Click Chemistry: Organic chemistry methodology that mimics the modular nature of various biosynthetic processes. It uses highly reliable and selective reactions designed to "click" i.e., rapidly join small modular units together in high yield, without offensive byproducts. In combination with COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES, it is used for the synthesis of new compounds and combinatorial libraries.Chemistry, Clinical: The specialty of ANALYTIC CHEMISTRY applied to assays of physiologically important substances found in blood, urine, tissues, and other biological fluids for the purpose of aiding the physician in making a diagnosis or following therapy.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Chemistry, Organic: The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Clinical Chemistry Tests: Laboratory tests demonstrating the presence of physiologically significant substances in the blood, urine, tissue, and body fluids with application to the diagnosis or therapy of disease.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Chemistry, Analytic: The branch of chemistry dealing with detection (qualitative) and determination (quantitative) of substances. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Combinatorial Chemistry Techniques: A technology, in which sets of reactions for solution or solid-phase synthesis, is used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Dental Materials: Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Blood Chemical Analysis: An examination of chemicals in the blood.Alkynes: Hydrocarbons with at least one triple bond in the linear portion, of the general formula Cn-H2n-2.Nobel PrizeChemistry Techniques, Synthetic: Methods used for the chemical synthesis of compounds. Included under this heading are laboratory methods used to synthesize a variety of chemicals and drugs.Green Chemistry Technology: Pollution prevention through the design of effective chemical products that have low or no toxicity and use of chemical processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances.Organic Chemistry Phenomena: The conformation, properties, reaction processes, and the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds.Chemistry Techniques, Analytical: Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.Dental Impression Materials: Substances used to create an impression, or negative reproduction, of the teeth and dental arches. These materials include dental plasters and cements, metallic oxide pastes, silicone base materials, or elastomeric materials.Chemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Evolution, Chemical: Chemical and physical transformation of the biogenic elements from their nucleosynthesis in stars to their incorporation and subsequent modification in planetary bodies and terrestrial biochemistry. It includes the mechanism of incorporation of biogenic elements into complex molecules and molecular systems, leading up to the origin of life.Cyclization: Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Manufactured Materials: Substances and materials manufactured for use in various technologies and industries and for domestic use.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Azides: Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.Biochemistry: The study of the composition, chemical structures, and chemical reactions of living things.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Extraterrestrial Environment: The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cosmic Dust: Finely divided solid matter with particle sizes smaller than a micrometeorite, thus with diameters much smaller than a millimeter, moving in interplanetary space. (NASA Thesaurus, 1994)Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Nanostructures: Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.Biomimetic Materials: Materials fabricated by BIOMIMETICS techniques, i.e., based on natural processes found in biological systems.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Teaching Materials: Instructional materials used in teaching.Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Construction Materials: Supplies used in building.Biogenesis: The origin of life. It includes studies of the potential basis for life in organic compounds but excludes studies of the development of altered forms of life through mutation and natural selection, which is BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION.Photoelectron Spectroscopy: The study of the energy of electrons ejected from matter by the photoelectric effect, i.e., as a direct result of absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation. As the energies of the electrons are characteristic of a specific element, the measurement of the energy of these electrons is a technique used to determine the chemical composition of surfaces.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Silanes: Compounds similar to hydrocarbons in which a tetravalent silicon atom replaces the carbon atom. They are very reactive, ignite in air, and form useful derivatives.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Organic Chemistry Processes: The reactions, changes in structure and composition, the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds, and the associated energy changes.Silicon Dioxide: Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Silicates: The generic term for salts derived from silica or the silicic acids. They contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals, and may contain hydrogen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th Ed)Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Glass: Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.Astronomy: The science concerned with celestial bodies and the observation and interpretation of the radiation received in the vicinity of the earth from the component parts of the universe (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Copper: A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Carbonates: Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Coated Materials, Biocompatible: Biocompatible materials usually used in dental and bone implants that enhance biologic fixation, thereby increasing the bond strength between the coated material and bone, and minimize possible biological effects that may result from the implant itself.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Organometallic Compounds: A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Composite Resins: Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.Porosity: Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Quantum Theory: The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in definite quantities called quanta (E) which vary in size and are defined by the equation E=hv in which h is Planck's constant and v is the frequency of the radiation.Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Resins, Synthetic: Polymers of high molecular weight which at some stage are capable of being molded and then harden to form useful components.