Click Chemistry: Organic chemistry methodology that mimics the modular nature of various biosynthetic processes. It uses highly reliable and selective reactions designed to "click" i.e., rapidly join small modular units together in high yield, without offensive byproducts. In combination with COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES, it is used for the synthesis of new compounds and combinatorial libraries.Chemistry, Clinical: The specialty of ANALYTIC CHEMISTRY applied to assays of physiologically important substances found in blood, urine, tissues, and other biological fluids for the purpose of aiding the physician in making a diagnosis or following therapy.Chemistry, Organic: The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Physical Fitness: The ability to carry out daily tasks and perform physical activities in a highly functional state, often as a result of physical conditioning.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Physical Therapy Modalities: Therapeutic modalities frequently used in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY by PHYSICAL THERAPISTS or physiotherapists to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Clinical Chemistry Tests: Laboratory tests demonstrating the presence of physiologically significant substances in the blood, urine, tissue, and body fluids with application to the diagnosis or therapy of disease.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Chemistry, Analytic: The branch of chemistry dealing with detection (qualitative) and determination (quantitative) of substances. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Combinatorial Chemistry Techniques: A technology, in which sets of reactions for solution or solid-phase synthesis, is used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.Physical Examination: Systematic and thorough inspection of the patient for physical signs of disease or abnormality.Physical Therapy Specialty: The auxiliary health profession which makes use of PHYSICAL THERAPY MODALITIES to prevent, correct, and alleviate movement dysfunction of anatomic or physiological origin.Physical Education and Training: Instructional programs in the care and development of the body, often in schools. The concept does not include prescribed exercises, which is EXERCISE THERAPY.Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Blood Chemical Analysis: An examination of chemicals in the blood.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Chemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Alkynes: Hydrocarbons with at least one triple bond in the linear portion, of the general formula Cn-H2n-2.Nobel PrizeChemistry Techniques, Synthetic: Methods used for the chemical synthesis of compounds. Included under this heading are laboratory methods used to synthesize a variety of chemicals and drugs.Physical Chromosome Mapping: Mapping of the linear order of genes on a chromosome with units indicating their distances by using methods other than genetic recombination. These methods include nucleotide sequencing, overlapping deletions in polytene chromosomes, and electron micrography of heteroduplex DNA. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 5th ed)Organic Chemistry Phenomena: The conformation, properties, reaction processes, and the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds.Green Chemistry Technology: Pollution prevention through the design of effective chemical products that have low or no toxicity and use of chemical processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances.Sedentary Lifestyle: Usual level of physical activity that is less than 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity on most days of the week.Chemistry Techniques, Analytical: Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Physical Therapists: Persons trained in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY to make use of PHYSICAL THERAPY MODALITIES to prevent, correct, and alleviate movement dysfunction.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Evolution, Chemical: Chemical and physical transformation of the biogenic elements from their nucleosynthesis in stars to their incorporation and subsequent modification in planetary bodies and terrestrial biochemistry. It includes the mechanism of incorporation of biogenic elements into complex molecules and molecular systems, leading up to the origin of life.Recreation: Activity engaged in for pleasure.Walking: An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine: A medical specialty concerned with the use of physical agents, mechanical apparatus, and manipulation in rehabilitating physically diseased or injured patients.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Physical Endurance: The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.Exercise Therapy: A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.Cyclization: Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Sports: Activities or games, usually involving physical effort or skill. Reasons for engagement in sports include pleasure, competition, and/or financial reward.Accelerometry: Qualitative and quantitative measurement of MOVEMENT patterns.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Biochemistry: The study of the composition, chemical structures, and chemical reactions of living things.Environment Design: The structuring of the environment to permit or promote specific patterns of behavior.Azides: Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)United StatesObesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Extraterrestrial Environment: The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.Cosmic Dust: Finely divided solid matter with particle sizes smaller than a micrometeorite, thus with diameters much smaller than a millimeter, moving in interplanetary space. (NASA Thesaurus, 1994)Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Biogenesis: The origin of life. It includes studies of the potential basis for life in organic compounds but excludes studies of the development of altered forms of life through mutation and natural selection, which is BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Actigraphy: The measurement and recording of MOTOR ACTIVITY to assess rest/activity cycles.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Schools: Educational institutions.Organic Chemistry Processes: The reactions, changes in structure and composition, the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds, and the associated energy changes.Physical Conditioning, Animal: Diet modification and physical exercise to improve the ability of animals to perform physical activities.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Astronomy: The science concerned with celestial bodies and the observation and interpretation of the radiation received in the vicinity of the earth from the component parts of the universe (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Physics: The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Physical Therapy Department, Hospital: Hospital department which is responsible for the administration and provision of diagnostic and medical rehabilitation services to restore or improve the functional capacity of the patient.Disabled Persons: Persons with physical or mental disabilities that affect or limit their activities of daily living and that may require special accommodations.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Self Report: Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Quantum Theory: The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in definite quantities called quanta (E) which vary in size and are defined by the equation E=hv in which h is Planck's constant and v is the frequency of the radiation.Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Health Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Monitoring, Ambulatory: The use of electronic equipment to observe or record physiologic processes while the patient undergoes normal daily activities.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Muscle Strength: The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Copper: A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.Photoelectron Spectroscopy: The study of the energy of electrons ejected from matter by the photoelectric effect, i.e., as a direct result of absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation. As the energies of the electrons are characteristic of a specific element, the measurement of the energy of these electrons is a technique used to determine the chemical composition of surfaces.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Enzymes: Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Carbonates: Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Self Efficacy: Cognitive mechanism based on expectations or beliefs about one's ability to perform actions necessary to produce a given effect. It is also a theoretical component of behavior change in various therapeutic treatments. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Nanostructures: Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Fatigue: The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.Drug Discovery: The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Organometallic Compounds: A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Biological Products: Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Coordination Complexes: Neutral or negatively charged ligands bonded to metal cations or neutral atoms. The number of ligand atoms to which the metal center is directly bonded is the metal cation's coordination number, and this number is always greater than the regular valence or oxidation number of the metal. A coordination complex can be negative, neutral, or positively charged.Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Radiochemistry: The study of the chemical and physical phenomena of radioactive substances.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Biology: One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.Child Abuse: Abuse of children in a family, institutional, or other setting. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Solar System: The group of celestial bodies, including the EARTH, orbiting around and gravitationally bound by the sun. It includes eight planets, one minor planet, and 34 natural satellites, more than 1,000 observed comets, and thousands of lesser bodies known as MINOR PLANETS (asteroids) and METEOROIDS. (From Academic American Encyclopedia, 1983)Metals: Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Physical Phenomena: The entities of matter and energy, and the processes, principles, properties, and relationships describing their nature and interactions.Hematologic Tests: Tests used in the analysis of the hemic system.Transportation: The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.Sulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.Exobiology: The interdisciplinary science that studies evolutionary biology, including the origin and evolution of the major elements required for life, their processing in the interstellar medium and in protostellar systems. This field also includes the study of chemical evolution and the subsequent interactions between evolving biota and planetary evolution as well as the field of biology that deals with the study of extraterrestrial life.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Musculoskeletal Diseases: Diseases of the muscles and their associated ligaments and other connective tissue and of the bones and cartilage viewed collectively.Autoanalysis: Method of analyzing chemicals using automation.Photochemical Processes: Chemical reactions effected by light.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Fullerenes: A polyhedral CARBON structure composed of around 60-80 carbon atoms in pentagon and hexagon configuration. They are named after Buckminster Fuller because of structural resemblance to geodesic domes. Fullerenes can be made in high temperature such as arc discharge in an inert atmosphere.Contig Mapping: Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Amines: A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Television: The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Metal Nanoparticles: Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.Biosensing Techniques: Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Natural Science Disciplines: The sciences dealing with processes observable in nature.Small Molecule Libraries: Large collections of small molecules (molecular weight about 600 or less), of similar or diverse nature which are used for high-throughput screening analysis of the gene function, protein interaction, cellular processing, biochemical pathways, or other chemical interactions.Geriatric Assessment: Evaluation of the level of physical, physiological, or mental functioning in the older population group.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Electrons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Silanes: Compounds similar to hydrocarbons in which a tetravalent silicon atom replaces the carbon atom. They are very reactive, ignite in air, and form useful derivatives.Mobility Limitation: Difficulty in walking from place to place.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Biomimetics: An interdisciplinary field in materials science, ENGINEERING, and BIOLOGY, studying the use of biological principles for synthesis or fabrication of BIOMIMETIC MATERIALS.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Gold: A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.Ecotoxicology: The study of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION and the toxic effects of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS on the ECOSYSTEM. The term was coined by Truhaut in 1969.Hydrocarbons, Cyclic: Organic compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen forming a closed ring that may be either alicyclic or aromatic.Play and Playthings: Spontaneous or voluntary recreational activities pursued for enjoyment and accessories or equipment used in the activities; includes games, toys, etc.Work: Productive or purposeful activities.Survivors: Persons who have experienced a prolonged survival after serious disease or who continue to live with a usually life-threatening condition as well as family members, significant others, or individuals surviving traumatic life events.

