Organic chemistry methodology that mimics the modular nature of various biosynthetic processes. It uses highly reliable and selective reactions designed to "click" i.e., rapidly join small modular units together in high yield, without offensive byproducts. In combination with COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES, it is used for the synthesis of new compounds and combinatorial libraries.
The specialty of ANALYTIC CHEMISTRY applied to assays of physiologically important substances found in blood, urine, tissues, and other biological fluids for the purpose of aiding the physician in making a diagnosis or following therapy.
The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Laboratory tests demonstrating the presence of physiologically significant substances in the blood, urine, tissue, and body fluids with application to the diagnosis or therapy of disease.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
The branch of chemistry dealing with detection (qualitative) and determination (quantitative) of substances. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A technology, in which sets of reactions for solution or solid-phase synthesis, is used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.
An examination of chemicals in the blood.
Hydrocarbons with at least one triple bond in the linear portion, of the general formula Cn-H2n-2.
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Methods used for the chemical synthesis of compounds. Included under this heading are laboratory methods used to synthesize a variety of chemicals and drugs.
Pollution prevention through the design of effective chemical products that have low or no toxicity and use of chemical processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances.
The conformation, properties, reaction processes, and the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds.
Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
Chemical and physical transformation of the biogenic elements from their nucleosynthesis in stars to their incorporation and subsequent modification in planetary bodies and terrestrial biochemistry. It includes the mechanism of incorporation of biogenic elements into complex molecules and molecular systems, leading up to the origin of life.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.
The study of the composition, chemical structures, and chemical reactions of living things.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Finely divided solid matter with particle sizes smaller than a micrometeorite, thus with diameters much smaller than a millimeter, moving in interplanetary space. (NASA Thesaurus, 1994)
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The origin of life. It includes studies of the potential basis for life in organic compounds but excludes studies of the development of altered forms of life through mutation and natural selection, which is BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The reactions, changes in structure and composition, the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds, and the associated energy changes.
A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
The science concerned with celestial bodies and the observation and interpretation of the radiation received in the vicinity of the earth from the component parts of the universe (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in definite quantities called quanta (E) which vary in size and are defined by the equation E=hv in which h is Planck's constant and v is the frequency of the radiation.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
The study of the energy of electrons ejected from matter by the photoelectric effect, i.e., as a direct result of absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation. As the energies of the electrons are characteristic of a specific element, the measurement of the energy of these electrons is a technique used to determine the chemical composition of surfaces.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
The study of the chemical and physical phenomena of radioactive substances.
The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.
Neutral or negatively charged ligands bonded to metal cations or neutral atoms. The number of ligand atoms to which the metal center is directly bonded is the metal cation's coordination number, and this number is always greater than the regular valence or oxidation number of the metal. A coordination complex can be negative, neutral, or positively charged.
A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The interdisciplinary science that studies evolutionary biology, including the origin and evolution of the major elements required for life, their processing in the interstellar medium and in protostellar systems. This field also includes the study of chemical evolution and the subsequent interactions between evolving biota and planetary evolution as well as the field of biology that deals with the study of extraterrestrial life.
Chemical reactions effected by light.
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Method of analyzing chemicals using automation.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.
The group of celestial bodies, including the EARTH, orbiting around and gravitationally bound by the sun. It includes eight planets, one minor planet, and 34 natural satellites, more than 1,000 observed comets, and thousands of lesser bodies known as MINOR PLANETS (asteroids) and METEOROIDS. (From Academic American Encyclopedia, 1983)
Organic compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen forming a closed ring that may be either alicyclic or aromatic.
Large collections of small molecules (molecular weight about 600 or less), of similar or diverse nature which are used for high-throughput screening analysis of the gene function, protein interaction, cellular processing, biochemical pathways, or other chemical interactions.
Tests used in the analysis of the hemic system.
A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A polyhedral CARBON structure composed of around 60-80 carbon atoms in pentagon and hexagon configuration. They are named after Buckminster Fuller because of structural resemblance to geodesic domes. Fullerenes can be made in high temperature such as arc discharge in an inert atmosphere.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Compounds similar to hydrocarbons in which a tetravalent silicon atom replaces the carbon atom. They are very reactive, ignite in air, and form useful derivatives.
Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The study of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION and the toxic effects of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS on the ECOSYSTEM. The term was coined by Truhaut in 1969.
Tree-like, highly branched, polymeric compounds. They grow three-dimensionally by the addition of shells of branched molecules to a central core. The overall globular shape and presence of cavities gives potential as drug carriers and CONTRAST AGENTS.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The reactions and interactions of atoms and molecules, the changes in their structure and composition, and associated energy changes.
Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.
A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a very sharp conducting needle is swept just a few angstroms above the surface of a sample. The tiny tunneling current that flows between the sample and the needle tip is measured, and from this are produced three-dimensional topographs. Due to the poor electron conductivity of most biological samples, thin metal coatings are deposited on the sample.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.
A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
Relating to the size of solids.
Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.
Substances that comprise all matter. Each element is made up of atoms that are identical in number of electrons and protons and in nuclear charge, but may differ in mass or number of neutrons.
A group of atoms or molecules attached to other molecules or cellular structures and used in studying the properties of these molecules and structures. Radioactive DNA or RNA sequences are used in MOLECULAR GENETICS to detect the presence of a complementary sequence by NUCLEIC ACID HYBRIDIZATION.
An interdisciplinary field in materials science, ENGINEERING, and BIOLOGY, studying the use of biological principles for synthesis or fabrication of BIOMIMETIC MATERIALS.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A group of compounds with an 8-carbon ring. They may be saturated or unsaturated.
The quality or state of being wettable or the degree to which something can be wet. This is also the ability of any solid surface to be wetted when in contact with a liquid whose surface tension is reduced so that the liquid spreads over the surface of the solid.
Any solid objects moving in interplanetary space that are smaller than a planet or asteroid but larger than a molecule. Meteorites are any meteoroid that has fallen to a planetary surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Chemicals used in agriculture. These include pesticides, fumigants, fertilizers, plant hormones, steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins, etc.
The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
The branch of medicine concerned with the application of NANOTECHNOLOGY to the prevention and treatment of disease. It involves the monitoring, repair, construction, and control of human biological systems at the molecular level, using engineered nanodevices and NANOSTRUCTURES. (From Freitas Jr., Nanomedicine, vol 1, 1999).
Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
Synthetic organic reactions that use reactions between unsaturated molecules to form cyclical products.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.
Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.
Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.
Techniques used to synthesize chemicals using molecular substrates that are bound to a solid surface. Typically a series of reactions are conducted on the bound substrate that results in either the covalent attachment of specific moieties or the modification of existing function groups. These techniques offer an advantage to those involving solution reactions in that the substrate compound does not have to be isolated and purified between the reaction steps.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
Hospital facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
An abrupt high-current electric discharge that occurs in the ATMOSPHERE and that has a path length ranging from hundreds of feet to tens of miles. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.
A family of nonmetallic, generally electronegative, elements that form group 17 (formerly group VIIa) of the periodic table.
Creation and development of bodies within solar systems, includes study of early planetary geology.
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The urea concentration of the blood stated in terms of nitrogen content. Serum (plasma) urea nitrogen is approximately 12% higher than blood urea nitrogen concentration because of the greater protein content of red blood cells. Increases in blood or serum urea nitrogen are referred to as azotemia and may have prerenal, renal, or postrenal causes. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
A field of chemistry which pertains to chemical compounds or ions that do not contain the element carbon (with the exception of carbon dioxide and compounds containing a carbonate radical, e.g., calcium carbonate).
Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.
High molecular weight polymers containing a mixture of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides chained together by ribose or deoxyribose linkages.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.
Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
Nucleic acid which complements a specific mRNA or DNA molecule, or fragment thereof; used for hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms and for genetic studies.
Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.
Liquid water present beneath the surface of the earth.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
The sixth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its twelve natural satellites include Phoebe and Titan.
A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A halogen with the atomic symbol Br, atomic number 36, and atomic weight 79.904. It is a volatile reddish-brown liquid that gives off suffocating vapors, is corrosive to the skin, and may cause severe gastroenteritis if ingested.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
Methods utilizing the principles of MICROFLUIDICS for sample handling, reagent mixing, and separation and detection of specific components in fluids.
Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
Programs of study which span the traditional boundaries of academic scholarship.
Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.
Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.
Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Large members of the FALCONIFORMES order of birds, family Accipitridae, most especially the genera Aquila, Haliaeetus, Harpia, and Circaetus. They are characterized by their powerful talons, which carry long, curved, pointed claws and by their opposable hindtoe.
The study of fluid channels and chambers of tiny dimensions of tens to hundreds of micrometers and volumes of nanoliters or picoliters. This is of interest in biological MICROCIRCULATION and used in MICROCHEMISTRY and INVESTIGATIVE TECHNIQUES.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
The chemical processes, enzymatic activities, and pathways of living things and related temporal, dimensional, qualitative, and quantitative concepts.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
Cyclic compounds with a ring size of approximately 1-4 dozen atoms.
The sciences dealing with processes observable in nature.
Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.
Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.
Elements of the lanthanoid series including atomic number 57 (LANTHANUM) through atomic number 71 (LUTETIUM).
Covalent attachment of HALOGENS to other compounds.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
Polymerized forms of styrene used as a biocompatible material, especially in dentistry. They are thermoplastic and are used as insulators, for injection molding and casting, as sheets, plates, rods, rigid forms and beads.
Positively charged particles composed of two protons and two NEUTRONS, i.e. equivalent to HELIUM nuclei, which are emitted during disintegration of heavy ISOTOPES. Alpha rays have very strong ionizing power, but weak penetrability.
Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.
Elements with partially filled d orbitals. They constitute groups 3-12 of the periodic table of elements.
The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.
The univalent radical OH. Hydroxyl radical is a potent oxidizing agent.
The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.
An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.
Alicyclic hydrocarbons in which three or more of the carbon atoms in each molecule are united in a ring structure and each of the ring carbon atoms is joined to two hydrogen atoms or alkyl groups. The simplest members are cyclopropane (C3H6), cyclobutane (C4H8), cyclohexane (C6H12), and derivatives of these such as methylcyclohexane (C6H11CH3). (From Sax, et al., Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)

