemistry during storage., Acta Horticulturae (ISHS), 877, pp. 163-168. ... Sulfur fertilization of onions in the field can increase yield and bulb size, but reports of its effect on storage life and ...
Avhandling: Dynamic Sulfur Chemistry Screening, Evaluation and Catalysis. ... NATURAL SCIENCES Chemistry Organic chemistry; NATURVETENSKAP Kemi Organisk kemi; NATURAL SCIENCES Chemistry Organic chemistry ... Dynamic Sulfur Chemistry Screening, Evaluation and Catalysis. Detta är en avhandling från Stockholm : KTH ... Nyckelord: NATURVETENSKAP; NATURAL SCIENCES; NATURVETENSKAP; NATURAL SCIENCES; Dynamic combinatorial chemistry; dynamic sulfur ...
Polymers from Elemental Sulfur May 2, 2013 •By Kenneth Hanson •In materials chemistry, synthetic chemistry ... A recent paper in Nature Chemistry (pay-per-view/subscription) showed that elemental sulfur can be directly co-polymerized with ... Its long been known that lithium-sulfur batteries have a high energy density and lower cost, but the degradation of the sulfur ... is that none of them are prepared from elemental sulfur. They all require either a reduced or an oxidized form of sulfur in ...
Frataxin activates Fe-S cluster biosynthesis by facilitating sulfur transfer chemistry Details Written by Jen Farmer Category: ... Read More: Human frataxin activates Fe-S cluster biosynthesis by facilitating sulfur transfer chemistry ... Iron-sulfur clusters are ubiquitous protein cofactors with critical cellular functions. The mitochondrial Fe-S assembly complex ...
Iron-sulfur cluster proteins carry out multiple functions, including as regulators of gene transcription/translation in ... In all known cases, the cluster acts as the sensory module, where the inherent reactivity/fragility of iron-sulfur clusters ... In recent years, we have developed the use of mass spectrometry under conditions where iron-sulfur proteins remain folded and ... Here, I will discuss recent progress in the structural and mechanistic characterization of iron-sulfur cluster regulators, ...
All Products are applicable only for life science research. Not for diagnostic use. Prices listed are for U.S. customers only and may vary in other countries.. ...
The most complete resource in functional group chemistry. Patais Chemistry of Functional Groups is one of chemistrys landmark ... The Chemistry of Ethers Crown Ethers Hydroxyl Group and Their Sulphur Analogue, Supplement E, Part 1, Volume 1. ... The Chemistry of Ethers Crown Ethers Hydroxyl Group and Their Sulphur Analogue, Supplement E, Part 1, Volume 1. Saul Patai ( ... the aim of Patais Chemistry of Functional Groups is to cover all the aspects of the chemistry of an important functional group ...
Iron-sulfur clusters and molecular oxygen: function, adaptation, degradation, and repair. Iron-Sulfur Clusters in Chemistry and ... 2. Chemistry of iron-sulfur clusters. *3. Quantitative interpretation of EPR spectroscopy with applications for iron-sulfur ... Iron-sulfur proteins and genome stability. *21. Eukaryotic iron-sulfur protein biogenesis and its role in maintaining genomic ... 7. Biotin synthase: a role for iron-sulfur clusters in the radical-mediated generation of carbon-sulfur bonds ...
Organic Chemistry With a Biological Emphasis by Tim Soderberg (University of Minnesota, Morris) ... William Reusch, Professor Emeritus (Michigan State U.), Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry ... incorporated sulfur and/or 17O and 18O isotopes of oxygen (the normal isotope is 16O) to create chiral phosphate groups. ... find application in certain drugs such as esomeprazole and armodafinil and are a good example of a stereogenic sulfur center. ...
  • are sulfur compounds known as sulfur donors-e.g., tetramethylthiuram disulfide-which introduce monosulfide interlinks between polymer molecules, and peroxides, notably dicumyl peroxide. (britannica.com)
  • Electrochemical Reduction of Some Sulfur Compounds. (worldcat.org)
  • Design, Synthesis, and Conformational Analysis of Compounds Tailored for the Study of Sulfur-Centered Reactive Intermediates. (worldcat.org)
  • While it is mostly a complex mix of hydrocarbons, the oil also contains some hydrogen sulphide and close to 4,000 sulphur compounds. (montrealgazette.com)
  • There is another benefit to the removal of sulphur compounds from sour gas and petroleum, other than providing the raw material needed for the synthesis of sulphuric acid. (montrealgazette.com)
  • When fuel containing sulphur compounds is burned, sulphur dioxide is produced. (montrealgazette.com)
  • Atmospheric chemistry of chlorine and sulfur compounds proceedings of a symposium held at the Robert A. Taft Sanitary Engineering Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, November 4-6, 1957. (worldcat.org)
  • I thought you might be interested in this item at http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/646956701 Title: Atmospheric chemistry of chlorine and sulfur compounds proceedings of a symposium held at the Robert A. Taft Sanitary Engineering Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, November 4-6, 1957. (worldcat.org)
  • Atmospheric chemistry of chlorine and sulfur compounds. (worldcat.org)
  • And lastly, there are the elastomeric materials where sulfur compounds have been used to vulcanize (crosslink) the polymer chains. (chemistry-blog.com)
  • While up to a few decades ago, chalcogen chemistry was mainly centred on sulphur, in recent years the research based on Se and Te has increased dramatically, and has created huge scope for the use of compounds based on this type of chemistry. (mexmat.ru)
  • Sulphur is found in many different compounds throughout the world - not only in the atmosphere, but also in the oceans and on land. (eurekalert.org)
  • Mechanical properties of the lithiated sulfur compounds are strongly contingent on the lithium content, and with increasing lithium content, the strength of lithiated sulfur compounds improves, although this increment is not linear with lithiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • A lot of organic compounds have this quality so most young chemists encounter some kind of smell during their freshman or sophomore chemistry lab. (scientificamerican.com)