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Photochemical Processes: Chemical reactions effected by light.Polymerization: Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).Exobiology: The interdisciplinary science that studies evolutionary biology, including the origin and evolution of the major elements required for life, their processing in the interstellar medium and in protostellar systems. This field also includes the study of chemical evolution and the subsequent interactions between evolving biota and planetary evolution as well as the field of biology that deals with the study of extraterrestrial life.Enzymes: Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.Titanium: A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)Metals: Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Acrylic ResinsBiomimetics: An interdisciplinary field in materials science, ENGINEERING, and BIOLOGY, studying the use of biological principles for synthesis or fabrication of BIOMIMETIC MATERIALS.Hydrogels: Water swollen, rigid, 3-dimensional network of cross-linked, hydrophilic macromolecules, 20-95% water. They are used in paints, printing inks, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Solar System: The group of celestial bodies, including the EARTH, orbiting around and gravitationally bound by the sun. It includes eight planets, one minor planet, and 34 natural satellites, more than 1,000 observed comets, and thousands of lesser bodies known as MINOR PLANETS (asteroids) and METEOROIDS. (From Academic American Encyclopedia, 1983)Biological Products: Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.Ceramics: Products made by baking or firing nonmetallic minerals (clay and similar materials). In making dental restorations or parts of restorations the material is fused porcelain. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Wettability: The quality or state of being wettable or the degree to which something can be wet. This is also the ability of any solid surface to be wetted when in contact with a liquid whose surface tension is reduced so that the liquid spreads over the surface of the solid.Metal Nanoparticles: Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Zirconium: Zirconium. A rather rare metallic element, atomic number 40, atomic weight 91.22, symbol Zr. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Gold: A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.Graphite: An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Radiochemistry: The study of the chemical and physical phenomena of radioactive substances.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Methacrylates: Acrylic acids or acrylates which are substituted in the C-2 position with a methyl group.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Fullerenes: A polyhedral CARBON structure composed of around 60-80 carbon atoms in pentagon and hexagon configuration. They are named after Buckminster Fuller because of structural resemblance to geodesic domes. Fullerenes can be made in high temperature such as arc discharge in an inert atmosphere.Biosensing Techniques: Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.Drug Discovery: The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.Silicon: A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Autoanalysis: Method of analyzing chemicals using automation.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Coordination Complexes: Neutral or negatively charged ligands bonded to metal cations or neutral atoms. The number of ligand atoms to which the metal center is directly bonded is the metal cation's coordination number, and this number is always greater than the regular valence or oxidation number of the metal. A coordination complex can be negative, neutral, or positively charged.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Meteoroids: Any solid objects moving in interplanetary space that are smaller than a planet or asteroid but larger than a molecule. Meteorites are any meteoroid that has fallen to a planetary surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Palladium: A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Biology: One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.Amines: A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Dendrimers: Tree-like, highly branched, polymeric compounds. They grow three-dimensionally by the addition of shells of branched molecules to a central core. The overall globular shape and presence of cavities gives potential as drug carriers and CONTRAST AGENTS.Sulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.Polyurethanes: A group of thermoplastic or thermosetting polymers containing polyisocyanate. They are used as ELASTOMERS, as coatings, as fibers and as foams.Laboratories: Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Nanomedicine: The branch of medicine concerned with the application of NANOTECHNOLOGY to the prevention and treatment of disease. It involves the monitoring, repair, construction, and control of human biological systems at the molecular level, using engineered nanodevices and NANOSTRUCTURES. (From Freitas Jr., Nanomedicine, vol 1, 1999).Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Elastic Modulus: Numerical expression indicating the measure of stiffness in a material. It is defined by the ratio of stress in a unit area of substance to the resulting deformation (strain). This allows the behavior of a material under load (such as bone) to be calculated.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Electrons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.Hematologic Tests: Tests used in the analysis of the hemic system.Tensile Strength: The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Dimethylpolysiloxanes: Silicone polymers which consist of silicon atoms substituted with methyl groups and linked by oxygen atoms. They comprise a series of biocompatible materials used as liquids, gels or solids; as film for artificial membranes, gels for implants, and liquids for drug vehicles; and as antifoaming agents.Small Molecule Libraries: Large collections of small molecules (molecular weight about 600 or less), of similar or diverse nature which are used for high-throughput screening analysis of the gene function, protein interaction, cellular processing, biochemical pathways, or other chemical interactions.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Microscopy, Atomic Force: A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Microscopy, Scanning Tunneling: A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a very sharp conducting needle is swept just a few angstroms above the surface of a sample. The tiny tunneling current that flows between the sample and the needle tip is measured, and from this are produced three-dimensional topographs. Due to the poor electron conductivity of most biological samples, thin metal coatings are deposited on the sample.Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Silicones: A broad family of synthetic organosiloxane polymers containing a repeating silicon-oxygen backbone with organic side groups attached via carbon-silicon bonds. Depending on their structure, they are classified as liquids, gels, and elastomers. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)Hardness: The mechanical property of material that determines its resistance to force. HARDNESS TESTS measure this property.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Hydrocarbons, Cyclic: Organic compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen forming a closed ring that may be either alicyclic or aromatic.Ecotoxicology: The study of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION and the toxic effects of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS on the ECOSYSTEM. The term was coined by Truhaut in 1969.PhotochemistryOxides: Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.PolyvinylsPolystyrenes: Polymerized forms of styrene used as a biocompatible material, especially in dentistry. They are thermoplastic and are used as insulators, for injection molding and casting, as sheets, plates, rods, rigid forms and beads.Calcium Carbonate: Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Semiconductors: Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.Physics: The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Color: The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Aluminum Silicates: Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Mechanical Phenomena: The properties and processes of materials that affect their behavior under force.Clinical Laboratory Techniques: Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.Alkenes: Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)Siloxanes: Silicon polymers that contain alternate silicon and oxygen atoms in linear or cyclic molecular structures.