Organic chemistry methodology that mimics the modular nature of various biosynthetic processes. It uses highly reliable and selective reactions designed to "click" i.e., rapidly join small modular units together in high yield, without offensive byproducts. In combination with COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES, it is used for the synthesis of new compounds and combinatorial libraries.
The specialty of ANALYTIC CHEMISTRY applied to assays of physiologically important substances found in blood, urine, tissues, and other biological fluids for the purpose of aiding the physician in making a diagnosis or following therapy.
The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Laboratory tests demonstrating the presence of physiologically significant substances in the blood, urine, tissue, and body fluids with application to the diagnosis or therapy of disease.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
The branch of chemistry dealing with detection (qualitative) and determination (quantitative) of substances. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A technology, in which sets of reactions for solution or solid-phase synthesis, is used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.
An examination of chemicals in the blood.
Hydrocarbons with at least one triple bond in the linear portion, of the general formula Cn-H2n-2.
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Methods used for the chemical synthesis of compounds. Included under this heading are laboratory methods used to synthesize a variety of chemicals and drugs.
Pollution prevention through the design of effective chemical products that have low or no toxicity and use of chemical processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances.
The conformation, properties, reaction processes, and the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds.
Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
Chemical and physical transformation of the biogenic elements from their nucleosynthesis in stars to their incorporation and subsequent modification in planetary bodies and terrestrial biochemistry. It includes the mechanism of incorporation of biogenic elements into complex molecules and molecular systems, leading up to the origin of life.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.
The study of the composition, chemical structures, and chemical reactions of living things.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Finely divided solid matter with particle sizes smaller than a micrometeorite, thus with diameters much smaller than a millimeter, moving in interplanetary space. (NASA Thesaurus, 1994)
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The origin of life. It includes studies of the potential basis for life in organic compounds but excludes studies of the development of altered forms of life through mutation and natural selection, which is BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The reactions, changes in structure and composition, the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds, and the associated energy changes.
A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
The science concerned with celestial bodies and the observation and interpretation of the radiation received in the vicinity of the earth from the component parts of the universe (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in definite quantities called quanta (E) which vary in size and are defined by the equation E=hv in which h is Planck's constant and v is the frequency of the radiation.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
The study of the energy of electrons ejected from matter by the photoelectric effect, i.e., as a direct result of absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation. As the energies of the electrons are characteristic of a specific element, the measurement of the energy of these electrons is a technique used to determine the chemical composition of surfaces.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
The study of the chemical and physical phenomena of radioactive substances.
The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.
Neutral or negatively charged ligands bonded to metal cations or neutral atoms. The number of ligand atoms to which the metal center is directly bonded is the metal cation's coordination number, and this number is always greater than the regular valence or oxidation number of the metal. A coordination complex can be negative, neutral, or positively charged.
A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The interdisciplinary science that studies evolutionary biology, including the origin and evolution of the major elements required for life, their processing in the interstellar medium and in protostellar systems. This field also includes the study of chemical evolution and the subsequent interactions between evolving biota and planetary evolution as well as the field of biology that deals with the study of extraterrestrial life.
Chemical reactions effected by light.
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Method of analyzing chemicals using automation.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.
The group of celestial bodies, including the EARTH, orbiting around and gravitationally bound by the sun. It includes eight planets, one minor planet, and 34 natural satellites, more than 1,000 observed comets, and thousands of lesser bodies known as MINOR PLANETS (asteroids) and METEOROIDS. (From Academic American Encyclopedia, 1983)
Organic compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen forming a closed ring that may be either alicyclic or aromatic.
Large collections of small molecules (molecular weight about 600 or less), of similar or diverse nature which are used for high-throughput screening analysis of the gene function, protein interaction, cellular processing, biochemical pathways, or other chemical interactions.
Tests used in the analysis of the hemic system.
A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A polyhedral CARBON structure composed of around 60-80 carbon atoms in pentagon and hexagon configuration. They are named after Buckminster Fuller because of structural resemblance to geodesic domes. Fullerenes can be made in high temperature such as arc discharge in an inert atmosphere.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Compounds similar to hydrocarbons in which a tetravalent silicon atom replaces the carbon atom. They are very reactive, ignite in air, and form useful derivatives.
Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The study of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION and the toxic effects of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS on the ECOSYSTEM. The term was coined by Truhaut in 1969.
Tree-like, highly branched, polymeric compounds. They grow three-dimensionally by the addition of shells of branched molecules to a central core. The overall globular shape and presence of cavities gives potential as drug carriers and CONTRAST AGENTS.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The reactions and interactions of atoms and molecules, the changes in their structure and composition, and associated energy changes.
Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.
A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a very sharp conducting needle is swept just a few angstroms above the surface of a sample. The tiny tunneling current that flows between the sample and the needle tip is measured, and from this are produced three-dimensional topographs. Due to the poor electron conductivity of most biological samples, thin metal coatings are deposited on the sample.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.
A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
Relating to the size of solids.
Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.
Substances that comprise all matter. Each element is made up of atoms that are identical in number of electrons and protons and in nuclear charge, but may differ in mass or number of neutrons.
A group of atoms or molecules attached to other molecules or cellular structures and used in studying the properties of these molecules and structures. Radioactive DNA or RNA sequences are used in MOLECULAR GENETICS to detect the presence of a complementary sequence by NUCLEIC ACID HYBRIDIZATION.
An interdisciplinary field in materials science, ENGINEERING, and BIOLOGY, studying the use of biological principles for synthesis or fabrication of BIOMIMETIC MATERIALS.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A group of compounds with an 8-carbon ring. They may be saturated or unsaturated.
The quality or state of being wettable or the degree to which something can be wet. This is also the ability of any solid surface to be wetted when in contact with a liquid whose surface tension is reduced so that the liquid spreads over the surface of the solid.
Any solid objects moving in interplanetary space that are smaller than a planet or asteroid but larger than a molecule. Meteorites are any meteoroid that has fallen to a planetary surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Chemicals used in agriculture. These include pesticides, fumigants, fertilizers, plant hormones, steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins, etc.
The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
The branch of medicine concerned with the application of NANOTECHNOLOGY to the prevention and treatment of disease. It involves the monitoring, repair, construction, and control of human biological systems at the molecular level, using engineered nanodevices and NANOSTRUCTURES. (From Freitas Jr., Nanomedicine, vol 1, 1999).
Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
Synthetic organic reactions that use reactions between unsaturated molecules to form cyclical products.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.
Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.
Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.
Techniques used to synthesize chemicals using molecular substrates that are bound to a solid surface. Typically a series of reactions are conducted on the bound substrate that results in either the covalent attachment of specific moieties or the modification of existing function groups. These techniques offer an advantage to those involving solution reactions in that the substrate compound does not have to be isolated and purified between the reaction steps.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
Hospital facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
An abrupt high-current electric discharge that occurs in the ATMOSPHERE and that has a path length ranging from hundreds of feet to tens of miles. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.
A family of nonmetallic, generally electronegative, elements that form group 17 (formerly group VIIa) of the periodic table.
Creation and development of bodies within solar systems, includes study of early planetary geology.
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The urea concentration of the blood stated in terms of nitrogen content. Serum (plasma) urea nitrogen is approximately 12% higher than blood urea nitrogen concentration because of the greater protein content of red blood cells. Increases in blood or serum urea nitrogen are referred to as azotemia and may have prerenal, renal, or postrenal causes. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
A field of chemistry which pertains to chemical compounds or ions that do not contain the element carbon (with the exception of carbon dioxide and compounds containing a carbonate radical, e.g., calcium carbonate).
Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.
High molecular weight polymers containing a mixture of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides chained together by ribose or deoxyribose linkages.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.
Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
Nucleic acid which complements a specific mRNA or DNA molecule, or fragment thereof; used for hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms and for genetic studies.
Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.
Liquid water present beneath the surface of the earth.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
The sixth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its twelve natural satellites include Phoebe and Titan.
A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A halogen with the atomic symbol Br, atomic number 36, and atomic weight 79.904. It is a volatile reddish-brown liquid that gives off suffocating vapors, is corrosive to the skin, and may cause severe gastroenteritis if ingested.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
Methods utilizing the principles of MICROFLUIDICS for sample handling, reagent mixing, and separation and detection of specific components in fluids.
Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
Programs of study which span the traditional boundaries of academic scholarship.
Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.
Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.
Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Large members of the FALCONIFORMES order of birds, family Accipitridae, most especially the genera Aquila, Haliaeetus, Harpia, and Circaetus. They are characterized by their powerful talons, which carry long, curved, pointed claws and by their opposable hindtoe.
The study of fluid channels and chambers of tiny dimensions of tens to hundreds of micrometers and volumes of nanoliters or picoliters. This is of interest in biological MICROCIRCULATION and used in MICROCHEMISTRY and INVESTIGATIVE TECHNIQUES.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
The chemical processes, enzymatic activities, and pathways of living things and related temporal, dimensional, qualitative, and quantitative concepts.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
Cyclic compounds with a ring size of approximately 1-4 dozen atoms.
The sciences dealing with processes observable in nature.
Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.
Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.
Elements of the lanthanoid series including atomic number 57 (LANTHANUM) through atomic number 71 (LUTETIUM).
Covalent attachment of HALOGENS to other compounds.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
Polymerized forms of styrene used as a biocompatible material, especially in dentistry. They are thermoplastic and are used as insulators, for injection molding and casting, as sheets, plates, rods, rigid forms and beads.
Positively charged particles composed of two protons and two NEUTRONS, i.e. equivalent to HELIUM nuclei, which are emitted during disintegration of heavy ISOTOPES. Alpha rays have very strong ionizing power, but weak penetrability.
Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.
Elements with partially filled d orbitals. They constitute groups 3-12 of the periodic table of elements.
The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.
The univalent radical OH. Hydroxyl radical is a potent oxidizing agent.
The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.
An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.
Alicyclic hydrocarbons in which three or more of the carbon atoms in each molecule are united in a ring structure and each of the ring carbon atoms is joined to two hydrogen atoms or alkyl groups. The simplest members are cyclopropane (C3H6), cyclobutane (C4H8), cyclohexane (C6H12), and derivatives of these such as methylcyclohexane (C6H11CH3). (From Sax, et al., Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)

