Click Chemistry: Organic chemistry methodology that mimics the modular nature of various biosynthetic processes. It uses highly reliable and selective reactions designed to "click" i.e., rapidly join small modular units together in high yield, without offensive byproducts. In combination with COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES, it is used for the synthesis of new compounds and combinatorial libraries.Chemistry, Clinical: The specialty of ANALYTIC CHEMISTRY applied to assays of physiologically important substances found in blood, urine, tissues, and other biological fluids for the purpose of aiding the physician in making a diagnosis or following therapy.Chemistry, Organic: The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Clinical Chemistry Tests: Laboratory tests demonstrating the presence of physiologically significant substances in the blood, urine, tissue, and body fluids with application to the diagnosis or therapy of disease.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Chemistry, Analytic: The branch of chemistry dealing with detection (qualitative) and determination (quantitative) of substances. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Combinatorial Chemistry Techniques: A technology, in which sets of reactions for solution or solid-phase synthesis, is used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.Blood Chemical Analysis: An examination of chemicals in the blood.Alkynes: Hydrocarbons with at least one triple bond in the linear portion, of the general formula Cn-H2n-2.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Nobel PrizeMolecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Chemistry Techniques, Synthetic: Methods used for the chemical synthesis of compounds. Included under this heading are laboratory methods used to synthesize a variety of chemicals and drugs.Green Chemistry Technology: Pollution prevention through the design of effective chemical products that have low or no toxicity and use of chemical processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances.Organic Chemistry Phenomena: The conformation, properties, reaction processes, and the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds.Chemistry Techniques, Analytical: Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.Chemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Evolution, Chemical: Chemical and physical transformation of the biogenic elements from their nucleosynthesis in stars to their incorporation and subsequent modification in planetary bodies and terrestrial biochemistry. It includes the mechanism of incorporation of biogenic elements into complex molecules and molecular systems, leading up to the origin of life.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Cyclization: Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Azides: Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.Biochemistry: The study of the composition, chemical structures, and chemical reactions of living things.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Cosmic Dust: Finely divided solid matter with particle sizes smaller than a micrometeorite, thus with diameters much smaller than a millimeter, moving in interplanetary space. (NASA Thesaurus, 1994)Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Extraterrestrial Environment: The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Biogenesis: The origin of life. It includes studies of the potential basis for life in organic compounds but excludes studies of the development of altered forms of life through mutation and natural selection, which is BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION.Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Organic Chemistry Processes: The reactions, changes in structure and composition, the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds, and the associated energy changes.Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Astronomy: The science concerned with celestial bodies and the observation and interpretation of the radiation received in the vicinity of the earth from the component parts of the universe (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Quantum Theory: The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in definite quantities called quanta (E) which vary in size and are defined by the equation E=hv in which h is Planck's constant and v is the frequency of the radiation.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Photoelectron Spectroscopy: The study of the energy of electrons ejected from matter by the photoelectric effect, i.e., as a direct result of absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation. As the energies of the electrons are characteristic of a specific element, the measurement of the energy of these electrons is a technique used to determine the chemical composition of surfaces.Copper: A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Carbonates: Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Radiochemistry: The study of the chemical and physical phenomena of radioactive substances.Drug Discovery: The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Enzymes: Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Biological Products: Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.Coordination Complexes: Neutral or negatively charged ligands bonded to metal cations or neutral atoms. The number of ligand atoms to which the metal center is directly bonded is the metal cation's coordination number, and this number is always greater than the regular valence or oxidation number of the metal. A coordination complex can be negative, neutral, or positively charged.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Organometallic Compounds: A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Exobiology: The interdisciplinary science that studies evolutionary biology, including the origin and evolution of the major elements required for life, their processing in the interstellar medium and in protostellar systems. This field also includes the study of chemical evolution and the subsequent interactions between evolving biota and planetary evolution as well as the field of biology that deals with the study of extraterrestrial life.Photochemical Processes: Chemical reactions effected by light.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Autoanalysis: Method of analyzing chemicals using automation.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Sulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.Biology: One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.Solar System: The group of celestial bodies, including the EARTH, orbiting around and gravitationally bound by the sun. It includes eight planets, one minor planet, and 34 natural satellites, more than 1,000 observed comets, and thousands of lesser bodies known as MINOR PLANETS (asteroids) and METEOROIDS. (From Academic American Encyclopedia, 1983)Hydrocarbons, Cyclic: Organic compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen forming a closed ring that may be either alicyclic or aromatic.Small Molecule Libraries: Large collections of small molecules (molecular weight about 600 or less), of similar or diverse nature which are used for high-throughput screening analysis of the gene function, protein interaction, cellular processing, biochemical pathways, or other chemical interactions.Hematologic Tests: Tests used in the analysis of the hemic system.Amines: A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Metals: Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Fullerenes: A polyhedral CARBON structure composed of around 60-80 carbon atoms in pentagon and hexagon configuration. They are named after Buckminster Fuller because of structural resemblance to geodesic domes. Fullerenes can be made in high temperature such as arc discharge in an inert atmosphere.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Silanes: Compounds similar to hydrocarbons in which a tetravalent silicon atom replaces the carbon atom. They are very reactive, ignite in air, and form useful derivatives.Nanostructures: Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Ecotoxicology: The study of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION and the toxic effects of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS on the ECOSYSTEM. The term was coined by Truhaut in 1969.Dendrimers: Tree-like, highly branched, polymeric compounds. They grow three-dimensionally by the addition of shells of branched molecules to a central core. The overall globular shape and presence of cavities gives potential as drug carriers and CONTRAST AGENTS.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Palladium: A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Chemical Processes: The reactions and interactions of atoms and molecules, the changes in their structure and composition, and associated energy changes.Biosensing Techniques: Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.Microscopy, Scanning Tunneling: A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a very sharp conducting needle is swept just a few angstroms above the surface of a sample. The tiny tunneling current that flows between the sample and the needle tip is measured, and from this are produced three-dimensional topographs. Due to the poor electron conductivity of most biological samples, thin metal coatings are deposited on the sample.Electrons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Metal Nanoparticles: Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.Gold: A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.PhotochemistryFluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Alkenes: Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)Sulfur Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.Elements: Substances that comprise all matter. Each element is made up of atoms that are identical in number of electrons and protons and in nuclear charge, but may differ in mass or number of neutrons.Molecular Probes: A group of atoms or molecules attached to other molecules or cellular structures and used in studying the properties of these molecules and structures. Radioactive DNA or RNA sequences are used in MOLECULAR GENETICS to detect the presence of a complementary sequence by NUCLEIC ACID HYBRIDIZATION.Biomimetics: An interdisciplinary field in materials science, ENGINEERING, and BIOLOGY, studying the use of biological principles for synthesis or fabrication of BIOMIMETIC MATERIALS.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cyclooctanes: A group of compounds with an 8-carbon ring. They may be saturated or unsaturated.Wettability: The quality or state of being wettable or the degree to which something can be wet. This is also the ability of any solid surface to be wetted when in contact with a liquid whose surface tension is reduced so that the liquid spreads over the surface of the solid.Meteoroids: Any solid objects moving in interplanetary space that are smaller than a planet or asteroid but larger than a molecule. Meteorites are any meteoroid that has fallen to a planetary surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Agrochemicals: Chemicals used in agriculture. These include pesticides, fumigants, fertilizers, plant hormones, steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins, etc.Volcanic Eruptions: The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Nanomedicine: The branch of medicine concerned with the application of NANOTECHNOLOGY to the prevention and treatment of disease. It involves the monitoring, repair, construction, and control of human biological systems at the molecular level, using engineered nanodevices and NANOSTRUCTURES. (From Freitas Jr., Nanomedicine, vol 1, 1999).Laboratories: Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Cycloaddition Reaction: Synthetic organic reactions that use reactions between unsaturated molecules to form cyclical products.Cross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Physics: The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Clinical Laboratory Techniques: Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.Solid-Phase Synthesis Techniques: Techniques used to synthesize chemicals using molecular substrates that are bound to a solid surface. Typically a series of reactions are conducted on the bound substrate that results in either the covalent attachment of specific moieties or the modification of existing function groups. These techniques offer an advantage to those involving solution reactions in that the substrate compound does not have to be isolated and purified between the reaction steps.Hydrocarbons, FluorinatedBenzene DerivativesChromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Heterocyclic Compounds: Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Silicon: A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Glass: Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Laboratories, Hospital: Hospital facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Lightning: An abrupt high-current electric discharge that occurs in the ATMOSPHERE and that has a path length ranging from hundreds of feet to tens of miles. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Silicon Dioxide: Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.Halogens: A family of nonmetallic, generally electronegative, elements that form group 17 (formerly group VIIa) of the periodic table.Evolution, Planetary: Creation and development of bodies within solar systems, includes study of early planetary geology.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Oligonucleotides: Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Aldehydes: Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Blood Urea Nitrogen: The urea concentration of the blood stated in terms of nitrogen content. Serum (plasma) urea nitrogen is approximately 12% higher than blood urea nitrogen concentration because of the greater protein content of red blood cells. Increases in blood or serum urea nitrogen are referred to as azotemia and may have prerenal, renal, or postrenal causes. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Chemistry, Inorganic: A field of chemistry which pertains to chemical compounds or ions that do not contain the element carbon (with the exception of carbon dioxide and compounds containing a carbonate radical, e.g., calcium carbonate).Acid Rain: Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.Nucleic Acids: High molecular weight polymers containing a mixture of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides chained together by ribose or deoxyribose linkages.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Spectrum Analysis, Raman: Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.Calcium Carbonate: Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Nucleic Acid Probes: Nucleic acid which complements a specific mRNA or DNA molecule, or fragment thereof; used for hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms and for genetic studies.IminesNitrogen Oxides: Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.Groundwater: Liquid water present beneath the surface of the earth.Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Saturn: The sixth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its twelve natural satellites include Phoebe and Titan.Microscopy, Atomic Force: A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Bromine: A halogen with the atomic symbol Br, atomic number 36, and atomic weight 79.904. It is a volatile reddish-brown liquid that gives off suffocating vapors, is corrosive to the skin, and may cause severe gastroenteritis if ingested.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Anions: Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.Microfluidic Analytical Techniques: Methods utilizing the principles of MICROFLUIDICS for sample handling, reagent mixing, and separation and detection of specific components in fluids.Free Radicals: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.Interdisciplinary Studies: Programs of study which span the traditional boundaries of academic scholarship.Ferric Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.Earth (Planet): Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.Electrolytes: Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Eagles: Large members of the FALCONIFORMES order of birds, family Accipitridae, most especially the genera Aquila, Haliaeetus, Harpia, and Circaetus. They are characterized by their powerful talons, which carry long, curved, pointed claws and by their opposable hindtoe.Microfluidics: The study of fluid channels and chambers of tiny dimensions of tens to hundreds of micrometers and volumes of nanoliters or picoliters. This is of interest in biological MICROCIRCULATION and used in MICROCHEMISTRY and INVESTIGATIVE TECHNIQUES.KetonesCations: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions: The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.Bilirubin: A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Biochemical Phenomena: The chemical processes, enzymatic activities, and pathways of living things and related temporal, dimensional, qualitative, and quantitative concepts.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Macrocyclic Compounds: Cyclic compounds with a ring size of approximately 1-4 dozen atoms.Natural Science Disciplines: The sciences dealing with processes observable in nature.Isotope Labeling: Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.Carboxylic Acids: Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.Lanthanoid Series Elements: Elements of the lanthanoid series including atomic number 57 (LANTHANUM) through atomic number 71 (LUTETIUM).Halogenation: Covalent attachment of HALOGENS to other compounds.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Polystyrenes: Polymerized forms of styrene used as a biocompatible material, especially in dentistry. They are thermoplastic and are used as insulators, for injection molding and casting, as sheets, plates, rods, rigid forms and beads.HydrocarbonsAlpha Particles: Positively charged particles composed of two protons and two NEUTRONS, i.e. equivalent to HELIUM nuclei, which are emitted during disintegration of heavy ISOTOPES. Alpha rays have very strong ionizing power, but weak penetrability.Organophosphorus Compounds: Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.Transition Elements: Elements with partially filled d orbitals. They constitute groups 3-12 of the periodic table of elements.Biocatalysis: The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.Hydroxyl Radical: The univalent radical OH. Hydroxyl radical is a potent oxidizing agent.Alkylation: The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.Graphite: An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.

