Organic chemistry methodology that mimics the modular nature of various biosynthetic processes. It uses highly reliable and selective reactions designed to "click" i.e., rapidly join small modular units together in high yield, without offensive byproducts. In combination with COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES, it is used for the synthesis of new compounds and combinatorial libraries.
The specialty of ANALYTIC CHEMISTRY applied to assays of physiologically important substances found in blood, urine, tissues, and other biological fluids for the purpose of aiding the physician in making a diagnosis or following therapy.
The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Laboratory tests demonstrating the presence of physiologically significant substances in the blood, urine, tissue, and body fluids with application to the diagnosis or therapy of disease.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
The branch of chemistry dealing with detection (qualitative) and determination (quantitative) of substances. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A technology, in which sets of reactions for solution or solid-phase synthesis, is used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.
An examination of chemicals in the blood.
Hydrocarbons with at least one triple bond in the linear portion, of the general formula Cn-H2n-2.
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Methods used for the chemical synthesis of compounds. Included under this heading are laboratory methods used to synthesize a variety of chemicals and drugs.
Pollution prevention through the design of effective chemical products that have low or no toxicity and use of chemical processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances.
The conformation, properties, reaction processes, and the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds.
Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
Chemical and physical transformation of the biogenic elements from their nucleosynthesis in stars to their incorporation and subsequent modification in planetary bodies and terrestrial biochemistry. It includes the mechanism of incorporation of biogenic elements into complex molecules and molecular systems, leading up to the origin of life.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.
The study of the composition, chemical structures, and chemical reactions of living things.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Finely divided solid matter with particle sizes smaller than a micrometeorite, thus with diameters much smaller than a millimeter, moving in interplanetary space. (NASA Thesaurus, 1994)
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The origin of life. It includes studies of the potential basis for life in organic compounds but excludes studies of the development of altered forms of life through mutation and natural selection, which is BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The reactions, changes in structure and composition, the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds, and the associated energy changes.
A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
The science concerned with celestial bodies and the observation and interpretation of the radiation received in the vicinity of the earth from the component parts of the universe (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in definite quantities called quanta (E) which vary in size and are defined by the equation E=hv in which h is Planck's constant and v is the frequency of the radiation.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
The study of the energy of electrons ejected from matter by the photoelectric effect, i.e., as a direct result of absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation. As the energies of the electrons are characteristic of a specific element, the measurement of the energy of these electrons is a technique used to determine the chemical composition of surfaces.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
The study of the chemical and physical phenomena of radioactive substances.
The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.
Neutral or negatively charged ligands bonded to metal cations or neutral atoms. The number of ligand atoms to which the metal center is directly bonded is the metal cation's coordination number, and this number is always greater than the regular valence or oxidation number of the metal. A coordination complex can be negative, neutral, or positively charged.
A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The interdisciplinary science that studies evolutionary biology, including the origin and evolution of the major elements required for life, their processing in the interstellar medium and in protostellar systems. This field also includes the study of chemical evolution and the subsequent interactions between evolving biota and planetary evolution as well as the field of biology that deals with the study of extraterrestrial life.
Chemical reactions effected by light.
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Method of analyzing chemicals using automation.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.
The group of celestial bodies, including the EARTH, orbiting around and gravitationally bound by the sun. It includes eight planets, one minor planet, and 34 natural satellites, more than 1,000 observed comets, and thousands of lesser bodies known as MINOR PLANETS (asteroids) and METEOROIDS. (From Academic American Encyclopedia, 1983)
Organic compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen forming a closed ring that may be either alicyclic or aromatic.
Large collections of small molecules (molecular weight about 600 or less), of similar or diverse nature which are used for high-throughput screening analysis of the gene function, protein interaction, cellular processing, biochemical pathways, or other chemical interactions.
Tests used in the analysis of the hemic system.
A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A polyhedral CARBON structure composed of around 60-80 carbon atoms in pentagon and hexagon configuration. They are named after Buckminster Fuller because of structural resemblance to geodesic domes. Fullerenes can be made in high temperature such as arc discharge in an inert atmosphere.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Compounds similar to hydrocarbons in which a tetravalent silicon atom replaces the carbon atom. They are very reactive, ignite in air, and form useful derivatives.
Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The study of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION and the toxic effects of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS on the ECOSYSTEM. The term was coined by Truhaut in 1969.
Tree-like, highly branched, polymeric compounds. They grow three-dimensionally by the addition of shells of branched molecules to a central core. The overall globular shape and presence of cavities gives potential as drug carriers and CONTRAST AGENTS.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The reactions and interactions of atoms and molecules, the changes in their structure and composition, and associated energy changes.
Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.
A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a very sharp conducting needle is swept just a few angstroms above the surface of a sample. The tiny tunneling current that flows between the sample and the needle tip is measured, and from this are produced three-dimensional topographs. Due to the poor electron conductivity of most biological samples, thin metal coatings are deposited on the sample.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.
A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
Relating to the size of solids.
Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.
Substances that comprise all matter. Each element is made up of atoms that are identical in number of electrons and protons and in nuclear charge, but may differ in mass or number of neutrons.
A group of atoms or molecules attached to other molecules or cellular structures and used in studying the properties of these molecules and structures. Radioactive DNA or RNA sequences are used in MOLECULAR GENETICS to detect the presence of a complementary sequence by NUCLEIC ACID HYBRIDIZATION.
An interdisciplinary field in materials science, ENGINEERING, and BIOLOGY, studying the use of biological principles for synthesis or fabrication of BIOMIMETIC MATERIALS.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A group of compounds with an 8-carbon ring. They may be saturated or unsaturated.
The quality or state of being wettable or the degree to which something can be wet. This is also the ability of any solid surface to be wetted when in contact with a liquid whose surface tension is reduced so that the liquid spreads over the surface of the solid.
Any solid objects moving in interplanetary space that are smaller than a planet or asteroid but larger than a molecule. Meteorites are any meteoroid that has fallen to a planetary surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Chemicals used in agriculture. These include pesticides, fumigants, fertilizers, plant hormones, steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins, etc.
The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
The branch of medicine concerned with the application of NANOTECHNOLOGY to the prevention and treatment of disease. It involves the monitoring, repair, construction, and control of human biological systems at the molecular level, using engineered nanodevices and NANOSTRUCTURES. (From Freitas Jr., Nanomedicine, vol 1, 1999).
Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
Synthetic organic reactions that use reactions between unsaturated molecules to form cyclical products.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.
Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.
Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.
Techniques used to synthesize chemicals using molecular substrates that are bound to a solid surface. Typically a series of reactions are conducted on the bound substrate that results in either the covalent attachment of specific moieties or the modification of existing function groups. These techniques offer an advantage to those involving solution reactions in that the substrate compound does not have to be isolated and purified between the reaction steps.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
Hospital facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
An abrupt high-current electric discharge that occurs in the ATMOSPHERE and that has a path length ranging from hundreds of feet to tens of miles. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.
A family of nonmetallic, generally electronegative, elements that form group 17 (formerly group VIIa) of the periodic table.
Creation and development of bodies within solar systems, includes study of early planetary geology.
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The urea concentration of the blood stated in terms of nitrogen content. Serum (plasma) urea nitrogen is approximately 12% higher than blood urea nitrogen concentration because of the greater protein content of red blood cells. Increases in blood or serum urea nitrogen are referred to as azotemia and may have prerenal, renal, or postrenal causes. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
A field of chemistry which pertains to chemical compounds or ions that do not contain the element carbon (with the exception of carbon dioxide and compounds containing a carbonate radical, e.g., calcium carbonate).
Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.
High molecular weight polymers containing a mixture of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides chained together by ribose or deoxyribose linkages.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.
Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
Nucleic acid which complements a specific mRNA or DNA molecule, or fragment thereof; used for hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms and for genetic studies.
Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.
Liquid water present beneath the surface of the earth.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
The sixth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its twelve natural satellites include Phoebe and Titan.
A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A halogen with the atomic symbol Br, atomic number 36, and atomic weight 79.904. It is a volatile reddish-brown liquid that gives off suffocating vapors, is corrosive to the skin, and may cause severe gastroenteritis if ingested.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
Methods utilizing the principles of MICROFLUIDICS for sample handling, reagent mixing, and separation and detection of specific components in fluids.
Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
Programs of study which span the traditional boundaries of academic scholarship.
Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.
Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.
Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Large members of the FALCONIFORMES order of birds, family Accipitridae, most especially the genera Aquila, Haliaeetus, Harpia, and Circaetus. They are characterized by their powerful talons, which carry long, curved, pointed claws and by their opposable hindtoe.
The study of fluid channels and chambers of tiny dimensions of tens to hundreds of micrometers and volumes of nanoliters or picoliters. This is of interest in biological MICROCIRCULATION and used in MICROCHEMISTRY and INVESTIGATIVE TECHNIQUES.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
The chemical processes, enzymatic activities, and pathways of living things and related temporal, dimensional, qualitative, and quantitative concepts.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
Cyclic compounds with a ring size of approximately 1-4 dozen atoms.
The sciences dealing with processes observable in nature.
Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.
Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.
Elements of the lanthanoid series including atomic number 57 (LANTHANUM) through atomic number 71 (LUTETIUM).
Covalent attachment of HALOGENS to other compounds.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
Polymerized forms of styrene used as a biocompatible material, especially in dentistry. They are thermoplastic and are used as insulators, for injection molding and casting, as sheets, plates, rods, rigid forms and beads.
Positively charged particles composed of two protons and two NEUTRONS, i.e. equivalent to HELIUM nuclei, which are emitted during disintegration of heavy ISOTOPES. Alpha rays have very strong ionizing power, but weak penetrability.
Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.
Elements with partially filled d orbitals. They constitute groups 3-12 of the periodic table of elements.
The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.
The univalent radical OH. Hydroxyl radical is a potent oxidizing agent.
The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.
An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.
Alicyclic hydrocarbons in which three or more of the carbon atoms in each molecule are united in a ring structure and each of the ring carbon atoms is joined to two hydrogen atoms or alkyl groups. The simplest members are cyclopropane (C3H6), cyclobutane (C4H8), cyclohexane (C6H12), and derivatives of these such as methylcyclohexane (C6H11CH3). (From Sax, et al., Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)

In-vivo therapeutic efficacy in experimental murine mycoses of a new formulation of deoxycholate-amphotericin B obtained by mild heating. (1/2621)

Heat-induced 'superaggregation' of deoxycholate-amphotericin B (AmB-DOC, Fungizone) was shown previously to reduce the in-vitro toxicity of this antifungal agent. We compared AmB-DOC with the formulation obtained by heating the commercial form (Fungizone, Bristol Myers Squibb, Paris, France) for 20 min at 70 degrees C, in the treatment of murine infections. An improvement of antifungal activity was obtained with heated AmB-DOC formulations due to a lower toxicity which allowed the administration of higher drug doses than those achievable with the commercial preparation. Single intravenous injections of heated AmB-DOC solutions were demonstrated to be two-fold less toxic than unheated ones to healthy mice. For mice infected with Candida albicans, the maximum tolerated dose was higher with heated than with unheated AmB-DOC solutions. In the model of murine candidiasis, following a single dose of heated AmB-DOC 0.5 mg/kg, 85% of mice survived for 3 weeks, whereas at this dose the immediate toxicity of the standard formulation in infected mice restricted the therapeutic efficacy to 25% survival. Both formulations were equally effective in increasing the survival time for murine cryptococcal pneumonia and meningoencephalitis. Injection of heated AmB-DOC solutions at a dose two-fold higher than the maximal tolerated dose observed with the unheated preparation (1.2 mg/kg) increased the survival time by a factor of 1.4 in cryptococcal meningoencephalitis. These results indicate that mild heat treatment of AmB-DOC solutions could provide a simple and economical method to improve the therapeutic index of this antifungal agent by reducing its toxicity on mammalian cells.  (+info)