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Cross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.Polyvinyl Chloride: A polyvinyl resin used extensively in the manufacture of plastics, including medical devices, tubing, and other packaging. It is also used as a rubber substitute.Nanocomposites: Nanometer-scale composite structures composed of organic molecules intimately incorporated with inorganic molecules. (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechology Terms, 4th ed)Prostheses and Implants: Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Sulfur Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Elements: Substances that comprise all matter. Each element is made up of atoms that are identical in number of electrons and protons and in nuclear charge, but may differ in mass or number of neutrons.Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission: The spectrometric analysis of fluorescent X-RAYS, i.e. X-rays emitted after bombarding matter with high energy particles such as PROTONS; ELECTRONS; or higher energy X-rays. Identification of ELEMENTS by this technique is based on the specific type of X-rays that are emitted which are characteristic of the specific elements in the material being analyzed. The characteristic X-rays are distinguished and/or quantified by either wavelength dispersive or energy dispersive methods.Polyesters: Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.Halogens: A family of nonmetallic, generally electronegative, elements that form group 17 (formerly group VIIa) of the periodic table.Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Chemical Processes: The reactions and interactions of atoms and molecules, the changes in their structure and composition, and associated energy changes.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Silicone Elastomers: Polymers of silicone that are formed by crosslinking and treatment with amorphous silica to increase strength. They have properties similar to vulcanized natural rubber, in that they stretch under tension, retract rapidly, and fully recover to their original dimensions upon release. They are used in the encapsulation of surgical membranes and implants.Polymethyl Methacrylate: Polymerized methyl methacrylate monomers which are used as sheets, moulding, extrusion powders, surface coating resins, emulsion polymers, fibers, inks, and films (From International Labor Organization, 1983). This material is also used in tooth implants, bone cements, and hard corneal contact lenses.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Nanotubes, Carbon: Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.Methylmethacrylates: The methyl esters of methacrylic acid that polymerize easily and are used as tissue cements, dental materials, and absorbent for biological substances.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Glass Ionomer Cements: A polymer obtained by reacting polyacrylic acid with a special anion-leachable glass (alumino-silicate). The resulting cement is more durable and tougher than others in that the materials comprising the polymer backbone do not leach out.Spectrum Analysis, Raman: Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Calcium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.Volcanic Eruptions: The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The duplicated departments of Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics were merged, and Materials Science was already a joint ... "BP Pledges $100 Million to UK-Led Universities to Create Industry-Changing Materials". Archived from the original on August 15 ... It spans a range of "discipline areas" consisting of the Schools of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science; Chemistry; ... known as the BP International Centre for Advanced Materials (BP-ICAM). BP-ICAM is modelled on a "hub and spoke" structure, with ...
Chemistry; materials; glassmaking: Arabic manuscript on the manufacture of false gemstones and diamonds. Also describes spirits ... 801 - 873 Chemistry: Al-Kindi writes on the distillation of wine as that of rose water and gives 107 recipes for perfumes, in ... 854 - 930 Chemistry, medicine: Al-Razi wrote on Naft (naphta or petroleum) and its distillates in his book "Kitab sirr al-asrar ... 957 Chemistry: Abul Hasan Ali Al-Masudi, wrote on the reaction of alkali water with zaj (vitriol) water giving sulfuric acid. ...
Materials chemistry[edit]. Strands of an uncharged ferrocene-substituted polymer are tethered to a hydrophobic silica surface. ... "Trends in Organometallic Chemistry. Research Trends. 4: 147-169.. *^ Werner, H. (2008). Landmarks in Organo-Transition Metal ... it can be argued that it was ferrocene's discovery that began organometallic chemistry as a separate area of chemistry. It also ... 2005). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. p. 3.258. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5. .. ...
... the chemistry of new molecular assemblies, the chemistry of organic-inorganic hybrid materials, and the processing of advanced ... Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering[edit]. The IMCE consists of four divisions engaged in a wide variety of ... The soft materials are increasingly indispensable in our daily lives. Since surfaces and interfaces of soft materials"( soft ... Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) ...
Chemistry: An Arabic manuscript written in Syriac script gives description of various chemical materials and their properties ... Chemistry; materials; glassmaking: Arabic manuscript on the manufacture of false gemstones and diamonds. Also describes spirits ... 801 - 873 Chemistry: Al-Kindi writes on the distillation of wine as that of rose water and gives 107 recipes for perfumes, in ... 957 Chemistry: Abul Hasan Ali Al-Masudi, wrote on the reaction of alkali water with zaj (vitriol) water giving sulfuric acid. ...
Fahlman, B. D. (2011). Materials Chemistry. Berlin, Germany: Springer. Schwoerer, M.; Wolf, H. C. (2007). Organic Molecular ... when the molecules partake in ion-radical chemistry and 2) when the solids are doped with atoms, molecules, or materials. A ... Chemistry Vol (1 and 2). FK Publications. p. 548. ISBN 81-88597-83-X. Holleman, Arnold F; Wiberg, Egon; Wiberg, Nils (1985). " ... Chemistry Vol (1 and 2). FK Publications. p. 550. ISBN 81-88597-83-X. K (2011). "Ab initio electronic structure of solid ...
Materials Chemistry. Springer. "History of Lobster Fishing and Processing". Pictou-Antigonish Regional Library. The Lobster ...
Materials Chemistry. Springer. 18 March 2011. ISBN 9789400706934. "Writing Chairs" (PDF). Gregory Le Fever. American ...
Materials Chemistry. 17 (30): 3141-3153. doi:10.1039/b706547g. ... Conjugated materials can in many cases absorb visible light ... A further advantage claimed for CMP materials is the ability to derivatize them with a wide range of functional groups. CMPs ... Pores can be filled with inorganic materials, such as TiO2, for applications in photovoltaics. They can be processed to serve ... Conjugated microporous polymers (CMPs) are a sub-class of porous materials that are related to structures such as zeolites, ...
Materials Science : 117. *Chemistry : 235. *Biology, Biochemistry : 307. Political Role[edit]. UT's central mosque has been a ... nano-materials, nanoscale optics, nanoantennas and miniaturized antennas, physics and reverse-engineering of polarization ... ", "High-Performance Materials", "Control and Intelligent Processing", "Sustainable Management of Watershed", "Applied ...