Protein synthesis by native chemical ligation: expanded scope by using straightforward methodology. (1/290)

The total chemical synthesis of proteins has great potential for increasing our understanding of the molecular basis of protein function. The introduction of native chemical ligation techniques to join unprotected peptides next to a cysteine residue has greatly facilitated the synthesis of proteins of moderate size. Here, we describe a straightforward methodology that has enabled us to rapidly analyze the compatibility of the native chemical ligation strategy for X-Cys ligation sites, where X is any of the 20 naturally occurring amino acids. The simplified methodology avoids the necessity of specific amino acid thioester linkers or alkylation of C-terminal thioacid peptides. Experiments using matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization MS analysis of combinatorial ligations of LYRAX-C-terminal thioester peptides to the peptide CRANK show that all 20 amino acids are suitable for ligation, with Val, Ile, and Pro representing less favorable choices because of slow ligation rates. To illustrate the method's utility, two 124-aa proteins were manually synthesized by using a three-step, four-piece ligation to yield a fully active human secretory phospholipase A(2) and a catalytically inactive analog. The combination of flexibility in design with general access because of simplified methodology broadens the applicability and versatility of chemical protein synthesis.  (+info)

The missing organic molecules on Mars. (2/290)

GC-MS on the Viking 1976 Mars missions did not detect organic molecules on the Martian surface, even those expected from meteorite bombardment. This result suggested that the Martian regolith might hold a potent oxidant that converts all organic molecules to carbon dioxide rapidly relative to the rate at which they arrive. This conclusion is influencing the design of Mars missions. We reexamine this conclusion in light of what is known about the oxidation of organic compounds generally and the nature of organics likely to come to Mars via meteorite. We conclude that nonvolatile salts of benzenecarboxylic acids, and perhaps oxalic and acetic acid, should be metastable intermediates of meteoritic organics under oxidizing conditions. Salts of these organic acids would have been largely invisible to GC-MS. Experiments show that one of these, benzenehexacarboxylic acid (mellitic acid), is generated by oxidation of organic matter known to come to Mars, is rather stable to further oxidation, and would not have been easily detected by the Viking experiments. Approximately 2 kg of meteorite-derived mellitic acid may have been generated per m(2) of Martian surface over 3 billion years. How much remains depends on decomposition rates under Martian conditions. As available data do not require that the surface of Mars be very strongly oxidizing, some organic molecules might be found near the surface of Mars, perhaps in amounts sufficient to be a resource. Missions should seek these and recognize that these complicate the search for organics from entirely hypothetical Martian life.  (+info)

DNA HOMO as a new landmark for nucleic acid properties. ab initio calculations and experimental mapping. (3/290)

Of the non-covalent binding forces in DNA-drug or DNA-protein interaction, electrostatic interaction, stacking interaction, hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic effect have been well established. However, only a few HOMO-LUMO interaction in DNA have been reported. We examined the ab initio calculations of B-DNA duplex 5-mers. Based on the calculated results, we investigated the mapping of HOMO experimentally and found that DNA cleavage patterns with Co(II) and BPO (Benzoyl peroxide) were in good agreement with the ab initio calculation results.  (+info)

A novel histone deacetylase inhibitor identified by high-throughput transcriptional screening of a compound library. (4/290)

Libraries of compounds are increasingly becoming commercially available for the use of individual academic laboratories. A high-throughput system based on a stably integrated transcriptional reporter was used to screen a library of random compounds to identify agents that conferred robust augmentation of a signal transduction pathway. A novel histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, termed scriptaid, conferred the greatest effect, a 12- to 18-fold augmentation. This facilitation of transcriptional events was generally applicable to exogenous gene constructs, including viral and cellular promoters, different cell lines and reporter genes, and stably integrated and transiently introduced sequences. Scriptaid did not interfere with a further induction provided by stimulation of the cognate signal transduction pathway (transforming growth factor beta/Smad4), which implied the functional independence of ligand-stimulated transcriptional activation and histone acetylation states in this system. Additional insights into this and other signal transduction systems are likely to be afforded through the application of compound screening technologies.  (+info)

Automated solid-phase synthesis of oligosaccharides. (5/290)

Traditionally, access to structurally defined complex carbohydrates has been very laborious. Although recent advancements in solid-phase synthesis have made the construction of complex oligosaccharides less tedious, a high level of technical expertise is still necessary to obtain the desired structures. We describe the automated chemical synthesis of several oligosaccharides on a solid-phase synthesizer. A branched dodecasaccharide was synthesized through the use of glycosyl phosphate building blocks and an octenediol functionalized resin. The target oligosaccharide was readily obtained after cleavage from the solid support. Access to certain complex oligosaccharides now has become feasible in a fashion much like the construction of oligopeptides and oligonucleotides.  (+info)

Selective permeation and organic extraction of recombinant green fluorescent protein (gfpuv) from Escherichia coli. (6/290)

BACKGROUND: Transformed cells of Escherichia coli DH5-alpha with pGFPuv, induced by IPTG (isopropyl-beta-d-thiogalactopyranoside), express the green fluorescent protein (gfpuv) during growth phases. E. coli subjected to the combination of selective permeation by freezing/thawing/sonication cycles followed by the three-phase partitioning extraction (TPP) method were compared to the direct application of TPP to the same culture of E. coli on releasing gfpuv from the over-expressing cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cultures (37 degrees C/100 rpm/ 24 h; mu = 0.99 h(-1)-1.10 h(-1)) of transformed (pGFP) Escherichia coli DH5-alpha, expressing the green fluorescent protein (gfpuv, absorbance at 394 nm and emission at 509 nm) were sonicated in successive intervals of sonication (25 vibrations/pulse) to determine the maximum amount of gfpuv released from the cells. For selective permeation, the transformed previously frozen (-75 degrees C) cells were subjected to three freeze/thaw (-20 degrees C/ 0.83 degrees C/min) cycles interlaid by sonication (3 pulses/6 seconds/25 vibrations). The intracellular permeate with gfpuv in extraction buffer (TE) solution (25 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.0, 1 mM beta-mercaptoethanol beta-ME, 0.1 mM PMSF) was subjected to the three-phase partitioning (TPP) method with t-butanol and 1.6 M ammonium sulfate. Sonication efficiency was verified on the application to the cells previously treated by the TPP method. The intra-cell releases were mixed and eluted through methyl HIC column with a buffer solution (10 mM Tris-HCl, 10 mM EDTA, pH 8.0). RESULTS: The sonication maximum released amount obtained from the cells was 327.67 microg gfpuv/mL (20.73 microg gfpuv/mg total proteins-BSA), after 9 min of treatment. Through the selective permeation by three repeated freezing/thawing/sonication cycles applied to the cells, a close content of 241.19 microg gfpuv/mL (29.74 microg gfpuv/mg BSA) was obtained. The specific mass range of gfpuv released from the same cultures, by the three-phase partitioning (TPP) method, in relation to total proteins, was higher, between 107.28 microg/mg and 135.10 microg/mg. CONCLUSIONS: The selective permeation of gfpuv by freezing/thawing/sonication followed by TPP separation method was equivalent to the amount of gfpuv extracted from the cells directly by TPP; although selective permeation extracts showed better elution through the HIC column.  (+info)

Teaching target-oriented and diversity-oriented organic synthesis at Harvard University. (7/290)

Diversity-oriented synthesis presents many formidable challenges to the practitioners of synthetic organic chemistry. Those challenges include the effective teaching of this new and evolving discipline to ensure that students are well positioned to begin exploring its full potential. Fortunately, the teaching of synthetic organic chemistry has a rich history in the context of target-oriented synthesis, and this precedent can serve as a strong foundation for meeting the challenges of teaching diversity-oriented synthesis.  (+info)

Natural supramolecular building blocks. Wild-type cowpea mosaic virus. (8/290)

Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) can be isolated in gram quantities, possesses a structure that is known to atomic resolution, and is quite stable. It is therefore of potential use as a molecular entity in synthesis, particularly as a building block on the nanochemical scale. CPMV was found to possess a lysine residue with enhanced reactivity in each asymmetric unit, and thus 60 such lysines per virus particle. The identity of this residue was established by a combination of acylation, protein digestion, and mass spectrometry. Under forcing conditions, up to four lysine residues per asymmetric unit can be addressed. In combination with engineered cysteine reactivity described in the accompanying paper, this provides a powerful platform for the alteration of the chemical and physical properties of CPMV particles.  (+info)