In-vivo therapeutic efficacy in experimental murine mycoses of a new formulation of deoxycholate-amphotericin B obtained by mild heating. (1/2621)

Heat-induced 'superaggregation' of deoxycholate-amphotericin B (AmB-DOC, Fungizone) was shown previously to reduce the in-vitro toxicity of this antifungal agent. We compared AmB-DOC with the formulation obtained by heating the commercial form (Fungizone, Bristol Myers Squibb, Paris, France) for 20 min at 70 degrees C, in the treatment of murine infections. An improvement of antifungal activity was obtained with heated AmB-DOC formulations due to a lower toxicity which allowed the administration of higher drug doses than those achievable with the commercial preparation. Single intravenous injections of heated AmB-DOC solutions were demonstrated to be two-fold less toxic than unheated ones to healthy mice. For mice infected with Candida albicans, the maximum tolerated dose was higher with heated than with unheated AmB-DOC solutions. In the model of murine candidiasis, following a single dose of heated AmB-DOC 0.5 mg/kg, 85% of mice survived for 3 weeks, whereas at this dose the immediate toxicity of the standard formulation in infected mice restricted the therapeutic efficacy to 25% survival. Both formulations were equally effective in increasing the survival time for murine cryptococcal pneumonia and meningoencephalitis. Injection of heated AmB-DOC solutions at a dose two-fold higher than the maximal tolerated dose observed with the unheated preparation (1.2 mg/kg) increased the survival time by a factor of 1.4 in cryptococcal meningoencephalitis. These results indicate that mild heat treatment of AmB-DOC solutions could provide a simple and economical method to improve the therapeutic index of this antifungal agent by reducing its toxicity on mammalian cells.  (+info)

A study of local anaesthetics. Part 148. Influence of auxiliary substances on the surface tension, distribution coefficient and pharmaceutical availability from solutions of the potential drug VII. (2/2621)

The influence of auxiliary substances of the polyol group (glycerol, propylene glycol, sorbitol) and of their concentration (5, 10, 15 and 20% by weight) upon surface tension, distribution coefficient and pharmaceutical availability from solutions of the potential drug VII, viz., N-[2-(2-propoxyphenylcarbamoyloxy)-ethyl] piperidinium chloride was studied. The substances were applied as hydrogel humectants. It was found that their influence on the surface tension, distribution coefficient and pharmaceutical availability from solutions of the potential drug VII depended on the type as well as concentration of the auxiliary substance. From the viewpoints of use in formulations of the drug form, sorbitol used at 5 and 10% concentrations represented the optimum.  (+info)

Comparison of immunity generated by nucleic acid-, MF59-, and ISCOM-formulated human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vaccines in Rhesus macaques: evidence for viral clearance. (3/2621)

The kinetics of T-helper immune responses generated in 16 mature outbred rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) within a 10-month period by three different human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine strategies were compared. Immune responses to monomeric recombinant gp120SF2 (rgp120) when the protein was expressed in vivo by DNA immunization or when it was delivered as a subunit protein vaccine formulated either with the MF59 adjuvant or by incorporation into immune-stimulating complexes (ISCOMs) were compared. Virus-neutralizing antibodies (NA) against HIV-1SF2 reached similar titers in the two rgp120SF2 protein-immunized groups, but the responses showed different kinetics, while NA were delayed and their levels were low in the DNA-immunized animals. Antigen-specific gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) T-helper (type 1-like) responses were detected in the DNA-immunized group, but only after the fourth immunization, and the rgp120/MF59 group generated both IFN-gamma and interleukin-4 (IL-4) (type 2-like) responses that appeared after the third immunization. In contrast, rgp120/ISCOM-immunized animals rapidly developed marked IL-2, IFN-gamma (type 1-like), and IL-4 responses that peaked after the second immunization. To determine which type of immune responses correlated with protection from infection, all animals were challenged intravenously with 50 50% infective doses of a rhesus cell-propagated, in vivo-titrated stock of a chimeric simian immunodeficiency virus-HIVSF13 construct. Protection was observed in the two groups receiving the rgp120 subunit vaccines. Half of the animals in the ISCOM group were completely protected from infection. In other subunit vaccinees there was evidence by multiple assays that virus detected at 2 weeks postchallenge was effectively cleared. Early induction of potent type 1- as well as type 2-like T-helper responses induced the most-effective immunity.  (+info)

Low-oestrogen oral contraceptives.(4/2621)


A new strategy for treating nets. Part 1: formulation and dosage. (5/2621)

The conventional dosages of pyrethroid insecticides on mosquito nets assume that nets will be retreated at 6-12 month intervals. However, dosage should be related to washing of nets; if nets are only washed once or twice a year, their dosage requirements will be different to those which are washed fortnightly. A 'low-dose, frequent-wash' retreatment system might be technically more appropriate and more affordable where nets are washed frequently, as they are in Dar es Salaam. Moreover, for use as a domestic insecticide, water-based formulations of pyrethroid are preferable to the more commonly used emulsifiable concentrates (ECs). This paper reports laboratory evaluations of three formulations (ECs, Flowable, CS) of three pyrethroids (deltamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, permethrin). Insecticidal activity was tested using serial bioassays at a range of dosages using Anopheles gambiae. The water-based formulations were no less effective than the ECs, even at the lowest dosages. Nets treated with 3 mg/m2 and then repeatedly washed and retreated after each wash with either 3 mg/m2 or 1 mg/m2 were subjected to gas chromatography analysis. This showed that the amounts of pyrethroid in the nets accumulated rapidly over the first few wash-retreatment cycles and then remained fairly stable over subsequent cycles. These nets gave consistently high bioassay mortalities throughout the experiment, while the mortality declined rapidly after several washes with the nets that were treated at 3 mg/m2 but not retreated. Experimental huts were used to compare the effectiveness of these 2 net retreatment regimes and nets which were not retreated. All nets caused high mortality rates amongst Anopheles females, but had negligible effects on culicines; either in killing them or in preventing feeding. Therefore use of a high 'loading' dose for initial treatment with lower 'maintenance' doses for retreatment may be preferable to ensure that net users promptly perceive the benefits of the insecticide against culicines.  (+info)

A double-blind, randomized, multicentre, crossover study to prove equivalence of pancreatin minimicrospheres versus microspheres in exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. (6/2621)

BACKGROUND: Modern pancreatin preparations consist of enteric-coated microspheres to protect the enzymes from gastric acid. There are, however, no clinical trials comparing different sizes of pancreatin microspheres with regard to fat excretion and fat intake. AIM: To prove both equivalent efficacy and safety of conventional pancreatin microspheres and smaller pancreatin minimicrospheres in patients with exocrine insufficiency due to chronic pancreatitis. METHODS: In this prospective, randomized, double-blind, multicentre, crossover trial, patients with a stool fat excretion of > 7.5 g/day during a placebo period were randomly assigned either to the minimicrosphere/microsphere treatment sequence or vice versa. The primary end-point was the coefficient of fat absorption, which was calculated from fat excretion and fat intake during the course of a standardized diet. Stool weight, clinical symptoms and the safety of the preparations were also evaluated. RESULTS: Thirty-seven patients entered the study, of whom 23 fulfilled the criteria for the crossover period. In the per protocol analysis (n=18), the 90% confidence intervals for the coefficient of fat absorption of both crossover periods lay entirely within the equivalence range (P=0.02). The intention-to-treat analysis revealed similar results, but the equivalence range was slightly missed (P=0.07). Similar results were obtained for the secondary parameters and the reported adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Pancreatin minimicrospheres have been shown to be equally effective as microspheres in improving the coefficient of fat absorption in patients with exocrine insufficiency due to chronic pancreatitis.  (+info)

Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characterization of OROS and immediate-release amitriptyline. (7/2621)

AIMS: To characterize the pharmacokinetics of amitriptyline and its metabolite nortriptyline following OROS and IR treatments, and to correlate them with anticholinergic side-effects. METHODS: The pharmacokinetics and safety of amitriptyline following administration of an osmotic controlled release tablet (OROS and an immediate release (IR) tablet were evaluated in 14 healthy subjects. In this randomized, open label, three-way crossover feasibility study, the subjects received a single 75 mg OROS tablet, three 25 mg IR tablets administered every 8 h, or 3x25 mg IR tablets administered at nighttime. In each treatment arm serial blood samples were collected for a period of 84 h after dosing. The plasma samples were analysed by gas chromatography for amitriptyline and its metabolite nortriptyline. Anticholinergic effects such as saliva output, visual acuity, and subject-rated drowsiness and dry mouth were measured on a continuous scale during each treatment period. RESULTS: Following dosing with OROS (amitriptyline hydrochloride), the mean maximal plasma amitriptyline concentration Cmax (15.3 ng ml-1 ) was lower and the mean tmax (25.7 h) was longer than that associated with the equivalent IR dose administered at nighttime (26.8 ng ml-1 and 6.3 h, respectively). The bioavailability of amitriptyline following OROS dosing was 95% relative to IR every 8 h dosing, and 89% relative to IR nighttime dosing. The metabolite-to-drug ratios after the three treatment periods were similar, suggesting no change in metabolism between treatments. The relationships between plasma amitriptyline concentration and anticholinergic effects (e.g. reduced saliva weight, dry mouth, and drowsiness) were similar with all three treatments. Of the anticholinergic effects, only decreased saliva weight and dry mouth correlated well with plasma amitriptyline concentrations; drowsiness did not. There was no apparent correlation between anticholinergic effects and the plasma nortriptyline concentration. CONCLUSIONS: The bioavailability of OROS (amitriptyline hydrochloride) was similar to that of the IR treatments and the pharmacokinetics of amitriptyline after OROS dosing may decrease the incidence of anticholinergic effects compared with that seen with nighttime dosing of the IR formulation. Therefore, this controlled-release formulation of amitriptyline may be appropriate for single daily administration.  (+info)