Isolation of SMTP-3, 4, 5 and -6, novel analogs of staplabin, and their effects on plasminogen activation and fibrinolysis. (1/2747)

Four novel triprenyl phenol metabolites, designated SMTP-3, -4, -5, and -6, have been isolated from cultures of Stachybotrys microspora IFO 30018 by solvent extraction and successive chromatographic fractionation using silica gel and silica ODS columns. A combination of spectroscopic analyses showed that SMTP-3, -4, -5, and -6 are staplabin analogs, containing a serine, a phenylalanine, a leucine or a tryptophan moiety in respective molecules in place of the N-carboxybutyl portion of the staplabin molecule. SMTP-4, -5, and -6 were active at 0.15 to 0.3 mM in enhancing urokinase-catalyzed plasminogen activation and plasminogen binding to fibrin, as well as plasminogen- and urokinase-mediated fibrinolysis. On the other hand, the concentration of staplabin required to exert such effects was 0.4 to 0.6 mM, and SMTP-3 was inactive at concentrations up to 0.45 mM.  (+info)

Novel selective inhibitors for human topoisomerase I, BM2419-1 and -2 derived from saintopin. (2/2747)

Compounds BM2419-1 and -2 were isolated from a culture broth of a fungus Paecilomyces sp. BM2419. It was shown that these novel compounds were artifacts derived from saintopin, a dual inhibitor of topoisomerase I and II by independent processes. In the human topoisomerase I inhibition assay using the recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae, BM2419-1 and -2 inhibited selectively the yeast growth dependent on human topoisomerase I induction with IC50 values of 0.3 ng/ml and 6.0 ng/ml, respectively.  (+info)

Apicularens A and B, new cytostatic macrolides from Chondromyces species (myxobacteria): production, physico-chemical and biological properties. (3/2747)

A novel macrolide, apicularen A, was produced by several species of the genus Chondromyces. Initially it was discovered by bioassay-guided RP-HPLC-fractionation of culture extracts of Chondromyces robustus, strain Cm a13. Apicularen A showed no antimicrobial activity, but was highly cytotoxic for cultivated human and animal cells, with IC50 values ranging between 0.1 and 3 ng/ml. A cometabolite of apicularen A, the N-acetylglucosamine glycoside apicularen B, was distinctly less cytotoxic with IC50 values between 0.2 and 1.2 microg/ml, and showed weak activity against a few Gram-positive bacteria. Apicularen A is chemically closely related to the salicylihalamides A and B from the marine sponge Haliclona sp.  (+info)

BE-31405, a new antifungal antibiotic produced by Penicillium minioluteum. I. Description of producing organism, fermentation, isolation, physico-chemical and biological properties. (4/2747)

A new antifungal antibiotic, BE-31405, was isolated from the culture broth of a fungal strain, Penicillium minioluteum F31405. BE-31405 was isolated by adsorption on high porous polymer resin (Diaion HP-20), followed by solvent extraction, precipitation and crystallization. BE-31405 showed potent growth inhibitory activity against pathogenic fungal strains such as Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Cryptococcus neoformans, but did not show cytotoxic activity against mammalian cells such as P388 mouse leukemia. The mechanism studies indicated that BE-31405 inhibited the protein synthesis of C. albicans but not of mammalian cells.  (+info)

Diperamycin, a new antimicrobial antibiotic produced by Streptomyces griseoaurantiacus MK393-AF2. I. Taxonomy, fermentation, isolation, physico-chemical properties and biological activities. (5/2747)

Antibacterial antibiotics, diperamycin (1) was produced in the culture broth of Streptomyces griseoaurantiacus MK393-AF2. Various spectroscopic analyses of 1 suggested that 1 belonged to a member of cyclic hexadepsipeptide antibiotic. Antibiotic 1 had potent inhibitory activity against various Gram-positive bacteria including Enterococcus seriolicida and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.  (+info)

Structure of actinotetraose hexatiglate, a unique glucotetraose from an actinomycete bacterium. (6/2747)

An Actinomycete strain A499 belonging to the genera Amycolatopsis or Amycolata isolated from a Western Australian soil sample produced the cyclic decapeptide antibiotic quinaldopeptin (1), together with the actinotetraose hexatiglate (2), the hexa-ester of a novel non-reducing glucotetraose.  (+info)

Relationships between the lipophilicity of some 1,4-piperazine derivatives of aryloxyaminopropanols and their beta-andrenolytic activity. (7/2747)

Nineteen 1,4-piperazine derivatives of aryloxyaminopropanol were evaluated with respect to beta-adrenolytic activity. The retention factors obtained from HPLC, RM values obtained from partition TLC and the lipophilic Hansch's (4) constants pi were determined and the compounds were studied with respect to their lipophilicity based on chromatographic properties. The study of the influence of different substituents introduced at the para position on the phenyl ring on the retention factor indicated the log k vs. the number of carbon atoms in R1 substituent to be a linear relationship. Attempts have been made to relate the beta-adrenolytic activity to the lipohydrophilic parameters by deriving a quantitative relationship between them. Significant parabolic correlation was observed between the beta-adrenolytic activity and the logarithm of the retention factor, log k. An analogous relationship was obtained between the beta-adrenolytic activity of the compounds and the RM values obtained from partition TLC as well as Hansch's lipophilic constants pi.  (+info)

Determination of the lipophilicity of active anticonvulsant N-substituted amides of alpha-arylalkylamine-gamma-hydroxybutyric acid. (8/2747)

The lipophilicities of fourteen anticonvulsant active N-substituted amides of alpha-arylalkylamine-gamma-hydroxybutyric acid [I-XIV] have been determined by reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography with a mixture of methanol, TRIS buffer, and acetic acid as the solvent system. The RM value of each compound decreased linearly with increasing concentration of methanol. The partition coefficients (log P) of the amides were calculated by use of the Prolog P module of the Pallas system. Comparison of RM and log P enabled clog P values to be calculated. It was found that the anticonvulsant activity of amides [I-XIV] can be explained on the basis of their lipophilicity.  (+info)