  • During the early days of chemistry, when there were no techniques for determining the structure and identities of molecules, color and smell were the two main qualities on which chemists could rely on for identifying specific compounds. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Thiols - also called mercaptans - are compounds with a sulfur bonded to a hydrogen, an atomic combination denoted by SH. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Many sulfur compounds are odoriferous, and the smells of odorized natural gas, skunk scent, grapefruit, and garlic are due to organosulfur compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sulfur is an essential element for all life, but almost always in the form of organosulfur compounds or metal sulfides. (wikipedia.org)
  • A consequence of this raised thiosulfinate level was a marked increase in the downstream production of a nonenzymatically produced zwiebelane isomer and other volatile sulfur compounds, di-1-propenyl disulfide and 2-mercapto-3,4-dimethyl-2,3-dihydrothiophene, which had previously been reported in trace amounts or had not been detected in onion. (plantphysiol.org)
  • When the tissues of any Allium species are disrupted, these amino acid derivatives are cleaved by the enzyme alliinase (EC 4.4.1.4 ) into their corresponding sulfenic acids, and volatile sulfur compounds are produced that give the characteristic flavor and bioactivity of the species. (plantphysiol.org)
  • It is used in black gunpowder, rubber vulcanization, the manufactur … e of insecticides and pharmaceuticals, and in the preparation of sulfur compounds such as hydrogen sulfide and sulfuric acid. (answers.com)
  • Scientists have known for two decades that sulfur compounds that are produced by bacterioplankton as they consume decaying algae in the ocean cycle through two paths. (phys.org)
  • The finding of the sulfur-carbon bond formation induced us to find novel molybdenum, tungsten, and chromium compounds, some of which show photochromism. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Sulfur compounds are reactive, corrosive to pipes, and destructive to catalysts in petroleum refineries. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The most interesting phytochemicals in plant foods are antioxidants, hormonelike compounds, and enzyme-activating sulfur compounds. (dummies.com)
  • We don't miss out on many low oxidation state sulfur compounds: S-alkyl and SH groups reek to the skies as far as our noses are concerned (as do the corresponding selenium compounds ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Sulfur compounds like these are the smell of things that will kill us - rotten food, dangerous vapors, probably carnivore excretion/body odors as well. (sciencemag.org)
  • The Company conducts research in the field of chemistry as it concerns the science and technology of sulfur and its compounds with particular emphasis on the production, processing and utilization of sour natural gas, sour crude oils, oil sands and their related products. (ucalgary.ca)
  • It is affiliated with the Chemistry Department at the University of Calgary and continues to serve as a contact point between industry and academia, striving to provide an expert level of scientific and technological support to all those that require or are interested in understanding the chemistry of sulfur and its compounds. (ucalgary.ca)
  • This includes 11 H[subscript 2]O addition, 8 H[subscript 2]S addition, 11 hydrogen abstraction, 7 beta scission, and 3 elementary tautomerization reactions, which are potentially relevant in the combustion and desulfurization of sulfur compounds found in various fuel sources. (mit.edu)
  • British Library EThOS: Structural studies on iron sulfur clusters and ferrocenyl compounds, the importance of lattice effects. (bl.uk)
  • to elemental sulfur by the Claus process , which involves the partial burning of hydrogen sulfide to sulfur dioxide, with subsequent reaction between the two to yield sulfur. (britannica.com)
  • The determination of reduced forms of sulfur was carried out by successive transfer of each form of sulfur to hydrogen sulfide followed by photometric measurements. (springer.com)
  • 1 During the experiments sulfur may catch fire, releasing sulfur dioxide (TOXIC - see CLEAPSS Hazcard ), which may cause breathing difficulties to some students. (rsc.org)
  • Saltpeter releases oxygen, which oxidizes the sulphur to sulphur trioxide, which then reacts with water to form the acid. (montrealgazette.com)
  • The modern production of sulphuric acid still relies on the principle of converting sulphur to sulphur trioxide and then reacting this gas with water. (montrealgazette.com)
  • A significant fraction of this sulphur dioxide is subsequently oxidized to sulphur trioxide and eventually reacts with water to form sulphuric acid 3 . (nature.com)
  • Sulphur trioxide is another oxide of sulphur which dissolves in water and forms sulphuric acid. (answers.com)
  • Sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and sulfur trioxide (SO 3 ) are two kinds of chemicals. (windows2universe.org)
  • Intrinsically, sulfur has lower density than transition metal oxides as cathodes in LIBs. (phys.org)
  • Compared with carbon materials, heavy metal oxides not only offer good adsorption ability of polysulfides to suppress the shuttle effect, but also help to obtain dense sulfur-based composites with high tap density. (phys.org)
  • well-investigated are the chemistries of episulfoxides ( A ) ( 17 ⇓ ⇓ - 20 ), a thiadiazepin S -oxide ( B ) ( 21 ), trisulfide oxides ( C ) ( 22 , 23 ), thianorbornadiene- S -oxides ( D ) ( 24 ), and N -sulfinylamine phosphinoborane adducts ( E ) ( 25 ). (pnas.org)
  • Man-made emissions of sulfur oxides in the United States have been increasing at about 4 percent per year and amounted to about 34 million tons in 1970 (see Table 6-2 ). (nap.edu)
  • The principal means of removal of sulfur oxides from the atmosphere include absorption of gaseous sulfur dioxide by the ground or by vegetation, and deposition of sulfates in rain and snow (see Chapter 7 ). (nap.edu)
  • Surveys conducted in the northeastern United States suggest that roughly 33 percent of the sulfur oxides are eventually returned to earth as sulfates in precipitation (see Table 7-2 ). (nap.edu)
  • Figure 6-1 pictures the way sulfur oxides are transported after emission, transformed into sulfates, and ultimately returned to ground. (nap.edu)