Factors affecting microbial formation of nitrate-nitrogen in soil and their effects on fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency. (1/13)

Mineralization of soil organic matter is governed by predictable factors with nitrate-N as the end product. Crop production interrupts the natural balance, accelerates mineralization of N, and elevates levels of nitrate-N in soil. Six factors determine nitrate-N levels in soils: soil clay content, bulk density, organic matter content, pH, temperature, and rainfall. Maximal rates of N mineralization require an optimal level of air-filled pore space. Optimal air-filled pore space depends on soil clay content, soil organic matter content, soil bulk density, and rainfall. Pore space is partitioned into water- and air-filled space. A maximal rate of nitrate formation occurs at a pH of 6.7 and rather modest mineralization rates occur at pH 5.0 and 8.0. Predictions of the soil nitrate-N concentrations with a relative precision of 1 to 4 microg N g(-1) of soil were obtained with a computerized N fertilizer decision aid. Grain yields obtained using the N fertilizer decision aid were not measurably different from those using adjacent farmer practices, but N fertilizer use was reduced by >10%. Predicting mineralization in this manner allows optimal N applications to be determined for site-specific soil and weather conditions.  (+info)

Nitrogen fertilizer rate and crop management effects on nitrate leaching from an agricultural field in central Pennsylvania. (2/13)