A study of local anaesthetics. Part 148. Influence of auxiliary substances on the surface tension, distribution coefficient and pharmaceutical availability from solutions of the potential drug VII. (2/2621)

The influence of auxiliary substances of the polyol group (glycerol, propylene glycol, sorbitol) and of their concentration (5, 10, 15 and 20% by weight) upon surface tension, distribution coefficient and pharmaceutical availability from solutions of the potential drug VII, viz., N-[2-(2-propoxyphenylcarbamoyloxy)-ethyl] piperidinium chloride was studied. The substances were applied as hydrogel humectants. It was found that their influence on the surface tension, distribution coefficient and pharmaceutical availability from solutions of the potential drug VII depended on the type as well as concentration of the auxiliary substance. From the viewpoints of use in formulations of the drug form, sorbitol used at 5 and 10% concentrations represented the optimum.  (+info)

Comparison of immunity generated by nucleic acid-, MF59-, and ISCOM-formulated human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vaccines in Rhesus macaques: evidence for viral clearance. (3/2621)

The kinetics of T-helper immune responses generated in 16 mature outbred rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) within a 10-month period by three different human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine strategies were compared. Immune responses to monomeric recombinant gp120SF2 (rgp120) when the protein was expressed in vivo by DNA immunization or when it was delivered as a subunit protein vaccine formulated either with the MF59 adjuvant or by incorporation into immune-stimulating complexes (ISCOMs) were compared. Virus-neutralizing antibodies (NA) against HIV-1SF2 reached similar titers in the two rgp120SF2 protein-immunized groups, but the responses showed different kinetics, while NA were delayed and their levels were low in the DNA-immunized animals. Antigen-specific gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) T-helper (type 1-like) responses were detected in the DNA-immunized group, but only after the fourth immunization, and the rgp120/MF59 group generated both IFN-gamma and interleukin-4 (IL-4) (type 2-like) responses that appeared after the third immunization. In contrast, rgp120/ISCOM-immunized animals rapidly developed marked IL-2, IFN-gamma (type 1-like), and IL-4 responses that peaked after the second immunization. To determine which type of immune responses correlated with protection from infection, all animals were challenged intravenously with 50 50% infective doses of a rhesus cell-propagated, in vivo-titrated stock of a chimeric simian immunodeficiency virus-HIVSF13 construct. Protection was observed in the two groups receiving the rgp120 subunit vaccines. Half of the animals in the ISCOM group were completely protected from infection. In other subunit vaccinees there was evidence by multiple assays that virus detected at 2 weeks postchallenge was effectively cleared. Early induction of potent type 1- as well as type 2-like T-helper responses induced the most-effective immunity.  (+info)

Low-oestrogen oral contraceptives.(4/2621)

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A new strategy for treating nets. Part 1: formulation and dosage. (5/2621)

The conventional dosages of pyrethroid insecticides on mosquito nets assume that nets will be retreated at 6-12 month intervals. However, dosage should be related to washing of nets; if nets are only washed once or twice a year, their dosage requirements will be different to those which are washed fortnightly. A 'low-dose, frequent-wash' retreatment system might be technically more appropriate and more affordable where nets are washed frequently, as they are in Dar es Salaam. Moreover, for use as a domestic insecticide, water-based formulations of pyrethroid are preferable to the more commonly used emulsifiable concentrates (ECs). This paper reports laboratory evaluations of three formulations (ECs, Flowable, CS) of three pyrethroids (deltamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, permethrin). Insecticidal activity was tested using serial bioassays at a range of dosages using Anopheles gambiae. The water-based formulations were no less effective than the ECs, even at the lowest dosages. Nets treated with 3 mg/m2 and then repeatedly washed and retreated after each wash with either 3 mg/m2 or 1 mg/m2 were subjected to gas chromatography analysis. This showed that the amounts of pyrethroid in the nets accumulated rapidly over the first few wash-retreatment cycles and then remained fairly stable over subsequent cycles. These nets gave consistently high bioassay mortalities throughout the experiment, while the mortality declined rapidly after several washes with the nets that were treated at 3 mg/m2 but not retreated. Experimental huts were used to compare the effectiveness of these 2 net retreatment regimes and nets which were not retreated. All nets caused high mortality rates amongst Anopheles females, but had negligible effects on culicines; either in killing them or in preventing feeding. Therefore use of a high 'loading' dose for initial treatment with lower 'maintenance' doses for retreatment may be preferable to ensure that net users promptly perceive the benefits of the insecticide against culicines.  (+info)

A double-blind, randomized, multicentre, crossover study to prove equivalence of pancreatin minimicrospheres versus microspheres in exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. (6/2621)

BACKGROUND: Modern pancreatin preparations consist of enteric-coated microspheres to protect the enzymes from gastric acid. There are, however, no clinical trials comparing different sizes of pancreatin microspheres with regard to fat excretion and fat intake. AIM: To prove both equivalent efficacy and safety of conventional pancreatin microspheres and smaller pancreatin minimicrospheres in patients with exocrine insufficiency due to chronic pancreatitis. METHODS: In this prospective, randomized, double-blind, multicentre, crossover trial, patients with a stool fat excretion of > 7.5 g/day during a placebo period were randomly assigned either to the minimicrosphere/microsphere treatment sequence or vice versa. The primary end-point was the coefficient of fat absorption, which was calculated from fat excretion and fat intake during the course of a standardized diet. Stool weight, clinical symptoms and the safety of the preparations were also evaluated. RESULTS: Thirty-seven patients entered the study, of whom 23 fulfilled the criteria for the crossover period. In the per protocol analysis (n=18), the 90% confidence intervals for the coefficient of fat absorption of both crossover periods lay entirely within the equivalence range (P=0.02). The intention-to-treat analysis revealed similar results, but the equivalence range was slightly missed (P=0.07). Similar results were obtained for the secondary parameters and the reported adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Pancreatin minimicrospheres have been shown to be equally effective as microspheres in improving the coefficient of fat absorption in patients with exocrine insufficiency due to chronic pancreatitis.  (+info)

Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characterization of OROS and immediate-release amitriptyline. (7/2621)

AIMS: To characterize the pharmacokinetics of amitriptyline and its metabolite nortriptyline following OROS and IR treatments, and to correlate them with anticholinergic side-effects. METHODS: The pharmacokinetics and safety of amitriptyline following administration of an osmotic controlled release tablet (OROS and an immediate release (IR) tablet were evaluated in 14 healthy subjects. In this randomized, open label, three-way crossover feasibility study, the subjects received a single 75 mg OROS tablet, three 25 mg IR tablets administered every 8 h, or 3x25 mg IR tablets administered at nighttime. In each treatment arm serial blood samples were collected for a period of 84 h after dosing. The plasma samples were analysed by gas chromatography for amitriptyline and its metabolite nortriptyline. Anticholinergic effects such as saliva output, visual acuity, and subject-rated drowsiness and dry mouth were measured on a continuous scale during each treatment period. RESULTS: Following dosing with OROS (amitriptyline hydrochloride), the mean maximal plasma amitriptyline concentration Cmax (15.3 ng ml-1 ) was lower and the mean tmax (25.7 h) was longer than that associated with the equivalent IR dose administered at nighttime (26.8 ng ml-1 and 6.3 h, respectively). The bioavailability of amitriptyline following OROS dosing was 95% relative to IR every 8 h dosing, and 89% relative to IR nighttime dosing. The metabolite-to-drug ratios after the three treatment periods were similar, suggesting no change in metabolism between treatments. The relationships between plasma amitriptyline concentration and anticholinergic effects (e.g. reduced saliva weight, dry mouth, and drowsiness) were similar with all three treatments. Of the anticholinergic effects, only decreased saliva weight and dry mouth correlated well with plasma amitriptyline concentrations; drowsiness did not. There was no apparent correlation between anticholinergic effects and the plasma nortriptyline concentration. CONCLUSIONS: The bioavailability of OROS (amitriptyline hydrochloride) was similar to that of the IR treatments and the pharmacokinetics of amitriptyline after OROS dosing may decrease the incidence of anticholinergic effects compared with that seen with nighttime dosing of the IR formulation. Therefore, this controlled-release formulation of amitriptyline may be appropriate for single daily administration.  (+info)

The pharmacology of gene therapy. (8/2621)

The objective for human gene therapy is to express exogenous DNA at a site in vivo for long enough, and at sufficient levels to produce a therapeutic response. The obstacles to this objective are numerous and include the formulation or packaging of the DNA, in vivo delivery, penetration of biological barriers, DNA elimination within the cell and from the tissue compartments of the whole body, control of product expression and overt toxicity. The current challenge is to resolve each of these obstacles to produce a practical and efficient gene therapy. In doing so, it is vital to understand the disposition of DNA vectors in vivo, and to know how conventional medicines may be used to modulate this disposition and to enhance the therapeutic effect of these vectors. Many of the general concepts of human gene therapy have been reviewed extensively in the literature. This review discusses some of the pharmacological aspects of gene delivery and the fate of vectors in vivo, and then highlights how drugs are being used to modulate gene therapy.  (+info)