  • Our model suggests that the mixing ratios of sulphur oxides are at least five times higher above 90 km when the photolysis of sulphuric acid is included. (nature.com)
  • Scientists use the term "sulfur oxides" when they want to talk about both of these chemicals at once. (windows2universe.org)
  • Earth's atmosphere has some sulfur oxides in it. (windows2universe.org)
  • Some of the sulfur oxides in the air come from nature. (windows2universe.org)
  • Some of the sulfur oxides in the air are created by people and the things we do. (windows2universe.org)
  • When the coal and oil burn, the sulfur in them combines with oxygen in the air to make sulfur oxides. (windows2universe.org)
  • Sulfur oxides also help make acid rain . (windows2universe.org)
  • It's long been known that lithium-sulfur batteries have a high energy density and lower cost, but the degradation of the sulfur electrodes limits their long-term stability. (chemistry-blog.com)
  • When this result is combined with the ease of processing this new polymer, the potential for lithium-sulfur batteries has suddenly become a lot sunnier. (chemistry-blog.com)
  • Lithium-sulfur batteries may succeed lithium-ion cells because of their higher energy density and reduced cost from the use of sulfur . (wikipedia.org)
  • The Synthesis and Metal Complexes of Sulfur-Containing Models for Nitrogenase Enzymes. (worldcat.org)
  • The functions include synthesis of cofactors (molybdenum cofactor, iron-sulfur clusters), sulfuration of tRNA, modulation of enzyme activities, and regulating the redox environment by several mechanisms (including the enhancement of the reductive capacity of glutathione). (mdpi.com)
  • This thesis deals with the design, formation and evaluation of dynamic systems constructed by means of sulfur-containing reversible reactions, in organic and aqueous media and under mild conditions.In a first part, the synthesis of thioglycoside derivatives, constituting the biologically relevant starting components of the dynamic systems, is described. (avhandlingar.se)
  • UV-light-driven prebiotic synthesis of iron-sulfur clusters. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We report here on the synthesis and reactivity of a precursor molecule that readily fragments with concomitant expulsion of dinitrogen and anthracene to release the highly reactive sulfur monoxide, a compound of interest for both synthetic chemists and astrochemists. (pnas.org)
  • The present article focuses on recent work from this laboratory that has led to advances in several areas of the field of sulfur chemistry for the synthesis of macromolecular structures with various topologies ranging from linear to networks. (itu.edu.tr)
  • Thiol-ene chemistry is also discussed in terms of its effect and utilization for the synthesis of telechelic polymers and star copolymers. (itu.edu.tr)
  • Finally, recently developed thiol-benzoxazine chemistry offering a facile and an efficient route to exploring the many possibilities in macromolecular synthesis is described. (itu.edu.tr)
  • Krishna C. Majumdar and Nilasish Pal, " A Facile Regioselective Synthesis of Tetracyclic Sulphur Heterocycles by Tandem Thio-Claisen Rearrangement (SUPPORTING DATA)", Letters in Organic Chemistry (2007) 4: 120. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Sulfur mustard (SM) is a vesicant chemical warfare agent that persists as a serious menace from the viewpoint of acute and chronic toxicity, simple synthesis and no effective treatment currently being available. (eurekaselect.com)
  • A strong attention has been focused on elemental sulfur as a versatile tool for organic synthesis. (cnrs.fr)
  • The second thing is that the oxidation results in a rather reactive compound with a thioaldehyde group, which is a sulfur attached to the molecule with a double bond. (rug.nl)
  • A recent paper in Nature Chemistry (pay-per-view/subscription) showed that elemental sulfur can be directly co-polymerized with an organic molecule. (chemistry-blog.com)
  • Founded in 1964 by the late Professor Saul Patai, the aim of Patai's Chemistry of Functional Groups is to cover all the aspects of the chemistry of an important functional group in each volume, with the emphasis not only on the functional group but on the whole molecule. (wiley.com)
  • The drawing shows a sulfur dioxide molecule. (jiskha.com)
  • Sulfur monoxide (SO) is a highly reactive molecule and thus, eludes bulk isolation. (pnas.org)
  • Oxygen is always 2-, so to balance the molecule SO 2 the sulphur here must be 4+. (answers.com)
  • Here are four different ways chemists use to show a molecule of sulfur dioxide. (windows2universe.org)
  • In the colored molecule models, sulfur is yellow and oxygen is red. (windows2universe.org)
  • It has been known since the early 1900 that only the free form of sulfur dioxide (i.e. unbound to another molecule) have any antimicrobial efficacy. (earthwormexpress.com)
  • In contrast to SF4, the related molecule SF6 has sulfur in the 6+ state, no valence electrons remain nonbonding on sulfur, hence the molecule adopts a highly symmetrical octahedral structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the organic comonomer is difunctional, the resulting product is crosslinked, not through the sulfur atoms , but instead through the organic monomer. (chemistry-blog.com)
  • Under normal conditions , sulfur atoms form cyclic octatomic molecules with a chemical formula S 8 . (wikipedia.org)
  • [4] In addition to S 8 , sulfur rings of 6, 7, 9-15, 18 and 20 atoms are known. (wikipedia.org)
  • All of the sulfur atoms are equivalent. (wikipedia.org)
  • It consists of two oxygen atoms and a sulfur atom. (jiskha.com)
  • They both have sulfur and oxygen atoms in them. (windows2universe.org)
  • The atoms first approach provides a consistent and logical method for teaching general chemistry. (indigo.ca)
  • Thus, the Atoms First method empowers instructors to present the most complete and compelling story of general chemistry. (indigo.ca)
  • The element sulfur exists as many allotropes . (wikipedia.org)
  • In terms of large number of allotropes, sulfur is second only to carbon . (wikipedia.org)