Progress in Physical Organic Chemistry is dedicated to reviewing the latest investigations into organic chemistry that use quantitative and mathematical methods. These reviews help readers understand the importance of individual discoveries and what they mean to the field as a whole. Moreover, the authors, leading experts in their fields, offer unique and thought-provoking perspectives on the current state of the science and its future directions. With so many new findings published in a broad range of journals, Progress in Physical Organic Chemistry fills the need for a central resource that presents, analyzes, and contextualizes the major advances in the field.. The articles published in Progress in Physical Organic Chemistry are not only of interest to scientists working in physical organic chemistry, but also scientists working in the many subdisciplines of chemistry in which physical organic chemistry approaches are now applied, such as biochemistry, pharmaceutical chemistry, and materials ...
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OLD BIO. DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D , Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his PhD from ICT ,1991, Mumbai, India in Organic chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues,. Currently he is working with GLENMARKPHARMA LTD, Research centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India.. Prior to joining Glenmark, he worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi Aventis, & Searle India ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked in Basic research, Neutraceuticals, Natural products, Flavors, Fragrances, Pheromones, Vet Drugs, Drugs, formulation, GMP etc. He has total 29 yrs exp in this field, he is now helping millions, has million hits on google on all organic chemistry websites.. His New Drug Approvals , Green Chemistry International,Eurekamoments in Organic Chemistry , Organic Chemistry by Dr Anthony, WIX BLOG , ALL ABOUT DRUGS, WORLD DRUG TRACKER,MEDICINAL CHEM ...
Corrine Elliott was recognized as the American Chemical Societys Division of Organic Chemistry as the most outstanding, senior organic chemistry student at the University of Kentucky. Selection is based on aptitude for organic chemistry as evidenced by formal course work as well as research accomplishments during the course of their undergraduate studies, and lastly by a desire to pursue a career in chemistry. Elliott will receive one free year of membership as an Affiliate of ACSs Division of Organic Chemistry. Elliott, a dual mathematics and chemistry major at UK, has published numerous papers on her work in synthetic chemistry and computational chemistry under the guidance of Professors Susan Odom and Chad Risko.. ...
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OLD BIO. DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D , Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his PhD from ICT ,1991, Mumbai, India in Organic chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues,. Currently he is working with GLENMARKPHARMA LTD, Research centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India.. Prior to joining Glenmark, he worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi Aventis, & Searle India ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked in Basic research, Neutraceuticals, Natural products, Flavors, Fragrances, Pheromones, Vet Drugs, Drugs, formulation, GMP etc. He has total 29 yrs exp in this field, he is now helping millions, has million hits on google on all organic chemistry websites.. His New Drug Approvals , Green Chemistry International,Eurekamoments in Organic Chemistry , Organic Chemistry by Dr Anthony, WIX BLOG , ALL ABOUT DRUGS, WORLD DRUG TRACKER,MEDICINAL CHEM ...
Renowned for his student-friendly writing style, John McMurry introduces a new way to teach organic chemistry: ORGANIC CHEMISTRY: A BIOLOGICAL APPROACH. Traditional foundations of organic chemistry are enhanced by a consistent integration of biological examples and discussion of the organic chemistry of biological pathways. This innovative text is coupled with media integration through Organic ChemistryNow and Organic OWL, providing instructors and students the tools they need to succeed.McMurry, John is the author of Organic Chemistry + 1pass for Organic ChemistryNOW A Biological Approach, published 2006 under ISBN 9780495015253 and ISBN 0495015253. [read more] ...
Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL) is a method of instruction where each student takes an active role in the classroom. The activities contained in this collection are specially designed guided inquiry activities intended for the student to complete during class while working with a small group of peers. Each activity introduces essential organic chemistry content in a model that contains examples, experimental data, reactions, or other important information. Each activity is followed by a series of questions designed to lead the student through the thought processes that will result in the comprehension of critical organic chemistry concepts. At the end of each activity are additional questions, which will generally be completed outside of class time and are more similar to questions that might appear on exams. Before each class, students should ensure that they are familiar with the prior knowledge that is listed at the beginning of every activity.These POGIL Organic Chemistry activities
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The Russian Journal of Organic Chemistry (Zhurnal Organicheskoi Khimii) was founded in 1965. It covers all aspects of modern organic chemistry including organic synthesis, theoretical organic chemistry, structure and mechanism, and the application of organometallic compounds in organic synthesis. The journal is of interest to researchers in both scientific and industrial institutes, as well as for university libraries.. ...
Rules for naming alkynes (molecules with a carbon-carbon triple bond). Created by Jay. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/organic-chemistry/alkenes-alkynes/naming-preparation-alkynes/v/alkyne-acidity-and-alkylation?utm_source=YT&utm;_medium=Desc&utm;_campaign=organicchemistry Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/organic-chemistry/alkenes-alkynes/alkene-reactions-tutorial/v/ozonolysis-1?utm_source=YT&utm;_medium=Desc&utm;_campaign=organicchemistry Organic Chemistry on Khan Academy: Carbon can form covalent bonds with itself and other elements to create a mind-boggling array of structures. In organic chemistry, we will learn about the reactions chemists use to synthesize crazy carbon based structures, as well as the analytical methods to characterize them. We will also think about how those reactions are occurring on a molecular level with reaction mechanisms. Simply put, organic chemistry is like building with molecular Legos. Lets make some
Organic chemistry plays a central role in drug development, biotechnology, materials science, and wide range of other fields. In our daily lives, applications of organic chemistry are ubiquitous. The collection of articles featured here illustrates the broad scope and high quality of organic chemistry published in the journals of the American Chemical Society. Many of the authors of these articles will be presenting their research results at Pacifichem 2015, highlighting developments in bond activation, organocatalysis, green chemistry, supramolecular chemistry, natural products, process development, and more.. ACS Catalysis. Mechanistic Studies of Gold and Palladium Cooperative Dual-Catalytic Cross-Coupling Systems. ...
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This is a great general chemistry reaction with important organic chemistry implications. Another similar question is, why is water a base when reacted with an "acid"? The answer to both question is: its all relative! Here at StudyOrgo, we frequently get questions like this about topics in organic chemistry that are usually quickly covered, poorly described or expected that you know from previous courses. These concepts are really important to understanding the more complex topics to come. With a membership to StudyOrgo, you will get even more tips and tricks on organic chemistry topics and detailed mechanisms with explanations. Todays blog is a preview of the detailed topics and materials available. Check out a membership to StudyOrgo.com and sign up today!. Remember that in terms of acids and bases, there are two definitions; the Bronsted and Lewis definition. Bronsted acids are defined as proton donors, while Lewis acids are defined as electron acceptors. Both are acids, but what we think ...
This textbook is used by students all over the world who are shown the world of organic chemistry through excellent writing that elucidates on the theories of organic chemistry giving it logic and meaning. The copy stays focused and doesnt over elaborate but still manages to cover all the key concepts and subject matter. The illustrations and images are beautiful and inspiring, especially to the student who is unfamiliar with the mysteries of organic chemistry. The textbook is extremely helpful to students and points them to various invaluable digital resources. It is easy to see why this textbook is a bestseller around the world and you can purchase this chemistry textbook discounted in our online marketplace. John E. McMurry is the author of Organic Chemistry, published 2011 under ISBN 9780840054449 and ISBN 0840054440. [read more] ...
Dear Reader, Like a graceful multicoloured song bird our organic chemistry continues to soar into the air, I sincerely hope as well as helping you to pass your exams my organic chemistry lessons bring you an inner joy which comes from transforming your self into a person who understands the world around them in a new…
Organic chemistry is a discipline impacting every aspect of society. Examples are prevalent in the pharmaceutical and food industries, fossil and synthetic fuels, plastics, paints and textiles - to name a few. Furthermore, organic chemistry is required coursework for numerous undergraduate programs. Through this blog, ideas focused on education, industry and general organic chemistry will be discussed.
Organic chemistry is a discipline impacting every aspect of society. Examples are prevalent in the pharmaceutical and food industries, fossil and synthetic fuels, plastics, paints and textiles - to name a few. Furthermore, organic chemistry is required coursework for numerous undergraduate programs. Through this blog, ideas focused on education, industry and general organic chemistry will be discussed.
... provides students with an elementary understanding of organic chemistry in order to support study in career fields such as nursing, agricultural sciences, biology, allied health sciences and pharmacy. It was written for the shorter one-semester, or one- or two-quarter organic chemistry course at the college level.
Get information, facts, and pictures about organic chemistry at Encyclopedia.com. Make research projects and school reports about organic chemistry easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and dictionary.
The Synthesis in Organic Chemistry Symposium traditionally provides an international showcase for the core area of organic chemistry - synthesis - covering all aspects of contemporary organic synthesis and providing a forum for the ever more exciting methodologies and strategies that continue to emerge ...
Book Description Viva Books Private Limited, 2010. Paperback. Condition: New. 2nd edition. The Second Edition of Organic Chemistry maintains all the innovative features of the first edition in a sleeker, slimmer, and easier-to-navigate design. Hailed by J Chem Ed as the new wave in organic textbooks, this bookâ s mechanistic approach constructs organic chemistry from the ground up. By focusing on the points of reactivates in organic, this text allows students to approach more and more complex molecules with enhanced understanding. Also noteworthy are the biochemical examples for their variety, substance, and depth. Despite its unique emphasis on reactivity, the book facilitates easy adoption by covering organic compound classes in the traditional order. Hundreds of worked examples and student exercises combine with clear writing and sound pedagogy to make this text an exceptional choice. Contents: The Structures of Organic Molecules â ¢ Bonding in organic molecules â ¢ The conformations ...
Current Organic Chemistry aims to provide in-depth reviews on the current progress in the fields of asymmetric synthesis, organo-metallic chemistry, bioorganic chemistry, heterocyclic chemistry, natural product chemistry and analytical methods in organic chemistry. The frontier reviews provide the current state of knowledge in these fields and are written by chosen experts who are internationally known for…
An upper level organic chemistry course for Biology, Chemistry, Engineering and pre-professional program students requiring one or more semesters of organic chemistry. Topics covered include structure, synthesis, reactivity and stereochemistry of organic compounds (especially alkanes, cycloalkanes, alkyl halides, alkenes, cycloalkenes and alkynes); free radical substitution,