The pharmacology of gene therapy. (8/2621)

The objective for human gene therapy is to express exogenous DNA at a site in vivo for long enough, and at sufficient levels to produce a therapeutic response. The obstacles to this objective are numerous and include the formulation or packaging of the DNA, in vivo delivery, penetration of biological barriers, DNA elimination within the cell and from the tissue compartments of the whole body, control of product expression and overt toxicity. The current challenge is to resolve each of these obstacles to produce a practical and efficient gene therapy. In doing so, it is vital to understand the disposition of DNA vectors in vivo, and to know how conventional medicines may be used to modulate this disposition and to enhance the therapeutic effect of these vectors. Many of the general concepts of human gene therapy have been reviewed extensively in the literature. This review discusses some of the pharmacological aspects of gene delivery and the fate of vectors in vivo, and then highlights how drugs are being used to modulate gene therapy.  (+info)

Examples of neglected diseases include:

1. Dengue fever: A mosquito-borne viral disease that affects millions of people worldwide, particularly in urban slums and other areas with poor sanitation and hygiene.
2. Chagas disease: A parasitic disease caused by the Trypanosoma cruzi parasite, which is transmitted through the bite of an infected triatomine bug. It affects millions of people in Latin America and can cause serious heart and gastrointestinal complications.
3. Leishmaniasis: A parasitic disease caused by several species of the Leishmania parasite, which is transmitted through the bite of an infected sandfly. It affects millions of people worldwide, particularly in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
4. Onchocerciasis (river blindness): A parasitic disease caused by the Onchocerca volvulus parasite, which is transmitted through the bite of an infected blackfly. It affects millions of people in Africa and can cause blindness, skin lesions, and other serious complications.
5. Schistosomiasis: A parasitic disease caused by the Schistosoma parasite, which is transmitted through contact with contaminated water. It affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America.
6. Lymphatic filariasis: A parasitic disease caused by the Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Loa loa parasites, which are transmitted through the bite of an infected mosquito. It affects millions of people worldwide, particularly in Africa and Asia, and can cause severe swelling of the limbs and other serious complications.
7. Chagas disease: A parasitic disease caused by the Trypanosoma cruzi parasite, which is transmitted through the bite of an infected triatomine bug. It affects millions of people in Latin America and can cause heart failure, digestive problems, and other serious complications.

These diseases are often chronic and debilitating, and can have a significant impact on the quality of life of those affected. In addition to the physical symptoms, they can also cause social and economic burdens, such as lost productivity and reduced income.

In terms of public health, these diseases pose a significant challenge for healthcare systems, particularly in developing countries where resources may be limited. They require sustained efforts to control and eliminate, including disease surveillance, vector control, and treatment.

In addition, these diseases are often interconnected with other health issues, such as poverty, poor sanitation, and lack of access to healthcare. Therefore, addressing these diseases requires a comprehensive approach that takes into account the social and economic factors that contribute to their spread.

Overall, the impact of these diseases on public health is significant, and sustained efforts are needed to control and eliminate them.

Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.

Types of Neoplasms

There are many different types of neoplasms, including:

1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.

Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms

The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:

1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.

Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms

The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:

1. Unusual lumps or swelling
2. Pain
3. Fatigue
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms

The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.

The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:

1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.

Prevention of Neoplasms

While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:

1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.

It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.

Body weight is an important health indicator, as it can affect an individual's risk for certain medical conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Maintaining a healthy body weight is essential for overall health and well-being, and there are many ways to do so, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, and other lifestyle changes.

There are several ways to measure body weight, including:

1. Scale: This is the most common method of measuring body weight, and it involves standing on a scale that displays the individual's weight in kg or lb.
2. Body fat calipers: These are used to measure body fat percentage by pinching the skin at specific points on the body.
3. Skinfold measurements: This method involves measuring the thickness of the skin folds at specific points on the body to estimate body fat percentage.
4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive method that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage.
5. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a more accurate method of measuring body composition, including bone density and body fat percentage.

It's important to note that body weight can fluctuate throughout the day due to factors such as water retention, so it's best to measure body weight at the same time each day for the most accurate results. Additionally, it's important to use a reliable scale or measuring tool to ensure accurate measurements.

The definition of DILI has been revised several times over the years, but the most recent definition was published in 2013 by the International Consortium for DILI Research (ICDCR). According to this definition, DILI is defined as:

"A clinically significant alteration in liver function that is caused by a medication or other exogenous substance, and is not related to underlying liver disease. The alteration may be biochemical, morphological, or both, and may be acute or chronic."

The ICDCR definition includes several key features of DILI, including:

1. Clinically significant alteration in liver function: This means that the liver damage must be severe enough to cause symptoms or signs of liver dysfunction, such as jaundice, nausea, vomiting, or abdominal pain.
2. Caused by a medication or other exogenous substance: DILI is triggered by exposure to certain drugs or substances that are not related to underlying liver disease.
3. Not related to underlying liver disease: This means that the liver damage must not be caused by an underlying condition such as hepatitis B or C, alcoholic liver disease, or other genetic or metabolic disorders.
4. May be acute or chronic: DILI can occur as a sudden and severe injury (acute DILI) or as a slower and more insidious process (chronic DILI).

The ICDCR definition provides a standardized way of defining and diagnosing DILI, which is important for clinicians and researchers to better understand the cause of liver damage in patients who are taking medications. It also helps to identify the drugs or substances that are most likely to cause liver injury and to develop strategies for preventing or treating DILI.

Dental deposits refer to the accumulation of plaque, tartar, and other substances on the teeth and dental restorations. These deposits can lead to various oral health problems, such as tooth decay, gum disease, and bad breath. Dental deposits can be removed through regular brushing, flossing, and professional dental cleanings.

Types of Dental Deposits:

There are several types of dental deposits that can accumulate on the teeth and dental restorations, including:

1. Plaque: A sticky film of bacteria that forms on the teeth and can lead to tooth decay and gum disease.
2. Tartar (calculus): A hard, yellowish deposit that forms on the teeth and dental restorations, made up of mineralized plaque.
3. Stains: Discoloration of the teeth due to various factors such as smoking, coffee, tea, or certain medications.
4. Biofilm: A complex community of microorganisms that adhere to the surfaces of the teeth and dental restorations, which can contribute to the development of periodontal disease.

Effects of Dental Deposits:

Dental deposits can have a significant impact on oral health if left untreated. Some of the effects of dental deposits include:

1. Tooth Decay: The accumulation of plaque and tartar on the teeth can lead to tooth decay, which can cause pain, sensitivity, and potentially lead to tooth loss.
2. Gum Disease: Plaque and tartar can also contribute to the development of gum disease, which can cause inflammation, bleeding, and receding gums.
3. Bad Breath: Dental deposits can cause bad breath (halitosis), which can be embarrassing and affect an individual's self-confidence.
4. Tooth Discoloration: Stains on the teeth can cause discoloration, which can make the teeth appear yellow or brown.
5. Increased Risk of Dental Caries: Dental deposits can provide a conducive environment for the growth of cariogenic bacteria, which can increase the risk of dental caries.
6. Difficulty Chewing and Speaking: Advanced periodontal disease can cause teeth to become loose or fall out, making it difficult to chew and speak properly.
7. Self-Esteem Issues: Poor oral health can affect an individual's self-esteem and confidence, which can impact their overall quality of life.
8. Systemic Diseases: There is evidence that suggests a link between periodontal disease and systemic diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, and respiratory disease.

Prevention of Dental Deposits:

Preventing dental deposits is essential for maintaining good oral health. Some ways to prevent dental deposits include:

1. Brushing and Flossing: Regular brushing and flossing can help remove plaque and tartar from the teeth, reducing the risk of dental deposits.
2. Dietary Changes: Avoiding sugary and starchy foods, drinking plenty of water, and consuming a balanced diet can help prevent the formation of dental deposits.
3. Professional Cleaning: Regular professional cleaning by a dentist or hygienist can remove tartar and plaque that is difficult to remove with brushing and flossing alone.
4. Fluoride Treatment: Fluoride treatment can help strengthen teeth and prevent the formation of dental deposits.
5. Salivary Substitutes: For individuals with dry mouth, salivary substitutes can help stimulate saliva production and reduce the risk of dental deposits.
6. Oral Rinses: Using an oral rinse can help remove plaque and bacteria from the teeth and gums.
7. Tobacco Cessation: Quitting tobacco use can help improve oral health and reduce the risk of dental deposits.
8. Regular Dental Check-Ups: Regular dental check-ups can help identify early signs of dental deposits and prevent more serious problems from developing.

Shellfish poisoning, also known as paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), is a type of foodborne illness caused by consuming shellfish that have ingested toxins produced by certain types of algae. These toxins can accumulate in the tissues of the shellfish, including mussels, clams, oysters, and scallops.


The symptoms of shellfish poisoning can vary in severity and may include:

* Tingling or numbness in the mouth and extremities
* Weakness, fatigue, and dizziness
* Headaches, nausea, and vomiting
* Abdominal cramps, diarrhea, and constipation
* In severe cases, paralysis, respiratory failure, and even death


Shellfish poisoning is caused by consuming shellfish that have ingested toxins produced by certain types of algae, including the dinoflagellate Pyrodinium bahamense and the diatom Cyclotella sp. These toxins can accumulate in the tissues of the shellfish, including mussels, clams, oysters, and scallops.