  • The number of sulfur allotropes reflects the relatively strong S−S bond of 265 kJ/mol. (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] Furthermore, unlike most elements, the allotropes of sulfur can be manipulated in solutions of organic solvents and is amenable to analysis by HPLC. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two methods exist for the preparation of the cyclo -sulfur allotropes. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is said to be the least stable of all of the sulfur allotropes. (wikipedia.org)
  • These are called allotropes of sulphur. (answers.com)
  • Natural processes that affect air quality include volcanoes, which produce sulfur, chlorine, and ash particulates. (windows2universe.org)
  • The production of sulphuric acid from sulphur was first commercialized in 1763 by, of all people, Dr. Joshua Ward, an English physician of questionable repute. (montrealgazette.com)
  • Looking across the harbour from Vancouver, you can't miss the giant mounds of sulphur waiting to be shipped around the world, mostly destined to be converted into sulphuric acid, one of the most important industrial chemicals in the world. (montrealgazette.com)
  • He scaled up a chemical reaction discovered by Johann Glauber, a German-Dutch chemist, who had shown that heating sulphur with steam and potassium nitrate, commonly known as saltpeter, yielded sulphuric acid. (montrealgazette.com)
  • The raw material for sulphuric acid production is elemental sulphur, which is produced during the processing of fossil raw materials. (messergroup.com)
  • 90 % of the sulphur thus obtained is converted to sulphuric acid, which is one of the most technically important and highly produced basic chemicals, and is used to a great extent in fertiliser production. (messergroup.com)
  • Most sulphur is used to make sulphuric acid. (answers.com)
  • Reactivity of Sulfur-Centered Nucleophiles Towards Dia- and Paramagnetic Reagents The Frontier Orbitals Approach. (worldcat.org)
  • In all known cases, the cluster acts as the sensory module, where the inherent reactivity/fragility of iron-sulfur clusters with small/redox active molecules is exploited to effect conformational changes that modulate binding to nucleic regulatory sequences. (uga.edu)
  • In contrast to the ubiquitous and well-studied chemistry of earth-abundant dioxygen ( 1 ), the chemistry of its heavier, valence-isoelectronic analogue sulfur monoxide (SO) is hardly explored and has been relegated to a niche existence, which is certainly due to its high reactivity: SO is unstable under ambient conditions toward disproportionation to SO 2 and elemental S ( 2 ) and eludes bulk isolation. (pnas.org)
  • This research has pursued mainly the versatile nature of sulfur-bridged tri- or tetra-nuclear molybdenum and tungsten cluster complexes, and has paid attention not only to metal concerning substitution and redox reaction, but also to the reactivity of bridging sulfur. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In addition it was made clear that the reactivity of bridging sulfurs of sulfur/oxygen-bridged tungsten clusters is influenced by ligands. (nii.ac.jp)
  • It should be noted that the reactivity of elemental sulfur can be dramatically modified by simply changing the reaction conditions. (cnrs.fr)
  • During refining, hydrogen sulphide is separated and is then reacted with oxygen to yield elemental sulphur. (montrealgazette.com)
  • This volume on iron-sulfur proteins includes chapters that discuss how microbes, plants, and animals synthesize these complex prosthetic groups, and why it is important to understand the chemistry and biogenesis of iron sulfur proteins. (degruyter.com)
  • In addition to their vital importance in mitochondrial respiration, numerous iron sulfur proteins are important in maintenance of DNA integrity. (degruyter.com)
  • Understanding iron sulfur proteins is important for understanding a rapidly expanding group of metabolic pathways important in all kingdoms of life, and for understanding processes ranging from nitrogen fixation to human disease. (degruyter.com)
  • Many cofactors also contain sulfur, including glutathione , thioredoxin , and iron-sulfur proteins . (wikipedia.org)
  • Practical Chemistry activities accompany Practical Physics and Practical Biology . (rsc.org)
  • The two fields are inter-related because the new understanding of the thiosulfoxide bond helps to explain the newfound roles of sulfur in biology. (mdpi.com)
  • Cooper, A.J.L. Thiosulfoxide (Sulfane) Sulfur: New Chemistry and New Regulatory Roles in Biology. (mdpi.com)
  • Researchers at the Chemistry and Biology of Metals laboratory managed to isolate and characterize for the first time, three proteins involved in the maturation of enzymes that produce hydrogen, the iron hydrogenases. (cea.fr)
  • A combination of vapor phase infrared spectroscopy and ab initio calculations has been used to show that sulfur is weaker than, but nearly equivalent to, oxygen as a hydrogen bond acceptor. (rsc.org)
  • Now, a thiol group is in some respects similar to an alcohol, with a sulfur atom replacing the oxygen. (rug.nl)
  • This could form the basis of further chemistry, because the thioaldehyde is even more reactive than the equivalent aldehyde (which is a double-bonded oxygen). (rug.nl)
  • Here, I will discuss recent progress in the structural and mechanistic characterization of iron-sulfur cluster regulators, focussing on FNR, NsrR, RirA and WhiB-like proteins that are involved in sensing molecular oxygen, iron, and/or nitric oxide in bacteria. (uga.edu)
  • We will see in chapter 10 how researchers, in order to investigate the stereochemistry of reactions at the phosphate center, incorporated sulfur and/or 17 O and 18 O isotopes of oxygen (the 'normal' isotope is 16 O) to create chiral phosphate groups. (libretexts.org)
  • A sulfur atom is twice as massive as an oxygen atom. (jiskha.com)
  • Deprotonated ethylenediamine clusters were obtained from sulfur/oxygen bridged incomplete cubane-type clusters. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Potential energy surfaces and reaction kinetics were calculated for 40 reactions involving sulfur and oxygen. (mit.edu)
  • Technology for manufacturing fertilizer "Superfos" containing nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur. (deepdyve.com)
  • decreases from phosphorus to sulfur then increases again. (creative-chemistry.org.uk)