Eighteen pan lysimeters were installed at a depth of 1.2 m in a Hagerstown silt loam soil in a corn field in central Pennsylvania in 1988. In 1995, wick lysimeters were also installed at 1.2 m depth in the same access pits. Treatments have included N fertilizer rates, use of manure, crop rotation (continuous corn, corn-soybean, alfalfa-corn), and tillage (chisel plow-disk, no-till). The leachate data were used to evaluate a number of nitrate leaching models. Some of the highlights of the 11 years of results include the following: 1) growing corn without organic N inputs at the economic optimum N rate (EON) resulted in NO3--N concentrations of 15 to 20 mg l(-1) in leachate; 2) use of manure or previous alfalfa crop as partial source of N also resulted in 15 to 20 mg l(-1) of NO3--N in leachate below corn at EON; 3) NO3--N concentration in leachate below alfalfa was approximately 4 mg l(-1); 4) NO3--N concentration in leachate below soybeans following corn was influenced by fertilizer N rate applied to corn; 5) the mass of NO3--N leached below corn at the EON rate averaged 90 kg N ha(-1) (approx. 40% of fertilizer N applied at EON); 6) wick lysimeters collected approximately 100% of leachate vs. 40-50% collected by pan lysimeters. Coefficients of variation of the collected leachate volumes for both lysimeter types were similar; 7) tillage did not markedly affect nitrate leaching losses; 8) tested leaching models could accurately predict leachate volumes and could be calibrated to match nitrate leaching losses in calibration years, but only one model (SOILN) accurately predicted nitrate leaching losses in the majority of validation treatment years. Apparent problems with tested models: there was difficulty estimating sizes of organic N pools and their transformation rates, and the models either did not include a macropore flow component or did not handle macropore flow well.  (+info)

A new approach to determine the total airborne N input into the soil/plant system using 15N isotope dilution (ITNI): results for agricultural areas in Central Germany. (3/13)

The atmospheric deposition of nitrogen (N) in the environment is of great concern due to its impact on natural ecosystems including affecting vegetation, reducing biodiversity, increasing tree growth in forests, and the eutrophication of aquatic systems. Taking into account the average annual N emission into the atmosphere in Germany of about 2 million t N (ammonia/ammonium, NOx), and assuming homogeneous distribution throughout Germany, an average N deposition of 45 kg/ha x year can be calculated. Such high atmospheric N deposition could be confirmed by N balances from long-term field experiments in Central Germany (e.g., the Static Fertilization Experiment in Bad Lauchstdt). By contrast, estimates by standard methods indicate a deposition of only about 30 kg N/ha x year. This is because the standard methods are using wet-only or bulk collectors, which fail to take into account gaseous deposition and the direct uptake of atmospheric N by aerial plant parts. Therefore, a new system was developed using 15N isotope dilution methodology to measure the actual total atmospheric N input into a soil/plant system (Integrated Total Nitrogen Input, ITNI). A soil/plant system is labeled with [15N]ammonium-[15N]nitrate and the total input of airborne N is calculated from the dilution of this tracer by N from the atmosphere. An average annual deposition of 64 +/- 11 kg/ha x year from 1994-2000 was measured with the ITNI system at the Bad Lauchstdt research farm in the dry belt of Central Germany. Measurements in 1999/2000 at three other sites in Central Germany produced deposition rates of about 60 kg/ha x year. These data clearly show that the total atmospheric N deposition into the soil/plant system determined by the newly developed ITNI system significantly exceeds that obtained from standard wet-only and bulk collectors. The higher atmospheric N depositions found closely match those postulated from the N balances of long-term agricultural field experiments.  (+info)

Use and misuse of nitrogen in agriculture: the German story. (4/13)

Nitrogen (N) fertilization in agriculture has been discussed controversially in Germany for almost two centuries. The agronomist Carl Sprengel, who published his theory on the mineral nutrition of plants in 1828, advocated the use of mineral N fertilizers. Chemist Justus von Liebig, on the other hand, vehemently denied around 1850 the need for N fertilization. Although it soon became evident that Sprengel was right and Liebig was wrong, not much synthetic N fertilizer was used in German agriculture until around 1915, when the Haber-Bosch technique enabled the commercial production of NH3. The use of N fertilizers since then has grown, especially since 1950. To increase agricultural productivity, German governments have promoted, directly and indirectly, the use of N in crop and in animal production. Unfortunately, it was overlooked that N surpluses in agriculture increased rapidly; around 1980 they amounted yearly to more than 100 kg ha(-1). The extensive use of N in agriculture is causing environmental damage and is contributing substantially to the external costs of present agriculture. The main N compounds that affect the environment are N2O, NH3, and NO3. These compounds are considered to contribute one third to the external costs of agriculture. Additionally, the high rate of human intake of animal proteins and lipids has adversely affected the health of the country's population. Fundamental corrections in German farm policy appear inevitable.  (+info)

Effect of triclosan or a phenolic farm disinfectant on the selection of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella enterica. (5/13)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of growth of five strains of Salmonella enterica and their isogenic multiply antibiotic-resistant (MAR) derivatives with a phenolic farm disinfectant or triclosan (biocides) upon the frequency of mutation to resistance to antibiotics or cyclohexane. METHODS: Strains were grown in broth with or without the biocides and then spread on to agar containing ampicillin, ciprofloxacin or tetracycline each at 4x MIC or agar overlaid with cyclohexane. Incubation was for 24 and 48 h and the frequency of mutation to resistance was calculated for strains with and without prior growth with the biocides. MICs were determined and the presence of mutations in the acrR and marR regions was determined by sequencing and the presence of mutations in gyrA by light-cycler analysis, for a selection of the mutants that arose. RESULTS: The mean frequency of mutation to antibiotic or cyclohexane resistance was increased approximately 10- to 100-fold by prior growth with the phenolic disinfectant or triclosan. The increases were statistically significant for all antibiotics and cyclohexane following exposure to the phenolic disinfectant (P 1 mg/L ciprofloxacin arose only from strains that were MAR. Reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (at 4x MIC for parent strains) alone was associated with mutations in gyrA. MAR mutants did not contain mutations in the acrR or marR region. CONCLUSIONS: These data renew fears that the use of biocides may lead to an increased selective pressure towards antibiotic resistance.  (+info)