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Algebraic geometry is a field of mathematics which combines two different branches of study, specifically algebra and linear algebra. Algebra and linear algebra can be defined as (1):. Algebra: A field of mathematics which analyzes polynomial equations using letters and symbols to represent unknown values. Linear Algebra: The investigation of a system of linear equations using several variables. Thus, algebraic geometry uses several variables for systems of polynomial equations. Algebraic geometry does not necessarily aim to solve these equations, but rather formulate statements about the geometric structure for the set of solutions belonging to these polynomial equations (algebraic varieties). When studying algebraic geometry, polynomial equations can be of various degrees (denoted as d). Polynomial equations of several variables are investigated to discover what their geometric structure might be. Algebraic geometry is a rather abstract field of mathematics. It is a field which involves a lot ...
Fomulation And Evaluation Of Nsaids By Liquisolid Compact Technique, 978-3-659-29557-7, Liquisolid compacts were used to formulate water insoluble drugs in non-volatile solvents and converting into acceptably flowing and compressible powders. The main objective of present investigation was to enhance the dissolution rate of water insoluble drugs Ibuprofen and Naproxen by using liquisolid technique. Several liquisolid tablets were prepared by using different carrier materials.PEG 400 was used as non- volatile water miscible liquid vehicle. The liquid loading factors for such liquid vehicle was calculated to obtain the optimum amounts of carrier and coating materials necessary to produce acceptable flowing and compactable powder admixtures viable to produce compacts. The formulated liquisolid tablets were evaluated for post compression parameters such as weight variation, hardness, drug content, content uniformity, percentage friability and disintegration time. The in-vitro release characteristics of the
4 AND 5 (FROM TOP TO BOTTOM). FIG. 3: 1) DSC OF PURE DRUG - AT, 2) DSC OF AT, GELUCIRE 43/01 AND HPMC K4M, 3) DSC OF AT, GELUCIRE 43/01 AND ETHYL CELLULOSE, 4) DSC OF AT, CAMPRITOL 888 ATO AND HPMC K4M, 5) DSC OF AT, CAMPRITOL 888 ATO AND ETHYL CELLULOSE. Formulation Development:. Preparation of AT floating Granules by Melt Granulation Technique: Floating granules containing AT, lipids of various ratios (drug; lipid: 1:1, 1:1.25 and 1:1.5) prepared by using melt granulation technique. The polymers added were HPMC K4M, 0.5 parts and ethyl cellulose, 0.1 and 0.2 parts to the optimized formulation.. Lipids, Gelucire 43/01 and Campritol 888 ATO were melted separately at 50 °C and 74 °C respectively, to which drug and drug additive mixture was added, mixed well and cooled to RT. The mass was then passed through 850 µm sieve to obtain uniform sized granules 7 Table 3 and 4.. Evaluation of Granules:. In vitro Buoyancy Study: The in vitro buoyancy was characterized by floating lag time and total ...
Test your knowledge of how to calculate derivatives of polynomial equations using this interactive quiz. Use the worksheet to identify study points...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Toward the establishment of standardized in vitro tests for lipid-based formulations, Part 1: Method parameterization and comparison of in vitro digestion profiles across a range of representative formulations. AU - Williams, Hywel David. AU - Sassene, Philip J. AU - Kleberg, Karen. AU - Bakala-NGoma, Jean-Claude. AU - Calderone, Marilyn. AU - Jannin, Vincent. AU - Igonin, Annabel. AU - Partheil, Anette. AU - Marchaud, Delphine. AU - Jule, Eduardo. AU - Vertommen, Jan. AU - Maio, Mario. AU - Blundell, Ross. AU - Benameur, Hassan. AU - Carriere, Frederic. AU - Mullertz, Anette. AU - Porter, Christopher John. AU - Pouton, Colin William. PY - 2012. Y1 - 2012. N2 - The Lipid Formulation Classification System Consortium is an industry-academia collaboration, established to develop standardized in vitro methods for the assessment of lipid-based formulations (LBFs). In this first publication, baseline conditions for the conduct of digestion tests are suggested and a series of eight ...
Drug formulations market research report covering industry trends, market share, market growth analysis and projection by MIcroMarketMonitor.com. Drug formulations market report includes,|Key question answered| What are market estimates and forecasts; which of Drug formulations markets are doing well and which are not? and |Audience for this report| Drug formulations companies.
Drug formulations market research report covering industry trends, market share, market growth analysis and projection by MIcroMarketMonitor.com. Drug formulations market report includes,|Key question answered| What are market estimates and forecasts; which of Drug formulations markets are doing well and which are not? and |Audience for this report| Drug formulations companies.
Medicinal Chemistry 2014 Conferences, Medicinal Chemistry 2014 Conferences Photos, Medicinal Chemistry 2014 Conferences Images, Medicinal Chemistry 2014 Conference Gallery, Medicinal Chemistry 2014 Event Images
TY - JOUR. T1 - Influence of formulation parameters on dissolution rate enhancement of glyburide using liquisolid technique. AU - Singh, S.K.. AU - Srinivasan, K.K.. AU - Gowthamarajan, K.. AU - Prakash, D.. AU - Gaikwad, N.B.. AU - Singare, D.S.. N1 - cited By 16. PY - 2012. Y1 - 2012. U2 - 10.3109/03639045.2011.634810. DO - 10.3109/03639045.2011.634810. M3 - Article. VL - 38. SP - 961. EP - 970. JO - Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy. JF - Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy. SN - 0363-9045. IS - 8. ER - ...
#pharmaceutical chemistry #Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal About this journal More than 40 years in publication through 2007, the monthly Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal is devoted to scientific and technical research on the creation of new drugs and the improvement of manufac More than 40 years in publication through 2007, the monthly Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal is devoted to…
Current Medicinal Chemistry covers all the latest and outstanding developments in medicinal chemistry and rational drug design. Each issue contains a series of timely in-depth reviews written by leaders in the field covering a range of the current topics in medicinal chemistry. Current Medicinal Chemistry is an essential journal for every medicinal chemist who wishes to be kept informed and up-to-date with the latest and most important developments.. ...
The objective of this work was to assess the influence of formulation variables of L. casei loaded whey protein-Ca-alginate microparticles on probiotic survival
TY - JOUR. T1 - Analysis of drug dissolution data. AU - Lee, Jack C.. AU - Chen, Dung Tsa. AU - Hung, Hui-Nien. AU - Chen, James J.. PY - 1999/4/15. Y1 - 1999/4/15. N2 - Drug absorption in the human body depends on the dissolution rate of the drug. Suitable dissolution characteristics are important to ensure that the drug will achieve the desired therapeutic effects. To assess the similarity of dissolution rates of several drug lots, we apply a general growth curve model with different covariance structures. The Box-Cox power transformation and the naive log transformation are applied to a function of the dissolution rate. The predictive sample-reuse, or cross-validation, method is employed in selecting an appropriate model with best predictive accuracy. A testing procedure for examining the similarity among the drug lots is also conducted. A partially Bayesian approach is used for the assessment of dissolution equivalence.. AB - Drug absorption in the human body depends on the dissolution rate ...
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The study of zero sets of polynomial equations. Examples of zero sets of polynomial equations studied in algebraic geometry are the parabola y − x2 = 0, thought of as sitting in the (x, y)-plane, and the locus of all points (t, t2, t3, t4), which is ...
The study of zero sets of polynomial equations. Examples of zero sets of polynomial equations studied in algebraic geometry are the parabola y − x2 = 0, thought of as sitting in the (x, y)-plane, and the locus of all points (t, t2, t3, t4), which is ...
Early phase pharmaceutical development. Almacs formulation scientists can develop a range of oral dose formulations for early stage clinical trials.
García González, N., Kellaway, I. W., Blanco Fuente, H., Anguiano Igea, S., Delgado Charro, B., Otero Espinar, F. J. and Blanco Méndez, J., 1994. Influence of glycerol concentration and carbopol molecular weight on swelling and drug release characteristics of metoclopramide hydrogels. International Journal of Pharmaceutics ...
STA Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. (STA) - a WuXi AppTec group company and the leading open-access capability and technology platform for small molecule pharmaceutical development and manufacturing
Lipid-based formulations (LBFs) is a formulation strategy for enabling oral delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs. However, current use of this strategy is limited to a few percent of the marketed products. Reasons for that are linked to the complexity of LBFs, chemical instability of pre-dissolved drug and a limited understanding of the influence of LBF intestinal digestion on drug absorption. The aim of this study was to explore intestinal drug solubilization from a long-chain LBF, and evaluate whether coadministration of LBF is as efficient as a lipidbased drug formulation containing the pre-dissolved model drug carvedilol. Thus, solubility studies of this weak base were performed in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) and aspirated dog intestinal fluid (DIF). DIF was collected from duodenal stomas after dosing of water and two levels (1 g and 2 g) of LBF. Similarly, the in vitro SIF solubility studies were conducted prior to, and after addition of, undigested or digested LBF. The DIF fluid was ...
In vitro dissolution testing is a critical component of drug product development programs and is often used as a surrogate for in vivo performance. Consequently, mechanistic modelling of in vitro dissolution studies and informed data interpretation early in the formulation development process is crucial. The Simcyp In Vitro (Data) Analysis (SIVA) toolkit is a standalone […]. ...
While every effort has been made to reproduce these formulations correctly, the Publisher of this website cannot accept any liability for the information presented. All formulations are provided in good faith, but no warranty is given as to accuracy of information or results, or suitability for a particular use, nor is freedom from patent infringement to be inferred. Formulations are offered solely for consideration by the participating manufacturers. Continued use of this web site infers acceptance of this disclaimer. ...
The four-year MSci Biological and Medicinal Chemistry programme mirrors the BSc Biological and Medicinal Chemistry during the first three years, but also includes an additional fourth year during which you will undertake a research project. This will focus on a specialised area aligned with one of our leading research groups. You will also undertake advanced modules in your final year.. This popular degree provides training in both biological sciences and chemistry and shows how this multidisciplinary area relates to aspects of medicine and drug design.. Chemistry is at the core of the degree, with options in biochemistry and biology. An emphasis is given to understanding the chemistry and synthesis of small molecules, particularly in medicine and disease.. The modules we outline here provide examples of what you can expect to learn on this degree course based on recent academic teaching. The precise modules available to you in future years may vary depending on staff availability and research ...
|p||em|Reaxys Medicinal Chemistry enables scientists to explore new drug candidates through a comprehensive database with new search features, refined user-interface and integration with Reaxys|/em||/p|
Pharmacy and Clinical Research. Heath Care. Medical. M.S. (Pharm.):Medicinal Chemistry in Punjab. M.S. (Pharm.):Medicinal Chemistry. The department is engaged in the following areas of research Identification and validation of novel target sites for various therapeutic areas: Design and synthesis of new chemical entities as anticancer, antileishmanial
Medicinal Chemistry, a peer-reviewed journal, aims to cover all the latest outstanding developments in medicinal chemistry and rational drug design. The journal publishes original research and mini-review articles covering recent research and developments in the field.
Medicinal Chemistry, a peer-reviewed journal, aims to cover all the latest outstanding developments in medicinal chemistry and rational drug design...
Current Medicinal Chemistry covers all the latest and outstanding developments in medicinal chemistry and rational drug design, and has impact factor 3.853.
Current Medicinal Chemistry covers all the latest and outstanding developments in medicinal chemistry and rational drug design, and has impact factor 3.853.