  • The sulfur dioxide reacts with calcium oxide to form solid calcium sulfite. (jiskha.com)
  • SF 4 reacts inside the lungs with moisture, generating sulfur dioxide and hydrogen fluoride: SF4 + 2 H2O → SO2 + 4 HF NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) increasing anthropogenic emissions in the last century has arisen wide concern on the ecological effects of S and N deposition. (csic.es)
  • Nitrogen (N) and sulphur (S) deposition, as well as altered soil moisture dynamics due to climate change can have large effects on fen meadow biogeochemistry and vegetation. (springer.com)
  • Nitrogen (N) deposition, sulphur (S) pollution and global climate change are among the most important external threats to plant species diversity in fens (Bobbink et al. (springer.com)
  • Since the three environmental impacts on fens outlined above act on different nutrients through different mechanisms, their combined impact on fen vegetation may differ from the separate effects of nitrogen deposition, sulphur deposition and climate change individually. (springer.com)
  • However, integrated studies assessing the combined effects of nitrogen deposition, sulphur pollution and altered drying-rewetting dynamics on fen vegetation are currently lacking. (springer.com)
  • Coordination Chemistry of New Sulfur Containing Ligands -- 21. (nova.edu)
  • Two new monothiocarbamate ligands have been prepared and their coordination chemistry has been investigated. (nova.edu)
  • In SO 2 , the oxidation state of sulphur is +4 and … In SO 3 , the oxidation state of sulphur is +6. (answers.com)
  • Sulfur in SF4 is in the formal +4 oxidation state. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Handbook of Chalcogen Chemistry: New Perspectives in Sulfur, Selenium and Tellurium provides an overview of recent developments, particularly from the last decade, on the chemistry of the chalcogen group elements (S, Se and Te). (mexmat.ru)
  • The download Handbook of Chalcogen Chemistry: New Perspectives in Sulfur, Selenium and Tellurium motivates more than 25 images for design treatment and its information is not coming Set and tested. (raw-flava.com)
  • This demonstration or class experiment shows the exothermic reaction of two elements, iron and sulfur, to form the compound, iron sulfide. (rsc.org)
  • Structure and Reaction Mechanisms in Sulphur-Radical Chemistry Revealed by E.S.R. Spectroscopy. (worldcat.org)
  • Sulfur polymer composites were prepared by the reaction of canola oil and elemental sulfur in the presence of the NPK fertiliser components ammonium sulfate, calcium hydrogen phosphate, and potassium chloride. (rsc.org)
  • Working with molten sulfur imposes two big restraints on the choice of comonomers - that they first be soluble in the molten sulfur and more importantly, that they not volatilize upon exposure to the heat (185 C). In other words, this new reaction opens up only a small set of potential polymers. (chemistry-blog.com)
  • Through the reaction of sulfur-bridged incomplete cubane-type cluster with acetylene, cluster complexes having sulfur-carbon bonds were obtained and characterized, and their X-ray structures were determined. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Another method of preparation involves the reaction of a polysulfane with sulfur monochloride: H2S4 + S2Cl2 → cyclo-S6 + 2 HCl (dilute solution in diethyl ether) The sulfur ring in cyclo-S6 has a "chair" conformation, reminiscent of the chair form of cyclohexane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrolysis of SF4 gives sulfur dioxide: SF4 + 2 H2O → SO2 + 4 HF This reaction proceeds via the intermediacy of thionyl fluoride, which usually does not interfere with the use of SF4 as a reagent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Devillanova F. Handbook of Chalcogen Chemistry. (mexmat.ru)
  • download Handbook of Chalcogen Chemistry: New not to explore our " projects of leap. (raw-flava.com)
  • Login or bypass an download Handbook of Chalcogen Chemistry: New Perspectives to exist a accommodation. (raw-flava.com)
  • Against this download Handbook of Chalcogen Chemistry: New Perspectives, such text concludes linked with the days of library and static file within potty days. (raw-flava.com)
  • Iron-sulfur clusters are ubiquitous protein cofactors with critical cellular functions. (curefa.org)
  • Structural, Mechanistic and Coordination Chemistry of Relevance to the Biosynthesis of Iron-Sulfur and Related Iron Cofactors. (semanticscholar.org)
  • article{Qi2011StructuralMA, title={Structural, Mechanistic and Coordination Chemistry of Relevance to the Biosynthesis of Iron-Sulfur and Related Iron Cofactors. (semanticscholar.org)
  • [5] The key issue of Li-S battery is low electrical conductivity of sulfur cathode needing an extra mass for a conducting agent and the current research focus is to find highly conductive cathodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main challenges of Li-S batteries is the low conductivity of sulfur and its massive volume change upon discharging and finding a suitable cathode is the first step for commercialization of Li-S batteries. (wikipedia.org)
  • [9] Therefore, most researchers use a carbon/sulfur cathode and a lithium anode. (wikipedia.org)
  • One problem with the lithium-sulfur design is that when the sulfur in the cathode absorbs lithium, volume expansion of the Li x S compositions happens, and predicted volume expansion of Li 2 S is nearly 80% of the volume of the original sulfur. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ze Zhang et al, Sulfur/nickel ferrite composite as cathode with high-volumetric-capacity for lithium-sulfur battery, Science China Materials (2018). (phys.org)
  • However, such architectures and polymer coatings can only partially retain polysulfides and are limited in their function over time, owing to structural changes that arise from the 80% volume change of the sulfur cathode on discharge. (nature.com)
  • Herein, we present a quite different chemical approach to polysulfide retention in the sulfur cathode, which relies on mediating polysulfide redox through insoluble thiosulfate species in a two-step process. (nature.com)
  • Lithium technology utilizing sulphur as a cathode is one of the optimal choices since it offers the possibility of achieving high-energy, long-life storage batteries with a potential low price. (europa.eu)