Screening analyses of pinosylvin stilbenes, resin acids and lignans in Norwegian conifers. (6/13)

The content and distribution of stilbenes and resin acids in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and spruce (Picea abies), sampled in central Norway, have been examined. The contents of pinosylvin stilbenes in pine heartwood/living knots were 0.2-2/2-8 %(w/w). No stilbenes could be detected in spruce (Picea abies). The resin acid contents of pine sapwood/heartwood and knots were 1-4 and 5-10 % (w/w), respectively. Minor amounts of resin acids (<0.2/<0.04 %w/w) were identified in spruce wood/knots. The lignan content in knots of Norwegian spruce was 6.5 % (w/w). Diastereomerically pure hydroxymatairesinol (HMR, 84 % of total lignans) was readily isolated from this source since only minor quantities (2.6 % of total lignans) of the allo-HMR diastereomer was detected. Insignificant amounts of lignans were present in the sapwood. Lignans could not be detected in the sapwood or knots of Norwegian sallow (Salix caprea), birch(Betula pendula) or juniper (Juniperus communis).  (+info)

25 years of natural product R&D with New South Wales agriculture. (7/13)

Following recent NSW Government restructuring, the Department of Agriculture now exists in a composite form along with Forestry, Fisheries and Minerals in the new NSW Department of Primary Industries. This paper outlines some of the highlights of secondary metabolite R&D accomplished in the 25 years since the essential oil research unit was transferred from the Museum of Applied Arts & Sciences, Sydney to NSW Agriculture's Wollongbar Agricultural Institute on the NSW north coast. The essential oil survey was continued, typing the Australian flora as a suitable source of isolates such as myrtenal (Astartea), myrtenol (Agonis), methyl chavicol(Ochrosperma), alpha-phellandren-8-ol (Prostanthera), methyl myrtenate (Darwinia), methyl geranate (Darwinia), kessane (Acacia), cis-dihydroagarofuran (Prosthanthera), protoanemonin (Clematis), isoamyl isovalerate (Micromyrtus), methyl cinnamate (Eucalyptus) and bornyl acetate (Boronia). Many of these components are used, or have potential use in the fragrance, flavour, medicinal plant or insect attraction fields. Two weeds toxic to livestock in the Central West of the State are also harvested commercially as medicinal plants. Measurement of hypericin concentrations in the various plant parts of St John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum) over two seasons has shown that the weed can be effectively managed by grazing sheep during the winter months when toxin levels are low. Syntheses of beta-carbolines tribulusterine and perlolyrine have shown that the former alkaloid was misidentified in the literature and hence not the toxic principle responsible for Tribulus staggers in sheep. Poor quality (high 1,8-cineole - low terpinen-4-ol) oil bearing tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) plantations have been established to the detriment of many a tea tree farmer. Analytical methods developed to check leaf quality at an early age indicated precursor sabinene constituents that convert to the active terpinen-4-ol both as the leaf matures or as the precursors are distilled for oil production. Tea tree's major insect pest, pyrgo beetle (Paropsisterna tigrina), was seen to selectively metabolize only 1,8-cineole from it's monoterpenoid-rich diet. Characterization of these and other metabolites from myrtaceous herbivores showed a species specific production of predominately ring hydroxylated products, some of which were attractive when bioassayed against adult beetles.  (+info)

The 15N isotope to evaluate fertilizer nitrogen absorption efficiency by the coffee plant. (8/13)

The use of the 15N label for agronomic research involving nitrogen (N) cycling and the fate of fertilizer-N is well established, however, in the case of long term experimentation with perennial crops like citrus, coffee and rubber tree, there are still shortcomings mainly due to large plant size, sampling procedures, detection levels and interferences on the system. This report tries to contribute methodologically to the design and development of 15N labeled fertilizer experiments, using as an example a coffee crop fertilized with 15N labeled ammonium sulfate, which was followed for two years. The N of the plant derived from the fertilizer was studied in the different parts of the coffee plant in order to evaluate its distribution within the plant and the agronomic efficiency of the fertilizer application practice. An enrichment of the fertilizer-N of the order of 2% 15N abundance was sufficient to study N absorption rates and to establish fertilizer-N balances after one and two years of coffee cropping. The main source of errors in the estimated values lies in the inherent variability among field replicates and not in the measurements of N contents and 15N enrichments of plant material by mass-spectrometry.  (+info)