Surface chemistry of polymers can also be modified for specific applications. The most common polymers used in bio-MEMS include ... Missing or empty ,title= (help) Voldman, Joel (2003). "Bio-MEMS: Building with cells". Nature Materials. 2 (7): 433-434. doi: ... The interdisciplinary nature of bio-MEMS combines material sciences, clinical sciences, medicine, surgery, electrical ... high material and processing costs make silicon-based bio-MEMS less economically attractive. In vivo, silicon-based bio-MEMS ...
Chemistry of Materials. 20 (11): 3629. doi:10.1021/cm703657k. ...
Chemistry of Materials. 18 (24): 5643-5645. doi:10.1021/cm0615525. Retrieved 25 October 2017. van Blaaderen, Alfons; Ruel, Rene ... August 2001). "Materials Science Aspects of Photonic Crystals" (PDF). MRS Bulletin: 608-612. Retrieved 25 October 2017. ... As of 2001, Wiltzius became Director of the Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology and Professor of Materials ... Braun, Paul V.; Wiltzius, Pierre (9 December 1999). "Microporous materials: Electrochemically grown photonic crystals". Nature ...
Goodenough, John B.; Kim, Youngsik (9 February 2010). "Challenges for Rechargeable Li Batteries". Chemistry of Materials. 22 (3 ...
Chemistry of Materials. 8 (3): 642-649. doi:10.1021/cm9503083. MUNNINGS, C; SKINNER, S.; AMOW, G.; WHITFIELD, P.; DAVIDSON, I ... Perovskites may be structured in layers, with the above ABO 3 structure separated by thin sheets of intrusive material. ... Many different cations can be embedded in this structure, allowing for the development of diverse engineered materials. The ...
Schaak, R.E.; Mallouk, T.E. (2002). "Perovskites by Design: A Toolbox of Solid-State Reactions". Chemistry of Materials. 14: ... chimie douce or soft chemistry solid-state technique has been utilized to synthesize this class of material. These soft ... Wells, A.F. (1984). Structural Inorganic Chemistry. Oxford: Clarendon. p. 602. ISBN 0-19-855370-6. Ruddlesden, S.N.; Popper, P ... chemistry solid-state techniques include ion-exchange reactions of layered perovskites, ion exchange reactions involving ...
Fahlman, Bradley D. (2011-03-18). Materials chemistry (2. ed.). Dordrecht [u.a.]: Springer. ISBN 978-94-007-0692-7. "Non- ... The secondary materials in scrap are vital to the metallurgy industry, as the production of new metals often needs them. Some ... Material selection for a mechanical or structural application requires some important considerations, including how easily the ... Non-ferrous scrap metals are sourced from industrial scrap materials, particle emissions and obsolete technology (for example, ...
Chemistry of Materials. 24 (17): 3380-3392. doi:10.1021/cm301444p. Bag, S.; Gaudette, A.F.; Bussell, M.E; Kanatzidis, M.G (2009 ... "New Sponge-like Material Can Remove Mercury From Water, Separate Hydrogen From Other Gases And Pull Sulfur Out Of Crude Oil". ... The chalcogels are made with the approach and belong to a different class of materials. The method used is based on the ... When the gels are dried aerogels with high surface areas are obtained and the materials have multifunctional nature. For ...
Chemistry of Materials. 18 (10): 2520-2531. doi:10.1021/cm0524446. Elschenbroich, C.; Salzer, A. (2006). Organometallics: A ... Priestley's late objections to the new system of chemistry," Journal of Natural Philosophy, Chemistry and the Arts [a.k.a. ... Royal Society of Chemistry. p. 243. ISBN 1-84755-915-8. White, James Carrick; et al. (1989). Global climate change linkages: ... Fownes, George (1869). A Manual of elementary chemistry. H.C. Lea. p. 678. Katz, Allen I.; Schiferl, David; Mills, Robert L. ( ...
Chemistry of Materials. 11 (10): 2760. doi:10.1021/cm990160d. Inoue, Y (1996). "Synthetic inorganic ion exchange materials XLI ... Ion exchange properties of cubic tantalic acid (HTaO3)". Materials Research Bulletin. 31 (6): 691. doi:10.1016/0025-5408(96) ...
Chemistry of Materials. 20 (21): 6657-6665. doi:10.1021/cm801423r. Retrieved 8 June 2013. Huff, Terry; Ling Tong; Yan Zhao; ... When encapsulating hydrophobic or potentially toxic materials it is important that the encapsulant remain intact while inside ... At molecular weights between 6 thousand and 10 thousand Daltons the Rf-PEG hydrogel acts as a Maxwell material, which means the ... Measuring the Viscoelastic Behaviour of Soft Materials" (PDF). G.I.T. Laboratory. 3 (4): 68-70. Rubinstein, M.; A.V. Dobrynin ( ...
Ghidu, Michael (2016). "Ion-Exchange and Cation Solvation Reactions in Ti3C2 MXene". Chemistry of Materials. 28: 3507-3514. doi ... The material has been found to be 'clay-like': as seen in clay materials (e.g. smectite clays and kaolinite), Ti3C2Tx ... In materials science, MXenes are a class of two-dimensional inorganic compounds. These materials consist of few atoms thick ... Chemistry of Materials. 26 (7): 2374-2381. doi:10.1021/cm500641a. Ghidiu, M.; Lukatskaya, M.R.; Zhao, M.-Q.; Gogotsi, Y.; ...