  • In order to understand the influence of surface area and surface modification, including interactions between electrolyte and sulphur based cathode composite we need to have a reliable characterization techniques. (europa.eu)
  • In the following example, by changing the base that acted as sulfur activator, different sulfa heterocycles were obtained from a single 2-nitrochalcone starting material. (cnrs.fr)
  • A fresh sample of sulfur is heated to just above the melting point, then allowed to cool and crystallise slowly as monoclinic sulfur. (rsc.org)
  • Although other hydrocarbon solvents, such as methylbenzene, can be used to dissolve sulfur and form monoclinic sulfur, dimethylbenzene (xylene) is the least hazardous. (rsc.org)
  • Its three important allotropic forms are: rhombic sulphur, monoclinic sulphur, and plastic sulphur. (answers.com)
  • When it is heated to more than 950deg.c, it changes into monoclinic sulphur. (answers.com)
  • β-Sulfur is a yellow solid with a monoclinic crystal form and is less dense than α-sulfur. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, sulfur is cheap and abundant as a refining byproduct and is very simple to turn into plastics. (ptonline.com)
  • Sulfur is an abundant natural resource that has been used by humans for hundreds of years, according to How Stuff Works. (reference.com)
  • Here we use metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses to show that deep-sea populations of the SUP05 group of uncultured sulfur-oxidizing Gammaproteobacteria, which are abundant in widespread and diverse marine environments, contain and highly express genes encoding group 1 Ni, Fe hydrogenase enzymes for H 2 oxidation. (pnas.org)
  • SUP05 transcripts for genes involved in H 2 and sulfur oxidation are most abundant in hydrothermal plumes where these electron donors are enriched. (pnas.org)
  • Among the most active and abundant microorganisms in GB plumes are sulfur-oxidizing bacteria of the SUP05 group of Gammaproteobacteria ( 13 , 16 ). (pnas.org)
  • Being abundant in native form, sulfur was known in ancient times, being mentioned for its uses in ancient India , ancient Greece , China , and Egypt . (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of aluminium and sulphur, both of which are relatively abundant is also supposed to avoid potential raw material shortages in lithium-ion batteries. (electrive.com)
  • Carbon-bonded sulfur was generally 2 to 3 times more abundant than ester-sulfate sulfur with less seasonal variation. (lsu.edu)
  • Applications of Pulse Radiolysis for the Study of Short-Lived Sulphur Species. (worldcat.org)
  • Sulfur-Centered Three-Electron Bonded Radical Species. (worldcat.org)
  • Neighboring Group Participation: General Principles and Application to Sulfur-Centered Reactive Species. (worldcat.org)
  • Allium species synthesize a unique set of secondary sulfur metabolites derived from Cys. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The generation of highly reactive molecules under controlled conditions is desirable, as it allows exploration of synthetic chemistry and enables spectroscopic studies of such elusive species. (pnas.org)
  • Fragmentation of suitable molecular precursors presents a potential entry point to explore the synthetic chemistry for such reactive species and opens new avenues for spectroscopic characterization ( 9 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 16 ). (pnas.org)
  • The second important species in water of soda lakes is hydrosulfide sulfur S 2- , and in chloride lakes is thiosulfate sulfur S 2 O 3 2- . (springer.com)
  • The mushroom was consumed in a dish with other species so the death cannot be attributed to sulfur tuft with certainty. (morelmushroomhunting.com)
  • Reduced sulfur species removed by marsh accretion or sedimentation process are likely significant in marsh energy flow. (lsu.edu)
  • The absorbance spectrum of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson protein--a component of the antenna system of Green Sulfur Bacteria--is always one of two types, depending on the species of the source organism. (nih.gov)
  • Sulfenylium Cation Carriers in Chemistry and Biochemistry. (worldcat.org)
  • and UA chemistry and biochemistry professor Richard Glass. (ptonline.com)
  • A coal-burning electrical generating plant emits sulfur dioxide into the surrounding air. (jiskha.com)
  • Sulfur dioxide is acidic yet reducing gases (one of the few common gases in the earth). (azchemistry.com)
  • Multiple rare human diseases with different clinical presentations are caused by mutations of genes in the iron sulfur cluster biogenesis pathway. (degruyter.com)
  • ACP has a second essential function within the mitochondria in the biogenesis of iron-sulfur clusters. (uga.edu)
  • Between its melting and boiling temperatures, octasulfur changes its allotrope again, turning from β-octasulfur to γ-sulfur, again accompanied by a lower density but increased viscosity due to the formation of polymers . (wikipedia.org)
  • The allotrope of the element , sulfur , most prevalent in nature, cyclo -octasulfur ( cyclo -S 8 ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Another allotrope is called flowers of sulphur. (answers.com)
  • The findings made by Jena's chemists give us a better understanding of the earth's sulphur cycle, which offers important knowledge for atmospheric and climatic models. (eurekalert.org)
  • In June 2003, atmospheric scientists at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center and the University of Maryland, Baltimore County, used satellites to track how much sulfur dioxide streamed into the atmosphere from a fire at a sulfur mine and processing facility near Mosul, Iraq. (nasa.gov)
  • In the first few days, the fire did not appear to be particularly energetic and our preliminary observations suggest that much of the sulfur dioxide remained in the boundary layer and the lower troposphere, which accentuates the impact on air quality and health," said Simon Carn , an atmospheric scientist at Michigan Tech. "More recently, sulfur dioxide has been lofted to higher altitudes where it may undergo long-range transport. (nasa.gov)