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Physical chemistry lies at the heart of the behaviour of those macromolecules and molecular assemblies that have vital roles in all living organisms. Physical principles determine the stability of proteins and nucleic acids, the rate at which biochemical reactions proceed, the transport of molecules across biological molecules; they allow us to describe structure and reactivity in complex biological systems, and make sense of how these systems operate. Physical Chemistry for the Life Sciences provides a balanced presentation of the concepts of physical chemistry, and their extensive applications to biology and biochemistry. It is written to straddle the worlds of physical chemistry and the life sciences and to show students how the tools of physical chemistry can elucidate and illuminate biological questions. Opening with a suite of chapters on Biochemical Thermodynamics, with a focus on energy conversion in biological cells and the factors that stabilize proteins, nucleic acids, and cell
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HANS KUHN, Dr. phil, became a Professor at the University of Basel in 1951. From 1953-1970 he was on the chair of the Institute of Physical Chemistry at the Philipps-University at Marburg, and in 1970 he became Director at the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry (Karl-Friedrich-Bonhoeffer-Institut) until he retired in 1985. Professor Kuhn has published papers in such fields as polymer science, quantum chemistry, organized molecular assemblies, and the origin of life. HORST-DIETER FÖRSTERLING, Dr. phil., was a Professor in the Department of Physical Chemistry at the Philipps-University of Marburg from 1972 until his retirement in 1999. Professor Försterling has taught physical chemistry courses and laboratory courses at all levels, including graduate and advanced graduate courses in spectroscopy, statistical mechanics, reaction kinetics, and quantum mechanics. His research interests include quantum chemistry, reaction mechanisms, oscillating chemical reactions, and chemical ...
TRT 401 PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY. PART 1: INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY. What is physical chemistry? Physical chemistry is a study of the physical basis of phenomena related to the chemical composition and structure of substances . Or Slideshow 2088202 by iola
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Quantum chemistry, a subfield of physical chemistry especially concerned with the application of quantum mechanics to chemical problems, provides tools to determine how strong and what shape bonds are,[2] how nuclei move, and how light can be absorbed or emitted by a chemical compound.[3] Spectroscopy is the related sub-discipline of physical chemistry which is specifically concerned with the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter. Another set of important questions in chemistry concerns what kind of reactions can happen spontaneously and which properties are possible for a given chemical mixture. This is studied in chemical thermodynamics, which sets limits on quantities like how far a reaction can proceed, or how much energy can be converted into work in an internal combustion engine, and which provides links between properties like the thermal expansion coefficient and rate of change of entropy with pressure for a gas or a liquid.[4] It can frequently be used to assess whether a ...
PREFACE There is a deep sense of pleasure to be experienced when the patterns and symmetry of nature are revealed. Physical chemistry provides the methods to discover and understand these patterns. We think that not only is it important to learn and apply physical chemistry to biological problems, it may even be fun. In this book, we have tried to capture some of the excitement of making new discoveries and finding answers to fundamental questions. This is not an encyclopedia of physical chemistry. Rather, we have written this text specifically with the life-science student in mind. We present a streamlined treatment that covers the core aspects of biophysical chemistry (thermodynamics and kinetics as well as quantum mechanics, spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction), which are of great importance to students of biology and biochemistry. Essentially all applications of the concepts are to systems of interest to life-science students; nearly all the problems apply to life-science examples. For this ...
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1.) The first time I took physical chemistry, and used Atkins book I thought the book and subject matter where far too difficult. Organic, Inorganic, Biochemistry, ect.. where a cake walk. You studied and passed the course with a passing grade. P-chem was a different story altogether. I heard horror story after horror story about the difficultly of the subject matter. Then, I took P-chem and was horrified for the first time by any subject matter... the rumors were true. However, I now understand its primarly not the book but the training most chemistry students dont recieve prior to taking physical chemistry that makes physical chemistry so difficult to understand for most chemistry students ...
9780815340850: Physical Chemistry: Statistical Mechanics, Metiu H. - This is a new undergraduate textbook on physical chemistry by Horia Metiu published as four separate paperback volumes. These four volumes on physical chemistry combine a clear and thoro
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Russian Journal of Physical Chemistry A. Focus on Chemistry (Zhurnal Fizicheskoi Khimii), founded in 1930, offers a comprehensive review of theoretical and experimental research from the Russian Academy of Sciences, leading research and academic centers from Russia and from all over the world. Articles are devoted to chemical thermodynamics and thermochemistry, biophysical chemistry, photochemistry and magnetochemistry, materials structure, quantum chemistry, physical chemistry of nanomaterials and solutions, surface phenomena and adsorption, and methods and techniques of physicochemical studies.. ...
Physical chemists aim to develop the deepest and most quantitatively accurate understanding of chemical reactions and phenomena. Physical chemistry is traditionally divided into studies of molecular structure (based on the underlying theory of quantum mechanics), the equilibrium properties of systems (based on thermodynamics and statistical mechanics), and the mechanisms and kinetics of change in chemical systems (chemical/reaction kinetics and dynamics). These theories and their extensions provide the foundation for an enormous breadth of modern research into physical and chemical phenomena.. Physical chemistry research in our department includes (among other topics) investigations of:. ...
Physical chemistry deals with the fundamental relations governing the behavior of atomic matter; namely, quantum chemistry, statistical mechanics, thermodynamics and chemical kinetics/dynamics. The research interests of the faculty of the physical chemistry division, theorists and experimentalists, reach across all of these areas. The members of the Division are also associated with several other programs at FSU: The School of Computational Science (SCS), the Center for Materials Research and Technology (MARTECH), the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL) and the Program in Chemical Physics. The latter is an interdisciplinary, degree-granting program between the departments of Chemistry and Physics which offers M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Chemical Physics ...
Physical Chemistry encompasses experimental and theoretical studies of the structure and dynamics of molecules and molecular materials. Research in Physical Chemistry and Chemical Physics at Arizona uncovers the flow of energy and charge at the extremes of time and space, determines electronic and molecular structure of new or reactive species found in outer space or of relevance for catalysis, and probes the inner workings of the critical biological building blocks of life. At the focus of our efforts are questions of drug design, novel materials strategies to energy conversion and the origins of life on earth.. ...
Worldwide scientific leaders are gathering from USA (America), Europe, UK, Middle East and Australia at Physical Chemistry Conferences 2019, Theoretical Chemistry Conferences 2019, Computational Chemistry Meetings 2019 held during September 20-21, 2020 Barcelona,Spain