Chemistry of Materials. 16 (22): 4273-4285. doi:10.1021/cm048829q. ISSN 0897-4756. Lee, Theresa A.; Stanek, Christopher R.; ... MEMPRO Materials. "Ceria Zirconia Mixed Metal Oxide". Yashima, Masatomo; Arashi, Haruo; Kakihana, Masato; Yoshimura, Masahiro ( ... Trovarelli, Alessandro (1996). "Catalytic Properties of Ceria and CeO2-Containing Materials". Catalysis Reviews. 38 (4): 439- ... Journal of Materials Research. 23 (04): 1105-1112. Bibcode:2008JMatR..23.1105L. doi:10.1557/jmr.2008.0143. ISSN 0884-2914. Grau ...
Chemistry of Materials. 17: 6246-6255. doi:10.1021/cm050886b. Csákberényi-Malasics, D., Rodriguez-Blanco, J.D., Kovács Kis, V ... doi:10.1016/S0009-2541(99)00199-0. Rickard, D.T.; Morse, J.W. (2005). "Acid volatile sulfide (AVS)". Marine Chemistry. 97: 141- ... Vaughn, D.J.; Craig, J.R. (1978). Mineral chemistry of metal sulfides. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521214890. Rickard, D. ... Mullet, M.; Boursiquot, S.; Abdelmoula, M.; Génin, J.-M.; Ehrhardt, J.-J. (2002). "Surface chemistry and structural properties ...
Laine, Richard M. (1993). "Preceramic polymer routes to silicon carbide". Chemistry of Materials. 5: 260. doi:10.1021/ ... Many compound materials exhibit polymorphism, that is they can exist in different structures called polymorphs. Silicon carbide ... This description is not unique to SiC, but also applies to other binary tetrahedral materials, such as zinc oxide and cadmium ... doi:10.1016/0038-1098(91)90590-R. A Brief History of Silicon Carbide Dr J F Kelly, University of London Material Safety Data ...
Find this book in the Cape Libraries Automated Materials Sharing (CLAMS) catalog ...
These nanometre-scale materials, with diameters comparable to the size of individual biomolecules, offer the advantage of high ... For reproduction of material from NJC: [Original citation] - Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) ... For reproduction of material from PPS: [Original citation] - Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) ... Reproduced material should be attributed as follows: * For reproduction of material from NJC: Reproduced from Ref. XX with ...
In this course we look at how materials work and develop an understanding of how and why the use of materials has developed ... The thread of ideas, links the structure and bonding of different types of materials including metals, composites, polymers and ... Material science is the study of all the materials we see in the world around us. From the clothes we wear and the dinner ... smart materials to their properties. Taking these links further forms an important element of the course as we journey from the ...
... (MCD). We are open to all RSC members and provide a society wide grouping for members working in ... the interdisciplinary field of Materials Chemistry. We promote Materials Chemistry as a key area that underpins many ... Materials Chemistry Division In Focus. We recognise those who are advancing excellence across the chemical sciences. From ... Why not find out more about some of the things that we are doing to support and champion Materials Chemistry. ...
... Building Helix, STW 3.33 Het Kranenveld 14 P.O. Box 513 5600 MB Eindhoven T:. +31 (0)40 247 3045 ... Enabling and Accelerating C-H Functionalization Through Continuous-Flow Chemistry Read more Information Days Bachelors ... CLIB membership for Chemical Engineering and Chemistry 6 December 2017 More articles ...
The Chemistry and Materials Engineering Intern is available to students pursuing a degree in chemistry or chemical engineering ...
Inorganic & Materials Chemistry. Inorganic & Materials Chemistry The following staff are responsible for research in the ... Lanthanide Chemistry and Inorganic Materials Chemistry. He is part of a Science Foundation Ireland (SFI) funded (€4.2 million) ... The Materials Chemistry and Analysis Group (MCAG) focus on developing chemical methods for synthesising and assembling ... Gillian is a researcher in the Materials Chemistry and Analysis Group. Her current research focuses on the synthesis of noble ...
... the mechanisms of biological materials formation processes and to apply the underlying principles in bioinspired materials ... Materials and Interf.... Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Materials and Interface Chemistry The mission of our ... Hence, these biological materials form an important source of inspiration for materials chemistry where the rational synthesis ... Biological Materials Chemistry. We explore the principles of biological materials formation by investigating the biological ...
EurekAlert! is an online science news service featuring health, medicine, science and technology news from leading research institutions and universities. Sponsored by AAAS, the science society.
Department of Chemistry. University of York, Heslington, York, YO10 5DD, UK Tel: work +44 (0)1904 322511 ... Renewable Materials. Renewable resources are gaining increasing importance as a viable alternative for petroleum-derived ... Biorenewable materials, especially low-value and underutilised bio-waste streams, represent an important feedstock for the ... In addition, the use of by-products or waste materials from more conventional processes or agricultural operations is greening ...
Chemistry of Materials. Funder. National Science Foundation, Welch Foundation for Chemical Research, Department of Energy ... At the right concentration, thiol-ene molecules infiltrate the polymer material and form a mesh that makes the entire material ... Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences A fragment of a single strand of DNA, built of the ... Advanced Functional Materials. Funder. National Science Foundation, Science and Technology Planning Project of Sichuan Province ...
Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters. Funder. Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Japan Society for the Promotion of ... The simplicity and versatility of the processing method, which uses non-toxic, abundant materials, makes bismuth sulfide a ... This research could lead to powerful investigative tools for material scientists and may have applications in fusion power ...
... chemistry and chemical engineering, mechanical engineering, optics, physics, sensors, drug discovery and development, energy ... SRI International meets important client needs in materials science, ... SRI solves emerging challenges in sustainability, green chemistry, polymers, chemical synthesis, and analytical chemistry. From ...
The Strange Matter traveling exhibit teaches kids about the amazing world of modern materials and materials science. The ... This website hosts a video series exploring the chemistry of common objects in our world and the changes they undergo. NBC ... As part of their Adventures in Chemistry section, there are activities, games, puzzles and articles that cover a variety of ... To delve deeper into the world of chemistry, there are: additional videos, including current and archival news stories related ...
Establishing networks between materials technologies. Improving the links between areas of materials expertise and industry. ... Creating new uses for established materials. Finding new applications for the huge variety of materials at our disposal. ... The recent emphasis on the role of science in the economy has only further emphasised that materials science, and its key ... The group administers the Beilby Medal and Prize in rotation with the Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining (IOM3) and ...
We design materials with specific useful properties by synthesizing and understanding how the composition and structure of the ... Materials chemistry focuses on the rational synthesis of novel functional materials using a large array of existing and new ... new materials influence or determine their physical properties in order to optimize the desired properties. ... Materials chemistry focuses on the rational synthesis of novel functional materials using a large array of existing and new ...
WHO WE ARE: CHEMISTRY & MATERIALS SCIENCES. De Gruyters Chemistry & Materials Sciences department covers some of the most ... With collaboration alongside prestigious scientific societies such as the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry ( ...
Materials and Chemistry: New Horizons. Whats the future for the chemical industry in green building? Jerrys talk to a meeting ... Materials and Chemistry: New Horizons in Green Building * 1. New Horizons in Sustainability Materials and Chemistry Jerry ... Materials and Chemistry: New Horizons. Whats the future for the chemical industry in green building? Jerrys talk to a meeting ... Whats Between You and the Environment?Interactions mediated by chemistry and materials!Building blocks for sustainable cities ...
Introduction to Materials Chemistry will appeal to advanced undergraduates and graduate students in chemistry, materials ... it covers the fundamentals of materials chemistry, including principles of materials synthesis and materials characterization ... Home / All Textbooks & Course Offerings / Engineering & Materials Science / Materials Science / General Materials Science ... Leads the reader through steps of the elementary chemistry on which materials science depends by discussing the different ...
Materials Chemistry and Analysis Group (MCAG) School of Chemistry, First Floor, Kane Building, University College Cork, T12 ... Research Focus , A Material Approach to Sustainable Climate Action. 09 Oct 2019 ...
Work in the Chemistry and Materials Laboratory spans a broad range of R&D to solve problems for industrial and government ... laboratory offers more than 30 years of experience and has extensively analyzed scientific and business trends in the materials ... Work in the Chemistry and Materials Laboratory spans a broad range of R&D to solve problems for industrial and government ... HomeAbout UsOur OrganizationAdvanced Technology & SystemsChemistry and Materials Laboratory ...
... that provides the knowledge and understanding of materials based on chemical principles ... Discover the masters degee in Applied Materials Chemistry, ... Faculty of Chemistry Masters degree course homepage:. Masters ... One of the chief contributions of chemistry in todays society is the discovery and creation of materials that have led to ... is intended for graduates interested in acquiring in-depth knowledge of materials chemistry.. The specific objective of the ...
CHM4411 Physical Chemistry II (3 Credits). (3 credits) and CHM 4411L Physical Chemistry II Lab (1 credit) *Prereq: CHM 4410 and ... CHM3610 Inorganic Chemistry (3 Credits). (3 credits) and CHM 3610L Inorganic Chemistry Lab (1 credit) *Prereq: CHM 2211, CHM ... CHM4410 Physical Chemistry I (3 Credits). (3 credits) and Physical Chemistry I Lab (1 credit) *Prereqs: CHM2046, CHM2046L, ... CHM 2045L General Chemistry I Lab Acceptable substitutes: CHMX040 & X041, or CHMX045C ...
... Due to the COVID-19 crisis, the information below is subject to change, in ... spin crossover materials, photo-switches and hybrid materials.. VI. Superconduting materials: metallic conductivity and ... Chemistry and functionality of inorganic materials. lchm2231 2020-2021 Louvain-la-Neuve ... chemistry and aiming to complete their formation by advanced notions in physical chemistry of functional inorganic materials. ...
Materials Chemistry Committee. Materials Chemistry Committee. Our aim is to provide UK industry and research bodies with access ... IOM3 Home ⁄ Our communities ⁄ Technical communities ⁄ Materials Chemistry Committee ⁄ ... Looking for a new #job in engineering or materials science, or seeking a fellowship or funding? Check out all our v… t.co/ ... The Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining, 297 Euston Road, London NW1 3AD, UK Tel: +44 (0)20 7451 7300 ...
Chemistry and materials are at the heart of the Specialty Chemicals Industry. We translate unmet market needs into leading edge ... Chemistry and materials are at the heart of the specialty chemicals industry. We translate unmet market needs into leading-edge ... Material Safety Data Sheets providing safety precautions, that should be observed when handling or storing Clariant products, ... You should obtain and review the applicable Material Safety Data Sheet information before handling any of these products. For ...