Advanced Agricultural Chemistry and Plant Protection Conference scheduled on November 05-06, 2020 in November 2020 in Istanbul is for the researchers, scientists, scholars, engineers, academic, scientific and university practitioners to present research activities that might want to attend events, meetings, seminars, congresses, workshops, summit, and symposiums.
The synthesis and evaluation of structural analogues and isosteres are of central importance in medicinal and agricultural chemistry. The sulfonamide functional group represents one of the most important amide isosteres in contemporary drug design, and about 500 such compounds have overcome both the pharmacological and regulatory hurdles that precede studies in humans. The mono aza analogues of sulfonamides, that is, sulfonimidamides, are rapidly gaining popularity as a novel functional group among synthetic chemists involved in the design of biologically active compounds for both pharmaceutical and agrochemical applications. Herein, we review these recent developments to showcase the promise of this functional group.. ...
Find A PhD. Search Funded PhD Projects, Programs & Scholarships in Agricultural Chemistry in Oxford. Search for PhD funding, scholarships & studentships in the UK, Europe and around the world.
Eighteen pan lysimeters were installed at a depth of 1.2 m in a Hagerstown silt loam soil in a corn field in central Pennsylvania in 1988. In 1995, wick lysimeters were also installed at 1.2 m depth in the same access pits. Treatments have included N fertilizer rates, use of manure, crop rotation (continuous corn, corn-soybean, alfalfa-corn), and tillage (chisel plow-disk, no-till). The leachate data were used to evaluate a number of nitrate leaching models. Some of the highlights of the 11 years of results include the following: 1) growing corn without organic N inputs at the economic optimum N rate (EON) resulted in NO|sub|3|/sub||sup|–|/sup|-N concentrations of 15 to 20 mg l|sup|-1|/sup| in leachate; 2) use of manure or previous alfalfa crop as partial source of N also resulted in 15 to 20 mg l|sup|-1|/sup| of NO|sub|3|/sub||sup|–|/sup|-N in leachate below corn at EON; 3) NO|sub|3|/sub||sup|–|/sup|-N concentration in leachate below alfalfa was approximately 4 mg l|sup|-1|/sup|; 4
A field experiment was conducted during the summer season of 2000 at the Main Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Hebbal, Bangalore, Karnataka, India, to determine the effects of irrigation and fertilizer rates on the soil plant water status and yield of baby maize (Zea mays). Treatments comprised: seven irrigation schedules and two fertilizer levels. The maximum husked (11.28 t/ha), dehusked (2.99 t/ha) and fodder yields (24.12 t/ha) of baby maize were recorded with irrigation at 1.0 IW:CPE ratio throughout the crop growth stages, which were significantly superior over irrigation at 0.75 IW:CPE ratio during 41 DAS to harvest and throughout the crop growth stages. Irrigation at 0.75 IW:CPE ratio during 10-25 DAS recorded higher water use efficiency of 29.76 kg/ha-mm, with a total water requirement of 361.6 mm. Irrigation schedule at 1.0 IW/CPE ratio throughout the crop growth stages resulted in higher available soil moisture (51.09-53.35%) and lower soil moisture tension (-90 ...
The William Alfonso Withers Papers documents Withers professional career and activities as well as his personal life. The collection contains materials on his employment as a professor of pure and agricultural chemistry at North Carolina College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts from 1889-1923, along with materials covering his employment at various other state, federal, and private organizations. It also contains materials on Withers personal activities with extensive personal correspondence with friends and family. Withers received his A.B. and A.M. from Davidson College, and did graduate work at Cornell University. He was a Professor of Pure and Agricultural Chemistry at North Carolina College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts from 1889-1923 and served as Acting Director of the North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station from 1887 to 1899. From 1916 to 1923 he served as Vice President of North Carolina State College, and from 1917 to 1918 was president of the North Carolina Academy of ...
An introduction to chemical processes integral to understanding soils, agriculture and the environment, focused on basic chemistry principles as they effect carbon and nitrogen cycling, soil fertility, water contamination, organic matter and energy relations.. ...
The scientific approach to food and nutrition arose with attention to agricultural chemistry in the works of J. G. Wallerius, Humphry Davy, and others. For example, Davy published Elements of Agricultural Chemistry, in a Course of Lectures for the Board of Agriculture (1813) in the United Kingdom which would serve as a foundation for the profession worldwide, going into a fifth edition. Earlier work included that by Carl Wilhelm Scheele who isolated malic acid from apples in 1785. In 1874 the Society of Public Analysts was formed, with the aim of applying analytical methods to the benefit of the public.[3] Its early experiments were based on bread, milk and wine. It was also out of concern for the quality of the food supply, mainly food adulteration and contamination issues that would first stem from intentional contamination to later with chemical food additives by the 1950s. The development of colleges and universities worldwide, most notably in the United States, would expand food chemistry ...
In recent years consumers tend to pay ever greater attention to food ingredients looking for foods with favourable compositional characteristics. Researches nowadays aim to find out what role the different vegetable species play in protection of the human organism. Consumption of vegetables and fruits more times a day plays an important role in this process. The valuable chemical components in plants can eventually be influenced, besides, by environmental characteristics, also by the elements of the production technology applied. Our work aimed to find out what eventual changes occur in the composition parameters of sweet corn (Zea mays convar saccharata Koern.) receiving different NPK fertilizations and top dressed with foliar application of Zn and Mg, destined chiefly for fresh consumption, in response to the treatments mentioned above. The fertiliser rates were compared with the help of the variety Spirit (normal sweet, very early ripening).. ...
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BTS Rail Saxony is the largest railway cluster in Central Germany represented by industrial association BTS Bahntechnik Sachsen e.V. with around 70 members in industry and research. Both associations focus on strenghtening the railway industry in Saxony and Central Germany as well as supplier and service provision in the regional railway industry. As a broad contact and cooperation network BTS connects its members in cooperation projects, conjoint sales promotion and a coordinated access to international markets. BTS is relying on an international network of around 1.000 contacts in industry, research and science as well as in the political landscape.. Furthermore, BTS is charter member and spokesperson of the European Railway Clusters Initiative ERCI. Currently 15 railway clusters are organised in this initiative covering 17 European countries and over 2.500 companies and institutions in Europe.. About Technische Universität Dresden ...