Designed to encourage active and collaborative learning in the physical chemistry classroom, this text is a collection of group activities (ChemActivities) that can accompany any physical chemistry text. These ChemActivities teach students how to think like scientists, rather than simply memorizing important conclusions arrived at by great scientists of the past.James N Spencer is the author of Physical Chemistry: A Guided Inquiry: Atoms, Molecules, and Spectroscopy, published 2003 under ISBN 9780618308545 and ISBN 0618308547. [read more] ...
Latest Physical Chemistry news as it happens! A comprehensive list of the latest chemistry news and articles from the field of Physical Chemistry.
Latest Physical Chemistry news as it happens! A comprehensive list of the latest chemistry news and articles from the field of Physical Chemistry.
Get this from a library! The physical chemistry of materials : energy and environmental applications. [Rolando M A Roque-Malherbe] -- This text provides comprehensive data on the physical chemistry of materials used in these resources, including adsorbents, ion exchangers and conductors, catalysts, and permeable materials.
1) The crude answer: On average, grades in senior-level physical chemistry are directly related to grades previously earned in math and physics classes.. Many students find physical chemistry difficult not because the concepts are hard, but because they have to apply the calculus and physics they learned previously to problems in chemistry. When freshmen and sophomores merely memorize calculus and physics for their exams rather than truly learning the material, they have difficulty later in senior-level physical chemistry courses. Of course, lack of preparation can be overcome by extraordinary personal effort, but it is easier to put in a little effort now rather than a lot of effort later.. 2) The subtle answer: By understanding physical chemistry, a student will have the skills to quantitatively understand biochemical processes. In order to understand physical chemistry, a student must first understand math and physics.. Physical chemistry is useful to biochemists because they use concepts ...
Free PDF Download Books by David Ball. Intended for the year long, calculus-based physical chemistry course for science and engineering majors, PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY follows a traditional organization wh
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References D.R. Burgess, Thermochemical Data in NIST Chemistry WebBook, NIST Standard Reference Database Number 69, Eds. P.J. Linstrom and W.G. Mallard, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg MD, 20899, http://webbook.nist.gov, (retrieved January 24, 2013). Mo, Yirong. The Resonance Energy of Benzene: A Revisit. The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 113.17 (2009): 5163-169. Web of Knowledge. Web. 24 Jan. 2013. Grimme, Stefan, and Ilie Fishtik. Accurate Evaluation of the Resonance Energies of Benzene and Pyridine via Cyclic Reference State. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 14.45 (2012): 15888-5896. Web of Knowledge. Web. 24 Jan. 2013. Halpern, Arthur M. Experimental Physical Chemistry: A Laboratory Textbook. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1997. Print. Physical Chemistry Faculty at UCSD. Chemistry 105A/B Physical Chemistry Laboratory: Supplementary Experimental Methods 2012-2013. La Jolla: Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California at ...
O hydrogen-bonding interactions determining the secondary structure of peptides. Unfortunately, the experimental characterisation of this seemingly simple system was far from being complete, and the contribution from the group of Suhm demonstrates that earlier spectroscopic assignments have to be corrected [DOI: 10.1039/C6CP07989J]. This has been achieved using Raman spectroscopy in combination with improved quantum chemical calculations.. The contribution of the Gerhards group aims to identify the most stable conformers of cyclic tetrapeptides cyclo[L-Tyr(Me)-D-Pro-L-X-D-Pro] (X = Ala, Glu(Me), Tyr(Me)) in the gas phase by recording IR/R2PI (Infrared/Resonant 2 Photon Ionisation) spectra in combination with quantum chemical calculations [DOI: 10.1039/C6CP08696A]. It was found that cyclotetrapeptides generally form doubly hydrogen-bonded structures but if this peptide contains an amino acid like glutamic acid with a flexible and H-bond accepting side chain a new energetically favourable ...
Here we describe an experiment for the undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory in which students synthesize the intermetallic compounds AlNi and AlNi3 and study them by X-ray diffractometry. The compounds are synthesized in a simple one-step reaction occurring in the solid state. Powder X-ray diffractograms are recorded for the two compounds as well as for the elements Al and Ni, all of which have cubic crystal structures. The students analyze the measured spectra to determine both the type of cubic lattice present and the unit cell dimension for comparison with the literature. The experiment demonstrates the utility of X-ray diffraction for structure determination.
Physical Chemistry: Biophysical Chemistry C, 10 p. Course Contents. Structure and composition of biomembranes and membrane lipids. Thermodynamic principles of selfassociation. Aggregates of amphiphilic molecules; Micelles, double-layers, vesicles and biological membranes. Intermolecular interaction. Lipid/protein interaction. Light and magnetic resonance (NMR and ESR) spectroscopic methods and their application on biological systems.. Compulsory laboratory experiments are included in the course.. Course Dates 1998/99. ...
physical chemistry - Statistical Thermodynamics - Thermodynamics provides chemists with the power to calculate, from thermochemical data alone, how far any chemical reaction will proceed before reaching equilibrium. Theoretical chemists would like to make such calculations without thermochemical data, however, using only the quantum mechanical descriptions of isolated molecules, but thermodynamics is based on the bulk properties of matter and reflects averages of very large numbers of molecules.Quantum mechanics, on the other hand, provides information only about the quantized energy…
The aims of the three components are:. · Physical Chemistry of the Condensed State: this will describe the basic physical chemical concepts of processes in the condensed state,including electrochemical potentials, structure of liquids, conductivity of electrolytes, colloids and micelles. This is also aimed at achieving an understanding of the physical chemistry which underlies a number of important technologies, namely batteries and fuel cells, colloids and surfactants.. · Protein Structure and Protein Folding: to discuss the application of basic physical chemistry concepts for describing protein structure and folding and to show how advanced physical chemistry methods are used for investigating these important aspects of proteins.. · Atmospheric Photochemistry: The aim of this section is to give the students a broad view of the chemistry of the Earths atmosphere. The course will describe the structure of the Earths atmosphere, its categorisation into different layers and the physical ...
World Library - eBooks . Physical chemistry is the study of macroscopic, atomic, subatomic, and particulate phenomena in chemical systems in terms of physical laws and concepts. It applies the principles, practices and concepts of physics such as motion, energy, force, time, thermodynamics, quantum chemistry, statistical mechanics and dynamics.
View Notes - Physical Chemistry Solution Manual (Askin) from UNKNOWN 111111 at University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign. Part 1: Equilibrium 1 The properties of gases Solutions to exercises
The Advances in Chemical Physics series presents the cutting edge in every area of the discipline and provides the field with a forum for critical, authoritative evaluations of advances. It provides an editorial framework that makes each volume an excellent supplement to advanced graduate classes, with contributions from experts around the world and a handy glossary for easy reference on new terminology. This series is a wonderful guide for students and professionals in chemical physics and physical chemistry, from academia, government, and industries including chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and polymers ...