Diagnosis of shellfish poisoning is based on a combination of symptoms, medical history, and laboratory tests. Laboratory tests may include blood tests to detect elevated levels of the toxins in the body, as well as tests to assess liver function and nerve damage. Imaging studies, such as X-rays or CT scans, may also be used to evaluate the extent of any nerve damage.


There is no specific treatment for shellfish poisoning, but supportive care may be provided to manage symptoms and prevent complications. This may include fluids, electrolyte replacement, and medication to control nausea and vomiting. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat any complications.


The best way to prevent shellfish poisoning is to avoid consuming shellfish that may be contaminated with toxins. This can be achieved by only consuming shellfish from reputable sources, such as licensed fisheries or restaurants, and by following local health advisories regarding the safety of shellfish consumption. It is also important to properly store and cook shellfish to reduce the risk of contamination.


Shellfish poisoning can be a serious and potentially life-threatening condition, but with prompt diagnosis and appropriate supportive care, most individuals can recover fully. By understanding the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of shellfish poisoning, individuals can take steps to protect their health and avoid this potentially dangerous condition.

1. Rabies: A deadly viral disease that affects the central nervous system and is transmitted through the saliva of infected animals, usually through bites.
2. Distemper: A highly contagious viral disease that affects dogs, raccoons, and other carnivorous animals, causing symptoms such as seizures, vomiting, and diarrhea.
3. Parvo: A highly contagious viral disease that affects dogs and other animals, causing severe gastrointestinal symptoms and dehydration.
4. Heartworm: A parasitic infection caused by a worm that infects the heart and blood vessels of animals, particularly dogs and cats.
5. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV): A viral disease that weakens the immune system of cats, making them more susceptible to other infections and diseases.
6. Avian influenza: A type of flu that affects birds, including chickens and other domesticated fowl, as well as wild birds.
7. Tuberculosis: A bacterial infection that can affect a wide range of animals, including cattle, pigs, and dogs.
8. Leptospirosis: A bacterial infection that can affect a wide range of animals, including dogs, cats, and wildlife, and can cause symptoms such as fever, kidney failure, and death.
9. Lyme disease: A bacterial infection transmitted through the bite of an infected tick, primarily affecting dogs and humans.
10. Fungal infections: Fungal infections can affect a wide range of animals, including dogs, cats, and livestock, and can cause symptoms such as skin lesions, respiratory problems, and death.

Animal diseases can have a significant impact on animal health and welfare, as well as human health and the economy. They can also be transmitted between animals and humans, making it important to monitor and control animal disease outbreaks to prevent their spread.

Vaccination is an effective way to prevent animal diseases in pets and livestock. Regular vaccinations can help protect against common diseases such as distemper, hepatitis, parvovirus, and rabies, among others. Vaccines can be administered orally, through injection, or through a nasal spray.

Preventative care is key in avoiding animal disease outbreaks. Some of the best ways to prevent animal diseases include:

1. Regular vaccinations: Keeping pets and livestock up to date on their vaccinations can help protect against common diseases.
2. Proper sanitation and hygiene: Keeping living areas clean and free of waste can help prevent the spread of disease-causing bacteria and viruses.
3. Avoiding contact with wild animals: Wild animals can carry a wide range of diseases that can be transmitted to domesticated animals, so it's best to avoid contact with them whenever possible.
4. Proper nutrition: Providing pets and livestock with a balanced diet can help keep their immune systems strong and better able to fight off disease.
5. Monitoring for signs of illness: Regularly monitoring pets and livestock for signs of illness, such as fever, vomiting, or diarrhea, can help identify and treat diseases early on.
6. Quarantine and isolation: Isolating animals that are showing signs of illness can help prevent the spread of disease to other animals and humans.
7. Proper disposal of animal waste: Properly disposing of animal waste can help prevent the spread of disease-causing bacteria and viruses.
8. Avoiding overcrowding: Overcrowding can contribute to the spread of disease, so it's important to provide adequate living space for pets and livestock.
9. Regular veterinary care: Regular check-ups with a veterinarian can help identify and treat diseases early on, and also provide guidance on how to prevent animal diseases.
10. Emergency preparedness: Having an emergency plan in place for natural disasters or other unexpected events can help protect pets and livestock from disease outbreaks.

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

Example sentences:

1. The patient developed a foreign-body reaction after receiving a defective hip implant, resulting in severe pain and swelling.
2. The transplanted liver was rejected by the recipient's immune system, causing a foreign-body reaction that led to its failure.
3. The use of a certain drug was associated with a high risk of foreign-body reactions, leading to its withdrawal from the market.

The exact cause of vitiligo is still unknown, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. In people with vitiligo, the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys melanocytes, leading to a loss of skin pigmentation. The disease can also be triggered by physical or emotional stress, sun exposure, and certain medications.

The symptoms of vitiligo can vary in severity and progression. They may include:

1. White patches on the skin, which can appear suddenly or gradually over time.
2. Loss of skin pigmentation in specific areas, such as the face, hands, or limbs.
3. Thinning or loss of hair on affected areas.
4. Premature whitening or graying of the hair.
5. Itching, pain, or sensitivity in the affected areas.
6. Emotional distress and reduced quality of life due to the visible appearance of the disease.

There is no cure for vitiligo, but various treatments can help manage the symptoms and slow down its progression. These may include:

1. Topical corticosteroids to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system.
2. Topical immunomodulators to suppress the immune system and promote skin repigmentation.
3. Narrowband ultraviolet B (UVB) phototherapy to slow down the progression of the disease and improve skin appearance.
4. Psoralen photochemotherapy to promote skin repigmentation and reduce inflammation.
5. Surgical skin grafting or blister grafting to cover small areas of depigmentation.
6. Camouflage makeup to cover the affected areas and improve self-esteem.

In addition to these treatments, it is essential for patients with vitiligo to protect their skin from the sun by using broad-spectrum sunscreens, wearing protective clothing, and seeking shade when the sun is strongest.

Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can help improve the quality of life for patients with vitiligo. However, the emotional and psychological impact of the disease should not be underestimated, and patients may require long-term support and counseling to cope with the challenges of living with this condition.

There are several different types of weight gain, including:

1. Clinical obesity: This is defined as a BMI of 30 or higher, and is typically associated with a range of serious health problems, such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and certain types of cancer.
2. Central obesity: This refers to excess fat around the waistline, which can increase the risk of health problems such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes.
3. Muscle gain: This occurs when an individual gains weight due to an increase in muscle mass, rather than fat. This type of weight gain is generally considered healthy and can improve overall fitness and athletic performance.
4. Fat gain: This occurs when an individual gains weight due to an increase in body fat, rather than muscle or bone density. Fat gain can increase the risk of health problems such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes.

Weight gain can be measured using a variety of methods, including:

1. Body mass index (BMI): This is a widely used measure of weight gain that compares an individual's weight to their height. A BMI of 18.5-24.9 is considered normal, while a BMI of 25-29.9 is considered overweight, and a BMI of 30 or higher is considered obese.
2. Waist circumference: This measures the distance around an individual's waistline and can be used to assess central obesity.
3. Skinfold measurements: These involve measuring the thickness of fat at specific points on the body, such as the abdomen or thighs.
4. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a non-invasive test that uses X-rays to measure bone density and body composition.
5. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive test that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage and other physiological parameters.

Causes of weight gain:

1. Poor diet: Consuming high amounts of processed foods, sugar, and saturated fats can lead to weight gain.
2. Lack of physical activity: Engaging in regular exercise can help burn calories and maintain a healthy weight.
3. Genetics: An individual's genetic makeup can affect their metabolism and body composition, making them more prone to weight gain.
4. Hormonal imbalances: Imbalances in hormones such as insulin, thyroid, and cortisol can contribute to weight gain.
5. Medications: Certain medications, such as steroids and antidepressants, can cause weight gain as a side effect.
6. Sleep deprivation: Lack of sleep can disrupt hormones that regulate appetite and metabolism, leading to weight gain.
7. Stress: Chronic stress can lead to emotional eating and weight gain.
8. Age: Metabolism slows down with age, making it more difficult to maintain a healthy weight.
9. Medical conditions: Certain medical conditions such as hypothyroidism, Cushing's syndrome, and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) can also contribute to weight gain.

Treatment options for obesity:

1. Lifestyle modifications: A combination of diet, exercise, and stress management techniques can help individuals achieve and maintain a healthy weight.
2. Medications: Prescription medications such as orlistat, phentermine-topiramate, and liraglutide can aid in weight loss.
3. Bariatric surgery: Surgical procedures such as gastric bypass surgery and sleeve gastrectomy can be effective for severe obesity.
4. Behavioral therapy: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and other forms of counseling can help individuals develop healthy eating habits and improve their physical activity levels.
5. Meal replacement plans: Meal replacement plans such as Medifast can provide individuals with a structured diet that is high in protein, fiber, and vitamins, and low in calories and sugar.
6. Weight loss supplements: Supplements such as green tea extract, garcinia cambogia, and forskolin can help boost weight loss efforts.
7. Portion control: Using smaller plates and measuring cups can help individuals regulate their portion sizes and maintain a healthy weight.
8. Mindful eating: Paying attention to hunger and fullness cues, eating slowly, and savoring food can help individuals develop healthy eating habits.
9. Physical activity: Engaging in regular physical activity such as walking, running, swimming, or cycling can help individuals burn calories and maintain a healthy weight.