This international, multicentric, prospective, observational study is being conducted to assess the safety profile, efficacy and adherence to Rebif® New Formulation in real life settings in subjects with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), as well as the impact of this improved formulation (with regards to adverse events [AEs]) to subjects adherence. Three hundred and fifty subjects from approximately 80 sites across seven countries will be enrolled in the study. Subjects will be treated with IFN beta-1a (Rebif® New Formulation) in real life settings according to the clinical and paraclinical course and laboratory findings as routinely evaluated by the physician. Data related to AEs; subjects adherence to treatment, reasons for treatment discontinuation; number and reasons of missed injections; and the clinical and paraclinical data on efficacy regarding relapses will be captured. Data will be reported prospectively throughout the duration of the study (12 months) at two visits ...
Formulation development and producing accurate formulations are not only vital to consumer safety, but are also important for product quality for Pharmaceuticals, Cosmetics, Chemicals, Food and other Markets. Learn more now »
Polycarbonate T-cell with CO2 sensor stick for online CO2 monitoring in perfusion systems. Non-invasive measurements, optimized for solutions with physilogical osmolality.
PreSens optical measurement systems can be applied in manifold applications. Read articles about how our customers applied PreSens devices in their experiments and what experiences they made!
While every effort has been made to reproduce these formulations correctly, the Publisher of this website cannot accept any liability for the information presented. All formulations are provided in good faith, but no warranty is given as to accuracy of information or results, or suitability for a particular use, nor is freedom from patent infringement to be inferred. Formulations are offered solely for consideration by the participating manufacturers. Continued use of this web site infers acceptance of this disclaimer. ...
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In addition to size, particles of low density (typically , 0.1 g/cm3) are desirable for high-efficiency delivery to the lungs. It is a strategy borrowed from nature in the dispersal of spores and pollen.. Most dry powder inhalant products on the market are lactose blends of coated crystalline small molecules.. If you design the right powder-one that fluidizes and disperses at low energy-you can make a simpler device, he said. If a device is simpler for patients to use, they are more adherent to their medication.. For these reasons, Miller believes that engineered particles are the future of the industry.. One way I look at characterization of engineered particles is its another solid dosage form, he said. Those of you who work on tablets, our lives are quite similar.. When it comes to topical formulations, product characteristics include pH, particle size, polymorphism, rheological studies, globule size, and dissolved/undissolved drug.. The quality attribute of highest interest is the ...
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Assessment: 3-hour examination (85%), best 3 out of 4 assessed worksheets (15%).. Prerequisites: MA106 Linear Algebra, MA249 Algebra II: Groups and Rings. Leads To: Content: Galois theory is the study of solutions of polynomial equations. You know how to solve the quadratic equation $ ax^2+bx+c=0 $ by completing the square, or by that formula involving plus or minus the square root of the discriminant $ b^2-4ac $ . The cubic and quartic equations were solved ``by radicals in Renaissance Italy. In contrast, Ruffini, Abel and Galois discovered around 1800 that there is no such solution of the general quintic. Although the problem originates in explicit manipulations of polynomials, the modern treatment is in terms of field extensions and groups of ``symmetries of fields. For example, a general quintic polynomial over $Q$ has five roots $ \alpha_1.\dots.\alpha_5 $ , and the corresponding symmetry group is the permutation group $ S_5 $ on these.. Aims: The course will discuss the problem of ...
Abstract:. The objective of present study was to prepare and characterize aceclofenac sustained release tablets prepared by melt granulation technique. The granules were prepared by hydrophilic meltable binder PEG 4000. Compared to ordinary conventional technique, this method does not employ any organic solvent or water and hence reduces drying step because dried granules were obtained by cooling them. And moreover it is less time consuming process. This method can be used for granulating water sensitive material and for producing sustained release granules. Melt granulation technique fulfill todays pharmaceutical industry need because it is simple, continuous and efficient. Different formulation trials of aceclofenac tablets were prepared using PEG 4000 and among the various prepared trials, the best formulation is chosen. The best judged formulation were found to be effective in sustaining the drug release up to 10 hrs.. ...
EFFECT OF TABLET FORMULATION VARIABLES ON TRAMADOL HCL ELEMENTARY OSMOTIC PUMP TABLET, Basani Gavaskar, Subash Vijaya Kumar , Dilip Dodda
0038] When the dosage form reaches the proximal part of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), i.e., the duodenum or the small intestine, the enteric polymer, or acid insoluble and base soluble polymer, in the hydrophilic matrix polymers are dissolved or dispersed in the intestinal content. This exposes drug particles within the polymer matrix to intestinal fluids, and offers a large surface area for drug dissolution and drug release from the polymer matrix. At the same time, high molecular weight non-enteric polymers remaining in the polymer matrix dissolve or swell in the viscous intestinal fluids, forming a viscous gel around the drug particles. Release of the water soluble drug in the small intestine is retarded by this viscous gel, resulting in a gradual release of drug in the intestine. Thus, the release profile of the water soluble drug is controlled by the combination of enteric and non-enteric polymers, where enteric polymers act to retard drug release in the stomach, while non-enteric ...
Current Medicinal Chemistry is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by Bentham Science Publishers. The editor-in-chief is Atta-ur-Rahman (International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi). The journal covers developments in medicinal chemistry and rational drug design and publishes original research reports and review papers. Current Medicinal Chemistry is indexed in the following databases: Chemical Abstracts Service/CASSI EMBASE EMBiology MEDLINE Science Citation Index Expanded Scopus According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal has a 2016 impact factor of 3.249, ranking it 16th out of 60 journals in the category Chemistry, Medicinal. Journal overview. Current Medicinal Chemistry. Bentham Science Publishers. August 2011. Retrieved 2011-08-04. List of indexing services. Current Medicinal Chemistry. Bentham Science Publishers. August 2011. Retrieved 2011-08-04. Current Medicinal Chemistry. CAS Source Index (CASSI). American Chemical Society. ...
Generally, although the conventional drug delivery systems, such as using only pHdependent polymers or time-dependent release systems are popular, the individuals variations of physiological conditions usually lead to premature or imperfect drug release from each of these systems. Therefore, a combination of pH- and time-dependent polymers could be more reliable for delivering drugs to the lower GI tract such as colon. To this end, electrospinning method was used as a fabrication approach for preparing electrospun nanofibers of indomethacin aimed for colon delivery. Formulations were prepared based on a 3 2 full factorial design. Independent variables were the drug:polymer ratio (with the levels of 3:5, 4.5:5 and 6:5 w/w) and Eudragit S:Eudragit RS w/w ratio (20:80, 60:40 and 100:0). The evaluated responses were drug release at pH 1.2, 6.4, 6.8 and 7.4. Combinations of Eudragit S (ES), Eudragit RS (ERS) and drug based on factorial design were loaded in 10 ml syringes. 3 Electrospinning method ...
Generally, although the conventional drug delivery systems, such as using only pHdependent polymers or time-dependent release systems are popular, the individuals variations of physiological conditions usually lead to premature or imperfect drug release from each of these systems. Therefore, a combination of pH- and time-dependent polymers could be more reliable for delivering drugs to the lower GI tract such as colon. To this end, electrospinning method was used as a fabrication approach for preparing electrospun nanofibers of indomethacin aimed for colon delivery. Formulations were prepared based on a 3 2 full factorial design. Independent variables were the drug:polymer ratio (with the levels of 3:5, 4.5:5 and 6:5 w/w) and Eudragit S:Eudragit RS w/w ratio (20:80, 60:40 and 100:0). The evaluated responses were drug release at pH 1.2, 6.4, 6.8 and 7.4. Combinations of Eudragit S (ES), Eudragit RS (ERS) and drug based on factorial design were loaded in 10 ml syringes. 3 Electrospinning method ...
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The vessel-simulating flow-through cell (vFTC) has been used to examine release and distribution from drug-eluting stents in an in vitro model adapted to the stent placement in vivo. The aim of this s
Spectroscopy Flow-Through Cell, Semi-Micro/Ultra-Micro with In- and Outlet Tubes, Quartz SUPRASIL®, Light Path: 10mm, Center Height: 15mm, Outside Dim.: 35H x 12.5W x 12.5D mm, Aperture: 11 x 2.5mm, Cell Volume: 300mL. Compact with two screw connectors M 6x 1 and FEP Tubing o.d. 1.9mm, i.d. 1.1mm 500mm long. All cells contain two clear windows.
Spectroscopy Flow-Through Cell, Semi-Micro/Ultra-Micro with In- and Outlet Tubes, Quartz SUPRASIL®, Light Path: 50mm, Center Height: 15mm, Outside Dim.: 45H x 12.5W x 52.5D mm, Aperture: Ü 3.0mm, Cell Volume: 370mL. Compact with two screw connectors M 6x 1 and FEP Tubing o.d. 1.9mm, i.d. 1.1mm 500mm long. All cells contain two clear windows.
Spectroscopy Flow-Through Cell, Semi-Micro/Ultra-Micro with In- and Outlet Tubes, Quartz SUPRASIL® (FIAS), Light Path: 10mm, Center Height: 15mm, Outside Dim.: 35H x 12.5W x 12.5D mm, Aperture: Ü 1.0mm, Cell Volume: 8mL. Compact with two screw connectors M 6x 1 and FEP Tubing o.d. 1.9mm, i.d. 1.1mm 500mm long. All cells contain two clear windows.
Spectroscopy Flow-Through Cell, Semi-Micro/Ultra-Micro with In- and Outlet Tubes, Quartz SUPRASIL®, Light Path: 10mm, Center Height: 15mm, Outside Dim.: 35H x 12.5W x 12.5D mm, Aperture: Ü 3.0mm, Cell, Volume: 80 mL,
Floating drug delivery of a locally acting H2-antagonist: An approach using an in situ gelling liquid formulation. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The aqueous solubility of a drug is viewed as a pivotal property for its oral absorption since only dissolved molecules can permeate the gut wall and reach the systemic circulation. The fluids in the intestine, however, do not only consist of water and therefore poor water solubility may not necessarily imply a poor solubility in the intestinal fluids and resulting low bioavailability. This thesis addresses the determination of drug solubility and dissolution rates in biorelevant dissolution media (BDM) with the aim of applying these methods to the early stages of drug discovery, where there is a need to reduce the volume of the medium and the amount of solid drug used in testing. The thesis also addresses the need for computational methods for predicting solubility in intestinal fluids and, hence, allowing in silico screening of drugs yet to be synthesized. The apparent solubility and dissolution behavior of large series of lipophilic and other diverse compounds in BDM were studied using a ...
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From the above equation, entrapment efficiency was calculated based on given formula:. Measurement of particle size: Photon co-relation spectroscopy using Zetasizer (Malvern Instruments, UK) determined globule size of the nanoemulsion by the principle of fluctuation in light scattering due to Brownian motion of the particles [18].. Measurement of zeta potential: Zetasizer (Malvern Instruments) was used to measure Zeta Potential [18]. Samples were prepared for analyzing zeta potential by diluting 1ml of the SLN dispersion with 10ml Millipore water.. Transmission electron microscopy: The morphology of particles was examined by TEM (Hitachi 2000 Japan). Combination of bright field imaging at increasing magnification and of diffraction modes was used to reveal the form and size of the nanosuspension [18].. Differential scanning calorimetry: Scan of about 2mg, accurately weighed zaltoprofen and ZLT-SLN formulation using a differential scanning calorimeter was recorded. Sealed and perforated aluminium ...