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My new research group at the Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Zurich is interested in developing new ways to control and manipulate matter at the nanoscale, suspended in solution. At these length scales, gravity plays almost no role and the dynamics of an object in free solution are entirely dominated by random kicks from the surrounding thermal bath. Placing the object in a confined space however puts new forces in play, namely those between the object and the neighbouring walls. We have recently shown how these forces can be harnessed to manoeuvre a nanoscale object into a stable position and orientation in three dimensions [take a look at Nature 467, 692 (2010) & Nature Nanotechnology July 2012 for further details]. Our broad goal is to develop recipes toward force-free control of matter in solution - from proteins and biological macromolecules like viruses and DNA, to inorganic entities displaying interesting photonic properties. To this end, we will use micro- and ...
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What use is physical chemistry to the student of biochemistry and biology? This central question is answered in this book mainly through the use of worked examples and problems. The book starts by introducing the laws of thermodynamics, and then uses these laws to derive the equations relevant to the student in dealing with chemical equilibria (including the binding of small molecules to proteins), properties of solutions, acids and bases, and oxidation-reduction processes.
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Since 1997, the Applied Spectroscopy Lab (ASL) is the dynamic interface between fundamental research activities in Materials Physical Chemistry at TPCI and a broad range of industrial R&D or QC needs.. ASL is developing non-routine vibrational spectroscopic and chemometric methodologies for the identification of materials, the quantification of their properties, as well as for process monitoring and control. In addition, ASL provides to industry specialized personnel training, as well as consulting services related to the optimization of products or processes and the evaluation of new know-how.. Collaboration with the industry in Greece or abroad is on a (medium- or long term) contract basis, while short term tasks and ad hoc studies are provided as services. ASL applies its know- how to a broad range of materials, such as industrial minerals, polymers and adhesives, coatings (incl. marine), textiles, wood and paper, food, pharmaceuticals etc. ASL benefits from and contributes to the ...
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Units and Dimensions in Physical Chemistry Units and dimensions tend to cause untold amounts of grief to many chemists throughout the course of their degree. My hope is that by having a dedicated tutorial
These contain the solutions to all the problems as worked out by students themselves. This peer learning model is a valuable asset for students. Check for up-dates. Rather than a CD at the end of a book, or having to go to a publishers web site, all the multimedia is integrated into the eBook and opens on the relevant pages to allow the student to visualize many of the concepts. The user can listen to clear explanations and interact with the multimedia. These, along with the eBook, allow the student to grasp the more difficult concepts: giving him/her a well rounded way to learn and meet the modern needs of students who read and intereact with computers better than with hard copy text books ...
Current Physical Chemistry is an essential journal for every physical chemist who wishes to be kept informed and up-to-date with the latest and most important developments.
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13. Hoare, T.; Pelton, R. "Functionalized Microgel Swelling: Comparing Theory and Experiment". Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 2007, 111, 11895-11906. link. 12. Hoare, T.; Pelton, R. "Calorimetric Analysis of Thermal Phase Transitions in Functionalized Microgels". Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 2007, 111, 1334-1342. (link). 11. Hoare, T.; Pelton, R. "Engineering Glucose Swelling Responses in Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-Based Microgels". Macromolecules, 2007, 40, 670-678. (link). 10. Hoare, T.; McLean, D. "Kinetic Prediction of Functional Group Distributions in Microgels". Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 2006, 110, 20327-20336. (link). 9. Hoare, T.; McLean, D. "Multi-Component Kinetic Modeling for Controlling Local Compositions in Thermosensitive Polymers". Macromolecular Theory and Simulations, 2006, 15, 619-632. (link). 8. Hoare, T.; Pelton, R. "Dimensionless Plot Analysis: A New Way to Analyze Functional Group Distributions in Microgels". Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 2006, ...
13. Hoare, T.; Pelton, R. "Functionalized Microgel Swelling: Comparing Theory and Experiment". Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 2007, 111, 11895-11906. link. 12. Hoare, T.; Pelton, R. "Calorimetric Analysis of Thermal Phase Transitions in Functionalized Microgels". Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 2007, 111, 1334-1342. (link). 11. Hoare, T.; Pelton, R. "Engineering Glucose Swelling Responses in Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-Based Microgels". Macromolecules, 2007, 40, 670-678. (link). 10. Hoare, T.; McLean, D. "Kinetic Prediction of Functional Group Distributions in Microgels". Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 2006, 110, 20327-20336. (link). 9. Hoare, T.; McLean, D. "Multi-Component Kinetic Modeling for Controlling Local Compositions in Thermosensitive Polymers". Macromolecular Theory and Simulations, 2006, 15, 619-632. (link). 8. Hoare, T.; Pelton, R. "Dimensionless Plot Analysis: A New Way to Analyze Functional Group Distributions in Microgels". Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 2006, ...
Published in The Journal of Physical Chemistry A, Volume 111, Issue 41, 2007, pages 10251-10255. © The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 2007, American Chemical Society. Garashchuk, S. & Rassolov, V. (2007). Stabilization of quantum energy flows within the approximate quantum trajectory approach. The Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 111(41), 10251-10255.. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jp072509n. ...
Nick Quirkes Computational Physical Chemistry Group is focused on the development and application of molecular simulation and theory to problems involving the physical chemistry of nanomaterials and their interactions with fluids. The Groups research is composed of two complementary components. The first is the establishment of new concepts and techniques in molecular simulation, in order to extend its applicability and enhance its capability to investigate equilibrium and non equilibrium phenomena occurring at surfaces and in nanopores. The second component of the research programme involves the application of these novel methods, together with collaborating groups at Imperial College and other academic, government and industrial laboratories, to problems in physical chemistry, materials science, and metrology. For example the study of transient and steady state fluid transport in confined geometries dominated by surface effects and gradients has required the development of novel
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The major thrust of our work is the study of "exotic" molecules. These can include highly reactive free radicals; ions; high temperature species; short-lived "intermediates"; and very weakly bound complexes, van der Waals and hydrogen bonded molecules. The free radicals and carbenes we study are important in the chemistry of the interstellar medium.. We use high vacuum techniques to produce molecular beams which are probed by microwave spectroscopy. For example it is possible to reach the low temperature necessary for the production of van der Waals complexes by expansion of a gas through a supersonic nozzle into a vacuum chamber. By exciting molecules exiting the nozzle with a corona discharge, free radicals and other reactive intermediates are produced. We also use the technique of laser ablation in order to introduce refractory materials (high melting point solids with essentially zero vapor pressure) into the gas jet.. As can be seen in the photos above, there are three spectrometers in the ...
Nunes, F. M. F., Ihle, K. E., Mutti, N. S., Simões, Z. L. P., Amdam, G. V., 2013. The gene vitellogenin affects microRNA regulation in honey bee (Apis mellifera) fat body and brain. J. Exp. Biol. 216, 3724-23732.. Organometallics, 2015, 34, 2463-2470 (10.1021/om5012038). P. S. Fernandez, C. A. Angelucci, P. Tereshchukc, J. F. Gomes, A. C. Garci ´ a, C. A. Martins, G. A. Camara, M. E. Martins, J. L. F. Da Silva, M. T. M. Koperf, and G. Tremiliosi-Filho, How Do Random Superficial Defects Influence the ElectroOxidation of Glycerol on Pt(111) Surfaces?, Accepted for publication in the Physical Chemistry and Chemical Physics, 2016. P. Tereshchuk, A. S. Chaves, and J. L. F. Da Silva, Glycerol Adsorption on Platinum Surfaces: A Density Functional Theory Investigation with van der Waals Corrections, Journal of Physical Chemistry C 118, 15251 (2014).. P. Tereshchuk, M. J. Piotrowski, and J. L. F. Da Silva, Atomic Structure of the La/Pt(111) and Ce/Pt(111) Surfaces Revealed by DFT+U Calculations, RSC ...