Electrophilic addition-Just like in football, it is easy to say that one of the players is the most important one in the game. While many (nerdy) organic chemists could have a robust debate over a pint as to which of the compound class is most valuable in the reaction, we are going to treat them all as important. In its most basic form, they are all essential in some way or another to the reactions success. Hence, we are going to start with acids and discuss all of the compound classes one by one.. Electrophiles are one of the two most important reactants in organic chemistry. As we have discussed previously on this blog, organic chemistry reactions are all about the flow of electrons, and electrophiles are the ones who want those electrons. When you think of the word "electrophile" you should think of the Greek word "Philos" which means "to love". Therefore, an electrophilic species is one that loves electrons. Easy enough, right? Since opposites attract, and the electrophile loves electrons, ...
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CHEM 51LA Organic Chemistry Laboratory Lecture (Credit Units: 2) Modern techniques of organic chemistry, using selected experiments to illustrate topics introduced in Chemistry 51A-B-C. Corequisite: Concurrent enrollment in the corresponding segment of Chemistry 51. (Design units: 0) ...
Daniel R. Bloch received a PhD in organic chemistry from the University of Illinois. He spent 30 years in the industrial world in scientific and management positions at SC Johnson and Aldrich Chemical. Dr. Bloch has held visiting professorships in chemistry at several universities, teaching at the undergraduate and graduate levels. He has over 30 publications, patents, and technical presentations. Dr. Bloch has lectured nationally and internationally. Currently he is president of Lakeshore Research, LLC, a contract consulting firm.. Description: This practical guide eases you into this sometimes-tricky subject, starting with atomic structure and mass. As you progress, you will master organic chemistry essentials such as alkanes and cycloalkanes, isomers, hydrogenation, carboxylic acids, and more. You will understand the nomenclature of compounds, as well as how to predict reactions. Detailed examples make it easy to understand the material, and end-of-chapter quizzes and a final exam help ...
I have long been a proponent of the Internet as holding the potential for revolutionizing how chemists communicate. This blog represents one of the ways that electronic communication can enhance how we exchange ideas.. This blog began as a means for me to maintain the currency of my book Computational Organic Chemistry. I realized that as soon as the book was physically printed and distributed, it was already 6 months out of date, and every subsequent day the book became that much less current. But the blog provides a mechanism for me to continuously provide updates to the book. As new articles are published, I can comment on them with the same perspective as I brought to the book.. I have been blogging now for over 5 years: almost 300 posts discussing well over 300 new articles relevant to computational organic chemistry. While the number of comments and commenters has not been particularly large, many of these comments are quite astute and there has been the occasional quite interesting ...
Current Organic Chemistry should prove to be of great interest to organic chemists in academia and industry who wish to keep abreast with recent developments in key fields of organic chemistry.
There are so many functional groups in organic chemistry that its hard to keep track of them all. Thats why Ive created this quick functional group cheat sheet to remind you of the group name/appearance. I put a lot of work into this to help you study, so please dont keep it to yourself. Click the share buttons above so that your friends can benefit too.. Need more? Watch my Organic Chemistry Functional Groups tutorial video for a detailed breakdown of groups, structures, and memory tricks. then try the Functional Groups Practice Quiz to see if youve mastered them all.. Click image below for full view. PC users hit CTRL + P to print. Mac users… sorry I dont know the print shortcut. ...
There are so many functional groups in organic chemistry that its hard to keep track of them all. Thats why Ive created this quick functional group cheat sheet to remind you of the group name/appearance. I put a lot of work into this to help you study, so please dont keep it to yourself. Click the share buttons above so that your friends can benefit too.. Need more? Watch my Organic Chemistry Functional Groups tutorial video for a detailed breakdown of groups, structures, and memory tricks. then try the Functional Groups Practice Quiz to see if youve mastered them all.. Click image below for full view. PC users hit CTRL + P to print. Mac users… sorry I dont know the print shortcut. ...
Intro to organic chemistry ( orgo ). SCH4U - Unit B. Organic Compounds. Organic chemistry: chemistry of carbon compounds Exceptions are oxides of carbon (CO 2 and CO), carbonates, bicarbonates, and cyanides Carbon atoms are generally bonded to: Each other Hydrogen atoms Slideshow...
A summary of Optical Activity in s Organic Chemistry: Stereoisomers. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Organic Chemistry: Stereoisomers and what it means. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans.
The paper summarizes our current efforts for the redesign of undergraduate organic chemistry courses at the University of South Dakota, taught to students with very different backgrounds in chemistry. The problem of keeping both top and struggling students interested is approached by the simultaneous use of a set of teaching techniques, balanced to target every student in the class. Extensive use of computer technology and continuous assessment of curriculum changes help us to make organic chemistry courses more efficient and joyful for students ...
Dr. Laurie Starkey brings her expertise in Organic Chemistry to help students learn important laboratory theory and techniques. She covers everything from melting point, distillation, and extraction, to more advanced concepts in chromatography and spectroscopy. Each lesson contains all the necessary steps to correctly assemble the apparatus and complete the experiment, followed by a comprehensive pre-lab discussion of theory, procedures, and calculations. This course is crucial for students who wish to excel in Organic Chemistry Laboratory in order to satisfy their degree or pre-medical requirements. Dr. Laurie Starkey is the author of
Introductory organic chemistry by Edgar Wertheim; 2 editions; First published in 1942; Subjects: Organic Chemistry, In library, Accessible book, Chemistry, Organic, Protected DAISY, Lending library
Experience the beauty of Organic Chemistry!. This app provides a visual approach to organic chemistry. It is not meant to replace a textbook - it should be seen as a visual aid. The molecules and reactions are just briefly described. The main focus are the numerous animations of the molecules and reactions. Currently only alkanes, alkenes and alkynes are described. You can test your knowledge through a quiz of 40 questions.. IMPORTANT: Hardware requirements - SCREEN SIZE , 3.7 inches and DUAL-CORE CPU ...
What is resonance (in organic chemistry)? In one sentence, resonance is the concept where electrons (bonds) are delocalized over three or more atoms which cannot be depicted with one simple Lewis structure.. Resonance is one of those issues that you will have to deal with for both semester I & II of organic chemistry. It is much better to have a solid understanding of it now, rather than have to worry about it later. The basic goal of resonance structures is to show that molecules can move electrons and charges onto different atoms on the molecule. Resonance generally makes a molecule more stable because the charge (or bond) is now delocalized and not "forced" onto an atom that might not want it.. Below are some handy rules of resonance. If you learn these and think about them when tackling different resonance problems, you will be able to handle whatever is thrown at you.. 1) Know each atoms "natural state". We talk about this in a different post on atoms natural state. You need to recognize ...
Module overview. This advanced module builds on level 4-6 undergraduate material to introduce the up-to-date organic chemistry that is typically carried out at research level (both industrial and academic). Organic chemistry research is dominated by synthesis and this is very much the leitmotif of this module, although the indispensible mechanistic aspects that underpin synthesis are as usual covered. There is much emphasis on strategy and critical analysis of work that is at the forefront of the topic and the application of the knowledge to real-world examples ...
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On this website, you will find an array of useful information to help you make the most of your time in the laboratory classes. The laboratory experiments are designed to help you develop the necessary basic organic chemistry laboratory skills as well as provide an introduction to useful organic spectroscopic techniques. The information and videos on this website, in conjunction with laboratory lectures and help sessions, are intended to assist you in the learning of experimental organic chemistry. ...
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This guide provides study problems, suitable for different levels of organic chemistry, all solved and fully explained. Every single step of each problem is shown in a logical and easy-to-follow format, with constant reference to theory. This book provides methods, strategies, and explanations leading students to master organic chemistry problems. This makes it an extremely valuable study support.
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Organic chemistry is not a difficult subject but does require regular study habits. It is extremely easy to get behind in this class, and once behind it is extremely difficult to catch up. You must be disciplined about your study habits. You should read the chapters ahead of time, attend lectures and note the points you have not understood. These must be clarified as soon as possible as organic chemistry is a cumulative type of subject. The use of mechanisms helps to master the material, but mechanisms should be understood rather than memorized. Cramming does not work well with this subject. Questions should be answered as soon as possible by the teaching assistants at the recitations or office hours. Problem solving is an essential part of the course and problems should be attempted before the answers are looked up. In fact I suggest that you only look at the answer book after you are sure that your answer is correct. Do not memorize the answers but try to understand them. Always read the ...
The last chapter is entirely new, and features how the techniques of computational organic chemistry, as discussed in the previous eight chapters, can be employed toward explicating enzymatic reactions. The chapter is not an in-depth survey of all of the activities in computational enzyme action - that would require its own full-length book - but rather its an overview to inspire you. The chapter begins with a brief discussion of enzymatic models, including the Pauling paradigm and Goodmans model. Then computational strategies for addressing the large molecules involved in enzymatic studies are presented including QM/MM, adiabatic mapping, and the use of some very large-scale computations as benchmarks. Next, I present two case studies: of chorismate mutase and of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). The chapter ends with a presentation of the progress in de novo design of enzymes capable of catalyzing specific reactions as developed by Baker and Houk.. ...
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Description. UCI Chem 51B Organic Chemistry (Winter 2013) Lec 22. Organic Chemistry -- Conjugation, Resonance, Diels-Alder Reactions -- Part 2 View the complete course: http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/chem_51b_organic_chemistry.html Instructor: David Van Vranken, Ph.D. License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA Terms of Use: http://ocw.uci.edu/info. More courses at http://ocw.uci.edu Description: This is the second quarter of the organic chemistry series. Topics covered include: Fundamental concepts relating to carbon compounds with emphasis on structural theory and the nature of chemical bonding, stereochemistry, reaction mechanisms, and spectroscopic, physical, and chemical properties of the principal classes of carbon compounds. This video is part of a 26-lecture undergraduate-level course titled "Organic Chemistry" taught at UC Irvine by Professor David Van Vranken. Organic Chemistry (Chem 51B) is part of OpenChem. http://ocw.uci.edu/collections/open_chemistry.html Recorded March 6, 2013. Index of ...
Description. UCI Chem 51B: Organic Chemistry (Winter 2015) Lec 17. Organic Chemistry -- Green Chemistry View the complete course: http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/chem_51b_organic_chemistry.html Instructor: Susan King, Ph.D. License: Creative Commons CC-BY-SA Terms of Use: http://ocw.uci.edu/info More courses at http://ocw.uci.edu Description: This is the second quarter of the organic chemistry series. Topics covered include: Fundamental concepts relating to carbon compounds with emphasis on structural theory and the nature of chemical bonding, stereochemistry, reaction mechanisms, and spectroscopic, physical, and chemical properties of the principal classes of carbon compounds. Organic Chemistry (Chem 51B) is part of OpenChem: http://ocw.uci.edu/collections/open_chemistry.html This video is part of a 26-lecture undergraduate-level course titled "Organic Chemistry" taught at UC Irvine by Professor Susan King. Recorded February 18, 2015 Index of Topics: 00:45 - Asymmetric Epoxidation 02:11 - Oxidative ...