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Title: The Medicinal Chemistry of Peptides. VOLUME: 16 ISSUE: 33. Author(s):J. J. Nestor Jr.. Affiliation:EuMederis Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 725 Lynwood Drive, Encinitas, California 92024, USA.. Keywords:Peptide, peptide design, peptide pharmaceutical, drug design, medicinal chemistry, constrained peptide, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, drug depot. Abstract: The shortcomings of native peptides as pharmaceuticals have been long known: short duration of action, lack of receptor selectivity, lack of oral bioavailability. However medicinal chemistry offers solutions to the first two limitations and oral bioavailability issues have been addressed with novel routes of administration (e.g. intranasal, inhalation) and injectable depot formulations. The principal issue for peptide drugs has been a short duration of action, widely assumed to be due to proteolysis. While proteolysis is a problem for native peptide structures, modification of the peptide structure by acylation, PEGylation, unnatural ...
INPROCEEDINGS{GrigorievWeber2012a, author = {Grigoriev, Dima and Weber, Andreas}, title = {Complexity of Solving Systems with Few Independent Monomials and Applications to Mass-action Kinetics}, booktitle = {Computer Algebra in Scientific Computing - 14th International Workshop (CASC 2012)}, series = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science}, year = {2012}, month = sep, publisher = {Springer}, location = {Maribor, Slovenia}, keywords = {chemical reaction networks, complexity of solving systems of polynomial equations, mass-action kinetics, Smith form, toric systems}, abstract = {We design an algorithm for nding solutions with nonzero coordinates of systems of polynomial equations which has a better complexity bound than for known algorithms when a system contains a few linearly independent monomials. For parametric binomial systems we construct an algorithm of polynomial complexity. We discuss the applications of these algorithms in the context of chemical reaction systems ...
Quality by Design for ANDAs: An Example for Modified Release Dosage Forms Introduction to the Example This is an example pharmaceutical development report illustrating how ANDA applicants can move toward
In vitro dissolution of sofosbuvir 400 mg tablets dosage form was performed, using USP dissolution apparatus type-II (paddle type), at 75rpm ± 4 %, and 900mL ± 1%, 0.05 M phosphate buffer pH 6.8 ± 0.05 equilibrated at 37.0 ± 0.5ºC as dissolution medium. Percentage of dissolved sofosbuvir as a function of time was determined using the straight line equation and linear regression using zero order and first order ANOVA based kinetics model. Comparative dissolution studies on two different generic brands A and B was performed comparing the drug release profile with innovator brand Sovaldi 400 mg tablets. The comparison of dissolution profiles was evaluated using model independent approach. The values of similarity factor f2 were (4 and 3) and the difference factor f1 were (64 and 50) for both generic products A and B respectively. A simple and precise spectrophotometric method was developed for estimation of sofosbuvir in dissolution medium based on spectrophotometric detection at wavelength ...
On the occasion of the holiday visited the elders of the department of pharmaceutical chemistry. 16.03.2020, 08:50 Institute news, News 260 Teachers of the Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry of the Tashkent Pharmaceutical Institute N. N. Yunuskhodzhaeva, S. S. Yuldasheva, A. A. Yuraeva, N. T. Zaripova and O.K. Babaniyazov on the occasion of the holiday visited the elders of the department of pharmaceutical chemistry.. ...
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The Symposium on Medicinal Chemistry in Eastern England, known colloquially as the Hatfield MedChem meeting, is a highly successful, long-standing, one-day meeting which runs annually. The scientific programme will comprise presentations showcasing medicinal chemistry case studies from tools to candidates, across a range of modalities, therapeutic areas and target classes, as well as covering more general topics from the forefront of drug discovery of relevance to medicinal chemists. The meeting aims to be informal and interactive and the event will offer excellent scientific and networking opportunities for all those working in medicinal chemistry and drug discovery ...
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300441754 - EP 0755245 B1 2001-05-30 - PROCESS AND APPARATUS FOR THE CONTINUOUS MILLING OF AEROSOL PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS IN AEROSOL PROPELLANTS - [origin: US5687920A] The present invention provides a process and apparatus for the continuous milling of aerosol pharmaceutical formulations which contain solids by milling in the aerosol propellant.[origin: US5687920A] The present invention provides a process and apparatus for the continuous milling of aerosol pharmaceutical formulations which contain solids by milling in the aerosol propellant.
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Pharm Methods Pharmaceutical Methods 2229-4708 2229-4716 Phcog.Net India Pharm Methods-9-8 10.5530/phm.2018.1.2 Original Article Application of Box-Behnken Design for Validation of High-Per Formance Thin-Layer Chromatography/Densitometry Method for Robustness Determination of Apremilast in Bulk and in-house Tablets Chaudhari Suraj Rajendra 1 Shirkhedkar Atul Arun 2 *
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Separation of Oxybenzone, analytical standard; Octocrylene, analytical standard; Octinoxate, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard; Avobenzone, analytical standard; Homosalate, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard; Octisalate, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard; Octyl dimethyl PABA
Abstract The purpose of this review article is to describe the properties and applications of polyethylene oxide. Polyethylene oxide is a biocompatible polymer, which is marketed as
Medicinal Chemistry is a highly interdisciplinary key science within pharmaceutical research, uniquely positioned at the interface to many other scientific areas. Working in close collaboration with biology, molecular modeling and screening technologies, medicinal chemists design and synthetize new bioactive compounds, aiming at the optimal balance of biological activity and physico-chemical properties. Several thousand new molecules need to be created, characterized and tested within a drug discovery project: each round of feedback provides information to guide the next design decision, until one or more potential clinical candidates are identified. Medicinal chemistry also provides tool compounds for biological research, systems biology, and assay development.. Tags: Chemistry ...
3. Results and Discussions. Table 5 shows the results from the analysis of variance (ANOVA) related to the mean values of the response variables. The P-values indicate which of the effects in the system are statistically significant, based on the examination of the experimental data from replicate 1 and replicate 2. If the P-value is less than or equal 0.05, the effect is considered significant. An a-level of 0.05 is the level of significance, which implies a 95% of probability of the effect being significant15. The results are presented via main effect and interaction plots. These graphic plots cannot be considered typical scatter plots, but rather illustrate the statistical analysis and provide the variation of the significant effects16. The main effect of a factor must be individually interpreted only when there is no evidence of interaction with other factors. When one or more interaction effects of superior order are significant, the factors that interact might be mutually ...
Particle Size AnalysisAcross most sectors, the particle size of products and materials is a critical parameter in their manufacture. Changing the particle size distribution of a material has a massive impact on its characteristics and its behaviour either during its manufacture, within the final product or on its effects within the environment.For example, the particle size distribution of a product like coffee greatly impacts its taste and quality. As discussed in Malvern Panlyticals Application Note : MRK781-01.The key factors which need to be considered include:• Dissolution rate• Flowability / Pump rates• Stability• Appearance• Safety• Environmental ImpactA current hot topic both nationally and worldwide is surrounding how a materials particle size distribution effects the safety of that material. For example, if the material has a high fraction of particles within the respirable range - PM1, PM2.5 or PM10, how does this impact on the health of either the workers in the factories and
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry is a scientific journal focusing on the results of research on the molecular structure of biological organisms and the interaction of biological targets with chemical agents. It is published by Elsevier, which also publishes the related journal Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. Bioorganic & Medicinal ...
Principles of Medicinal Chemistry Review of Organic Functional Groups II. September 16/2002. Zbigniew J. Witczak, Ph.D. Principles of Medicinal Chemistry PHA 421: Dr. Zbigniew J. Witczak. Learning Objectives After completion of theses lectures students should be able to: Slideshow 91950 by Solomon
15th World Congress on Medicinal Chemistry & CADDOctober 10-11, 2019 Dubrovnik, CroatiaDear Colleague,Medicinal Chemistry Conferences is inviting you to attend as Exhibitor / Sponsor / Collaborator / Media Partner / Speaker / Delegate to expand your network at MedChem & CADD 2019 during October at Dubro...
Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry provides timely and critical reviews of important topics in medicinal chemistry together with an emphasis on emerging...
Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry provides timely and critical reviews of important topics in medicinal chemistry together with an emphasis on emerging...
An osmotic device is disclosed for delivering two beneficial drugs to an environment of use. The device comprises a wall surrounding a lumen divided into a first compartment containing a drug that is separated by a hydrogel partition from a second compartment containing a different drug. An orifice through the wall communicates with the first compartment for delivering drug formulation from the first compartment, and another orifice through the wall communicates with the second compartment for delivering drug formulation from the second compartment. In operation, drug formulation is dispensed separately from each compartment by fluid being imbibed through the wall into each compartment at a rate controlled by the permeability of the wall and the osmotic pressure gradient across the wall against the drug formulation in each compartment thereby producing in each compartment a solution containing drugs, and by the expansion and swelling of the hydrogel, whereby drug formulation is dispensed through their
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Abstract:. Introduction: The present research work is about the development of a simple, economic, accurate, quick and reproducible UV spectrophotometric method for sulfasalazine (SFZ) estimation in the pharmaceutical formulation (suspension) and also when it is in the bulk. Materials and Methods: Water and methanol was used in proportion of 1:1 for the preparation of stock solution. Different solutions of SFZ were prepared by diluting the stock solution with water. Results: The solution was prepared and determine at wavelength λmax 359 nm. The drug was determined at maximum wavelength (λmax 359 nm). When the drug concentration is in the range of 2-20 μg/ml it obeys Beers law with line equation y=0.073x+0.003 and correlation coefficient of 0.992. Results obtained were validated statistically and by recovery study method. Conclusion: The result of analysis was validated according to ICH guidelines and this proposed method can be used for the routine analysis of sulfasalazine suspension ...
Author: Allen Loyd V Jr, Okeke Claudia C, Year: 2010, Abstract: A sound quality-assurance program, which should include standard operating procedures, documentation, verification, and analytical and microbiological testing, is necessary to ensure the quality of compounded preparations. This article discusses in a practical matter verification of automated compounding devices for parenteral nutrition compounding and finished preparation release checks and tests, and provides practice clarification to the standards set forth by the United States Pharmacopeial
Drug formulations having reduced abuse potential which contain one or more of (1) an agent that has a nasty odor, (2) a bright deterrent/indicator dye and (3) fine insoluble particulate matter. The malodorous agent and dye are in a form which does not affect proper administration of the drug, but the odorous agent creates a nasty odor when the dosage form is crushed or chemically extracted and nasally, by inhalation, orally, buccally or sublingually administered and the dye produces a bright color when crushed and contacted. The fine insoluble particulate matter hinders extraction of the drug from the dosage form and, when crushed, can deter intravenous injection because of the presence of the insoluble particles or hinder injection by blocking an intravenous needle. The bright color of the dye, when extracted, also has a psychologically deterrent effect on intravenous abusers.