It's important to note that there is no one-size-fits-all approach to treating obesity, and the most effective treatment plan will depend on the individual's specific needs and circumstances. Consulting with a healthcare professional such as a registered dietitian or a physician can help individuals develop a personalized treatment plan that is safe and effective.

... is a specialty branch of chemical sciences, which consists of medicinal chemistry with ... Typically clinical pharmaceutical chemistry has an important role in discovery, design and manipulation of new drug entities, ... In clinical pharmaceutical chemistry the aim is to understand biological transformations and processes associated with chemical ... The aim of clinical pharmaceutical chemistry is in addition to manage and manipulate clinical effects of different chemical ...
MS in Pharmaceutical Chemistry PSM (Professional Science Master's) in Pharmaceutical Chemistry Pharmaceutical Chemistry The ... UF Pharmaceutical Chemistry Online Graduate Program - University of Florida pharmaceutical chemistry website. PharMore Info ... University of Florida, Pharmaceutical Chemistry Online. Retrieved July 3, 2012. University of Florida, Pharmaceutical Chemistry ... The certificate in pharmaceutical chemistry is provided by the UF College of Pharmacy. It consists of 15 credits offered ...
"Sanofi launches malaria drug production , Chemistry World". Retrieved 2013-12-17. (Wikipedia introduction cleanup from ... Modern pharmaceutical manufacturing techniques frequently rely upon biotechnology. Amongst the earliest uses of biotechnology ... Recombinant DNA techniques have also been employed to create transgenic farm animals that can produce pharmaceutical products ... in pharmaceutical manufacturing is the use of recombinant DNA technology to modify Escherichia coli bacteria to produce human ...
I can see clearly now: Structural biology and drug discovery". Chemistry & Biology. 10 (2): 95-8. doi:10.1016/s1074-5521(03) ... Brackley, Paul (9 January 2020). "Astex Pharmaceuticals and Taiho Pharmaceutical sign cancer drug deal with Merck that could be ... Pharmaceutical companies of England, 1999 establishments in England, Otsuka Pharmaceutical). ... Astex Pharmaceuticals ("Astex") is a biotechnology company focused on the discovery and development of drugs in oncology and ...
McCarthy, Alice A. (February 2003). "Microbia" (PDF). Chemistry & Biology. 10 (2): 99-100. doi:10.1016/S1074-5521(03)00031-0. ... Ironwood Pharmaceuticals, Inc is a publicly traded pharmaceutical company. It was originally called Microbia, Inc. Microbia was ... In April 2018, the shares of Ironwood Pharmaceuticals closed up more than 10 percent on the news of biotech activist investor, ... "Linaclotide - Ironwood Pharmaceuticals". AdisInsight. Retrieved 15 April 2018. "US label for linaclotide" (PDF). FDA. January ...
Das, Soumitra (7 December 2020). "Chemistry of nationalism". The Telegraph. Retrieved 23 June 2020. Special Correspondent (1 ... Bengal Chemicals & Pharmaceuticals Ltd. (BCPL), formerly Bengal Chemical & Pharmaceutical Works Ltd. (BCPW), is an Indian ... "Pharmaceuticals". Bengal Chemicals & Pharmaceuticals Ltd. Retrieved 23 June 2020. "Home Products". Bengal Chemicals & ... Pharmaceutical companies of India, Pharmaceutical companies established in 1901, Manufacturing companies based in Kolkata, ...
2016). "GNE-272". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 59 (23): 10549-10563. doi:10.1021/acs.jmedchem.6b01022. PMID 27682507. "First ... from Takeda Pharmaceutical Company TNX - Tanox, now Genentech/Roche TS - Taisho Pharmaceutical Co., a Japanese Pharmaceutical ... Infinity Pharmaceuticals, Inc ISIS - Isis Pharmaceuticals (renamed Ionis Pharmaceuticals in 2015) JNJ - Johnson & Johnson KOS ... Sunesis Pharmaceuticals SNS - Sensei Biotherapeutics SPD - Shire SPI - Spectrum Pharmaceuticals SU - CIBA Pharmaceutical ...
... and biopharmaceutical chemistry including analyses of biological activity and other issues related to drug discovery. One of ... One conference specific to Pharmaceutical Bioinformatics is "International Conference on Pharmaceutical Bioinformatics" (ICPB ... Pharmaceutical bioinformatics is a research field related to bioinformatics but with the focus on studying biological and ... There are many software tools for pharmaceutical bioinformatics. An example of an open source tool is the Bioclipse workbench. ...
2010). "SRT1720, SRT2183, SRT1460, and Resveratrol Are Not Direct Activators of SIRT1". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 285 ( ... Sirtris Pharmaceuticals, Inc. was a biotechnology company based in Cambridge, MA that developed therapies for type 2 diabetes, ...
"Pharmaceuticals, General Survey". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley. doi:10.1002/14356007.a19_273.pub2. ... The pharmaceutical industry discovers, develops, produces, and markets drugs or pharmaceutical drugs for use as medications to ... Pharmaceutical fraud involves deceptions which bring financial gain to a pharmaceutical company. It affects individuals and ... The cost of late stage development has meant it is usually done by the larger pharmaceutical companies. The pharmaceuticals and ...
2014). "Lactose and Derivatives". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH. pp. 1-9. doi:10.1002/14356007.a15_ ... Soap is a pharmaceutical according to the United States Food and Drug Administration. Shellac is a resin excreted by female ... Animal products in pharmaceuticals play a role as both active and inactive ingredients, the latter including binders, carriers ... There is no practical way of determining if the gelatin used in pharmaceuticals is derived from beef or pork. It is used ...
Darwent B, Allard MJ, Hartman MF, Lange LJ (1960-12-01). "The Photolysis of Acetone". The Journal of Physical Chemistry. 64 (12 ... "Chemicals from Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products". Water Encyclopedia. Retrieved 20 April 2009. "Pharmaceuticals and ... "Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Effluent Guidelines". EPA. 2017-06-30. "Pharmaceuticals Production Industry: National Emission ... The term environmental persistent pharmaceutical pollutants (EPPP) was suggested in the 2010 nomination of pharmaceuticals and ...
Journal of Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry. 2 (1): 31-45. doi:10.1021/jm50008a003. PMID 14406754. Retrieved 27 September ... Janssen Pharmaceuticals was the first Western pharmaceutical company to set up a pharmaceutical factory in the People's ... Coordinates: 51°18′41″N 4°52′03″E / 51.3114°N 4.8676°E / 51.3114; 4.8676 Janssen Pharmaceuticals is a pharmaceutical company ... In January 2015, the company announced it would utilise Ionis Pharmaceuticals' (formerly Isis Pharmaceuticals) Rna-targeting ...
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 59 (9): 5125-32. doi:10.1021/jf200364w. PMID 21469656. Updated list of references ... Daughton, C.G. Pharmaceuticals in the Environment: Overarching Issues and Overview, in Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care ... Pharmaceuticals in drinking water. (2011) Technical report. WHO June 2011. Pharmaceuticals - basic facts and proposed measures ... In: Environment and Pharmaceuticals. Stockholm: Apoteket AB. Westerlund E. (2007) Screening of pharmaceuticals in Skåne ...
The institute offers a 2-year PG degree course; MS (Pharm.) in 3 disciplines ( Medicinal Chemistry, Pharmacology and Toxicology ... National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Raebareli (NIPER-Raebareli) established 2008, is an Indian public ... It a part of the seven National Institutes of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, under India's Ministry of Chemicals and ... The institute offers Masters and Doctoral degrees in pharmaceutical sciences. As an Institute of National Importance it plays ...
This platform was developed through systematic medicinal chemistry screening. RXi scientists have shown the utility of their ... Phio Pharmaceuticals Inc. is a US biotechnology company focused on the field of siRNA. Formerly known as RXi Pharmaceuticals, ... again to be called RXi Pharmaceuticals. This second incarnation of RXi Pharmaceuticals was completed in 2012 when its stock ... RXi Pharmaceuticals stock is traded on Nasdaq under the code RXII. The stock initially traded OTC on 10 May 2012 after the spin ...
Rayner-Canham, Marlene; Rayner-Canham, Geoffrey (2008). Chemistry Was Their Life: Pioneering British Women Chemists, 1880-1949 ... The Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain (RPSGB) existed from its founding as the Pharmaceutical Society of Great ... pharmaceutical Scientist members awarded 'SRPharmS', and Fellows denoted by the 'FRPharmS' post-nominals. The Pharmaceutical ... both of which are now operated by the Royal Pharmaceutical Society. Pharmaceutical industry in the United Kingdom List of ...
In developing small molecule drugs for its validated targets, Lexicon uses medicinal chemistry known as "click chemistry." Dr. ... Webarchive template wayback links, Pharmaceutical companies established in 1995, Pharmaceutical companies of the United States ... Lexicon Pharmaceuticals was founded in September 1995 as a biotech venture of Baylor College of Medicine. The company went ... Lexicon Pharmaceutical's Technology page Archived 2010-07-05 at the Wayback Machine Church DM, Goodstadt L, Hillier LW, et al ...
There are three national key disciplines:[clarify] Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Pharmacognosy, Pharmaceutics and one provincial ... China Pharmaceutical University (CPU) is a university in Nanjing, China that specializes in the pharmaceutical sciences. It is ... Pharmaceutical University, China (4 Mar 2013 - 22 Feb 2021). "China Pharmaceutical University>". Sicas. Archived from the ... Pharmacy in China Pharmaceutical industry in China List of medical schools in the People's Republic of China "学校简介 (in Chinese ...
LGD-4033, previously known as Ligandrol, currently known as VK5211 after being licensed to a different pharmaceutical company; ... ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 2 (2): 124-129. doi:10.1021/ml1002508. PMC 4018048. PMID 24900290. Yin D, Xu H, He Y, ... Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 42 (2): 210-212. doi:10.1021/jm9806648. PMID 9925725. Gao W, Kim J, Dalton JT (August 2006). " ... Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 52 (12): 3597-3617. doi:10.1021/jm900280m. PMID 19432422. Narayanan R, Coss CC, Dalton JT ( ...
Kasture AV (2008). Pharmaceutical Chemistry. Vol. I. Pragati Books Pvt. Ltd. p. 16.11. ISBN 9788185790121. Archived from the ...