  • On 6th Dec 2019, six Materials Chemistry Frontiers board members participated in a panel discussion of "Being Bold in STEM" at the Northwestern University. (rsc.org)
  • We are proud to announce that 15 of Materials Chemistry Frontiers Board members are recognized in Clarivate Analytics list of Highly Cited Researchers for 2019, ranking them among the top 1% most cited for their subject field and publication year. (rsc.org)
  • In particular, we are interested in understanding nanoscale phenomenon in materials and determining structure-property relationships that enable the creation of functional devices for electronic, sensing, energy and catalytic applications. (ucc.ie)
  • This is a major growth area and you will learn more about, e.g., tissue engineering, soft functional materials, both on the nanoscale as well bulk properties, biosensors, and materials for drug transport and delivery. (uu.se)
  • You will study chemistry courses, which provide you with the theoretical and experimental skills needed for the subsequent semesters, some of which are common to other specialisations in the Master Programme in Chemistry. (uu.se)
  • Materials Chemistry Frontiers is pleased to be sponsoring the 14th International Conference on Organic Electronics - 2018 (ICOE-2018) to be held on June 18 - 22, 2018 in Bordeaux, France. (rsc.org)
  • The ICOE-2018, organized by Professor Guillaume Wantz , Associate Editor of Materials Chemistry Frontiers , will bring together the most excellent researchers from academy as well as industry to discuss fundamental aspects of organic semiconductors, demonstrate their vision of the road-map of organic electronics and to exchange ideas on future materials, technologies, and applications. (rsc.org)
  • The Chemistry and Materials Engineering Intern is available to students pursuing a degree in chemistry or chemical engineering. (fastweb.com)
  • The Materials Chemistry and Analysis Group (MCAG) focus on developing chemical methods for synthesising and assembling nanostructured materials and their in-depth characterisation. (ucc.ie)
  • Utilising naturally abundant resources and in particular agricultural and food by-products, we have developed a range of materials which take full advantage of the chemical composition, rich functionality and structure in plant metabolites and other biomass. (york.ac.uk)
  • The project applied biorefinery concepts to generate materials, energy and chemical products from renewable resourses. (york.ac.uk)
  • The laboratory offers more than 30 years of experience and has extensively analyzed scientific and business trends in the materials and chemical industries. (sri.com)
  • The objective of the master's degree is to provide students with a knowledge and understanding of materials based on chemical principles. (ub.edu)
  • The scientific paper, in which mechanics and chemistry meets, is of importance for how we understand and construct a new class of materials, so-called metal-organic frameworks and was recently published in Journal of the American Chemical Society. (chalmers.se)
  • says Françoise Noa, PhD in chemistry at the Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology. (chalmers.se)
  • Furthermore, photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) and random hole fibers (RHFs) have been investigated as "templates" for a myriad of materials and applications such as the incorporation of magnetic nanoparticles for magnetic sensing, semiconductors for devices, and gas and liquids for chemical sensing . (scribd.com)
  • Chemistry of Materials is a peer-reviewed scientific journal, published since 1989 by the American Chemical Society. (wikipedia.org)
  • Essential condition for acceptance is successful completion of a bachelor study program in the fields of chemistry or chemical technology. (vutbr.cz)
  • Graduates suggest, design and control chemical processes and technologies producing technically, ecologically and medically important materials or products from oil, mineral, ore and other natural raw materials. (vutbr.cz)
  • They acquire necessary knowledge and abilities for further study of master programs accredited at the BUT Faculty of Chemistry or other master programs dealing with chemistry or chemical technology disciplines. (vutbr.cz)
  • They can also apply to study master programs accredited at the BUT Faculty of chemistry and also to enrol in other master study programs oriented on chemistry and chemical technology. (vutbr.cz)
  • They are acquainted with relationships between structure of non-metallic materials and their chemical-physical properties. (vutbr.cz)
  • They are able to modify qualities of materials using proper chemical, physical, and technological methods and procedures to get optimal utility properties of manufactured materials and products. (vutbr.cz)
  • Project DEFTD is focused on large scale computer simulations of the atomic, electronic and magnetic properties of novel materials for energy applications, first of all, fuel cells transforming chemical energy into electricity, and batteries. (hlrs.de)
  • Materials design involves selecting a chemical composition and a process for generating microstructures with the chosen composition and desired properties. (a-star.edu.sg)
  • Also of interest are fundamental issues relating to the fabrication and processing of electronic, magnetic, or optical materials and devices, including the generation of thin films by chemical vapor and solution deposition. (azooptics.com)
  • Project activities include field testing and site inspections, evaluating material composition, safety/reliability assessments, life prediction analyses, stress analysis, assessing chemical resistance and microbial degradation, and laboratory testing and evaluation. (exponent.com)
  • The CMEM offers unique facilities for the study of soft materials and uses the knowledge gained to develop synthetic materials. (tue.nl)
  • Students are then taught to use phase diagrams to assess the compositions and microstructures of materials produced by various synthetic and processing methods. (wustl.edu)
  • Phys.org)-Biological material such as bone and muscle tend to have a wide range of elasticity and rigidity that is different from synthetic materials. (phys.org)
  • In this lecture, materials chemist Joanna Aizenberg will give us a taste of how the inspiration from nature teaches us to break barriers between these fields in the synthetic realm and leads to fascinating new concepts in materials design. (amolf.nl)
  • In this course we look at how materials work and develop an understanding of how and why the use of materials has developed throughout history including the manipulation of desirable properties to suit particular uses. (rsc.org)
  • The groups are also exploring the use of MOS systems in energy applications as well as investigating the electrical properties of emerging phase change materials. (ucc.ie)