The course contains elementary quantum mechanical models to: 1) extend the chemical bonding theory from KJEM110 (and KJEM120) and: 2) provide a basic understanding of a selection of important spectroscopic methods like for instance UV/Vis and IR. The course also comprises elementary statistical mechanics (for instance the Boltzmann distribution) to provide a basic molecular understanding of physical and thermodynamical concepts that are introduced in KJEM110. Specific examples will be shown of how molecular properties, by means of simple quantum mechanical models and spectroscopic data, via statistical mechanics can explain and systematize macroscopic thermodynamical properties. These include for instance chemical reactions, solutions, ideal and real monoatomic and polyatomic gases, equilibrium constants in gaseous phase, lattices, absorption etc. Freely available software is used for visualization and calculations on the course. ...
Nature of chemical bonds, theoretical predictions of molecular potential energy surfaces and vibrational spectra, structures and properties of molecules with heavy elements, tautomerism of classical and non-classical nucleic acid bases, surface chemistry, atmospheric chemistry ...
HCO3-(H2O)n clusters provide a model system to understand the solvation interaction between bicarbonate ion and water. Based on harmonic analysis, ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, and comparison with infrared multiple photon dissociation spectra and with previous results on H2PO4-(H2O)n, the solvati
My research efforts with focus on understanding fundamental properties of biological molecules contribute to the research program carried out in the Bowers group. Using methods typically used in the field of Physical Chemistry we examine properties of biomolecules such as their three-dimensional structure (folding), their interaction with solvent molecules, and their propensity to form aggregates. My physical chemistry approach to understanding the complex world of biochemistry is to start with small model systems and progressively increase the complexity of the systems examined. For example, we studied in depth the conformation of small biopolymers (e.g. diglycine through hexaglycine) and in some cases isomerization between different conformers (dinucleotides); we examined systematically various factors contributing to the stability of amino acid zwitterions; and we carefully studied hydration effects by adding individual water molecules to small peptides one by one. Insights gained from these ...
Second of two-term sequence CHM 340 /440, building on CHM 260 /CHM 262 . Use of the Schrodinger Equation to solve exactly a series of important chemical problems including the hydrogen atom, the rigid rotor, and the harmonic oscillator. Valence-bond and molecular orbital theories of chemical bonding; introduction to group theory. Advanced spectroscopy, including transition probabilities, normal vibrational modes, and photoelectron spectroscopies introduced and used to deduce molecular structure; modern theories of fundamental reaction rates. Three hours lecture weekly. ...
The thermodynamic principles and the concepts of energy, entropy, and equilibrium introduced in CHEM 161 will be expanded. Statistical mechanics, which connects molecular properties to thermodynamics, will be introduced. Typical applications are non-ideal gases, phase transitions, heat engines and perpetual motion, phase equilibria in multicomponent systems, properties of solutions (including those containing electrolytes or macromolecules), and transport across biological membranes. Appropriate laboratory work is provided. Four hours of class and four hours of laboratory per week.. Requisite: CHEM 161, PHYS 116 or 123, and MATH 121. MATH 211 is recommended. Limited to 24 students. Spring semester. Professors Leung and Marshall.. If Overenrolled: Preference given to Amherst College chemistry majors, others by class year. ...
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The Department of Chemistry at MIT is one of the top university faculties in the world. Research conducted covers the entire field of chemistry, ranging from organic chemistry and biological chemistry to physical chemistry, inorganic chemistry, environmental chemistry, materials science and nanoscience. The Department of Chemistry at MIT has been established since the Institute opened its doors in 1865. It started with two professors, Charles W. Eliot and Francis H. Storer, and a class of 15 students. In 1866, the department moved to its then new quarters in the basement of the Rogers Building in Boston. In 1907, MIT awarded its first Ph.D. to three students in the field of physical chemistry. The department has several Nobel Laureates among its faculty and alumni, including the following: Robert B. Woodward (Chemistry, 1965) Robert S. Mulliken (Chemistry, 1966) H. Gobind Khorana (Medicine & Physiology, 1968) Geoffrey Wilkinson (Chemistry, 1973) Charles J. Pedersen (Chemistry 1987) Sidney Altman ...
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B.A. in Chemistry. CHEM 153/163 General Chemistry Lecture/Lab for Majors I. CHEM 154/164 General Chemistry Lecture/Lab for Majors II. CHEM 207/217 Organic Chemistry Lecture/Lab I. CHEM 208/218 Organic Chemistry Lecture/Lab II. CHEM 308 Introduction to Chemical Research. CHEM 419 Senior Research I. CHEM 420 Senior Research II. MATH 106 Applied Calculus I. MATH 107 Applied Calculus II. PHYS 203/253 College Physics Lecture/Lab I. PHYS 204/254 College Physics Lecture/Lab II. One sequence from one of the four chemical areas:. Analytical Chemistry: CHEM 300, CHEM 302. Physical Chemistry: CHEM 305/315, CHEM 306/316. Inorganic Chemistry: CHEM 401, CHEM 402. Biochemistry: CHEM 409, CHEM 410. Students must also take one course from each of the remaining three chemical areas, e.g., if students take the full analytical chemistry sequence, then they must take one course from the physical chemistry, inorganic chemistry, and biochemistry sequences.. ...
Nature. Certain plants and animals protect themselves against temperatures below freezing with antifreeze proteins. How the larva of the beetle Dendroides Canadensis manages to withstand temperatures down to -30 degrees Celsius is reported by an international team of researchers led by Prof. Dr. Martina Havenith from the Department of Physical Chemistry II at the Ruhr-Universität in the journal PNAS. Together with American colleagues, the RUB-researchers showed that interactions between the antifreeze proteins and water molecules contribute significantly to protection against the cold. Previously, it was assumed that the effect was only achieved through direct contact of the protein with ice crystals. The team obtained the results through a combination of terahertz spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations.. Protein-ice interaction: locally and over longer distances. The structure of the fire beetle antifreeze proteins resembles a triangular prism. The ice binding surface of the "prism" ...
Faculty: Associate Professor Jackman, Chair; Associate Professor Deneault, Associate Chair of Physics; Associate Professors Ballard, Carastro, Evans-Nguyen, Hendrix, Werner, Witherow; Assistant Professors Bronikowski, Crosby, Del Valle, Kennedy, Longstreet, Masserini, Murray, Perry, Schuler, Sode, Struss, Theodore, Wilson; Instructors Henchey, Morris.. Degrees offered: B.S. in chemistry, ACS-certified; B.S. in chemistry; B.A. in chemistry; B.S. in biochemistry, ASBMB-accredited; B.S. in chemistry with biochemistry concentration, ACS-certified; B.A. in biochemistry; B.S. in forensic science; B.S. in marine chemistry; B.S. in chemistry (biochemistry)/MBA; B.S. in physics. Minors in chemistry and physics are also offered.. The Department offers chemistry, biochemistry, forensic science and marine chemistry students a solid foundation in the five major areas of chemistry: analytical chemistry, biochemistry, inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry and physical chemistry. Research projects, publishing ...