"Chemistry and biology of the genusVoacanga". Pharmaceutical Biology. 50 (9): 1183-1193. doi:10.3109/13880209.2012.658478. ISSN ...
In 2010 Phafag licensed rights to caroverine to the Indian company, Lincoln Pharmaceuticals, to develop the drug for tinnitus ... Bungardt E, Mutschler E (15 June 2000). "Spasmolytics". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley. p. 11. doi: ... 2009). Martindale (36th ed.). Pharmaceutical Press. p. 2277. ISBN 9780853698401. ...
Mehta A. "Medicinal Chemistry of the Peripheral Nervous System - Adrenergics and Cholinergics their Biosynthesis, Metabolism, ... Landau R (1999). Pharmaceutical innovation: revolutionizing human health. Philadelphia: Chemical Heritage Press. p. 226. ISBN ... The FDA granted approval of the generic albuterol sulfate inhalation aerosol to Perrigo Pharmaceutical. In April 2020, the FDA ... "Ventolin remains a breath of fresh air for asthma sufferers, after 40 years" (PDF). The Pharmaceutical Journal. 279 (7473): 404 ...
"Chemistry and biology of genus Vismia". Pharmaceutical Biology. 50 (11): 1448-1462. doi:10.3109/13880209.2012.680972. PMID ...
Pharmaceutical Biology. 44 (9): 660-67. doi:10.1080/13880200601006897. S2CID 46436892. Hesler and Smith, 1963, p. 329. Trudell ... Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 54 (22): 8530-37. doi:10.1021/jf061890q. hdl:10198/941. PMID 17061830. Yamac M, ...
Topics in Organometallic Chemistry. Vol. 32. pp. 1-20. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-13185-1_1. ISBN 978-3 ... British national formulary : BNF 76 (76 ed.). Pharmaceutical Press. 2018. p. 907. ISBN 9780857113382. "Arsenic trioxide ( ... Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry, 2nd Ed. Edited by G. Brauer, Academic Press, 1963, NY. Garavelli et al. 2013, http ... Shakhashiri, B. Z. "Chemical of the Week: Arsenic". University of Wisconsin-Madison Chemistry Dept. Archived from the original ...
Vollhardt, K. Peter C.; Schore, Neil E. (2007). Organic Chemistry (5th ed.). New York: W. H. Freeman. p. 173. Simonsen, J. L. ( ... Pharmaceutical Research. 34 (11): 2241-2249. doi:10.1007/s11095-017-2230-3. ISSN 1573-904X. PMC 5757875. PMID 28733781. " ... ISBN 978-3-527-30673-2. Handwörterbuch der reinen und angewandten Chemie [Concise dictionary of pure and applied chemistry] ( ... Food Chemistry. 95 (3): 413-422. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.01.003. Alsanea, Sary; Liu, Dexi (November 2017). "BITC and S- ...
Pharmaceutical Press. Retrieved 3 April 2014. Haynes, William M., ed. (2011). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (92nd ed ... Jones A (2015). Chemistry: An Introduction for Medical and Health Sciences. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 5-6. ISBN 978-0-470-09290-3 ... "General chemistry online: FAQ: Acids and bases: What is the buffer system in buffered aspirin?". ... Royal Pharmaceutical Society. Hollifield JW (August 1976). "Failure of aspirin to antagonize the antihypertensive effect of ...
Watson, David G (2011). Pharmaceutical chemistry. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. p. 273. ISBN 9780702048500. Retrieved 21 ... 2011). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (92nd ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. p. 3.306. ISBN 1-4398-5511-0. "Salicylic ... Boullard O, Leblanc H, Besson B (2000). "Salicylic Acid". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. doi:10.1002/14356007. ... Salicylic acid is used in the production of other pharmaceuticals, including 4-aminosalicylic acid, sandulpiride, and ...
Also used as a flavoring agent in pharmaceutical and food industries. Corn oil - one of the most common, and inexpensive ... Chemistry-related lists, Lists of ingredients). ... mouthwashes and pharmaceuticals, as well as in aromatherapy and ...
Smith and Winter were awarded a half share of the 2018 Nobel Prize in chemistry for their contribution to developing phage ... Antibody libraries displaying millions of different antibodies on phage are often used in the pharmaceutical industry to ... "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2018". Retrieved 2018-10-03. US patent 5866363, Pieczenik G, "Method and means for ...
Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal, 37 (1): 28-30, doi:10.1023/A:1023699012354, ISSN 1573-9031 (Articles with short description, ...
The book takes particular aim at the pharmaceutical market in the United States during the period, citing extensive lists of ... chemistry, or public health." Today, many of the authors' scientific conclusions are indeed thought to have been mistaken. For ... The book's key proposition is that a significant portion of the products sold to the public-particularly pharmaceuticals and ...
In 1967 he graduated as a doctor in Industrial Chemistry from the University of El Salvador. He founded companies dedicated to ... the textile industry, commerce, pharmaceuticals, advertising and the media. He also had a philanthropic vision through the work ...
... bioorganic and pharmaceutical chemistry Public Health and Health (with courses in jurisprudence and medical history) Operative ... Urology Faculty of Pediatrics Faculty Therapy Faculty of Medicine Faculty of Surgery and oncology Pharmacology Pharmaceutical ...
Between 1598 and 1604, Fludd studied medicine, chemistry and hermeticism on the European mainland following his graduation. His ... and helped to author the Pharmacopoeia Londinensis in 1618-a directory of standardized pharmaceutical preparations given by the ... A Study of Atomism and Chemistry in the Seventeenth Century. Springer. pp. 71-2. ISBN 978-0-7923-6782-6. Bruce Janacek (19 June ...
ISBN 0-13-066271-2. Da Silva JJ, Williams RJ (1991). The Biological Chemistry of the Elements: The Inorganic Chemistry of Life ... Current Pharmaceutical Design. 10 (14): 1677-94. doi:10.2174/1381612043384655. PMID 15134565. S2CID 43713549. von Stockar U, ... This common chemistry allows cells to use a small set of metabolic intermediates to carry chemical groups between different ... Introductory Rose S, Mileusnic R (1999). The Chemistry of Life. Penguin Press Science. ISBN 0-14-027273-9. Schneider EC, Sagan ...
Pharmaceutical Chemistry, 1962) from the University of Michigan and Ph.D. (Pharmaceutical Chemistry, 1965) from the University ... Research Achievement Award in Pharmaceutical Sciences (Pharmaceutical Sciences World Congress, 2004) Career Achievement Award ... His paper on the volume of distribution is the most highly cited article in the Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (cited more ... Leslie 'Les' Zachary Benet (born May 17, 1937) is an influential pharmaceutical scientist heading the UCSF's Benet Lab at the ...
EMSL provides researchers around the world with integrated capabilities in oxide and mineral interface chemistry, high- ... pharmaceuticals, and fuel additives. Researchers at PNNL's Radiochemical Processing Laboratory are developing processes to ... "PNNL's Laboratory for the Environment." Analytical Chemistry, 69, 298A-301A. "Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory , ... Biology and biochemistry Chemistry Clinical medicine Engineering Environment and ecology Geosciences Materials science ...
... and other psychoactive pharmaceuticals, and the 1988 United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and ... to periodically amend or supersede the conventions with the introduction of new treaties to keep up with advances in chemistry ... and other psychoactive pharmaceuticals, and the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and ... is limited to clinical trials of pharmaceutical grade drugs and not public health interventions. These European nations have ...
When these elements are polluted due to human activity, it alters the chemistry of the water. Surface and groundwater are two ... Water portal Environmental persistent pharmaceutical pollutant Meltwater Optimum water content for tillage Water resources ...
As the pharmaceutical industry moved away from cure-all patent medicines in the mid twentieth century, Eno Fruit Salt became ... 1999). Chemistry, society and environment : a new history of the British chemical industry. Cambridge: Royal Society of ... ed.). New York: Pharmaceutical Products Press. ISBN 9780789018458. "Eno's Fruit Salt". The Quack Doctor. 17 July 2009. "Eno - ... Chemistry. p. 137. ISBN 9780854045990. Wilkins, Mira (2004). The history of foreign investment in the United States, 1914-1945 ...
Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (23): 20794-20803. doi:10.1074/jbc.M112061200. ISSN 0021-9258. Grimes, Shelley; Anderson, ... for TNBC because the loss of target receptors inherent to the disease causes cancer cells to resist therapeutic pharmaceuticals ...
He received his bachelor's degree in biology and chemistry from Saint Vincent College in Latrobe, Pennsylvania, in 1958. He ... Businesspeople in the pharmaceutical industry, Genentech people, History of biotechnology, History of genetics, Lemelson-MIT ...
It was originally developed by the pharmaceutical company Neurocrine Biosciences, and was later developed together by ... Thomas L. Lemke; David A. Williams (24 January 2012). Foye's Principles of Medicinal Chemistry. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ...
... pharmaceutical, environmental, petrochemical, and forensic chemistry. Yost has supervised the research of well over 100 ... Yost received his BS degree in Chemistry in 1974 from the University of Arizona, having performed undergraduate research in ... His research interests lie in mass spectrometric instrumentation and applications in analytical chemistry. This includes the ... "University of Florida Profile". UF Department of Chemistry. Retrieved 19 April 2019. The Encyclopedia of Mass Spectrometry: ...
If initially there was an increase in production of some minerals, explosives, pharmaceuticals, after 1941 the difficulties of ... in order to promote the study of chemistry in Italy. Notes (in Italian) Donegani, Guido, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani ...
The pharmaceutical POCIS configuration contains a sorbent that is designed to specifically target classes of pharmaceuticals. ... Open Analytical Chemistry Journal 2:1-9. Harman C, Allan IJ, Vermeirssen ELM. 2012. Calibration and Use of the Polar Organic ... It gathered more support in the early 2000s as concern increased regarding the effects of pharmaceutical and personal care ... in situ sampler for hydrophobic organic contaminants in aquatic environments". Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 23 (7): ...