Throughout history, the solution of polynomial equations has been a challenging problem. The Babylonians knew how to solve the equation \(ax^2 + bx + c = 0\text{.}\) Omar Khayyam (1048-1131) devised methods of solving cubic equations through the use of geometric constructions and conic sections. The algebraic solution of the general cubic equation \(ax^3 + bx^2 + cx + d = 0\) was not discovered until the sixteenth century. An Italian mathematician, Luca Pacioli (ca. 1445-1509), wrote in Summa de Arithmetica that the solution of the cubic was impossible. This was taken as a challenge by the rest of the mathematical community.. Scipione del Ferro (1465-1526), of the University of Bologna, solved the depressed cubic,. \begin{equation*} ax^3 + cx + d = 0. \end{equation*} He kept his solution an absolute secret. This may seem surprising today, when mathematicians are usually very eager to publish their results, but in the days of the Italian Renaissance secrecy was customary. Academic appointments ...
Barber, Jill; Rostron, Chris (2013-07-25). Pharmaceutical Chemistry. OUP Oxford. ISBN 9780199655304.. ... Royal Society of Chemistry. p. 328. ISBN 9780854043620.. *^ Knoll, Wolfgang; Advincula, Rigoberto C. (2013-02-12). Functional ... Sangster, J. (1997-05-28). Octanol-Water Partition Coefficients: Fundamentals and Physical Chemistry. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN ... Gilbert, John C.; Martin, Stephen F. (2010-01-19). Experimental Organic Chemistry: A Miniscale and Microscale Approach. Cengage ...
Stahl M, Bouw R, Jackson A, Pay V (June 2002). "Human microdialysis". Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology. 3 (2): 165-78. doi: ... Olson RJ, Justice JB (2002). "Quantitative microdialysis under transient conditions". Analytical Chemistry. 65 (8): 1017-1022. ... Trac Trends in Analytical Chemistry. 24 (4): 324-333. doi:10.1016/j.trac.2004.10.004.. ... pharmaceuticals) to determine their distribution within the body. The microdialysis technique requires the insertion of a small ...
"The Pharmaceutical Journal. 273 (7330): 900-902. Archived from the original on 3 December 2008.. ... Biophysics is an interdisciplinary science that uses the methods of physics and physical chemistry to study biological systems. ... Biochemistry is the study of the chemistry taking place in living organisms, especially the structure and function of their ... Pharmaceutical medicine is the medical scientific discipline concerned with the discovery, development, evaluation, ...
Khaunina, R. A.; Lapin, I. P. (1976). "Fenibut, a new tranquilizer". Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal. 10 (12): 1703-1705. doi: ... Chemistry[edit]. Phenibut is a synthetic aromatic amino acid. It is a chiral molecule and thus has two potential configurations ... Phenibut is used in Russia, Ukraine, and Latvia as a pharmaceutical drug to treat anxiety and to improve sleep (e.g., in the ... Froestl W (2010). "Chemistry and pharmacology of GABAB receptor ligands". Adv. Pharmacol. Advances in Pharmacology. 58: 19-62. ...
Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal. 33 (4): 177-187. doi:10.1007/BF02509934. Mirzoian RS, Gan'shina TS (1989). "[The new ... The rights to the drug belong to the Russian pharmaceutical company NPK ECHO ("НПК ЭХО"). It is not approved for sale in the ... Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 32 (10): 4089-95. doi:10.1248/cpb.32.4089. PMID 6529802. "FDA sends five warning letters over ...
"Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal. 38 (1): 441-442. doi:10.1023/B:PHAC.0000048907.58847.c6. ISSN 0091-150X. Retrieved 2009-06-14 ... "Detection of the pharmaceutical agent glaucine as a recreational drug". European journal of clinical pharmacology. 64 (5): 553- ... Medicinal Chemistry. 13 (11): 3699-704. doi:10.1016/j.bmc.2005.03.022. PMID 15862999.. ... Bulgarian pharmaceutical company Sopharma sells glaucine in tablet form, where a single dose contains 40 mg and the half-life ...
"The Journal of Physical Chemistry B. 118 (10): 2670-2682. doi:10.1021/jp412600e. ISSN 1520-6106. PMC 3983342. PMID 24506488.. ... Current Pharmaceutical Design. 11 (28): 3597-3611. doi:10.2174/138161205774580796.. ... A reevaluation of the mechanism of cellular uptake". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (1): 585-90. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... A range of CPP-nucleic acid complexes have been synthesized through different chemistries that are either stable or cleavable ...
Pharmaceutical manufacturing[edit]. The continuous manner and the effective drying effect enable the integration of ... Hutmacher, Dietmar W.; Dalton, Paul D. (2011). "Melt Electrospinning". Chemistry: An Asian Journal. 6: 44-56. doi:10.1002/asia. ... Small changes in the surface chemistry of the fibers were also observed depending upon the polarity of the electric field ... Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 102 (2): 508 (www.fiberpharma.co.nf). doi:10.1002/jps.23374.. ...
Ahluwalia, V.K.; Goyal, Madhuri (1 January 2000). A Textbook of Organic Chemistry. Narosa. p. 110. ISBN 978-81-7319-159-6. . ... Ohannesian, Lena; Streeter, Anthony (9 November 2001). Handbook of Pharmaceutical Analysis. CRC Press. p. 187. ISBN 978-0-8247- ... which leads to changes in the bonding or chemistry of the molecule. At the lower end of the visible light spectrum, EMR becomes ...
"The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 286 (31): 27103-10. doi:10.1074/jbc.M111.252502. PMC 3149303. PMID 21659507.. ... Nadanaciva, Sashi; Will, Yvonne (2011). "New Insights in Drug-Induced Mitochondrial Toxicity". Current Pharmaceutical Design. ... "The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 284 (43): 29773-83. doi:10.1074/jbc.m109.032144. PMC 2785608. PMID 19635800.. ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 281 (43): 32724-7. doi:10.1074/jbc.M607135200. PMID 16950771.. ...
Huffman JW (2005). "CB2 receptor ligands". Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry. 5 (7): 641-9. doi:10.2174/1389557054368844. ... Huffman JW (2000). "The search for selective ligands for the CB2 receptor". Current Pharmaceutical Design. 6 (13): 1323-37. doi ...
Huffman, J. W. (2005). "CB2 receptor ligands". Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry. 5 (7): 641-649. doi:10.2174/ ... Huffman, J. W. (2000). "The search for selective ligands for the CB2 receptor". Current Pharmaceutical Design. 6 (13): 1323- ...
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 52 (12): 3597-617. doi:10.1021/jm900280m. PMID 19432422. Yin D, Gao W, Kearbey JD, Xu H, Chung ... Pharmaceutical Research. 24 (2): 328-35. doi:10.1007/s11095-006-9152-9. PMC 2039878 . PMID 17063395. Hamann LG, Mani NS, Davis ... Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 17 (16): 4487-90. doi:10.1016/j.bmcl.2007.06.007. PMID 17574413. Zhang X, Li X, Allan GF, Sbriscia ... Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 18 (9): 2967-71. doi:10.1016/j.bmcl.2008.03.062. PMID 18400499. Ke HZ, Wang XN, O'Malley J, Lefker ...
Thieme Chemistry (Hrsg.): Römpp Online. Version 3.1. Georg Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart 2007. Brayfield, A, ed. (23 September 2011 ... Pharmaceutical Press. Retrieved 28 March 2014. Barnett, B. L.; Kretschmar, H. C.; Hartman, F. A. (1977). "Structural ...
Organic Chemistry, 5th ed. New York: Freeman, 2007. 173. Simonsen, J. L. (1953). The Terpenes. 1 (2nd ed.). Cambridge: ... Pharmaceutical Research. 34 (11): 2241-2249. doi:10.1007/s11095-017-2230-3. ISSN 1573-904X. PMID 28733781. ENVIRONMENTAL ... ISBN 978-3-527-30673-2. Handwörterbuch der reinen und angewandten Chemie [Concise dictionary of pure and applied chemistry] ( ... Food Chemistry. 95 (3): 413-422. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.01.003. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Alsanea, ...
Chemistry and Pharmacology. Academic Press. 1994-06-17. ISBN 9780080865690. Elin, E.A.; de Macedo, B.F.; Onoprienko, V.V.; ... Pharmaceutical Research. 15: 31-38. doi:10.1023/a:1011988317683. Fleming, James J.; England, Pamela M. (2010-02-15). " ... Medicinal Chemistry. 24: 5685-5692. doi:10.1016/j.bmc.2016.08.023. ISSN 1464-3391. PMID 27647371. Scott, R. H.; Thatcher, N. M ... Medicinal Chemistry. 18 (4): 1381-1387. doi:10.1016/j.bmc.2009.12.072. ISSN 1464-3391. PMID 20096591. Poulsen, Mette H.; Lucas ...
Tulyaganov, T. S.; Nigmatullaev, A. M. (2000). "Alkaloids of Vinca minor". Chemistry of Natural Compounds. 36 (5): 540. doi: ... Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association. 49 (9): 589. doi:10.1002/jps.3030490908. Flora Europaea: Vinca minor ...
Subsequent to the corporate acquisition of the original patent holder, the pharmaceutical company Pfizer admitted that there ... Future medicinal chemistry. 3 (2): 223-41. doi:10.4155/fmc.10.287. PMID 21428817. "Warner-Lambert to pay $430 million to ... Pharmaceutical Research. 28 (10): 2610-27. doi:10.1007/s11095-011-0490-x. PMID 21681607. Landmark CJ, Johannessen SI (2008). " ... "Modifications of antiepileptic drugs for improved tolerability and efficacy". Perspectives in Medicinal Chemistry. 2: 21-39. ...
These side effects gave pharmaceutical companies the incentive to search for alternative, "pure" NSAAs that would not have ... Lemke TL, Williams DA (2002). Foye's principles of medicinal chemistry (5th ed.). Baltimore [etc.]: Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 0- ... Gao W (2010). "Peptide antagonist of the androgen receptor". Current Pharmaceutical Design. 16 (9): 1106-13. doi:10.2174/ ... Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 41 (4): 623-39. doi:10.1021/jm970699s. PMID 9484511. Tran C, Ouk S, Clegg NJ, Chen Y, Watson PA ...
Progress in Medicinal Chemistry. Elsevier. 6 October 2010. pp. 81-. ISBN 978-0-12-381293-3. Satya Prakash Gupta (21 June 2011 ... List of investigational antipsychotics "Drug Development in Schizophrenia: Summary and Table". Pharmaceutical Medicine. 28 (5 ... which is described as an antipsychotic and is under development by Newron Pharmaceuticals as an add-on therapy for the ...
Cairns D (2012). Essentials of Pharmaceutical Chemistry. Pharmaceutical Press. pp. 110-. ISBN 978-0-85369-979-8. Drugs ... In November 1997, the American Chemical Society and the Royal Society of Chemistry in the U.K. jointly recognized the work as a ... Whitney J (February 2006). "Pharmaceutical Sales 101: Me-Too Drugs". Guernica. Archived from the original on 2008-08-07. ... Lemke TL, Williams DA (2008). Foye's Principles of Medicinal Chemistry. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 273-. ISBN 978-0- ...
... a pharmacist and a medicinal chemistry doctoral candidate in John B. Stenlake's medicinal chemistry research group in the ... The pharmaceutical presentation is a mixture of all ten possible stereoisomers. Although there are four stereocentres, which ... I. Quaternary esters". European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 14 (1): 77-84. Stenlake JB, Waigh RD, Urwin J, Dewar GH, Hughes ... Part 3. Bis-quaternary esters". European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 16: 508-514. Stenlake JB, Waigh RD, Dewar GH, Hughes R ...
Pharmaceutical Chemistry. The institute also offers Ph.D. and bachelor's degrees in Biochemistry, Botany, Biotechnology, ... Genetics, Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Physics, among others. ""About Us" at ARIBASAshok & Rita Patel Institute of Integrated ...
Barber, Jill; Rostron, Chris (2013-07-25). Pharmaceutical Chemistry. OUP Oxford. ISBN 9780199655304. Sangster, J. (1997-05-28 ... Royal Society of Chemistry. p. 328. ISBN 9780854043620. Knoll, Wolfgang; Advincula, Rigoberto C. (2013-02-12). Functional ... Gilbert, John C.; Martin, Stephen F. (2010-01-19). Experimental Organic Chemistry: A Miniscale and Microscale Approach. Cengage ... Miscibility gap Emulsion Heteroazeotrope ITIES Multiphasic liquid Wade, Leroy G. Organic Chemistry. Pearson Education. p. 412. ...
Pharmaceutical Compounds. US Patent 8106218 Hanus LO, Mechoulam R. Novel natural and synthetic ligands of the endocannabinoid ... Current Medicinal Chemistry. 2010;17(14):1341-59. PMID 20166928. ...
ISBN 978-0-470-01552-0. David G. Watson (9 February 2011). Pharmaceutical Chemistry. Elsevier Health Sciences. pp. 1061-. ISBN ... Foye's Principles of Medicinal Chemistry. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 414-. ISBN 978-0-7817-6879-5. Francisco Lopez- ... 0-7020-4850-X. David Healy (1 June 2004). Let Them Eat Prozac: The Unhealthy Relationship Between the Pharmaceutical Industry ...
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, 1999. 7(12): p. 2905-2914.. * (EN) Chin, C.N., J.W. Murphy, J.W. Huffman, and D.A. Kendall, ... Current Pharmaceutical Design, 2000. 6(13): p. 1323-1337.. * (EN) Baker, D., G. Pryce, J.L. Croxford, P. Brown, R.G. Pertwee, J ... Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, 2001. 9(11): p. 2863-2870.. * (EN) Huffman, J.W., J.Z. Lu, D. Dai, A. Kitaygorodskiy, J.L. ... Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, 2000. 8(2): p. 439-447.. * (EN) Huffman, J.W., The search for selective ligands for the CB2 ...
Zumdahl, Chemistry, 4th Edition.. *Ebbing, D.D., & Gammon, S. D. (2005). General chemistry (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Houghton ... Handbook of Pharmaceutical Salts: Properties, Selection, and Use. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. pp. 92-94. ISBN 978-3-906390-58-1.. ... Pavia, D.L., Lampman, G.M., & Kriz, G.S. (2004). Organic chemistry volume 1: Organic chemistry 351. Mason, OH: Cenage Learning ... a b c d Oxtoby, D. W; Gillis, H.P., Butler, L. J. (2015).Principles of Modern Chemistry, Brooks Cole. p. 617. ISBN 978- ...