  • Biominerals such as bones, teeth and shells have properties that often outclass those of man-made materials. (tue.nl)
  • We pursue the application of biological principles in the development of technologically relevant materials, exploiting the ability of natural materials (e.g. collagen) to guide the formation of inorganic components on the nanometer level, but also form complex hierarchical 3D architectures, aiming at advanced properties. (tue.nl)
  • We design materials with specific useful properties by synthesizing and understanding how the composition and structure of the new materials influence or determine their physical properties in order to optimize the desired properties. (swri.org)
  • C. Approaches to Producing New Materials, New Properties, and Uses. (wiley.com)
  • The combination of unique properties that emerge as a consequence of the particular arrangement and interactions between the different constituents provides immense opportunities for advanced material technologies. (elsevier.com)
  • This work presents a comprehensive revision of the different options developed under the materials chemistry umbrella to control the optical properties of ABX 3 solar cells and to endow them with additional functionalities. (rsc.org)
  • The BSc (Hons) in Materials Chemistry seeks to understand the interrelationships between the composition, structure, microstructure and properties of matter in order to design and develop new materials. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • Graphene - carbon atoms packed in a honeycomb lattice - exhibits exceptional physical and electronic properties not found in conventional materials. (innovations-report.com)
  • Tjoa and her team focused their attention on reduced graphene oxide (rGO), which is much more accessible and practical for applications, and studied how attaching gold nanoparticles can affect the physical properties of the material. (innovations-report.com)
  • Understanding the structure of a material is crucial for being able to explain its properties and optimise them for specific applications. (su.se)
  • In IMS we study the fundamental material properties (electronic conductivity, ionic conductivity, surface oxygen exchange rates and catalytic properties) to optimize the electrode resistance through proper control of the electrode microstructure. (utwente.nl)
  • Understanding and being able to manipulate material properties at the atomic level is important for the development of new technologies such as better batteries, smaller, more efficient computer chips, and more effective methods for generating and moving power. (hlrs.de)
  • Supercomputing enables researchers to simulate the atomic-scale interactions in materials that determine their properties. (hlrs.de)
  • The focus of the journal is interrelationships among structure, properties, processing and performance of materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both theoretical and experimental studies which focus on the preparation or understanding of materials with unusual or useful properties are relevant. (azooptics.com)
  • Exponent's expertise in plastics, rubber, adhesive and composite systems includes fundamental understanding of all aspects of chemistry, structure, processing, properties and uses. (exponent.com)
  • We provide fundamental and practical understanding of the chemistry and kinetics of curing and crosslinking, viscoelastic properties, and factors associated with adhesion and release. (exponent.com)
  • Among the new cementing materials, Si-Al geopolymers seem the most promising, in terms of CO 2 emission and mechanical and thermal properties. (springer.com)
  • The novel materials we develop range from ceramics and ceramic-matrix composites to alloys, such as lightweight alloys of Ti, Fe, and Al, Ni super alloys, and multi-principal element alloys (also referred to as high-entropy alloys). (a-star.edu.sg)
  • Energy & charge transfer process in nanocrystalline semiconductor and metallic materials and their heterostructures, time-resolved and spatially resolved spectroscopy, applications in energy harvesting, photonics and photocatalysis. (tamu.edu)
  • Electron microscopy, diffraction, and NMR spectroscopy are examples of important methods used to characterise the structure of a particular material. (su.se)
  • To reduce CO 2 emission, the European Cement Association [ 4 ] suggests to replace part of the clinker with supplementary cementitious materials (SCM), with a high pozzolanic activity. (springer.com)
  • Reproduced from Ref. XX with permission from the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and The Royal Society of Chemistry. (rsc.org)
  • The chemistry education at Uppsala University was also ranked excellent in the latest ranking by the Centre for Higher Education Development, and was ranked top 100 by the QS World University Rankings. (uu.se)
  • The Bioeconomy Infrastructure uses pre-treatment technology, thermal and catalytic processing, and biotechnology to produce a range of chemicals and fuel components and other materials from renewable inputs. (aalto.fi)
  • We advance our understanding of biological and bioinspired materials formation by monitoring these processes with dynamic, in situ measurements. (tue.nl)
  • We investigate the mechanism of collagen mineralization in bone, and the biomineralization processes of technologically important material such as magnetite in magnetotactic bacteria and silica in diatoms. (tue.nl)
  • In addition, the use of by-products or waste materials from more conventional processes or agricultural operations is greening up our society as well as adding significant value to local economies. (york.ac.uk)
  • We work closely with industry in development of advanced materials, products, processes and new tools, and seek out new, environmentally friendly processing methods that will increase productivity and raise quality standards. (sintef.no)
  • The main goal of the OPTIMALS project is to enable multi-material solutions for high-performance aluminium-steel structural components with a total reduction of weight and manufacturing cost. (sintef.no)
  • The main focus has been the relation between friction and material transfer. (diva-portal.org)
  • With collaboration alongside prestigious scientific societies such as the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), and the publication of highly-renowned journals such as Journal for Crystallography , our program also offers some of the highest-quality content in the field. (degruyter.com)
  • These courses are substantially more complete than typical OCW courses, and include new custom-created content as well as materials repurposed from previously published courses. (mit.edu)