Igor Kolomitsyn is an engineer in chemistry by training, with a Ph.D. in organic chemistry. He has over 15 years of experience in organic chemistry and technology, which includes the following directions of organic chemistry: organic chemistry of cage structures and terpenes, fatty acids, synthesis of biologically active compounds, chemical modification of natural products, and chemistry of chemical extractives, chemistry of peracids and peresters and mechanisms of organic reactions. He has authored 13 papers for publication in national and international organic chemistry journals and has 7 United States patents.. ...
An organic chemistry related blog post should not be titled with "d-orbitals." This is because d-orbitals are most relevant to transition metals, which are the subject of an inorganic chemistry course, not an organic chemistry course. The elements used in organic chemistry are too light to even have d-orbitals.. Secondly, I dont believe that seeing molecules in three dimensions is really necessary to succeed in a regular level organic chemistry course, mainly because I did well in organic chemistry and I cant see molecules in 3D (though the ability to see molecules in 3D certainly helps). The carbonyl and aromatic reactions dont require 3D visualization because carbonyl groups and aromatic rings are planar (e.g. Friedel Crafts reactions are aromatic ring chemistry). The Sn2 type reactions require the knowledge that the tetrahedral carbon atom flips its conformation, but thats about it. To understand steric hinderance, it does not take 3D visualization to realize that the tert-butyl group ...
The WebAssign questions for this textbook are from a collection of questions developed by Dr. Kay Sandberg, an award winning organic chemistry instructor at North Carolina State University. These questions, covering the main topics in organic chemistry, have been correlated as closely as possible to the appropriate chapters in this textbook. This independent question collection provides a more secure solution to online homework for organic chemistry, since most organic chemistry textbook questions have detailed solutions published in the accompanying student solution guide. However, because these questions were not originally written for this textbook, it is recommended that you check each assigned problem to see if the material required for completing the question has been covered in your class. The question set has been extensively class-tested in large enrollment courses at NC State ...
of organic compounds. Introduction to organic synthesis. Three hours of laboratory per week. Fee required.. CHE 312 Organic Chemistry II (3).. Prerequisites: CHE 310, CHE 311; Corequisite: CHE 313.. A continuation of CHE 310 with emphasis on aromatic systems. Introduction to spectroscopy. Structures and reactions of organic compounds containing oxygen and nitrogen.. CHE 313 Organic Chemistry Laboratory II (2).. Prerequisites: CHE 310, CHE 311; Corequisite: CHE 312.. Organic synthesis, introduction to spectros copy. Qualitative organic analysis. Six hours of laboratory per week. Fee required.. CHE 316 Survey of Organic Chemistry (3).. Prerequisite: CHE 112; Corequisite: CHE 317.. Structure and properties of aliphatic and aromatic compounds. Stereochemistry and functional group chemistry. Oriented toward life sciences and related areas.. CHE 317 Survey of Organic Chemistry Laboratory (1).. Corequisite: CHE 316.. Basic purification processes and techniques of separation of mixtures. Preparation of ...
CHE 310 Organic Chemistry I (4).. Prerequisites: CHE 112; concurrent enrollment in CHE 311.. Systematic study of organic compounds, with emphasis on molecular structure and reaction mechanisms; stereochemistry; aliphatic compounds.. CHE 311 Organic Chemistry Laboratory I (1).. Prerequisite: Concurrent enrollment in CHE 310.. Techniques of separation and purification of organic compounds. Introduction to organic synthesis. Three hours of laboratory per week. Fee required.. CHE 312 Organic Chemistry II (3).. Prerequisites: CHE 310, CHE 311; concurrent enrollment in CHE 313.. A continuation of CHE 310 with emphasis on aromatic systems. Introduction to spectroscopy. Structures and reactions of organic compounds containing oxygen and nitrogen.. CHE 313 Organic Chemistry Laboratory II (2).. Prerequisites: CHE 310, CHE 311; concurrent enrollment in CHE 312.. Organic synthesis, introduction to spectros copy. Qualitative organic analysis. Six hours of laboratory per week. Fee required. Three hours of ...
The areas of research in the Department of Organic Chemistry include synthetic and mechanistic organic and organometallic chemistry, novel reactions for organic synthesis, bond activation by metal complexes, polymeric reagents and catalysis. Bioorganic chemistry includes the studies of plant antiviral agents, the molecular mechanism of action of rhodopsin, artificial ion carriers and molecular sensors. Biological chemistry includes studies on structure,function, and mode of action of biologically active peptides and proteins; thermophilic enzymes; enzymes involved in DNA repair, DNA and RNA processing; studies of ordered, compact states of nucleic acids; and biomedical applications of EPR and NMR. Computational chemistry deals with the prediction of molecular properties by first principles (ab initio) and semiempirical quantum mechanical calculations... ...
Organic Chemistry (8th Edition) answers to Chapter 2 - Structure and Properties of Organic Molecules - Problems Problem 2-17 f including work step by step written by community members like you. Textbook Authors: Wade Jr., L. G., ISBN-10: 0321768418, ISBN-13: 978-0-32176-841-4, Publisher: Pearson
Research at Organic Chemistry can in rough outline be divided in two directions: organic synthesis and analysis. Topical interests in the synthesis direction…
OK it is this time of year again, and time to teach organic chemistry to the first year chem eng students. Now before we get going I want to tell you a story about a man and his wife who wake up one morning in a world where organic compounds have suddenly stopped existing and doing…
askiitians provides free study material on organic chemistry and this section covers Chirality and Stereogenic Centers along with many illustrations which will help you to understand the concept in a better manner
Get this from a library! Organic chemistry from retrosynthesis to asymmetric synthesis. [Vitomir Šunjić; Vesna Petrović Peroković] -- This book connects a retrosynthetic or disconnection approach with synthetic methods in the preparation of target molecules from simple, achiral ones to complex, chiral structures in the optically ...
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OLD BIO. DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D , Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his PhD from ICT ,1991, Mumbai, India in Organic chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues,. Currently he is working with GLENMARKPHARMA LTD, Research centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India.. Prior to joining Glenmark, he worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi Aventis, & Searle India ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked in Basic research, Neutraceuticals, Natural products, Flavors, Fragrances, Pheromones, Vet Drugs, Drugs, formulation, GMP etc. He has total 29 yrs exp in this field, he is now helping millions, has million hits on google on all organic chemistry websites.. His New Drug Approvals , Green Chemistry International,Eurekamoments in Organic Chemistry , Organic Chemistry by Dr Anthony, WIX BLOG , ALL ABOUT DRUGS, WORLD DRUG TRACKER,MEDICINAL CHEM ...
OLD BIO. DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D , Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his PhD from ICT ,1991, Mumbai, India in Organic chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues,. Currently he is working with GLENMARKPHARMA LTD, Research centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India.. Prior to joining Glenmark, he worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi Aventis, & Searle India ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked in Basic research, Neutraceuticals, Natural products, Flavors, Fragrances, Pheromones, Vet Drugs, Drugs, formulation, GMP etc. He has total 29 yrs exp in this field, he is now helping millions, has million hits on google on all organic chemistry websites.. His New Drug Approvals , Green Chemistry International,Eurekamoments in Organic Chemistry , Organic Chemistry by Dr Anthony, WIX BLOG , ALL ABOUT DRUGS, WORLD DRUG TRACKER,MEDICINAL CHEM ...
Organic Chemistry Portal A one-pot synthesis of N-alkylaminobenzenes from nitroaromatics: reduction followed by reductive amination using B10H14 Jong Woo Bae, Young Jin Cho, Seung Hwan Lee ... ...
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Most carbon-containing compounds are organic chemicals and are addressed by the subject of organic chemistry Carbon atoms in organic compounds bond with each other in straight chains, branched chains and rings. In addition to single bonds, carbon atoms may be joined by double, and even triple, bonds.
A very rare opportunity has been bestowed into me to work in three different facets of organic chemistry: total synthesis, methodology, and medicinal chemistry. While this intensive experience has certainly assisted me to become a better scientist, there are still many more tasks for me to accomplish. Still, I am confident that my PhD training has prepared me to embark upon the world ahead.; In chapter 1 of this thesis, I will describe the synthetic progress of two subunits, which can be coupled to make a macrolide called Palmerolide A, a bioactive molecule targeting melanoma (i.e. skin cancer). The synthesis of the first subunit is almost complete and it proceeds without significant deviation from the originally proposed scheme. The synthesis of the second subunit is halfway complete. Sensitive functional groups in the second subunit have made it more challenging to complete this piece of Palmerolide A.; A major challenge faced in the preparation of Palmerolide A was the macrocyclization step. ...
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Organic chemistry. Organic Compounds. Organic Compounds - any covalently bonded compound containing carbon except carbonates CO 3 - , carbon monoxide CO, carbon dioxide CO 2 and acetates C 2 H 3 O 2 -. A. Organic Nomenclature. General Characteristics of Organic Molecules. Slideshow 2884972 by marcin
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The Chemistry of Carbon Number of carbon-containing compounds are very high - Why? 1) Carbon can form (up to 4) stable covalent bonds with other carbon atoms 2) Carbon atoms can form stable bonds with other elements (oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, halogens) 3) Carbon can form double and triple bonds with other carbon atoms to form various organic compounds with different properties
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Advanced Level Theoretical Organic Chemistry Revision Notes on REDOX reactions involving organic oxidation and reduction synthesis-preparations. Reactions involving the oxidation or reduction of the starting reactant molecules and the chemistry of the appropriate oxidising agents and reducing reagents is described and discussed.
What is butyl acetate, and what is it used for? From a database of frequently asked questions from the Introduction to organic chemistry section of General Chemistry Online.
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OLD BIO. DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D , Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his PhD from ICT ,1991, Mumbai, India in Organic chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues,. Currently he is working with GLENMARKPHARMA LTD, Research centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India.. Prior to joining Glenmark, he worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi Aventis, & Searle India ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked in Basic research, Neutraceuticals, Natural products, Flavors, Fragrances, Pheromones, Vet Drugs, Drugs, formulation, GMP etc. He has total 29 yrs exp in this field, he is now helping millions, has million hits on google on all organic chemistry websites.. His New Drug Approvals , Green Chemistry International,Eurekamoments in Organic Chemistry , Organic Chemistry by Dr Anthony, WIX BLOG , ALL ABOUT DRUGS, WORLD DRUG TRACKER,MEDICINAL CHEM ...
CHEM 51B Organic Chemistry (Credit Units: 4) Fundamental concepts relating to carbon compounds with emphasis on structural theory and the nature of chemical bonding, stereochemistry, reaction mechanisms, and stereoscopic, physical, and chemical properties of the principal classes of carbon compounds. Corequisite: CHEM M52LB for Chemistry majors or CHEM H52LB or CHEM 51LB for other majors. . Prerequisite: CHEM 51A and CHEM 1LD and CHEM M52LA or CHEM H52LA. CHEM 51A with a grade of C- or better. CHEM 1LD with a grade of C- or better. . Majors in the Schools of Physical Sciences, Biological Sciences, and Engineering, and majors in Nursing Science, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Public Health Sciences, and Undecided/Undeclared students have first consideration for enrollment. Only one course from CHEM 51B, CHEM H52B may be taken for credit. (Design units: 0) ...
Current Organic Chemistry should prove to be of great interest to organic chemists in academia and industry who wish to keep abreast with recent de...