2010.12.13 The reseach article" Noradrenaline and a Thiol Analogue on Gold Surfaces: an IRAS, XPS and NEXAFS Study. " was published in Journal of Physical Chemistry C. Self-assembled monolayers and multilayers of a noradrenaline analogue (Nor-Pt) on gold substrates as well as multilayers of noradrenaline have been investigated by means of the molecular orientation, the molecule−surface interaction, the molecular composition and the functional group availability for further biointeraction processes, using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), infrared reflection−absorption spectroscopy (IRAS), and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy ...
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1 Organic chemistry *1.1 Comparison of physical properties *1.1.1 Stability. *1.2 E/Z notation ... Comparison of physical properties[edit]. Cis and trans isomers often have different physical properties. Differences between ... Organic chemistry[edit]. When the substituent groups are oriented in the same direction, the diastereomer is referred to as cis ... Inorganic chemistry[edit]. Cis-trans isomerism can also occur in inorganic compounds, most notably in diazenes and coordination ...
Paul M. S. Monk (2004). Physical Chemistry. John Wiley and Sons. p. 435. ISBN 978-0-471-49180-4. .. ... a b c Jeans, James (1947) The Growth of Physical Science. Cambridge University Press ... Binhi, Vladimir N (2002). Magnetobiology: Underlying Physical Problems. Repiev, A & Edelev, M (translators from Russian). San ... Electrodynamics is the physics of electromagnetic radiation, and electromagnetism is the physical phenomenon associated with ...
Atkins, Peter; de Paula, Julio; Friedman, Ronald (2009). Quanta, Matter, and Change: A Molecular Approach to Physical Chemistry ... Laidler, Keith J.; Meiser, John H. (1982). Physical Chemistry. Benjamin/Cummings. p. 488. ISBN 978-0-8053-5682-3.. ... General Considerations". Physical Review. 41 (1): 49-71. Bibcode:1932PhRv...41...49M. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.41.49.. ... The term atomic orbital may also refer to the physical region or space where the electron can be calculated to be present, as ...
Physical Chemistry of Water, Steam and Hydrothermal Solutions. Elsevier.. [page needed]. *^ Roberge, P. R. (November 2011). " ... Atkins, Peter; de Paula, Julio (2006). Physical Chemistry. Oxford. p. 214. ISBN 0198700725.. ... Atkins, P. W. (1978). Physical Chemistry, (6th ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 210.. ... In organic chemistry and biochemistry it is customary to use pKa values for acid dissociation equilibria. ...
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Physical properties[edit]. See also: Water chemistry analysis. Water is the chemical substance with chemical formula H. 2O; one ... "Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. 3 (24): 5355-5357. Bibcode:2001PCCP....3.5355L. doi:10.1039/b108676f. ISSN 1463-9084.. ... Riddick, John (1970). Organic Solvents Physical Properties and Methods of Purification. Techniques of Chemistry. Wiley- ... Lewis, William C.M.; Rice, James (1922). A System of Physical Chemistry. Longmans, Green and Co.. ...
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The Journal of Physical Chemistry. 61(4): 422-425. Hurst, G. S., Bortner, T. E., & Glick, R. E. (1965). Ionization and ... Physical Review A, 15(6), 2283. Hurst, G. S., Kramer, S. D., Bemis, C. E., & Young, J. P. (1978). Detection of single atoms in ... Analytical Chemistry. 53(13): 1448A-1456A. Hurst, G. S., Payne, M. G., Chen, C. H., Willis, R. D., Lehmann, B. E., & Kramer, S ... Physical Review A. 2(5): 1717. Parks, J. E., Hurst, G. S., Stewart, T. E., & Weidner, H. L. (1972). Ionization of the noble ...
Atkins, P; de Paula (2006). Physical Chemistry. J. (8th. ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-870072-2. Chapter 7, ... Physical Chemistry. J. (8th. ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-870072-2. Section 25.12 "Working Galvanic cells" How ...
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ISBN 0-13-685512-1. Laidler, Keith J.; Meiser, John H. (1982). Physical Chemistry. Benjamin/Cummings. p. 488. ISBN 0-8053-5682- ... A Molecular Approach to Physical Chemistry. Oxford University Press. p. 106. ISBN 978-0-19-920606-3. Feynman, Richard; Leighton ... The term atomic orbital may also refer to the physical region or space where the electron can be calculated to be present, as ... Examples of significant physical outcomes of this effect include the lowered melting temperature of mercury (which results from ...
Hioe, F. T.; Carrol, C. E. (1988). "Coherent population trapping in N-level quantum systems". Physical Review A. 37 (8): 3000- ... Analytical Chemistry. 84 (13): 5633-5640. doi:10.1021/ac300743k. ISSN 0003-2700. PMID 22670784. Henneberger, Walther C. (1968 ... Reiss, Howard (1980). "Effect of an intense electromagnetic field on a weakly bound system". Physical Review A. 22 (5): 1786- ... Corkum, P. B. (1993). "Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization". Physical Review Letters. 71 (13): 1994-1997 ...
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doi:10.1002/zaac.19322070107 "4. Physical Constants of Inorganic Compound". CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (90 ed.). ... The Journal of Physical Chemistry. 62 (12): 1506-1508. doi:10.1021/j150570a009. Aullón, G.; Alvarez, S. (2007). "On the ... Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. 2003 (5): 1103-1105. Bibcode:2003PCCP....5.1103F. doi:10.1039/b212460m. Dixon, D. A.; Wang ... Riedel, S.; Kaupp, M. (2009). "The highest oxidation states of the transition metal elements" (PDF). Coordination Chemistry ...
Chemical kinetics is the part of physical chemistry that studies reaction rates. The concepts of chemical kinetics are applied ... ISBN 978-0-471-72020-1. Isaacs, Neil S. (1995). "Section 2.8.3". Physical Organic Chemistry (2nd ed.). Harlow: Addison Wesley ... Physical Chemistry. Benjamin/Cummings. ISBN 0-8053-5682-7. Laidler, K. J. (1987). Chemical Kinetics (3rd ed.). Harper & Row. p ... The number of reacting species, their physical state (the particles that form solids move much more slowly than those of gases ...
Journal of Physical Chemistry. American Chemical Society. 85 (9): 1177-1186. doi:10.1021/j150609a021. "Element 114 is Named ... Chapman, Kit (November 30, 2016). "What it takes to make a new element". Chemistry World. Royal Society of Chemistry. Retrieved ... The physical basis of the chemical periodicity governing the periodic table is the electron shell closures at each noble gas ( ... The Chemistry of the Actinide and Transactinide Elements (3rd ed.). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer Science+Business Media ...
Retrieved 2012-08-24 Cartwright, Jon (10 May 2009). "Nanocrystals stop blinking". Chemistry World. Royal Society of Chemistry. ... Physical Review Letters. 83 (23): 4840. Bibcode:1999PhRvL..83.4840K. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.83.4840. Retrieved 2012-09-15. ... Cartwright, Jon (10 May 2009). "Nanocrystals stop blinking". Chemistry World. Royal Society of Chemistry. Retrieved 2012-08-20 ...
Physical properties are shown in the data box. A more extensive discussion, including spectra, can be found in Brown et al. Per ... 2010). Heterocyclic Chemistry (5th ed.). Oxford: Wiley. ISBN 978-1-405-13300-5. Lagoja, Irene M. (2005). "Pyrimidine as ... Gilchrist, Thomas Lonsdale (1997). Heterocyclic chemistry. New York: Longman. ISBN 0-582-27843-0. Joule, John A.; Mills, Keith ... ISBN 0-471-50656-7. Albert, Adrien (1968). Heterocyclic Chemistry, an Introduction. London: Athlone Press. Kogon, Irving C.; ...
Spectra, structure, and nature of bonding". Journal of the Chemical Society A: Inorganic, Physical, Theoretical: 484. doi: ... Analytical Chemistry. 40 (8): 1200-1206. doi:10.1021/ac60264a010. "bis(tetraethylammonium) tetraiodonickelate". webbook.nist. ...
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Physical Chemistry: An Advanced Treatise. Academic Press. p. 29. Laidler, Keith (1995). The World of Physical Chemistry. Oxford ... The article by Howard quotes chemistry historian J. R. Partington in An Advanced Treatise on Physical Chemistry as saying that ... Physical Chemistry (3rd ed.). Prentice-Hall. p. 41. ISBN 0-13-186545-5. Laidler, Keith J.; Meiser, John H. (1982). Physical ... Physical Chemistry: An Advanced Treatise. New York, NY: Academic. p. 29. Gibbs, J. W. The Collected Works of J. Willard Gibbs, ...
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Alex Shalek , MIT. Bryan Changala , JILA, University of Colorado, Boulder. Ke Xu , University of California, Berkeley. Latha Venkataraman , Columbia University. Marissa Weichman , University of California, Berkeley. Melanie Schnell , Max Planck Institute. Michael Woodside , University of Alberta. Peng Chen , Cornell University. Renee Frontiera , University of Minnesota. Shana Kelley , University of Toronto Taekjip Ha , John Hopkins School of Medicine. Hosted by: Prof. Garnet Chan [email protected] & Prof. Thomas Miller [email protected] ...