ISBN 978-0-470-84339-0. Stey, Thomas; Stalke, Dietmar (2009). "Lead structures in lithium organic chemistry". PATAI'S Chemistry ... This reactivity is widely applied in the industrial syntheses of pharmaceutical compounds. An example is the Merck and Dupont ... Jemmis, E.D.; Gopakumar, G. (2009). "Theoretical studies in organolithium chemistry". PATAI'S Chemistry of Functional Groups. ... Computational chemistry supports these assignments. The relative electronegativities of carbon and lithium suggests that the C- ...
Organic chemistry was regarded at that time as the chemistry of substances that plants and animals are composed of. It was a ... Beekman AM, Barrow RA (2014). "Fungal metabolites as pharmaceuticals". Aust J Chem. 67 (6): 827-843. doi:10.1071/ch13639. Dang ... Natural products chemistry is a distinct area of chemical research which was important in the history of chemistry, the ... including organic chemistry, medicinal chemistry, pharmacognosy, ethnobotany, traditional medicine and ethnopharmacology. Other ...
Royal Pharmaceutical Society. * Royal Society UK. * Royal Society of Chemistry. * Sabinet. * Sage Stats ...
The book's key proposition is that a significant portion of the products sold to the public-particularly pharmaceuticals and ... chemistry, or public health."[11] ... The book takes particular aim at the pharmaceutical market in ...
In chemistry, a ketone /ˈkiːtoʊn/ is a functional group with the structure RC(=O)R', where R and R' can be a variety of carbon- ... Ketones are produced on massive scales in industry as solvents, polymer precursors, and pharmaceuticals. In terms of scale, the ... The term oxo is used widely through chemistry. For example, it also refers to an oxygen atom bonded to a transition metal (a ... Its enolate is a common ligand in coordination chemistry. Unsaturated ketonesEdit. Ketones containing alkene and alkyne units ...
Antonio Clericuzio (2000). Elements, Principles and Corpuscles: A Study of Atomism and Chemistry in the Seventeenth Century. ... and helped to author the Pharmacopoeia Londinensis in 1618-a directory of standardized pharmaceutical preparations given by the ... Between 1598 and 1604, Fludd studied medicine, chemistry and hermeticism on the European mainland following his graduation. His ...
Interactions with conventional pharmaceuticals. Forms of alternative medicine that are biologically active can be dangerous ... Developed before knowledge of atoms and molecules, or of basic chemistry, which shows that repeated dilution as practiced in ... There is also an increase in conspiracy theories toward conventional medicine and pharmaceutical companies,[34] mistrust of ... In addition, in most countries, alternative therapies (in contrast to pharmaceuticals) can be marketed without any proof of ...
Gurib-Fakim, A.; Sewraj, M.; J., Gueho; Dulloo, E.. «Medicinal Plants of Rodrigues». Pharmaceutical Biology. doi:10.1076/phbi. ... Pure and Applied Chemistry. doi:10.1351/pac200577010041. ... Pharmaceutical Biology. doi:10.1076/phbi.35.4.237.13313. ... Pharmaceutical Biology. doi:10.1076/phbi.36.3.153.6345. ... Pharmaceutical Biology. doi:10.1076/phbi.37.3.202.6300. ...
Dilworth, Jonathan R.; Pascu, Sofia I. (2018). "The chemistry of PET imaging with zirconium-89". Chemical Society Reviews. 47 ( ... are marketed for academic and pharmaceutical research. The scanners are apparently based on microminiature scintillators and ... Instead, the isotope must be prepared first, then afterward, the chemistry to prepare any organic radiotracer (such as FDG) ... Nevertheless, in recent years a few on-site cyclotrons with integrated shielding and "hot labs" (automated chemistry labs that ...
"Current Pharmaceutical Design. 5 (9): 707-23. PMID 10495361. Archived from the original on 27 February 2020. Retrieved 21 ... Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry. 21. pp. 179-188. doi:10.1016/S0065-7743(08)61128-8. ISBN 9780120405213. . ISSN 0065-7743 ...
American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists. 7 (3): E704-E722. doi:10.1208/aapsj070371. ISSN 1522-1059. PMC 2751273. PMID ... Thomas L. Lemke; David A. Williams (24 January 2012). Foye's Principles of Medicinal Chemistry. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ...
This article is about levothyroxine as a pharmaceutical drug. For its role as a hormone, see Thyroid hormone. ... "Chemistry of Thyroxine: Constitution and Synthesis of Desiodo-Thyroxine". The Biochemical Journal. 20 (2): 300-13. doi:10.1042 ...
Cortex Pharmaceuticals Press Release 1 June 2009. Lorier AR, Funk GD, Greer JJ (2010). Hochman S, ed. "Opiate-induced ... Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 21 (20): 6170. doi:10.1016/j.bmcl.2011.07.098. PMID 21889339. Bast T, da Silva BM, Morris RG (2005 ... Other AMPAkine drugs from Cortex Pharmaceuticals such as CX-546 and CX-614 have already been researched for use in treating ... The chemical structures of CX-717 and CX-1739 have not yet been revealed by Cortex Pharmaceuticals, but are presumably similar ...
Book of the Chemistry of Perfume).[93] ... cosmetics dan pharmaceuticals. *Industri minyak wangi: ...
Analytical chemistry applications[edit]. Activated carbon, in 50% w/w combination with celite, is used as stationary phase in ... Filtration over activated carbon is used in large scale fine chemical and pharmaceutical processes for the same purpose. The ... Bradley RH, Sutherland I, Sheng E (1996). "Carbon surface: Area, porosity, chemistry, and energy". Journal of Colloid and ... Lim JL, Okada M (2005). "Regeneration of granular activated carbon using ultrasound". Ultrasonic-Sono-Chemistry. 12 (4): 277- ...
The pharmaceutical form is purified from human donor blood and is sold under the nonproprietary name alpha1-proteinase ... International Journal of Clinical Chemistry. 352 (1-2): 1-13. doi:10.1016/j.cccn.2004.03.012. PMID 15653097. Lomas DA (2005). " ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (35): 27258-65. doi:10.1074/jbc.M004850200. PMID 10867014. Kolarich D, Weber A, ...
... is a branch of engineering that uses principles of chemistry, physics, mathematics, biology, and economics ... Advancements in biochemical engineering in the 1940s, for example, found application in the pharmaceutical industry, and ... Chemical engineers "develop economic ways of using materials and energy".[36] Chemical engineers use chemistry and engineering ... Both courses, however, simply merged chemistry and engineering subjects along with product design. "Its practitioners had ...
"Palladium-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling Reactions in the Synthesis of Pharmaceuticals Organometallics in Process Chemistry", Top. ... Organic Chemistry 2006, 10, 2191. Mujahidin, D.; Doye, S. Eur" Journal of Organic Chemistry 2005, 2689 Pedersen, J. M.; Bowman ... One such pharmaceutical application is in the synthesis of SIB-1508Y, which is more commonly known as Altinicline. Altinicline ... Its applications include pharmaceuticals, natural products, organic materials, and nanomaterials. Specific examples include its ...
The drug was withdrawn from the market by Élan Pharmaceuticals in 2001. Nathan RA, Bodman SF, Storms WW, Mingo TS (June 1986 ... Chemistry, Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, Adverse Effects and Clinical Efficacy in Asthma". Pharmacotherapy: The Journal ...
Chemistry * sw:Chemistry. Chess * sw:Chess. Chicken * sw:Chicken. Child * sw:Child. China * sw:China. Chinese * sw:Chinese. ... Pharmaceutical drug * sw:Pharmaceutical drug. Philosophy * sw:Philosophy. Phoneme * sw:Phoneme. Photography * sw:Photography. ... Physical chemistry * sw:Physical chemistry. Physics * sw:Physics. Pi * sw:Pi. Piano * sw:Piano. Pigeons and doves * sw:Pigeons ... Base (chemistry) * sw:Base (chemistry). Baseball * sw:Baseball. Bashō * sw:Bashō. Basketball * sw:Basketball. Beauty * sw: ...
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis. 37 (4): 631-828. doi:10.1016/j.jpba.2004.11.051. PMID 15797781.. ... "Medicinal Chemistry. 7 (6): 674-89. doi:10.2174/157340611797928488. PMID 22313307.. *^ http://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/ ...
"Journal of Biological Chemistry. 146: 85-93.. *^ Berg, Jeremy M.; Tymoczko, John L.; Stryer, Lubert (2002). "Appendix: Vmax and ... Competitive inhibitors are commonly used to make pharmaceuticals.[3] For example, methotrexate is a chemotherapy drug that acts ... "Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 49 (8): 4060-4063. doi:10.1021/jf010194h.. ... This happens because malonate's chemistry is similar to succinate. Malonate's ability to inhibit binding of the enzyme and ...
This involves the study and use of quantum chemistry or quantum physics. Solid-state physics, solid-state chemistry and ... For example, a construct with impregnated pharmaceutical products can be placed into the body, which permits the prolonged ... Eddy, Matthew Daniel (2008). The Language of Mineralogy: John Walker, Chemistry and the Edinburgh Medical School 1750-1800. ... In most universities, many departments ranging from physics to chemistry to chemical engineering, along with materials science ...
Southern Pharmaceutical Journal. February, 1915. p. 31. "Budwine" New Drink Name. American Bottler, Volume 42. 1921. p. 64. " ... p. 5. Parthasarathy, V. A.; Chempakam, Bhageerathy; Zachariah, T. John (1 January 2008). "Chemistry of Spices". CABI. Retrieved ...
Despite its location, resident reporters cover a range of industries, including metals other than steel, chemistry, textiles, ... rubber, paper, glass, cosmetics, personal care goods (such as those from Lion or Kao), pharmaceuticals and apparel. It has the ...
It was later published in Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. Gaden spent a year as a researcher at Pfizer, Inc. before he ... Pharmaceutical, and Bioengineering Award and its Founders Award in 1988. Later, he received the Chemical Engineering ... He twice chaired the school's Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry. Gaden was known as a demanding teacher ...
Applying his skills he made tremendous advances in the chemistry business, mainly in the methods of dyeing cotton fabrics; and ... There he began to study chemical manufacturing and pharmaceutical preparations. In 1873 Bloede moved to Pomeroy, Ohio, the ... Victor Bloede gives money for Physical Chemistry Lab. Earle, W.H.. "Victor Gustav Bloede." In Immigrant Entrepreneurship: ... Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, Vol. 16, No. 4, April 1924, p. 409. ...
PBPK modeling is used in pharmaceutical research and drug development, and in health risk assessment for cosmetics or general ... QSAR models or predictive chemistry models) on one hand. For example, QSAR models can be used to estimate partition ... Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 60 (8): 1128-1133. doi:10.1002/jps.2600600803. PMID 5127083. Dedrick, R.L.; Forrester, D.D ... Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 72 (10): 1103-1127. doi:10.1002/jps.2600721003. PMID 6358460. Droz, P.O.; Guillemin, M. P ...
"Some Pharmaceutical Lawsuits". Pharmaceutical Journal. 78: 635-637. Retrieved 4 November 2014. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter ... read Liebig's Familiar Letters on Chemistry. Convinced that the process could be industrialized, he wrote to Liebig to suggest ... and laboratory full of chemicals and chemistry jars, flasks and stoves. The museum collection contains hundred of photos and ... Hofmann at the Inauguration of the School of Chemistry in London Cansler, Clay (Fall 2013). "Where's the Beef?". Chemical ...
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry. School of Humanities and Arts. Department of Engineering. Department of Agricultural ...
... course with subjects in natural history and general chemistry and five years of studies in subjects such as pharmaceutical ... The friars also opened many medical and pharmaceutical schools. The study of pharmacy consisted of a preparatory ... It included subjects such as mathematics, physics, chemistry, natural history, agriculture, topography, linear and topography ... chemistry, natural history and mathematics. The University of Santo Tomás, for example, started by teaching theology, ...
Essentials of Pharmaceutical Chemistry en Iberlibro.com - ISBN 10: 0853699798 - ISBN 13: 9780853699798 - Pharmaceutical Press ... chemistry and medicinal chemistry students. Essentials of Pharmaceutical Chemistry is a chemistry introduction that covers all ... Essentials of Pharmaceutical Chemistry will be of particular interest to pharmacy undergraduates and students of chemistry and ... Essentials of Pharmaceutical Chemistry is an introduction to the subject covering all the core material necessary to provide an ...
Year IV 2016/2017 End of Year Examinations in Pharmaceutical Chemistry IV will be held on 27th June, 2016. The exams are ... Year II 2016/2017 End of Year Examinations in Pharmaceutical Chemistry II will be held on 8th June, 2016. The exams are ... Year IV 2016/2017 Continous Assessment Test in Pharmaceutical Chemistry IV will be held on 6th February, 2017. The CAT is ... First Semester Continuous Assessment Tests in Pharmaceutical Chemistry for B.Pharm Year I and II will be held on 14th February ...