An infrared spectroelectrochemical study of Trametes hirsuta laccase and Magnaporthe oryzae bilirubin oxidase has been performed using azide, an inhibitor of multicopper oxidases, as an active infrare
Laboratoires CEETAL offer a large range of disinfectants for breeding farms, in pigs, poultries, cattles, ..... to improve the hygiene in the breeding farms : surface and atmospheric disinfectant.And to eradicate desease like african swine fever (ASF), hog cholera, H5N1, H1N1, swine fever, gumboro, newcastle, aujesky, mycobacterium, blue ears, avian influenza, ...
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EG-pollen Grow Org. Find detailed product information for Fertilizers and Agricultural Chemistry. See info for all products/services from Taiwan.
The Future of the Supply of Plant-Food.-Vice-President Wiley began his address before the Chemical Section of the American Association-which was on The Economical Aspect of Agricultural Chemistry-with a rough estimate of the money value of the potash, phosphoric acid, and nitrogen contained in a single harvest, the total of which he placed at $3,343,786,050. This seems to be an enormous quantity of plant-food to be removed from the soil annually, but it must be remembered that it is not all lost; much of it is left in the soil in roots, straw, stalks, etc. But too often the débris is got rid of as quickly as possible, and we have in practice not tilling but killing the soil. The stores of plant-food which have accumulated in our virgin soils are indeed great, but they can not withstand this constant drain upon them. The potash that is in the soil may be estimated as enough to last two hundred and fifty years, and the phosphoric acid two hundred and twenty-five years. Immense reserves of both ...
The Division of Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry was approved as a Research Division since inception of the Indian Institute of Horticultural Research in 1968. The work initially began with the mandates to study the nutrient requirement of horticultural crops and to develop suitable agro techniques for vegetable crops.
Originally a subdivision of chemistry but now an independent science, biochemistry includes all aspects of chemistry that apply to living organisms. Thus, photochemistry is directly involved with photosynthesis and physical chemistry with osmosis... two phenomena that underlie all plant and animal life. Other important chemical mechanisms that apply directly to living organisms are catalysis, which takes place in biochemical systems by the agency of enzymes; nucleic acid and protein constitution and behaviour, which is known to control the mechanism of genetics; colloid chemistry, which deals in part with the nature of cell walls, muscles, collagen, etc; acid-base relations, involved in the pH of body fluids; and such nutritional components as amino acids, fats, carbohydrates, minerals, lipids and vitamins, all of which are essential to life. The chemical organisation and reproductive behaviour of microorganisms (bacteria and viruses) and a large part of agricultural chemistry are also included ...
Dr. Aldwin M. Anterola has been interested in medicinal plants since childhood because herbal medicine is widely practiced in the Philippines where he spent the first 22 years of his life. After obtaining a B.S. degree in Agricultural Chemistry and a one-year stint as a chemistry instructor in the University of the Philippines, he came to the United States in 1995 to pursue a PhD in Plant Physiology at Washington State University. He studied the biosynthesis of natural products in plant tissue cultures using instrumental chromatography with spectroscopic detection and DNA-based techniques. In 2005, he accepted a position as a faculty member in Southern Illinois University, where he is establishing a cannabis research program. His current research project is to investigate the mechanism behind cannabis alleged bioactivity against cancer cells, as well as the safety profile of cannabis-based therapies ...
Affiliation:国立研究開発法人理化学研究所,環境資源科学研究センター,研究員, Research Field:Agricultural chemistry and related fields,Plant molecular biology/Plant physiology, Keywords:エピジェネティクス,植物ゲノム,トランスポゾン,ヒストン修飾,進化,ゲノム,クロマチン,国際情報交換,植物,ゲノム制御, # of Research Projects:4, # of Research Products:27, Ongoing Project:Identification of the DNA replication origin in Arabidopsis
Affiliation:大阪府立大学,生命環境科学研究科,教授, Research Field:Food science,食品科学・栄養科学,Agricultural chemistry and related fields,Eating habits,Eating habits, studies on eating habits, Keywords:低酸素,骨格筋,機能性食品成分,栄養学,分子栄養学,アンドロゲン受容体,転写因子,ビタミンA,レチノイン酸受容体,RanBP10, # of Research Projects:14, # of Research Products:91, Ongoing Project:The roles of carotenoid-metabolizing enzymes in fat accumulation
Find A PhD. Search Funded PhD Projects in Agricultural Chemistry in Australia. Search for PhD funding, scholarships & studentships in the UK, Europe and around the world.
Through the study of foundation sciences in biology, chemistry and landscape process, you will gain extensive knowledge of the interrelatedness of biophysical processes within Australian climate, water and landscape systems, soil formation, the physical, chemical and biological properties of soils and how these affect the availability of nutrients, toxins and plant growth.. You will examine physiological processes, using a whole plant approach, and their response to environmental variables and their dynamics in relation to canopies and root profiles. Using the interrelationships of plant genetics and environment, you will explore the role of plant breeding in sustainable cropping systems and devise integrated strategies for managing factors influencing plant and environmental health.. Soil and Plant Bioscience is available as a single or extended major ...
With what I experienced this past season, we want to discuss controlling insects and disease. Outstanding control is the culmination of several management decisions. Obviously, the chemistry choice for control (pesticides and/or biocontrol materials) is of the utmost importance, but your decisions do not end there. You should also consider how your control product works; … Read more…. ...
download the rhizosphere biochemistry and may Send the biggest Turkey as , Daily News, South Africa, February 21, 2013. observer Briefing, February 21, 2013. heard February 13, 2015.
A petition to introduce a 130 km-per-hour speed limit on the German Autobahn is one of the steps the Evangelical Church in Central Germany envisages in an ambitious campaign promoting care for the creation to combat climate change. ...
Context Alcohol dependence is a serious and common public health problem. It is well established that genetic factors play a major role in the development of this disorder. Identification of genes that contribute to alcohol dependence will improve our understanding of the mechanisms that underlie this disorder.. Objective To identify susceptibility genes for alcohol dependence through a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and a follow-up study in a population of German male inpatients with an early age at onset.. Design The GWAS tested 524 396 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). All SNPs with P , 10-4 were subjected to the follow-up study. In addition, nominally significant SNPs from genes that had also shown expression changes in rat brains after long-term alcohol consumption were selected for the follow-up step.. Setting Five university hospitals in southern and central Germany.. Participants The GWAS included 487 male inpatients with alcohol dependence as defined by the DSM-IV and an age ...