Chemistry Physical chemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the interpretation of the phenomena of chemistry in ... Physical Chemistry (4th ed. 1995); G. M. Barrow, Physical Chemistry (6th ed. 1996); P. W. Atkins, Physical Chemistry (6th ed. ... Chemistry: Foundations and Applications COPYRIGHT 2004 The Gale Group, Inc.. Physical Chemistry. Physical chemistry is the ... physical chemistry Study of the physical changes associated with chemical reactions and the relationship between physical ...
... BIBLIOGRAPHY. Keith James Laidler. The World of Physical Chemistry. Oxford University Press. 1995. . 488pp ... Physical Chemistry from Ostwald to Pauling: The Making of a Science in America. Princeton University Press. 1996. . 430pp. Do ...
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Journal of Physical Chemistry A • Journal of Physical Chemistry B • Journal of Physical Chemistry C • Journal of Physical ... Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry • Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data • Journal of Solid State Chemistry • ... Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry • Journal of Synthetic Organic Chemistry, Japan • Letters in Organic Chemistry • Liebigs ... Open Organic Chemistry Journal • Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry • Organic Chemistry International • Organic Letters • Organic ...
Part of the Physical Chemistry in Action book series (PCIA). Abstract. This chapter is conceived as a brief exposition of the ... Leach S. (2013) Physical Chemistry: Extending the Boundaries. In: Smith I., Cockell C., Leach S. (eds) Astrochemistry and ... Wayne RP (2000) Chemistry of atmospheres. An introduction to the chemistry of the atmospheres of earth, the planets, and their ... Hinshelwood C (1951) The structure of physical chemistry. Clarendon, OxfordGoogle Scholar ...
5.61 Physical Chemistry , Chemistry This course presents an introduction to quantum mechanics. It begins with an examination of ... oscillators, physical chemistry, atomic structure, LCAO, Quantum Mechanics, quantum chemistry, wave mechanics, molecular ... You just viewed 5.61 Physical Chemistry , Chemistry. Please take a moment to rate this material. ... Physical Chemistry, photochemistry, perturbation theory, rigid rotor ...
Chemistry , Physical Chemistry of Molecules. C362 , ALL , Parmenter. Prerequisite: C106, mathematics M212 or M216, and Physics ...
... where he is Professor of Supramolecular Chemistry in the School of Chemistry. In 2002 he was awarded the Tilden Medal of the ... Tony Davis gained a B.A. in Chemistry from Oxford University in 1977, then stayed on for a D.Phil. under Dr. G. H. Whitham and ... A. Eschenmoser, then in 1982 was appointed as a Lecturer in Organic Chemistry at Trinity College, Dublin. In September 2000 he ... Royal Society of Chemistry. He is currently a member of the Editorial Board of Organic and Biological Chemistry. ...
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Practical physical chemistry by Alexander Findlay; 17 editions; First published in 1906; Subjects: Laboratory manuals, Physical ... Findlays practical physical chemistry. 1973, Longman in English - 9th ed., rev. and edited by B. P. Levitt. Previously rev. ( ... Findlays practical physical chemistry. 1972, Wiley in English - 9th ed., rev. and edited by B. P. Levitt. Previously rev. ( ... Are you sure you want to remove Practical physical chemistry from your list? ...
... Course Description for Physical Chemistry I. CHM4410: Physical Chemistry I ...
Preference given to Amherst College chemistry majors, others by class year.. Offerings. 2019-20: Offered in Spring 2020. Other ... If Overenrolled: Preference given to Amherst College chemistry majors, others by class year. ...
Part A deals with the principles and application of selected physical methods in protein chemistry evaluation. This book is ... This book is of great value to chemists, biologists, and researchers who have great appreciation of protein chemistry. ... Physical Principles and Techniques of Protein Chemistry, Part A deals with the principles and application of selected physical ... Physical Principles and Techniques of Protein Chemistry, Part 1. Sydney J. Leach. Snippet view - 1969. ...
  • The first scientific journal specifically in the field of physical chemistry was the German journal, Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie , founded in 1887 by Wilhelm Ostwald and Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff . (princeton.edu)
  • There is a large degree of overlap between chemistry and related science subjects. (physicalchemistry.org)
  • Solutions Manuals are available for thousands of the most popular college and high school textbooks in subjects such as Math, Science ( Physics , Chemistry , Biology ), Engineering ( Mechanical , Electrical , Civil ), Business and more. (chegg.com)
  • P roceedings of the Conference on High Temperature Corrosion and Materials Chemistry , E.J. Opila, M.J. McNallan, D.A. Shores, D.A. Shifler, eds. (jmu.edu)
  • Developments in the following decades include the application of statistical mechanics to chemical systems and work on colloids and surface chemistry , where Irving Langmuir made many contributions. (princeton.edu)
  • Professor Engel has published more than 80 articles and book chapters in the area of surface chemistry. (ecampus.com)
  • Nature of chemical bonds, theoretical predictions of molecular potential energy surfaces and vibrational spectra, structures and properties of molecules with heavy elements, tautomerism of classical and non-classical nucleic acid bases, surface chemistry, atmospheric chemistry. (jsums.edu)
  • These can be as simple as a collection of rare gas atoms or as complex as DNA, but in every case knowledge of their physical state and how it might respond to change, such as the absorption of a photon, can only be gained using advanced experimental or computational methods. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Within each of these areas, Nottingham has made major contributions in the advancement of physical and theoretical chemistry both in terms of our knowledge of basic processes and in the development of advanced instrumentation and computational techniques. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • application of computational chemistry to biologically important molecules. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Dennis A. Dougherty is George Grant Hoag Professor of Chemistry at the California Institute of Technology. (valorebooks.com)
  • Advanced Placement exams are offered in a variety of physical sciences, offering you college credit for honors-level classes that you have taken while still in high school. (physicalchemistry.org)
  • College degree majors with high starting-salaries after graduation include physical sciences, business administration, and engineering. (physicalchemistry.org)
  • Introducing readers to the latest research applications, the new Fifth Edition of the bestselling Physical Chemistry: Principles and Applications in Biological Sciences with MasteringChemistry puts the study of physical chemistry in context. (ecampus.com)
  • Please send an email with your CV, a brief description of your academic background, skills and interests, preferably all in one file to Prof. Dr. Madhavi Krishnan, Assistant Professor of Physical Chemistry at [email protected] . (uni-lj.si)
  • This chapter is conceived as a brief exposition of the content of the previous nine chapters, a commentary on them and added material, with the intent to enlarge reflection on the general theme, Physical Chemistry in Action. (springer.com)
  • The 4th Edition provides visual summaries of important concepts and connections in each chapter, offers students "just-in-time" math help, and expands content to cover science relevant to physical chemistry. (ecampus.com)
  • Mastering Chemistry does not come packaged with this content. (ecampus.com)
  • The prose is authoritative, up to date, and accessible, supported by well-presented and relevant diagrams and illustrations with useful inset boxes to expand upon specific key topics … [Geomorphology: The Mechanics and Chemistry of Landscapes] has the breadth and depth of content that puts it in a class of its own. (cambridge.org)
  • The usual minimum requirement for PhD/MPhil entry is an upper 2nd class or first class honours degree (or International equivalent) in an MSci or MChem degree in Chemistry. (nottingham.ac.uk)