Goals: To further develop the theoretical concepts of organic chemistry and develop plausible synthetic and mechanistic pathways. Content: Mechanisms associated with elimination, electrophilic substitution, electrophilic addition, free radical reactions, and pericyclic reactions. Chemistries of alkenes, alkynes, aromatics, pericyclic compounds, polymers, proteins and carbohydrates including reactions of intermediary metabolism. Taught: Annually, spring. Prerequisite: CHEM 3450 (grade of C- or better). Credits: 4 credits
In GCSE chemistry, students will look at organic compounds. These are naturally occurring chemicals which include both carbon and hydrogen atoms. Did you know that the methane molecule is the simplest hydrocarbon? What else did you learn in Year 10 and Year 11? Revise organic chemistry in this quiz.
UCI Chem 51C Organic Chemistry (Spring 2012) Lec 03. Organic Chemistry -- Reactions of Organometallic Reagents -- Instructor: James S. Nowick, Ph.D. This is the third quarter course in the organic chemistry series. Topics covered include: Fundamental concepts relating to carbon compounds with emphasis on structural theory and the nature of chemical bonding, stereochemistry, reaction mechanisms, and spectroscopic, physical, and chemical properties of the principal classes of carbon compounds. Organic Chemistry 51C is part of OpenChem. Index of Topics: -1:36 Ketone/Aldehyde Reduction -5:56 Grignard Reagents -12:31 Polarity of Grignard Reagent -16:01 Basicity of Grignard Reagent -19:22 Grignard Reagents and Water/Alcohol -21:32 Organolithium Reagent -25:50 Acetylide Anions -34:07 Making Acetylide Anion -38:29 Reactivity of the Carboxylic Acid Family -44:56 Addition-Elimination Reaction -48:12 Examples of Carboxylic Acid Reduction -53:29 Multiple Additions onto Carboxylic Acids -59:50 Leaving Groups -1:08
LEC MWF 10:10-11:00am DIS Th 3:34-4:25pm S341 Organic Chemistry I Lectures, Honors (3 cr.) N & M P: S117, S106 or S118, or consent of instructor. For students with unusually good aptitude or preparation. Chemistry of carbon compounds. Nomenclature; qualitative theory of valence; structure and reactions. Syntheses and reactions of major classes of monofunctional compounds. Credit given for only one of C341, S341, or R340 ...
OLD BIO. DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D , Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his PhD from ICT ,1991, Mumbai, India in Organic chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues,. Currently he is working with GLENMARKPHARMA LTD, Research centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India.. Prior to joining Glenmark, he worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi Aventis, & Searle India ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked in Basic research, Neutraceuticals, Natural products, Flavors, Fragrances, Pheromones, Vet Drugs, Drugs, formulation, GMP etc. He has total 29 yrs exp in this field, he is now helping millions, has million hits on google on all organic chemistry websites.. His New Drug Approvals , Green Chemistry International,Eurekamoments in Organic Chemistry , Organic Chemistry by Dr Anthony, WIX BLOG , ALL ABOUT DRUGS, WORLD DRUG TRACKER,MEDICINAL CHEM ...
Organic chemistry is a discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds that contain carbon.
OLD BIO. DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D , Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his PhD from ICT ,1991, Mumbai, India in Organic chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues,. Currently he is working with GLENMARKPHARMA LTD, Research centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India.. Prior to joining Glenmark, he worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi Aventis, & Searle India ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked in Basic research, Neutraceuticals, Natural products, Flavors, Fragrances, Pheromones, Vet Drugs, Drugs, formulation, GMP etc. He has total 29 yrs exp in this field, he is now helping millions, has million hits on google on all organic chemistry websites.. His New Drug Approvals , Green Chemistry International,Eurekamoments in Organic Chemistry , Organic Chemistry by Dr Anthony, WIX BLOG , ALL ABOUT DRUGS, WORLD DRUG TRACKER,MEDICINAL CHEM ...
Asian Journal of Organic Chemistry: Special Issue on Photoredox Catalysis This Special Issue is published together with the European Journal of Organic Chemistry as a virtual issue, showcasing the current state of the art in the field of photoredox catalysis. In an introductory Essay, Guest Editor Burkhard König reflects on the history and development of photoredox catalysis as...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Erratum. T2 - Poly(tertiary phosphines and arsines). 17. Poly(tertiary phosphines) containing terminal neomethyl groups as ligands in asymmetric homogeneous hydrogenation catalysts (Journal of Organic Chemistry (1979) 44, (3096)). AU - King, R. B.. AU - Bakos, J.. AU - Hoff, C. D.. AU - Markó, L.. PY - 1981. Y1 - 1981. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=33845557797&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=33845557797&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:33845557797. VL - 46. SP - 2603. JO - Journal of Organic Chemistry. JF - Journal of Organic Chemistry. SN - 0022-3263. IS - 12. ER - ...
... is an international multidisciplinary peer-reviewed journal covering all fundamental and applied research areas of chemical sciences including organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, synthetic chemistry, medicinal chemistry, analytical chemistry, organometallic chemistry, nuclear chemistry, electrochemistry, atmospheric chemistry, environmental chemistry, materials chemistry, materials science, supramolecular chemistry, physical chemistry, polymer chemistry, bioinorganic chemistry, physical organic chemistry, surface chemistry, biochemistry, molecular biology, chemical biology, food chemistry, natural product chemistry, neurochemistry, pharmacology, photochemistry, photobiology, toxicology, nanoscience, nanotechnology, agrochemistry, green chemistry, marine chemistry, geochemistry, petrochemistry, radiochemistry, astrochemistry, molecular physics, chemical engineering, quantum chemistry, and theoretical and computational chemistry. The journal publishes full research ...
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The School of Chemistry is one of the 27 academic institutions that are part of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). The School carries out research activities in the fields of biochemistry, analytical chemistry, organic chemistry, physical chemistry, food chemistry, biotechnology, metallurgy, chemical engineering, pharmacy, inorganic chemistry, nuclear chemistry, theoretical chemistry and theoretical physics. The School is organized into 12 scientific departments and 4 units. The School of chemistry also offers five 4.5-year undergraduate degrees: Chemical engineering Metallurgical chemical engineering Chemistry Pharmacological biochemistry Food chemistry Most of the Schools buildings are located in the main campus of UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria (University City, south Mexico City), while two more external campuses are also part of the School, the External Complex of Tacuba (Conjunto Externo de Tacuba), in Tacuba, west Mexico City, and the Sisal Foreign Station (Estación ...
Faculty: Associate Professor Jackman, Chair; Associate Professor Deneault, Associate Chair of Physics; Associate Professors Ballard, Carastro, Evans-Nguyen, Hendrix, Werner, Witherow; Assistant Professors Bronikowski, Crosby, Del Valle, Kennedy, Longstreet, Masserini, Murray, Perry, Schuler, Sode, Struss, Theodore, Wilson; Instructors Henchey, Morris.. Degrees offered: B.S. in chemistry, ACS-certified; B.S. in chemistry; B.A. in chemistry; B.S. in biochemistry, ASBMB-accredited; B.S. in chemistry with biochemistry concentration, ACS-certified; B.A. in biochemistry; B.S. in forensic science; B.S. in marine chemistry; B.S. in chemistry (biochemistry)/MBA; B.S. in physics. Minors in chemistry and physics are also offered.. The Department offers chemistry, biochemistry, forensic science and marine chemistry students a solid foundation in the five major areas of chemistry: analytical chemistry, biochemistry, inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry and physical chemistry. Research projects, publishing ...
The detection of complex cyanides in the protoplanetary disk around the young star MWC 480, and the similarity of their abundance ratios to those found in comets, implies that the rich organic chemistry of our solar nebula was not unique. The idea that comets once seeded the early Earth with the water and organics needed for life to originate has been widely discussed. This raises the question of whether the composition of comets - a reliable indicator of the composition of the solar nebula - is unique to the Solar System or commonly accompanies planet formation. Here Karin Öberg et al. report the detection of cyanides - CH3CN, HC3N and HCN - in the protoplanetary disk around the young star MWC 480, an analogue to the solar nebula. The abundance ratios of these nitrogen-bearing organics in the gas-phase are similar to those in comets, implying that complex organics accompany simpler volatiles in protoplanetary disks, and that the prebiotic chemistry present in the young Solar System is not unique.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Secondary organic aerosol from VOC mixtures in an oxidation flow reactor. AU - Ahlberg, Erik. AU - Falk, John. AU - Eriksson, Axel. AU - Holst, Thomas. AU - Brune, William Henry. AU - Kristensson, Adam. AU - Roldin, Pontus. AU - Svenningsson, Birgitta. PY - 2017/1/1. Y1 - 2017/1/1. N2 - The atmospheric organic aerosol is a tremendously complex system in terms of chemical content. Models generally treat the mixtures as ideal, something which has been questioned owing to model-measurement discrepancies. We used an oxidation flow reactor to produce secondary organic aerosol (SOA) mixtures containing oxidation products of biogenic (α-pinene, myrcene and isoprene) and anthropogenic (m-xylene) volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The resulting volume concentration and chemical composition was measured using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), respectively. The SOA mass yield of the mixtures was compared ...
Abstract. The partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds between the gas phase and aerosol particles is an important source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Gas-particle partitioning of organic and inorganic species is influenced by the physical state and water content of aerosols, and therefore ambient relative humidity (RH), as well as temperature and organic loading levels. We introduce a novel combination of the thermodynamic models AIOMFAC (for liquid mixture non-ideality) and EVAPORATION (for pure compound vapor pressures) with oxidation product information from the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM) for the computation of gas-particle partitioning of organic compounds and water. The presence and impact of a liquid-liquid phase separation in the condensed phase is calculated as a function of variations in relative humidity, organic loading levels, and associated changes in aerosol composition. We show that a complex system of water, ammonium sulfate, and SOA from the ozonolysis of ...
Metal carbonyls in coordination chemistry are usually studied using infrared spectroscopy.. Organic and main group chemistry[ ... "Organic Syntheses.. ; Collective Volume, 2, p. 583. *^ Brauer, Georg (1963). Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry Vol. 1 ... Priestley's late objections to the new system of chemistry," Journal of Natural Philosophy, Chemistry and the Arts [a.k.a. ... "Organic Syntheses.. ; Collective Volume, 5, p. 20. *^ a b Coleman, G. H.; Craig, David (1943). "p-Tolualdehyde". ...
Organic chemistry[edit]. As a hard base, water reacts readily with organic carbocations; for example in an hydration reaction, ... A commonly quoted value of 15.7 used mainly in organic chemistry for the pKa of water is incorrect.[11][12] ... Riddick, John (1970). Organic Solvents Physical Properties and Methods of Purification. Techniques of Chemistry. Wiley- ... International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (2005-11-22). Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry: IUPAC Recommendations 2005 ...
Organic chemistry[edit]. In organic chemistry 4-methoxyphenol is used as a polymerisation inhibitor (e.g. acrylates or styrene ... Mequinol, MeHQ or 4-methoxyphenol, is a phenol used in dermatology[1] and organic chemistry.[2] ... Current Organic Chemistry. 17 (10): 1108-1113. doi:10.2174/1385272811317100011.. *^ US 4933504A, Correale, Mariano; Pietro ... Hudnall, Phillip M. "Hydroquinone". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007. ...
... is a term used in organic chemistry. The prefixes "cis" and "trans" are from Latin. In the context of chemistry, cis indicates ... Organic chemistry[edit]. When the substituent groups are oriented in the same direction, the diastereomer is referred to as cis ... Advanced Organic Chemistry, Reactions, Mechanisms and structure (3rd ed.). p. 111. ISBN 0-471-85472-7.. ... "Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry. Michigan State University. Retrieved 7 April 2015.. ...