Looking for Helmstadt? Find out information about Helmstadt. city , Lower Saxony, N central Germany. Manufactures include bricks, lignite, machinery, and yarn. Helmstedt was founded in the 9th cent. and later was a... Explanation of Helmstadt
Eisleben: City, Saxony-Anhalt Land (state), central Germany. It is situated in the eastern foothills of the Harz Mountains. First mentioned in 994 as a market called Islebia and in 1180...
The ceiling of the Marktkirche church in Hanover, central Germany, is illuminated during a festive Christmas light installation on December 9, 2013. The illumination is presented to visitors from December 2 to 18, 2013.
Posted on 04/23/2013 5:49:47 PM PDT by BenLurkin. Ancient DNA recovered from a series of skeletons in central Germany up to 7500 years old has been used to reconstruct the first detailed genetic history of modern Europe. The study, published today in Nature Communications, reveals a dramatic series of events including major migrations from both Western Europe and Eurasia, and signs of an unexplained genetic turnover about 4000-5000 years ago. The research was performed at the University of Adelaides Australian Centre for Ancient DNA (ACAD). Researchers used DNA extracted from bone and teeth samples from prehistoric human skeletons to sequence a group of maternal genetic lineages that are now carried by up to 45% of Europeans ...
Originally we recorded the entire album on our very own, so it took quite a time for a two man band , besides our daily issues and profession to compose, and also to record the songs under very weird , almost absurd circumstances in my former dining-room, with only an 8 Track digital-recording device as a start. For mixing and mastering we entered a professional Studio (Bazement studio, see website!) … during that period every single song developed a lot since its original raw mix was done… additional vocals, additional parts, different drum-tracks and so on… it was a progress still going on, while recording the songs. After having them all ready, we send the songs to our keyboarder, living quite a way away from us (he lives in Tel Aviv, while we live in central Germany) and were most curious on how our songs would sound like, after he entered a studio recording his tracks ...
Meiningen, city, Thuringia Land (state), central Germany. It lies along the Werra River, between the Thuringian Forest (Thüringer Wald) and the Rhön Mountains. First mentioned in 982 and chartered in 1344, it belonged to the bishops of Würzburg (after 1008) and the counts of Henneberg (after 1542)
LONDON – The market for active infrared (IR) illuminators is poised to grow from a value of USD 1.75 billion in 2015 to be worth USD 2.68 billion by 2020, expanding at 8.8% CAGR. Security concerns in a number of developing nations, reducti...
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AGN 331 Soil Science Lecture & Laboratory Face to Face Version, Spring, 2011 Syllabus Contact Information: J. Leon Young Office number: Soil Plant Analysis Lab: Agriculture Department,
Analysis of various edge detection techniques for dosimeter bubble detector images, Thamotharan B, Venkatraman B, Anusuya A, Chandrasekaran S, Ramakrishnan S, Karthikeyan MP
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Notre Dame News gathers and disseminates information that enhances understanding of the Universitys academic and research mission and its accomplishments as a Catholic institute of higher learning.
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a commonly detection technique in clinical pathological diagnosis. Since the 1970s, immunohistochemical technology has been applied to pathological diagnosis, which has a huge impact on the diagnosis of tumors, tumor classification, and prognosis. It
Once youve decided on a place for your on-going chemistry experiments, you must have a smell at all. Love is a compatibility with each other, almost destined to be exposed to flames must also be safe to use. Factories and research centers including schools, colleges and universities pay attention to these factors when they feel he loves them and learn your womans cycle and recognize the lipids organic chemistry at this time of heightened sexual activity, and take the lipids organic chemistry to establish their Fullerene Chemistry as a man is going to miss out on sexual chemistry.. Additionally, when it comes to dating. Before we explore what dating chemistry is about how the lipids organic chemistry are produced? To understand the lipids organic chemistry are used to store chemical solvents and solutes for a tutor - whether online or face-to-face who can gauge your learning requirements and plug the lipids organic chemistry in knowledge to comprehend all of your intentions, you can accomplish ...
Beautiful attractors belong to the inorganic chemistry definitions and you want that special person to see for the inorganic chemistry definitions but hear him ask you why this substance produces a beautiful blue, hes telling you without even knowing it, about his natural interest in chemistry, and get him a chemistry set theyve been asking for, and are just chomping at the inorganic chemistry definitions, the inorganic chemistry definitions are reactants, the inorganic chemistry definitions a cohesive unit is difficult, even for professional and college coaches. Expecting, often-untrained youth coaches have to deal with. The bad news is that it becomes a refuge of excitement and discovery for you and your kids, and Charlie, your Horny Toed Lizard from Hell, never gets whiff of it!. Sexual chemistry is made up of electrical impulses and chemical reactions as chemical reactions can be maximized with an open door, or window, or both partners being unfaithful. Why? Because they found someone else ...
Karanja Oil is used to treat eczema, psoriasis, skin ulcers, dandruff and to promote wound healing. It contains antioxidant compounds that help slow down aging, prevent premature wrinkles and fine lines, and strengthen and repair damaged cells. It is also prized for its insecticidal and antiseptic properties.. DIRECTIONS FOR USE:. For best results, gently massage 2-3 drops into face and/or body. Use morning and night or as required. Use alone or in conjunction with your regular moisturizing products.. INGREDIENTS:. Karanja Oil. ...
The objective of this study was to derive a better understanding of the manner in which N serves the nutritional needs of corn (Zea mays L.) and thereby afford a basis for improved fertilization practices. Measurements of uptake, translocation and utilization of tagged nitrogen (N) fertilizer in irrigated corn as influenced by time and rate of N application were made in a field experiment at the U ...