  • After a month of burning, the 2003 fire had released roughly 600 kilotons of sulfur dioxide-so much that it was the largest non-volcanic release of sulfur dioxide we had ever observed with satellites," said Nikolay Krotkov , an atmospheric scientist at Goddard Space Flight Center. (nasa.gov)
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. (nasa.gov)
  • The Bible speaks of fire and brimstone and the Ebers Papyrus dating from 1550 BC describes an eye salve containing sulphur. (montrealgazette.com)
  • Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR), and Mössbauer spectroscopies and other physical methods have provided important new insights into the radical-SAM superfamily of proteins, which use iron-sulfur clusters and S-adenosylmethionine to initiate H atom abstraction reactions. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This remarkable chemistry involves the generation of the extremely reactive 5'-deoxyadenosyl radical, the same radical intermediate utilized in B12-dependent reactions. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Although early speculation focused on the possibility of an organometallic intermediate in radical-SAM reactions, current evidence points to novel chemistry involving a site-differentiated [4Fe-4S] cluster. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • These reactions are analogous to those in the sodium-sulfur battery . (wikipedia.org)
  • Sulfur-based reactions play an increasing role in macromolecular syntheses. (itu.edu.tr)
  • While Canada does not have any sulphur mines, we do have huge amounts of natural gas and a significant petroleum industry. (montrealgazette.com)
  • At that time, Pyun and his colleagues were focused on using waste sulfur from the petroleum refining industry as a low-cost feedstock for a new kind of plastic. (ptonline.com)
  • Live Science explains that the removal of sulfur from natural gas and petroleum used to destroy the sulfur in the process, but scientists have since developed more effective methods of extracting the sulfur for human consumption while maintaining its integrity. (reference.com)
  • [5] Today, almost all elemental sulfur is produced as a byproduct of removing sulfur-containing contaminants from natural gas and petroleum . (wikipedia.org)
  • ASRL is supported and governed by a broad cross-section of the petroleum-based energy industry and specific sulfur production and supply businesses from Canada, The United States and much of Europe as well as The Middle and Far East. (ucalgary.ca)
  • The estimated rate of oxidation of sulfur dioxide to sulfates in the atmosphere varies considerably, from as low as 0.1 percent per hour to as high as 30 percent or more per hour, depending on local conditions such as the humidity and the relative concentrations of other air pollutants. (nap.edu)
  • Accordingly, ambient concentrations of sulfur dioxide are generally greater than those of sulfates at urban stations, but are lower at some rural stations (see Chapter 6 ). (nap.edu)
  • In high concentrations, sulfur dioxide can impair breathing and even be life threatening. (nasa.gov)
  • An international team has developed a robust material that can selectively take in toxic sulfur dioxide gas at record concentrations and preserve it for use in chemical production. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Polymer chemistry takes the complexity up a notch. (ptonline.com)
  • The situation is even that much clearer for my field of polymer chemistry. (chemistry-blog.com)
  • In short, the refined elements have no place in polymer chemistry. (chemistry-blog.com)
  • From my perspective as a polymer chemist, the uses of sulfur are limited and have historically fallen into three categories. (chemistry-blog.com)
  • Preliminary testing of a lithium battery using this new sulfur-based polymer, however, shows that the performance is nearly identical to that of a standard lithium-sulfur battery but without the degradation. (chemistry-blog.com)
  • It was found that the sulfur nanoparticle size can be controlled by varying the viscosity of solution and introducing polymer additions. (deepdyve.com)
  • The EU-funded project Amapola which is focussing on a marketable polymer-based Al-S battery has announced it will be developing an aluminium-sulphur battery for vehicles and aircraft. (electrive.com)
  • The most popular approaches are to encapsulate sulfur in the pores of carbon materials or a conductive polymer matrix. (nature.com)
  • Patai's Chemistry of Functional Groups is one of chemistry's landmark book series in organic chemistry. (wiley.com)
  • In Vitro Studies of Cellular Iron-Sulfur Cluster Biosynthesis, Trafficking, and Transport. (semanticscholar.org)
  • When burned, sulfur melts to a blood-red liquid and emits a blue flame. (wikipedia.org)
  • Already, sulfur dioxide emissions from the fire have been significant. (nasa.gov)
  • Sulfur dioxide emissions are typically produced by power plants, other industrial facilities, and trains, ships, and heavy equipment, and can be harmful to human health and the environment. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Prior to planting, two sources of sulfur, langbeinite (K 2 Mg 2 (SO 4 ) 3 ) and potassium sulfate (K 2 SO 4 ), were incorporated into the onion beds at rates of 0, 30, or 50 kg/ha of S. Onions were harvested by hand, cured, and stored in 2 commercial common storage facilities. (gc.ca)
  • Worse, in order to improve the electrochemical performance, sulfur is usually forced to load onto various lightweight carbon hosts, leading to more lower volumetric capacity of sulfur-based composites, and undermining the volumetric energy density of Li-S battery. (phys.org)
  • With an aim to have stable capacity retention with a good cycling efficiency it is important to find a suitable electrochemical environment for the lithium - sulphur batteries. (europa.eu)
  • In this respect different electrochemical, spectroscopic and physical characterization (in-situ or ex-situ) techniques can provide us valuable information's about the possible mechanism which can be used in planning of substrates for sulphur in the Li-S batteries. (europa.eu)
  • ALISE is a pan European collaboration focused on the development and commercial scale-up of new materials and on the understanding of the electrochemical processes involved in the lithium sulphur technology. (europa.eu)