M.S. (Pharm.):Medicinal Chemistry. The department is engaged in the following areas of research Identification and validation ... M.S. (Pharm.):Medicinal Chemistry. National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research In Ludhiana ... M.S. (Pharm.):Medicinal Chemistry National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research ... National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER) Sector 67, S.A.S., 160062, Punjab, India See map ...
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Burgers Medicinal Chemistry, Drug Discovery, and Development, 8 Volume Set, 7th Edition ...
Borrowing a trick from the pharmaceutical industry, scientists led by chemist Adam Matzger of the University of Michigan have ... For their first project, Matzger and his colleagues worked with TNT because its chemistry is so well-known. The team co- ... Matzger says that because there has been less research on explosives compared to pharmaceuticals, and they do not form bonds in ... Matzger says research into new explosive materials tends to focus on finding entirely new chemistries. But his team instead ...
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Practical Pharmaceutical Chemistry: Pt. 2 by Beckett, A.H., Stenlake, J.B. and a great selection of related books, art and ... Practical Pharmaceutical Chemistry: Quantitative Analysis Pt. 1 Beckett, A. H. and Stenlake, J.B. ... Practical Pharmaceutical Chemistry-II & Viva Voce Yogeshwar Sharma G.C. Sharma Nirmal Sharma ... Practical Pharmaceutical Chemistry: Quantitative Analysis Pt. 1 A.H. Beckett, J.B. Stenlake ...
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  • Essentials of Pharmaceutical Chemistry will be of particular interest to pharmacy undergraduates and students of chemistry and pharmaceutical sciences. (iberlibro.com)
  • Talanta, The International Journal of Pure and Applied Analytical Chemistry Donald Cairns is Acting Head of the School of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, UK. (iberlibro.com)
  • An introduction to pharmaceutical chemistry for undergraduate pharmacy, chemistry and medicinal chemistry students. (iberlibro.com)
  • an essential read for pharmacy students and, indeed, all science students who wish to consider careers in the Pharmaceutical industry. (iberlibro.com)
  • An essential chemistry textbook which supports the integrated pharmacy education and helps the students to grasp the principles of pharmaceutical chemistry and how they are applied in pharmacy. (iberlibro.com)
  • this is an excellent resource for pharmacy students taking pharmaceutical chemistry and for individuals who intend to pursue a career in the pharmaceutical industry. (iberlibro.com)
  • Published on behalf of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC), Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry is multidisciplinary in scope and publishes papers describing original experimental or theoretical work that significantly advances understanding in the area of environmental toxicology, environmental chemistry and hazard or risk assessment. (setac.org)
  • Co-crystallization has attracted a lot of attention in the pharmaceutical industry because it can alter the solubility of a drug without changing its chemical makeup. (popularmechanics.com)
  • In clinical pharmaceutical chemistry the aim is to understand biological transformations and processes associated with chemical entities inside the human body, and how those processes can be influenced with changes in chemical structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aim of clinical pharmaceutical chemistry is in addition to manage and manipulate clinical effects of different chemical structures, as well as to manage phenomena recognized in first-in-human studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Medicinal chemistry is interested in finding out about the chemical properties drugs have, and about the synthesis and production of drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pharmaceutical industry is a major component of the chemical industry. (hw.ac.uk)
  • Pharmaceutical Substances presents the chemical structure and synthetic route of any API including intermediates. (thieme.de)
  • Physical chemistry courses focus on the study of small particles with an emphasis on the role of physics in chemical reactions. (study.com)
  • Students study thermodynamics, quantum chemistry and chemical kinetics among other areas of research. (study.com)
  • Depending on the "radioactive lantern" (gamma or particle emitter) used for radiolabelling of the respective tracer molecule, the field of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry can contribute to the set-up of an " in vivo theranostic" approach especially in tumour patients by offering tailor-made (radio)chemical entities labelled either with a diagnostic or a therapeutic radionuclide. (mdpi.com)
  • These products remove metals from pharmaceutical and chemical processes. (pharmtech.com)
  • Topics included chemical tools for medicinal chemistry, protein-protein interactions, epigenetics, natural product-inspired molecules, computer-aided drug design, and new strategies for the design and development of drugs. (mdpi.com)
  • pharmaceutical chemistry is the intersection of chemistry and Pharmaceutics where they are involved with design and chemical synthesis. (omicsonline.org)
  • Bachelor of Technology in Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Technology is a four year full time undergraduate program which includes study of chemical, pharmacological, technological aspects of medicine related science. (indiastudychannel.com)
  • This course mainly focus on study of manufacture of drugs and pharmaceuticals, chemical engineering and computation. (indiastudychannel.com)
  • From our offices in the UK and Germany we directly advise pharmaceutical, chemical and biotechnological companies throughout the world. (dyoung.com)
  • The book discusses the chemistry of important pharmaceutical organic compounds, covering their nomenclature, chemical structure, uses, and physical and chemical properties. (sapnaonline.com)
  • Leonard R. MacGillivray, professor in the chemistry department at the University of Iowa, developed a method to control chemical reactivity in the organic solid state. (blogspot.com)
  • Pharmaceutical Chemistry is a branch of chemistry that deals with the chemical, biochemical and pharmacological aspects of drugs. (pharmaceuticalconferences.com)
  • Pharmaceutical Chemistry consists of many different forms of chemical and drug development. (copybook.com)
  • Heterocyclic chemistry is the chemical discipline involving the manufacture, study and applications of heterocyclic compounds. (copybook.com)
  • Surface chemistry is the investigation of chemical processes occurring on molecular surfaces, or at the interface between two substances. (copybook.com)
  • Pharmaceutical chemistry is a branch at the intersection of chemistry, especially synthetic organic chemistry, and pharmacology and various biological specialties, where they participate in the design of drugs, chemical synthesis and development for the market, or bioactive molecules (drugs). (annualcongress.com)
  • In particular, pharmaceutical chemistry in its most common guideline focusing on small molecules / organic entities encompasses synthetic organic chemistry and aspects of natural product chemistry and computational chemistry in close combination with chemical biology, enzymology and structural biology, together with the goal of discovery and drug development of new different therapeutic agents. (annualcongress.com)
  • Manuscripts are received with the understanding that they are submitted solely to Journal of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Pharmacology, and that none of the material contained in the manuscript has been published previously or is under consideration for publication elsewhere, excluding abstracts. (pulsus.com)
  • The effect of pharmaceuticals and other contaminants of emerging concern on the environment will be addressed in a special issue of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (ET&C). Much progress has been made in the recent years on the topic and this special issue will illustrate the state of the science. (setac.org)
  • and comprehend the role chemistry plays in determining the molecular basis of drug action. (edu.au)
  • Pharmaceutical or Medicinal Chemistry is the understanding of the molecular cause and treatment of diseases. (hw.ac.uk)
  • Positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) realised in the en-vogue hybrid technologies PET/CT, SPECT/CT and PET/MRI represent the state-of-the-art diagnostic imaging technologies in nuclear medicine which are used to follow the trace of the administered radiopharmaceutical noninvasively thereby in vivo visualising and assessing biological processes at the subcellular and molecular level in a highly sensitive manner. (mdpi.com)
  • Fluorine chemistry is an expanding area of research that is attracting international interest, due to the impact of fluorine in drug discovery and in clinical and molecular imaging (e.g. (foyles.co.uk)
  • Benefit from an interdisciplinary environment where collaboration is encouraged among faculty and students with diverse interests like pharmacology, organic chemistry and molecular modeling. (temple.edu)
  • To be admitted into the program students must have a Bachelor's degree in chemistry or a related field, a sealed official undergraduate transcript, two letter of recommendation, and there may be other requirements. (brighthub.com)
  • Master of Chemistry (MChem) undergraduate courses (4 year or 5 year sandwich) prepare students for research work in industry or PhD research. (lboro.ac.uk)
  • UC Davis pharmaceutical chemistry graduate Manuel Munoz '13 worked in a Department of Chemistry lab as an undergraduate research assistant, preparing a liquid solution for his intern project on cancer research. (ucdavis.edu)
  • An introduction to pharmaceutical chemistry for undergraduate pharmacy, chemistry and medicinal chemistry students. (iberlibro.com)
  • An undergraduate degree in pharmaceutical chemistry gives you an excellent advantage should you choose to pursue an advanced degree in the field by enrolling in the Wegmans School of Pharmacy at St. John Fisher College. (sjfc.edu)
  • Reaxys helps pharmaceutical companies drive drug development success and e ciency by helping chemists identify the most robust lead compounds from a promising set of hits. (elsevier.com)
  • BSc Chemistry of Pharmaceutical Compounds (CPC) is an interdisciplinary course focusing on the chemistry and biology of the pharmaceutical industry and includes a five-month industrial placement. (ucc.ie)
  • Organic chemistry courses focus on carbon-containing compounds. (study.com)
  • Inorganic chemistry covers all other compounds that do not contain carbon. (study.com)
  • By the application of physical chemistry principles the student will be enabled to identify and analyze given compounds and solutions. (edu.gh)
  • During the past decade, decreasing the attrition rate of drug development candidates reaching the market has become one of the major challenges in pharmaceutical research and drug development (R&D). To facilitate the decision-making process, and to increase the probability of rapidly finding and developing high-quality compounds, a variety of multiparametric guidelines, also known as rules and ligand efficiency (LE) metrics, have been developed. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • In the case of pharmaceutical manufacturing, these approaches can involve ways to increase reaction efficiency and yield in order to reduce waste, reduce solvents and reagents, or to improve reaction conditions when synthesizing active pharmaceutical ingredients, intermediates, or lead compounds. (blogspot.com)
  • Pharmaceutical chemistry is the study of drug compounds, and it involves drug development process. (chemistryconferences.org)
  • Pharmaceutical chemists are involved in the development and assessment of therapeutic compounds. (chemistryconferences.org)
  • The impact of pharmaceutical chemistry in the development of drug compounds is very high and advanced methods are now available for development of the drug are done by using pharmaceutical chemistry. (chemistryconferences.org)
  • Organometallic chemistry involves the research and manufacture of compounds in which one or more carbon atoms bonds to a metal atom. (copybook.com)
  • Entry level positions normally require a bachelor's degree in chemistry, with advanced degrees necessary for some organisations and for further career development. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Join the vanguard of professionals dedicated to the creation and administration of groundbreaking, lifesaving drugs when you attain your bachelor's degree in pharmaceutical chemistry from St. John Fisher College. (sjfc.edu)
  • Pharmaceutical chemists are involved in the business of developing drugs to combat diseases and pain. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Pharmaceutical chemists are involved with the research and development process of new patient care drugs. (study.com)
  • CPC was the perfect course for me as it offered a great mix of chemistry and biology modules with a strong emphasis on laboratory practical classes and technical learning. (ucc.ie)
  • Apply your knowledge of chemistry and biology to pharmaceutical practice with our BSc Pharmace