Organic chemistry[edit]. Deuterium oxide is often used as the source of deuterium for preparing specifically labelled ... Deuterium Isotope Effects in Chemistry and Biology". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 84: 736-744. Bibcode:1960NYASA ... "The Journal of Physical Chemistry. 98 (3): 728-733. doi:10.1021/j100054a002. Retrieved 29 December 2014.. ... Kotz, John; Teichel, Paul; Townsend, John (2008). Chemistry and Chemical Reactivity, Volume 1 (7th ed.). Cengage Learning. p. ...
Organic chemistry[edit]. Some synthetic macromolecules, such as catenanes and rotaxanes, dendrimers and hyperbranched polymers ... In polymer chemistry MALDI can be used to determine the molar mass distribution.[56] Polymers with polydispersity greater than ... Wu, K. J.; Odom, R. W. (1998). "Characterizing synthetic polymers by MALDI MS". Analytical Chemistry. 70 (13): 456A-461A. doi: ... Sekiya, S.; Wada, Y.; Tanaka, K. (2005). "Derivatization for Stabilizing Sialic Acids in MALDI-MS". Analytical Chemistry. 77 ( ...
Organic chemistry[edit]. Neutral methylene complexes undergo different chemical reactions depending on the pi character of the ... The correct prediction of this angle was an early success of ab initio quantum chemistry.[8]) However conversion to a linear ... Methylene (systematically named methylidene, and dihydridocarbon), also called carbene is an organic compound with the chemical ... Milan Lazár (1989), Free radicals in chemistry and biology. CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-5387-4 ...
Organic chemistry[edit]. When the substituent groups are oriented in the same direction, the diastereomer is referred to as cis ... Cis-trans isomerism, also known as geometric isomerism or configurational isomerism, is a term used in organic chemistry. The ... Advanced Organic Chemistry, Reactions, Mechanisms and structure (3rd ed.). p. 111. ISBN 0-471-85472-7.. ... "Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry. Michigan State University. Retrieved 7 April 2015.. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font ...
Clayden, Jonathan; Greeves, Nick; Warren, Stuart; Wothers, Peter (2000). Organic Chemistry. Oxford University Press. p. 1291. ... It plays an important role in multistep organic synthesis. In many preparations of delicate organic compounds, some specific ... in practical terms in organic synthesis their use adds two synthetic steps (protection-deprotection sequence) to a chemical ...
... are called organic compounds.[35] The study of their properties is known as organic chemistry[36] and their study in the ... "Organic Chemistry". Dictionary.com. Lexico Publishing Group. 2008. Retrieved 23 March 2008.. ... "organic" in chemistry.[35] Millions of hydrocarbons are known, and they are usually formed by complicated synthetic pathways ... "Chemistry: A Volatile History. 25:40 minutes in. BBC. BBC Four.. *^ "Hydrogen Basics - Production". Florida Solar Energy Center ...
Clayden; Greeves; Warren (2001). Organic chemistry. Oxford University Press. p. 129. ISBN 978-0-19-850346-0.. ... Ethers are common in organic chemistry and even more prevalent in biochemistry, as they are common linkages in carbohydrates ... Ethers are a class of organic compounds that contain an ether group-an oxygen atom connected to two alkyl or aryl groups. They ... Wilhelm Heitmann, Günther Strehlke, Dieter Mayer "Ethers, Aliphatic" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry Wiley- ...
Maitland, Jr Jones (1998). Organic Chemistry. W W Norton & Co Inc (Np). p. 139. ISBN 978-0-393-97378-5. .. .mw-parser-output ... Paltauf F (December 1994). "Ether lipids in biomembranes". Chemistry and Physics of Lipids. 74 (2): 101-39. doi:10.1016/0009- ... Brunmark A, Cadenas E (1989). "Redox and addition chemistry of quinoid compounds and its biological implications". Free Radical ... Chemistry and Physics of Lipids. 106 (1): 1-29. doi:10.1016/S0009-3084(00)00128-6. PMID 10878232.. ...
Jones, Jr., Maitland (2005). Organic Chemistry. New York: W.W Norton & Company. p. 715.. ... Since the compound is a suitable solvent for many organic molecules, it is often used to bind cosmetics and fragrances.[5] ...
Leffek, Kenneth T. (1996). Sir Christopher Ingold: A Major Prophet of Organic Chemistry. Nova Lion Press. ISBN 0-9680674-0-9.. ... Ingold, C. K. (1953). Structure and Mechanism in Organic Chemistry. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014- ... In 1924, Ingold moved to the University of Leeds where he spent six years as Professor of Organic Chemistry. He returned to ... Ingold is regarded as one of the chief pioneers of physical organic chemistry.[3][4][5] ...
The alpha carbon (Cα) in organic molecules refers to the first carbon atom that attaches to a functional group, such as a ... The α-carbon is important for enol- and enolate-based carbonyl chemistry as well. Chemical transformations affected by the ... Organic molecules with more than one functional group can be a source of confusion. Generally the functional group responsible ...
Organic Chemistry. 7th ed. Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole, 2008. Print.. External links[edit]. Look up monosaccharide in ... "Chemistry for Biologists. Royal Society of Chemistry. Retrieved 10 March 2017.. *^ Pigman, William Ward; Anet, E. F. L. J. ( ... "Chemistry for Biologists. Royal Society of Chemistry. Retrieved 10 March 2017.. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style: ... The Carbohydrates: Chemistry and Biochemistry Vol 1A (2nd ed.). San Diego: Academic Press. pp. 165-194.. ...
Organic derivatives[edit]. Main article: Organoscandium chemistry. Scandium forms a series of organometallic compounds with ... Scandium triflate is sometimes used as a Lewis acid catalyst in organic chemistry. ... Scandium triflate is a catalytic Lewis acid used in organic chemistry.[50] ... a b Hammond, C. R. in CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 85th ed., Section 4; The Elements. ...
... in Organic Chemistry.[32][33] At the time, there were no institutions or facilities at which a PhD in chemistry could be done ... where he studied organic chemistry at the University of Sydney's School of Chemistry and from which he graduated with a ... "How the Cornforths started out in chemistry". University of Sydney, School of Chemistry. Retrieved 1 July 2017.. ... "Nobel Laureates - Chemistry". The University of Sydney.. *^ a b c "Notable Old Girls - History of St George Girls High School ...
"Organic Syntheses.. ; Collective Volume, 5, p. 412. *^ Clayden; Greeves; Warren (2001). Organic chemistry. Oxford University ... Ethers are common in organic chemistry and even more prevalent in biochemistry, as they are common linkages in carbohydrates ... Ethers (/ˈiːθər/) are a class of organic compounds that contain an ether group-an oxygen atom connected to two alkyl or aryl ... Wilhelm Heitmann, Günther Strehlke, Dieter Mayer "Ethers, Aliphatic" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry Wiley- ...
Organic Chemistry Frontiers. 1 (1): 15-33. doi:10.1039/c3qo00024a.. *^ Takimoto, C. H.; Calvo, E. (2008). "Chapter 3: ... Topics in Current Chemistry. 279. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 25-52. doi:10.1007/128_2007_130. ISBN 9783540728795.. ... Cooper, Raymond; Deakin, Jeffrey John (2016). "Africa's gift to the world". Botanical Miracles: Chemistry of Plants That ... Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 52 (1): 134-142. doi:10.1021/jm801064y. PMID 19072542.. ...
Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry. 16 (8): 1263-1271. doi:10.1039/c7ob03017g. PMID 29308815.. ... "Nature Chemistry. 7 (4): 301-7. Bibcode:2015NatCh...7..301P. doi:10.1038/nchem.2202. PMC 4568310. PMID 25803468.. CS1 maint: ... "Nature Chemistry. 7 (4): 301-7. Bibcode:2015NatCh...7..301P. doi:10.1038/nchem.2202. PMC 4568310. PMID 25803468.. ... Orgel LE (2004). "Prebiotic chemistry and the origin of the RNA world". Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology ...
Organic-chemistry.org. Retrieved on 2014-01-11. *^ Fuson, R. C.; Weinstock, H. H.; Ullyot, G. E. (1935). "A New Synthesis of ... March's Advanced Organic Chemistry (Wiley, 2001) (. ISBN 0-471-58589-0) *^ Grzybowski, M.; Skonieczny, K.; Butenschön, H.; ... Experimental Organic Chemistry: A Miniscale and Microscale Approach[permanent dead link]. Brooks/Cole CENGAGE Learning, 2011. ... Smith, Michael B.; March, Jerry (2007), Advanced Organic Chemistry: Reactions, Mechanisms, and Structure (6th ed.), New York: ...
Palleros DR (2000). Experimental organic chemistry. New York: John Wiley & Sons. p. 494. ISBN 978-0-471-28250-1.. ... 2011). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (92nd ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. p. 3.8. ISBN 1439855110.. ... Jones A (2015). Chemistry: An Introduction for Medical and Health Sciences. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 5-6. ISBN 978-0-470-09290-3. ... "General chemistry online: FAQ: Acids and bases: What is the buffer system in buffered aspirin?". Antoine.frostburg.edu. ...
Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry. 2 (19): 2701-6. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.626.8241. doi:10.1039/B411910J. PMID 15455136.. ... This cannot be done with traditional organic chemistry. Other reactions[edit]. Many other deoxyribozymes have since been ... "Chemistry & Biology. 21 (9): 1059-65. doi:10.1016/j.chembiol.2014.07.008. PMC 4171699. PMID 25237854.. ... Other uses of DNA in chemistry are in DNA-templated synthesis, Enantioselective catalysis,[43] DNA nanowires and DNA computing. ...
Schorlemmer, Carl (1874). A Manual of the Chemistry of the Carbon compounds; or, Organic Chemistry. London.. .mw-parser-output ... Indigo as an organic semiconductor[edit]. Indigo and some of its derivatives are known to be ambipolar organic semiconductors ... a b c d Elmar Steingruber "Indigo and Indigo Colorants" Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2004, Wiley-VCH, ... Indigo dye is an organic compound with a distinctive blue color (see indigo). Historically, indigo was a natural dye extracted ...
"The Journal of Organic Chemistry. 65 (16): 4900-4908. doi:10.1021/jo000214z.. ... "The Journal of Physical Chemistry B. 118 (10): 2670-2682. doi:10.1021/jp412600e. ISSN 1520-6106. PMC 3983342. PMID 24506488.. ... A reevaluation of the mechanism of cellular uptake". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (1): 585-90. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... For instance, sulfur from the QD shell is able to form reversible disulfide bonds with a wide class of organic compounds.[78][ ...
B. S. Furnell in drugi (1989). Vogel's Textbook of Practical Organic Chemistry. 5. izdaja. New York: Longman/Wiley. ... J. March (1992). Advanced Organic Chemistry, 4. izdaja. Wiley, New York. Str. 723. ... H. J. Reich, J. H. Rigby, urednika (1999). Handbook of Reagents for Organic Synthesis: Acidic and Basic Reagents. Wiley, New ... 2001). Inorganic Chemistry. (1 izd.). San Diego [etc.] : Academic Press ; Berlin ; New York : De Gruyter, cop. COBISS 24318981 ...
546 Inorganic chemistry. *547 Organic chemistry. *548 Crystallography. *549 Mineralogy. *550 Earth sciences & geology *550 ...
... outstanding achievements in the art of organic synthesis." (http://nobelprize.org/chemistry/laureates/1965/index.html). 1965 ... 1902 Emil Fischer won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. He is considered as the founder of the science of carbohydrate chemistry. ... 1987 Donald J. Cram (d.2001 at 82) won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for synthesizing molecules that mimicked some chemistry ... Prize in Chemistry for their discoveries in the chemistry of transuranium elements beginning with plutonium, the first element ...
... chemistry, physics, peace, physiology, medicine, Nobel prize winners wiki. ... The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2002:. "for the development of methods for identification and structure analyses of biological ... "for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis". The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2005: ...
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1910. Otto Wallach. "in recognition of his services to organic chemistry and the chemical industry ... "in recognition of his services in the advancement of organic chemistry and the chemical industry, through his work on organic ... The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1990. Elias James Corey. "for his development of the theory and methodology of organic synthesis" ... The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1923. Fritz Pregl. "for his invention of the method of micro-analysis of organic substances" ...
Find info about Lourdes College organic chemistry lab, registering in a technical degree program, and taking free practice ... Chemistry. Cell Biology - Test 1. Cell Biology - Test 2. Industrial Chemistry 1. Industrial Chemistry 2. Industrial Chemistry 3 ... Majoring in organic chemistry can give you an advantage in job recruiting after graduation. Check with the chemistry department ... Lourdes College organic chemistry lab. Get Course Information.. Find schools and get information on the program thats right ...
HaverFord.edu, Organic Chemistry Lectures, Videos and Text. *Organic-Chemistry.org, Organic Chemistry Portal - Recent Abstracts ... Organic chemistry is the chemistry subdiscipline for the scientific study of structure, properties, and reactions of organic ... The study of organic chemistry overlaps organometallic chemistry and biochemistry, but also with medicinal chemistry, polymer ... At Wikiversity, you can learn more and teach others about Organic chemistry at the Department of Organic chemistry. ...