... and pharmaceutical control of its behavior rather than being limited to poorly characterized, expensive, and/or difficult to ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 279 (10): 9532-8. doi:10.1074/jbc.M313100200. PMID 14665618. Chang, Abraham B.; Lin, Ron; ...
2014 Q1 Swiss Pharmaceutical Society (2000). Swiss Pharmaceutical Society (ed.). Index Nominum 2000: International Drug ... The A-Z Encyclopaedia of Alcohol and Drug Abuse CRC Handbook of Chemistry & Physics J. Elks, ed. (14 November 2014). The ... Ashutosh Kar (2005). Medicinal Chemistry. New Age International. pp. 201-. ISBN 9788122415650. OCLC 818800751. Takeda, ...
... partnerships and in-licensing in the pharmaceuticals and bio-pharmaceutical areas, entering into more than 2,200 high-value R&D ... In 2014, she was awarded the Othmer Gold Medal for outstanding contributions to the progress of science and chemistry. She was ... At the Pharmaleaders Pharmaceutical Leadership Summit she was named "Global Indian Woman of the Year" (2012); she also received ... Bio-pharmaceuticals developed by the company include Pichia-derived recombinant human insulin and insulin analogs for diabetes ...
Pharmaceutical companies of India, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, Medical research in India, Pharmaceutical companies established in ... Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry. 24 (5): 1169-78. doi:10.1080/14756360802696802. PMID 19555167. Bansal, ... Pharmaceutical Sciences. 12 (1): 46-78. CiteSeerX PMID 19470292. Official website v t e (Articles with short ...
In chemistry, racemization is a conversion, by heat or by chemical reaction, of an optically active compound into a racemic ( ... Racemization of pharmaceutical drugs can occur in vivo. Thalidomide as the (R) enantiomer is effective against morning sickness ... The production and analysis of enantiomers in the pharmaceutical industry is studied in the field of chiral organic synthesis. ... Brown WH, Iverson BL, Anslyn E, Foote CS (2017). Organic chemistry (Eighth ed.). Boston, Mass.: Cengage Learning. ISBN 978-1- ...
Swedish environmental classification of pharmaceuticals - FASS (drug catalog) - Facts for prescribers (Fakta för förskrivare). ... Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. 405 (19): 6307-21. doi:10.1007/s00216-013-7051-6. PMID 23774830. S2CID 27966043. Walsky ...
1969), Teaching Fellow, Yusuf Hamied Department of Chemistry (formerly Department of Chemistry), University of Cambridge, since ... Professor of Botany to the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain Professor William Hillhouse FLS (1850-1910), first Professor ...
More recent colorimetric chemistries have been developed directly for use in plate readers. Fluorescence intensity detection ... quality control and manufacturing processes in the pharmaceutical and biotechnological industry and academic organizations. ... European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 189: 111981. doi:10.1016/j.ejmech.2019.111981. ISSN 0223-5234. Ashour, Mohamed-Bassem ...
In 1857 he completed his training in pharmaceutical chemistry at the Pharmaceutical Society. While there he had come into ... During his career he was president of the British Pharmaceutical Conference, botanical examiner of the Board of Examiners of ... Hanbury's first published contribution, in volume 1 of the Transactions of the Pharmaceutical Society, was published soon after ... and published in such distinguished sources as the Pharmaceutical Journal and the Transactions of the Linnean Society. ...
Generic orlistat is available in Iran under the brand Venustat manufactured by Aburaihan Pharmaceutical co., in India, under ... Pommier A, Pons M, Kocienski P (1995). "The first total synthesis of (−)-lipstatin". Journal of Organic Chemistry. 60 (22): ... Hanessian S, Tehim A, Chen P (1993). "Total synthesis of (−)-tetrahydrolipstatin". The Journal of Organic Chemistry. 58 (27): ... Chemistry: A European Journal. 18 (27): 8403-8413. doi:10.1002/chem.201200482. ISSN 1521-3765. PMID 22674877. Archived from the ...
Due to low efficacy in the field of a local commercial product of Bacillus thuringiensis M-H-14 [‎Bioflash[‎registered sign]‎, a study was designed to assess its efficacy in laboratory, glass standard aquarium, semi-field ...
You are here: Home , Teaching , Course unit catalogue , Pharmaceutical Chemistry of the Biotechnological Drugs 2021/2022 ... Application of innovative biotechnologies to the pharmaceutical industry: Vaccines, Proteins, Oligonucleotides.. Readings/ ...
New York with Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc.. Apply Today. ... Pharmaceutical Sciences, or a closely related field, with 2+ ... Scientist, Analytical Chemistry. Employer. Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Location. Tarrytown, New York. Start date. Mar 15, ... Regeneron Pharmaceuticals Analytical Chemistry Group is seeking a highly motivated Sr. Scientist to join our group. Scientists ... Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc.. Phone. 914-847-7000. Location. Corporate Headquarters. 777 Old Saw Mill River Road. Tarrytown ...
Pharmaceutical Chemistry (Ontario Tech University) Medicinal Chemistry (University of Waterloo) Pharmaceutical Chemistry ( ... Chemistry, Other. Pharmaceutical Sciences. Description:. Pharmaceutical Chemistry is a specialization in our Chemistry program ... Pharmaceutical Chemistry (HBSc) (Laurentian University/Universite Laurentienne) Biopharmaceutical Science - Medicinal Chemistry ... Pharmaceutical Chemistry combines the study of drug discovery and development, pharmacology, analytical techniques, and drug ...
Pharmaceutical Chemistry in Edinburgh. Search for PhD funding, scholarships & studentships in the UK, Europe and around the ... Search Funded PhD Projects, Programmes & Scholarships in Chemistry, ... PhD in Pharmaceutical Chemistry funding options In the UK, PhDs in Pharmaceutical Chemistry can be funded by the Medical ... PhD in Pharmaceutical Chemistry careers There are many career options for graduates with a PhD in Pharmaceutical Chemistry. You ...
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Nobel Prize: How click chemistry and bioorthogonal chemistry are transforming the pharmaceutical and material industries ... Nobel Prize: How click chemistry and bioorthogonal chemistry are transforming the pharmaceutical and material industries ... How does click and bioorthogonal chemistry work? Click chemistry, as the name suggests, is a way of building molecules like ... We asked chemistry PhD candidate Heyang (Peter) Zhang of the Lin Lab at UB to talk about how these techniques figure in his own ...
Pharmaceutical Chemistry at the International Medical University was accredited by the Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC), the ... The Pharmaceutical Chemistry degree is completed in three years (6 semesters), and is undertaken entirely at IMU. Upon ... IMU welcomed its first cohort of pharmaceutical chemistry students in 2008. The University is the first university in Malaysia ... Membership with this society will improve the visibility and recognition of the IMU pharmaceutical chemistry degree and improve ...
Journal of Chemical Biology and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Citations Report. ... Pharmaceutical Chemistry has got h-index 2, which means every article in Journal of Chemical Biology & Pharmaceutical Chemistry ... Pharmaceutical Chemistry : Citations & Metrics Report Articles published in Journal of Chemical Biology & Pharmaceutical ... Journal of Chemical Biology & Pharmaceutical Chemistry received 12 citations as per Google Scholar report ...
Main Page > Allama-Iqbal > Pharmacy > Punjab University College of Pharmacy > Ph.D. Pharmacy in Pharmaceutical Chemistry ...
Chemistry, Pharmaceutical 5. Chemistry, general, medical, and pharmaceutical: including the chemistry of the U.S. pharmacopoeia ... Chemistry, Pharmaceutical 6. Chemistry, general, medical, and pharmaceutical: including the chemistry of the U.S. pharmacopoeia ... Start Over You searched for: Subjects Chemistry, Pharmaceutical ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Chemistry, Pharmaceutical ... Chemistry, Pharmaceutical 7. Chemistry, manufacturing, and control (CMC) information for human gene therapy investigational new ...
International Conferences 4th Pharmaceutical Chemistry Conference,Conference Series Meetings.
Medicinal Chemistry is a specialisation of the Masters programme Bio-Pharmaceutical Sciences (BPS). ... Attending two lecture series of BPS is mandatory in the MSc programme of Bio-Pharmaceutical Sciences (BPS). Mandatory lecture ... The MSc programme Medicinal Chemistry (drug design and molecular modelling) trains for junior drug researchers, and prepares ...
The care is provided through the out-patient Department of RHTC and UHC on a daily basis. It is described in the clinical focus section ...
Before use in the pharmaceutical industry, bentonite samples must be safe and conform to recommendations and directives of ... which can be used as a pharmaceutical excipient and in cosmetic products such as creams, powders and emulsions. ... and physicochemical characterization to evaluate their potential suitability as raw and purified materials in pharmaceutical ... 6 , BMC Chemistry. Fig. 6. From: Characterization and purification of Algerian natural bentonite for pharmaceutical and ...
Results of search for su:{Chemistry, Pharmaceutical.} Refine your search. *. Availability. * Limit to currently available ... Medicinal chemistry : the role of organic chemistry in drug research / edited by C. R. Ganellin and S. M. Roberts. by Ganellin ... European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences [electronic resource]. by European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences. ... Division of Medicinal Chemistry.. Material type: Text; Format: print Publication details: San Diego : Academic Press, 1994-2000 ...
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  • Part B shall provide analytical chemistry evaluations of bulk drug substances and dosage formulations intended for use elsewhere in animal efficacy models, pharmacology and toxicology studies, pharmaceutical dosage form manufacture, and clinical trials. (
  • Experience: Full Professor (Senior lecturer) of Toxicology, Faculty of Chemistry, University of the Republic of Uruguay (UdelaR). (
  • To help accomplish this, the program provides access to consultants with extensive biopharma experience and CRO resources for a variety of activities including medicinal chemistry, manufacturing and formulation, DMPK, GLP toxicology and Phase I clinical testing. (