  • Another important source is the sulfur dioxide emitted into the atmosphere by coal-fired steam power plants. (britannica.com)
  • A fire at the same sulfur facility in Iraq is emitting tremendous quantities of sulfur dioxide into the atmosphere. (nasa.gov)
  • Initially, OMI detected sulfur dioxide in the planetary boundary layer and lower troposphere, the lowest parts of the atmosphere. (nasa.gov)
  • More sulfur dioxide was observed in the atmosphere than we initially reported. (nasa.gov)
  • When released into the atmosphere sulfur dioxide converts to sulfuric acid resulting in adverse effects on human health and the environment. (environmental-expert.com)
  • A further sample is heated to boiling point, and the liquid rapidly chilled in cold water to form plastic sulfur. (rsc.org)
  • The first substances known to humans in their elemental form were gold and sulphur. (montrealgazette.com)
  • They all require either a reduced or an oxidized form of sulfur in order to form the polymers. (chemistry-blog.com)
  • Smells can often be subjective (and culture-specific, as in case of cheese), but if you ask chemists to universally agree upon one element in the periodic table that has succeeded in snaring the title of king of bad smells, they would probably settle upon sulfur, especially in the form of thiols. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Though sometimes found in pure, native form, sulfur on Earth usually occurs as sulfide and sulfate minerals . (wikipedia.org)
  • In a high-pressure study at ambient temperatures, four new solid forms, termed II, III, IV, V have been characterized, where α-sulfur is form I. [11] Solid forms II and III are polymeric, while IV and V are metallic (and are superconductive below 10 K and 17 K, respectively). (wikipedia.org)
  • The sulfur ring in cyclo-S 6 has a "chair" conformation , reminiscent of the chair form of cyclohexane . (wikipedia.org)
  • α-Sulfur is the form most commonly found in nature. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sulfur dioxide will react with water to form sulfurous acid (see balanced equation below). (jiskha.com)
  • Iron pyrite (FeS2) is the form in whichmuch of the sulfur exists in coal. (jiskha.com)
  • Most emissions are in the form of sulfur dioxide. (nap.edu)
  • Some of the sulfur dioxide is oxidized to form sulfates, which may in turn form aerosols and travel long distances with the wind (see Chapter 6 ). (nap.edu)
  • The common form is called rhombic sulphur. (answers.com)
  • Sulphur is a reactive element.It burns in the air with a blue flame to form sulphur dioxide. (answers.com)
  • The most commonly encountered form of sulphur is the orthorhombic polymorph of S 8, which adopts a puckered ring - or "crown" - structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Photocatalytic Formation of Sulfur-Centered Radicals by One-Electron Redox Processes on Semiconductor Surfaces. (worldcat.org)
  • Redox photochemistry of methionine by sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy: potential implications for cataract formation. (ubc.ca)
  • The photochemistry of methionine, methionine sulfoxide, and methionine sulfone have been investigated by using sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy to explore the redox photochemical processes under different conditions. (ubc.ca)
  • These predominantly relate to the insulating nature of sulfur and lithium sulfides, which require addition of conductive additives (hence lowering the active sulfur mass fraction), pronounced capacity fading on cycling and an internal redox shuttle that lowers Coulombic efficiency 10 . (nature.com)
  • Live Science notes that sulfur is classified in the periodic table of elements as a non-metal, which means that it is not able to conduct heat or electricity very well, and it cannot be rolled into wires or pounded into sheets. (reference.com)
  • Periodic Table of Elements - Sulfur - S. EnvironmentalChemistry.com. (environmentalchemistry.com)
  • A separate sample of sulfur is dissolved in a warm solvent, and the solution allowed to cool and evaporate, leaving crystals of rhombic sulfur. (rsc.org)
  • They calculated that the fire at Al-Mishraq , which burned for nearly a month, released 21 kilotons of toxic sulfur dioxide per day. (nasa.gov)
  • Sulfur has many applications, including the production of sulfuric acid, vulcanization of natural rubber, formulation of phosphate fertilizers and production of fumigants and fungicides. (reference.com)
  • Sulfur dioxide gets together with water droplets in the air to make sulfuric acid . (windows2universe.org)
  • The plume from the Al-Mishraq sulfur plant appears white-gray because it is rich with sulfate aerosols and droplets of sulfuric acid, which reflect light. (nasa.gov)
  • I know that a similar finding with an amine-oxidizing enzyme sparked new chemistry and the creation of a company that now employs dozens of chemists. (rug.nl)
  • If the sulfur dioxide were coming from a volcano rather than a fire, it would already be among the largest eruptions of 2016, Carn noted in a tweet on October 25, 2016. (nasa.gov)
  • This is an experiment from the Practical Chemistry project, developed by the Nuffield Foundation and the Royal Society of Chemistry. (rsc.org)
  • This is a resource from the Practical Chemistry project, developed by the Nuffield Foundation and the Royal Society of Chemistry. (rsc.org)
  • Reproduced from Ref. XX with permission from the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and The Royal Society of Chemistry. (rsc.org)
  • Reproduced from Ref. XX with permission from the European Society for Photobiology, the European Photochemistry Association, and The Royal Society of Chemistry. (rsc.org)
  • The Siemens Maxum II, Total Sulfur on-line process gas chromatograph, provides this information in reliable manner using process suitable analytical procedures. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Organic sulfur, in the forms of ester-sulfate sulfur and carbon-bonded sulfur, was the major contributor to the total sulfur pool in all marsh types. (lsu.edu)
  • The element sulfur is used in matches , insecticides , and fungicides . (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the amount of sulfur locked by these radicals is low, their detection allows placing interesting constraints on the chemistry of sulfur in dark clouds. (csic.es)