Welcome to the University of Alberta Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Website!. On this website, you will find an ... The laboratory experiments are designed to help you develop the necessary basic organic chemistry laboratory skills as well as ... Lab manuals, lab coats and safety glasses can be purchased from the Organic Chemistry Store Room (W1-32). ... are intended to assist you in the learning of experimental organic chemistry. ...
The international publication of high quality organic chemistry research of synthetic, physical and biomolecular organic ... Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry (OBC) publishes original and high impact research and reviews in organic chemistry. ... Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry. Organic synthesis, supramolecular chemistry, chemical biology and more. On average get a ... supramolecular and macromolecular chemistry, theoretical chemistry, mechanism-oriented physical organic chemistry, medicinal ...
Chemistry for a Better Future. Explore our special collection of literature to help tackle global grand challenges! ... Cutting-Edge Organic Synthesis and Chemical Biology of Bioactive Molecules. Kobayashi, Y. (Ed.) (2019) ... Cherish the 150-year history of modern chemistry with Springer! Enjoy exploring our special site & get new insights into the ... The Art of Writing Reasonable Organic Reaction Mechanisms. Grossman, R.B. (2019) ...
Progress in the Chemistry of Organic Natural Products 108. Kinghorn, A.D. (et al.) (Eds.) (2019) ... Chemistry for a Better Future. Explore our special collection of literature to help tackle global grand challenges! ... Cherish the 150-year history of modern chemistry with Springer! Enjoy exploring our special site & get new insights into the ...
... editors highlight new Articles they see as particularly interesting or important in the area of organic chemistry and chemical ... The aim is to provide a snapshot of some of the most exciting work published in the area of organic chemistry and chemical ... Welcome to the Nature Communications Editors Highlights webpage on organic chemistry and chemical biology. Each month our ... Giovanni Bottari handles synthetic organic chemistry, more specifically catalytic and non-catalytic methodologies and total ...
Organic Synthesis By Dr. Vartkes Migrdichian. Vol. 1: Open-Chain Saturated Compounds. Pp. xxviii + 834. Vol. 2: Open-Chain ... Organic Synthesis. By Dr. Vartkes Migrdichian. Vol. 1: Open-Chain Saturated Compounds. Pp. xxviii + 834. Vol. 2: Open-Chain ... READ, J. Guides to Organic Chemistry. Nature 181, 515-516 (1958). https://doi.org/10.1038/181515b0 ...
Pages in category "Organic chemistry stubs". The following 200 pages are in this category, out of approximately 260 total. This ... This category is for stub articles relating to organic chemistry. You can help by expanding them. To add an article to this ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Organic_chemistry_stubs&oldid=546526505" ...
Organic Mesoscopic Chemistry focuses on organic molecular systems and outlines the most dynamic areas of research. The book ... As a result mesoscopic chemistry has become one of the most exciting areas of scientific research. ... demonstrates clearly that in the 21st Century mesoscopic chemistry will not only be central to the chemical sciences but will ... The combination of new laser and microscopical techniques has stimulated major advances in space-resolved chemistry in the ...
No sign-ups and no forms to fill out, just clean pages of chemistry tests in various topics to practice on. ... Take a multiple-choice organic chemistry test for free. ... Organic Chemistry 1a - Test 1. 1. The chief constituent of ... Chemistry. Engineering. Computers. Math. English. Job Listings. Salary Data. Find Resumes. Post Jobs. ...
Given the dearth of new antibacterial drugs and the facile evolution of microbial resistance, some fear that we have entered the "post-antibiotic era." Our research focuses on both the development and application of new technologies to explore the mechanisms of bacterial growth and pathogenesis and the identification of potential therapeutic agents. We are particularly interested in generating tools for the study of two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs), which are commonly used by bacteria to couple environmental stimuli to adaptive responses through gene regulation. They contribute to many critical bacterial functions, including virulence, resistance mechanisms, and survival, making the TCS proteins potential drug targets. The high degree of homology in the ATP-binding site of histidine kinases, a critical player in TCSs, suggests that appropriately designed compounds could serve as probes for the global profiling of TCS activities. Progress towards this goal will be ...
Timothy R. Newhouse, Assistant Professor of Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Yale University ...
3. Advanced Practical Organic Chemistry 1 1 Introduction Organic chemistry is the branch of chemistry in whichcovalent carbon ... 62 Advanced Practical Organic Chemistry * 65. Advanced Practical Organic Chemistry 63 4 The StructureMaking StructuresC-H Bond ... 4. 2 Advanced Practical Organic Chemistry Organic chemistry is all around us, life is based on organicchemistry, the clothes we ... Organic chemistry is the study of the properties of thecompounds of carbon that are organic. All carbon compoundsexcept for a ...
... Home Many peoples conception of Organic Chemistry, involves the phrase "It takes a lot of memorizing." On ... After having taken Organic Chemistry 1 and 2 at the University, I found that Organic Chemistry really is the knowledge of what ... Common Atoms in Organic Chemistry Now, here is a listing of the common atoms that are encountered in Orgo. It is a atom-by-atom ... The first thing needed as a foundation for the study of Organic Chemistry, is the knowledge of the structure of the atom. Once ...
The Chemistry of Organic Selenium and Tellurium Compounds, Volume 4, Parts 1 and 2 Set Zvi Rappoport, Joel F. Liebman, Ilan ... Patais Chemistry of Functional Groups Remove applied facet Patais Chemistry of Functional Groups ... The Chemistry of Peroxides, Volume 3 Joel F. Liebman, Alexander Greer, Zvi Rappoport, Ilan Marek, Saul Patai ... The Chemistry of Organogold Compounds, 2 Volume Set Zvi Rappoport, Ilan Marek, Joel F. Liebman, Saul Patai ...
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amino acids, biology, life, non-organic, organic chemistry, organisms, protocell, unnatural, vitalism ... In the early days of chemistry, organic molecules were thought to require a living source. Then Friedrich Wohler synthesized ... Working on metal-based life could lead to the discovery of completely non-organic life. Inorganic chemical reactions could form ...
Animal Chemistry Or, Organic Chemistry in its Applications to Physiology and Pathology. Liebig, Justus Gregory, William ... Organic Chemistry in its Applications to Agriculture and Physiology Liebig, Justus Published: Not yet published - available ... Receive email alerts on new books, offers and news in Organic chemistry. ... Modern Methods of Organic Synthesis textbook Carruthers, W. Coldham, Iain Published: October 2004Published: November 2006. 4th ...
A good book is Organic Chemistry by Paula Bruice, however, just about all of the organic chemistry textbooks are the same. Used ... Do not buy ANY OTHER MODEL KIT, in particular, the Prentice Hall Molecular Model Set For Organic Chemistry (or other kits like ... Quiz #2 will be a chemistry quiz.. To see Quiz #1, Click HERE. Do not try to submit Quiz #1 until the Submit Quiz link opens, ...
All lectures and review sessions are recorded and posted here as a link to the Screencast site. You can download each lecture using the topmost download link in the Content Details panel below the recording. Each lecture file is ca. 80MB, the entire course, with review sessions, will use ca. 5GB of disk space.. ...
Get a full overview of Studies in Organic Chemistry Book Series. Most recent Volume: New Frontiers in Screening for Microbial ... Organic Chemistry in Action Published: 9th May 1996 Authors: F. Serratosa J. Xicart ...
  • Although Wöhler himself was cautious about claiming he had disproved vitalism, this was the first time a substance thought to be organic was synthesized in the laboratory without biological (organic) starting materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • It shows the interrelation between organic chemistry and the biological and health sciences, making it easy to understand by students. (merlot.org)
  • Anyone with a curiosity about life and living things, and anyone who wants to be a part of the remarkable advances now occurring in medicine and the biological sciences , must first understand organic chemistry. (wikiquote.org)
  • Biological chemistry such as DNA/RNA and genome sequencing will be introduced. (abdn.ac.uk)
  • The laboratory experiments are designed to help you develop the necessary basic organic chemistry laboratory skills as well as provide an introduction to useful organic spectroscopic techniques. (google.com)
  • Careers in the field of chemistry range from applied science in industrial settings, to academic research and laboratory development. (organic-chemistry-lab.com)
  • Welcome to the University of Alberta Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Website! (google.com)
  • The information and videos on this website, in conjunction with laboratory lectures and help sessions, are intended to assist you in the learning of experimental organic chemistry. (google.com)
  • Laboratory extractions for the semi-volatile organics tests can take nine to twelve hours to perform. (nmhealth.org)
  • A crucial breakthrough for organic chemistry was the concept of chemical structure, developed independently in 1858 by both Friedrich August Kekulé and Archibald Scott Couper . (wikipedia.org)
  • Welcome to the Nature Communications Editors' Highlights webpage on organic chemistry and chemical biology. (nature.com)
  • The aim is to provide a snapshot of some of the most exciting work published in the area of organic chemistry and chemical biology at Nature Communications . (nature.com)
  • Johannes Kreutzer handles manuscripts on chemical soft matter and advanced organic functional materials. (nature.com)
  • The book demonstrates clearly that in the 21st Century mesoscopic chemistry will not only be central to the chemical sciences but will be at the hub of a wide area of interdisciplinary research. (google.com)
  • This weekly seminar series brings national and international leaders in the diverse fields of fundamental and applied organic chemistry, including many aspects of chemical biology and drug design. (washington.edu)
  • Within organic chemistry, Wageningen Food & Biobased Research uses both chemical catalysts and biocatalysts to develop efficient new routes to existing and new chemicals. (wur.nl)
  • No organic chemist, however brilliant, understands the detailed chemical working of the human mind or body very well. (wikiquote.org)
  • This is the first semester in a two-semester introductory course focused on current theories of structure and mechanism in organic chemistry, their historical development, and their basis in experimental observation. (chemistry2011.org)
  • Such studies provide theoretical and practical frameworks to understand how changes in structure in solution or solid-state contexts impact reaction mechanism and rate for each organic reaction of interest. (wikipedia.org)
  • So the first step to enlightenment in organic chemistry is to realize the key role that functional groups play in simplifying the subject, and the second step is to learn the functional groups by name, structure, and formula. (wikiquote.org)
  • Dr Pike said: "Mathematics tests set in England by many universities for undergraduate chemistry students in their first term to diagnose remedial requirements are disconcertingly simple. (zdnet.com)
  • Ask any science major to name the toughest class they've had to complete in order to get into medical school or finish their undergraduate degree and, more than likely, the answer will be introductory organic chemistry. (ucsd.edu)
  • But as the first undergraduate classes began arriving at the campus and Perrin came back from a sabbatical to find his teaching schedule switched to the introductory organic chemistry course, his reputation as an undergraduate educator grew. (ucsd.edu)
  • Key ideas pivotal to Students' development in organic chemistry are further reinforced in end of topic practice problems which will help students to practice and test their knowledge. (merlot.org)
  • Readers continue to turn to Klein's Organic Chemistry as a Second Language: First Semester Topics, 4th Edition because it enables them to better understand fundamental principles, solve problems, and focus on what they need to know to succeed. (issuu.com)
  • Two-cycle organic chemistry is a non-traditional sequence for presenting material in a two-semester organic chemistry course. (goshen.edu)
  • Students majoring in Biology and Environmental Science, who are only required to take one semester of organic chemistry, receive a far more appropriate body of material than if they had only covered the first half of the text book. (goshen.edu)
  • To understand and achieve a practical mastery of organic chemistry requires an evaluation of interacting, and often competing principles and factors. (merlot.org)
  • Their honest and open narrative flags pitfalls and misconceptions, guiding the reader towards a complete picture of organic chemistry and its universal themes and principles. (nii.ac.jp)