  • To be considered you must have a MS degree +6 years experience or a PhD in Analytical Chemistry, Biochemistry, Pharmaceutical Sciences, or a closely related field, with 2+ years of experience in mass spectrometry-based analysis of proteins and/or other biological molecules (e.g., oligonucleotides, mRNA, lipid nanoparticles, viral vectors). (
  • 8 January 2014 - The 3-year Bachelor of Science (Hons) Pharmaceutical Chemistry at the International Medical University was accredited by the Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) , the world's leading chemistry community and professional body, advancing excellence in the chemical sciences. (
  • Medicinal Chemistry is a specialisation of the Master's programme Bio-Pharmaceutical Sciences (BPS). (
  • Attending two lecture series of BPS is mandatory in the MSc programme of Bio-Pharmaceutical Sciences (BPS). (
  • European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences [electronic resource]. (
  • by European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences. (
  • Pakistan journal of pharmaceutical sciences. (
  • We explore fundamental biological mechanisms and molecules of therapeutic relevance for better health, empowered by novel technologies at the interface of chemistry, physics, and computational sciences. (
  • Engage with real-life examples of how chemistry works, and understand the influence of social, economic or environmental factors on the way chemical sciences operate. (
  • The MSc programme Medicinal Chemistry (drug design and molecular modelling) trains for junior drug researchers, and prepares students for a career in medicinal chemistry. (
  • Medicinal chemistry : the role of organic chemistry in drug research / edited by C. R. Ganellin and S. M. Roberts. (
  • Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry / editor-in-chief, James A. Bristol. (
  • Division of Medicinal Chemistry. (
  • Through module options in Year Two and Three you can personalise your learning in the areas of materials, environment and medicinal chemistry. (
  • Pharmaceutical Chemistry combines the study of drug discovery and development, pharmacology, analytical techniques, and drug chemistry. (
  • Commenting on this accreditation, Prof Yeoh Peng Nam, Acting Dean, School of Pharmacy said, "We are pleased to announce the accreditation of our 3-year Bachelor of Science (Hons) Pharmaceutical Chemistry degree by the RSC. (
  • The department also provides guidelines, good laboratory practices while performing Qualitative and quantitave analysis as per the curriculum, so that student can apply analytical skill in developing good commercial quality pharmaceutical product. (
  • There are many career options for graduates with a PhD in Pharmaceutical Chemistry. (
  • Royal Society of Chemistry We work closely with industry and we know what they want from graduates. (
  • For example, industry want chemistry graduates that can problem solve and communicate their findings clearly. (
  • You will apply knowledge gained from course material, hands-on lab experiences and faculty research to the pharmaceutical industry. (
  • No guidelines or procedures, describing the detection or identification of a targeted plant or herb in pharmaceutical preparations or dietary supplements, can be found. (
  • Mr Toby Underwood, Accreditation Manager of the Royal Society of Chemistry said: "The Royal Society of Chemistry is proud to further expand its accreditation activities in Malaysia. (
  • Application of innovative biotechnologies to the pharmaceutical industry: Vaccines, Proteins, Oligonucleotides. (
  • Pharmaceutical preformulation : the physicochemical properties of drug substances / James I. Wells. (
  • This department helps the diploma students to understand the basic concepts of Quality, Purity and Synthesis of pharmaceutical substances. (
  • Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) and diisopropylcarbodiimide (DIC) are two commonly used coupling reagents in protein synthesis resulting in exposure of individuals in chemical and pharmaceutical industries as well as research laboratories involved in protein synthesis and recombinant DNA techniques. (
  • Learn the fundamental concepts of theoretical and practical chemistry as well as aspects such as inorganic complexation reactions, indicator theory and acid-base systems. (
  • Sr. Scientist, Analytical Chemistry job with Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (
  • Regeneron Pharmaceutical's Analytical Chemistry Group is seeking a highly motivated Sr. Scientist to join our group. (
  • In the chemistry department various equipment's are provided to develop analytical skills in the students. (
  • The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (NIAID), NIH has requirements to establish formulations and clinical trial materials for AIDS therapeutics and establish analytical chemistry evaluation of AIDS therapeutics. (
  • You could take up a postdoctoral position at a university or pharmaceutical company, or you might decide to apply your scientific knowledge through roles in regulatory affairs. (
  • This 3.5-year funded PhD opportunity will be a collaborative project with Vapourtec Ltd in the Lee, Vilela and Mota research groups at Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, on Synthetic Organic Chemistry, Flow Chemistry and Machine Learning. (
  • The University is the first university in Malaysia that provides an undergraduate training in Pharmaceutical Chemistry. (
  • A Textbook as per syllabus of JawaharLal Nehru Technological University,Hyderabad.The book provides a complete and comprehensive material on various topics of pharmaceutical chemistry. (
  • 1 Institute of Food Chemistry, Technical University of Berlin, Sekr. (
  • The 2022 Nobel Prize in chemistry was awarded to scientists Carolyn R. Bertozzi, Morten Meldal and K. Barry Sharpless for their development of click chemistry and bioorthogonal chemistry. (
  • Carolyn Bertozzi is one of the winners of the 2022 Nobel Prize in chemistry. (
  • Articles published in Journal of Chemical Biology & Pharmaceutical Chemistry have been cited by esteemed scholars and scientists all around the world. (
  • Journal of Chemical Biology & Pharmaceutical Chemistry has got h-index 2, which means every article in Journal of Chemical Biology & Pharmaceutical Chemistry has got 2 average citations. (
  • Following are the list of articles that have cited the articles published in Journal of Chemical Biology & Pharmaceutical Chemistry . (
  • His group studies information with new computational methods, at the intersection of biology, medicine and chemistry. (
  • Results of search for 'su:{Chemistry, Pharmaceutical. (
  • Learn about the bonding and structure in organic molecules and functional group chemistry, with an emphasis on reactivity and mechanism. (
  • These bioorthogonal reactions, or reactions that happen "parallel" to the chemical environment of the cell, can occur in cells without perturbing their normal chemistry. (
  • In an interview, Carolyn Bertozzi stated that the next steps for bioorthogonal chemistry are to find new reactions and applications for it. (
  • PhD students in Pharmaceutical Chemistry research a range of chemical compounds and their impact on human health. (
  • With a PhD in Pharmaceutical Chemistry, you'll have the opportunity to build your own unique research portfolio. (
  • You'll take part in research rotations to gain expertise in certain areas of Pharmaceutical Chemistry. (
  • Some PhDs in Pharmaceutical Chemistry may ask you to express an interest in certain research areas. (
  • In the UK, PhDs in Pharmaceutical Chemistry can be funded by the Medical Research Council (MRC), which provides a tuition fee waiver and a living cost stipend. (
  • We asked chemistry PhD candidate Heyang (Peter) Zhang of the Lin Lab at UB to talk about how these techniques figure in his own research and how they have transformed his field and other industries. (
  • Research in Chemistry and Geosciences and National Agency for Research and Innovation (ANII) in Uruguay. (
  • The minimum entry requirement for a PhD in Pharmaceutical Chemistry is usually a 2:1 undergraduate degree in a relevant subject, although a Masters may occasionally be required. (
  • Chemistry is a practical subject and we know there's just no substitute for doing it yourself. (
  • These include biological chemistry of drugs, polymeric materials and environmental issues. (
  • By combining an azide with a cyclooctyne, bioorthogonal chemistry allows researchers to join molecules quickly together without disturbing the rest of the cell. (
  • Researchers won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2008 for their work with GFP. (
  • Click chemistry joins molecules together by reacting an azide with a cyclooctyne. (
  • Click chemistry, as the name suggests, is a way of building molecules like snapping Lego blocks together. (
  • The occurrence and fate of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) in the aquatic environment has been recognized as one of the emerging issues in environmental chemistry. (
  • Membership with this society will improve the visibility and recognition of the IMU pharmaceutical chemistry degree and improve the students' chances to go for higher education and obtain employment overseas. (
  • IMU welcomed its first cohort of pharmaceutical chemistry students in 2008. (
  • Individuals interested in this specialization will apply directly to Pharmaceutical Chemistry through the Ontario Universities' Application Centre using application code DSW. (
  • The Pharmaceutical Chemistry degree is completed in three years (6 semesters), and is undertaken entirely at IMU. (
  • Upon completion of the degree, you can enter the workforce and begin your career as a pharmaceutical chemist. (
  • Our project work ranges from analyses and clean-up strategies of contaminated sites, to development of sustainable product designs, to interpreting and advising on test design and results in pharmaceuticals. (
  • What's it like to study a PhD in Pharmaceutical Chemistry? (
  • Pharmaceutical Chemistry is a specialization in our Chemistry program . (
  • Pharmaceuticals for Children Act (BPCA) Program. (
  • You can choose to continue studying these areas of chemistry in your final year project to deepen your knowledge further. (
  • How does click and bioorthogonal chemistry work? (
  • How do you use this chemistry in your work? (
  • Today, it is widely used in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. (
  • Most PhD programmes in Pharmaceutical Chemistry last 3-4 years. (