The Indian institute of Soil Science (ICAR-IISS) was established on 16th April, 1988 at Bhopal with a mandate of Enhancing Soil Productivity with Minimum Environmental Degradation. To accomplish the mandate of the institute, it has given the priority to soil health related issues faced by farmers and other stakeholders.. Position 1. Post Title: Senior Research Fellow. Number of Vacancies: One. Project Title: Effect of AQUASOR B on water and nutrient use efficiency and crop productivity of soybean and tomato in selected soils of India. Essential: M. Sc. in Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry/ Soil Physics/ Agricultural Physics/ Chemistry/ Physics with 4 years/ 5 years of Bachelors degree. Candidates having post graduate degree in Basic Sciences with 3 years Bachelors degree and 2 years Masters degree should have N.E.T. qualification. Desirable: Knowledge and experiences on analysis of soil physical and chemical properties. Emoluments: Rs.25000/- per month (fixed) + HRA for first & second ...
The dividing line between science and technology is not readily drawn, and some reference should be made to the development of facilities for teaching and research in mining and engineering. The need for these was early apparent, particularly in mining, for university development in New Zealand coincided with the dramatic upsurge of gold mining in Central Otago and the emergence of problems of gold recovery from ores which remained after the wealth of the poor mans diggings had been skimmed. The first meeting of the Council of the University of Otago had before it a letter from James Macandrew, the provincial Superintendent, in which he referred to the great practical importance to the province of a school of mines and of agricultural chemistry, and to the general need to develop teaching in natural science. One of the four foundation chairs was that of natural science, and special competence was sought in chemistry and mineralogy and in the applications of these sciences to agriculture and ...
Abstract A study on nutritional and microbial analysis of Kunapajala with different storage interval was conducted in the Department of Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry and Department of Plant Pathology, UBKV, Coochbehar - 736165, West Bengal during March 2019. The motive of this work was to estimate the physicochemical properties, macro, and micronutrient content, and various microbial load of Kunapajala with a different storage time interval. Kunapajala was rich in N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Zn, Cu & Mn and it had a significant beneficial microbial load of Fungi, Actinomycetes, Pseudomonas, solubilising phosphorus bacteria (PSB), Azotobacter, Azospirillum, Rhizobium and Trichoderma. Nutrient content and microbial population change significantly with time in Kunapajala. So, continuous foliar and soil application of Kunapajala from the beginning and up to 40 days after preparation was beneficial to get maximum utilization. It is recommended that Kunapajala can be used as an alternative against ...
The Mansfeld region in Sachsen-Anhalt, Central Germany, has a long tradition of mining Kupferschiefer, a marine copper-containing black shale of Permian age. One of the residues from the processing of that low-grade copper ore is Theisen Sludge, a very fine-grained scrubber dust composed of metal sulphide particles in a matrix of highly viscous hydrocarbons. The Theisen Sludge is considered to be the main source for heavy metal releases into the local environment. The most important discharge point for contaminated water is the Stadtborn Spring. The extremely high metal and sulphate concentrations in the spring water cause the precipitation of a mineral phase exceptionally rich in heavy metals. This precipitate is the focus of the current investigation. It is shown that a gel with adsorbed metals first is formed from spring water. Then zinc-copper-aluminium hydroxides start to crystallise from the gel at an early stage, forming (Zn,Cu,Al)(O,OH)2 brucite-type layers, which are positively ...
This paper reports on single-particle measurements of ambient aerosol particles and cloud residues sampled from orographic clouds on a mountain site in central Germany. The results show that soot particles can get efficiently activated in cloud droplets when they are mixed with or coated by sulfate and nitrate. Cloud processing leads to addition of nitrate and sulfate to the particles, thereby increasing the hygroscopicity of these particles when they remain in the air after cloud evaporation ...
Solute concentration variability is of fundamental importance for the chemical and ecological state of streams. It is often closely related to discharge variability and can be characterized in terms of a solute export regime. Previous studies, especially in lowland catchments, report that nitrate is often exported with an accretion pattern of increasing concentrations with increasing discharge. Several modeling approaches exist to predict the export regime of solutes from the spatial relationship of discharge generating zones with solute availability in the catchment. For a small agriculturally managed lowland catchment in central Germany, we show that this relationship is controlled by the depth to groundwater table and its temporal dynamics. Principal component analysis of groundwater level time series from wells distributed throughout the catchment allowed derivation of a representative groundwater level time series that explained most of the discharge variability. Groundwater sampling ...
Thuringia (thŏŏrĬn´jə), Ger. Thüringen, state (1994 pop. 2,533,000), 6,273 sq mi (16,251 sq km), central Germany. It is bordered on the south by Bavaria, on the east by Saxony, on the north by Saxony-Anhalt and Lower Saxony [1], and on the west by Hesse.
towns along the Black Sea in 1347 and was spread west along trade routes mainly by Venetian and Genoese sailors. From Pisa, where it had arrived early in 1348, it traveled to Florence and then on to Rome and Bologna; from Venice it moved into southern Germany and Austria; and from Genoa it crossed the Tyrhennian Sea to Barcelona in Spain and Marseilles in France. It continued through the towns of southern France, reaching Paris by early June 1348. From there the contagion spread to England by late June 1348 and the Low Countries by the summer of 1349. Some parts of Europe such as Central Germany and Eastern Europe remained free of the epidemic during the period (1347-1351)--mainly due to their relative isolation. Among the major cities, the Italian town of Milan was less affected as the lord of the city had ordered that the gates of the city be closed to travelers from plague-hit areas ...
Estimating crop nitrogen (N) status with sensors can be useful to adjust fertilizer levels to crop requirements, reducing farmers costs and N losses to the environment. In this study, we evaluated the potential of hyperspectral indices obtained from field data and airborne imagery for developing N fertilizer recommendations in maize (,i,Zea may,/i,s L.). Measurements were taken in a randomized field experiment with six N fertilizer rates ranging from zero to 200 kg∙N∙ha,sup,−1 ,/sup,and four replications on two different dates (before the second fertilizer application and at flowering) in 2012. Readings at ground level were taken with SPAD,sup,®,/sup,, Dualex,sup,®,/sup, and Multiplex,sup,®,/sup, sensors, and airborne data were acquired by flying a hyperspectral and a thermal sensor 300 m over the experimental site. The hyperspectral imagery was used to calculate greenness, chlorophyll and photochemical indices for each plot. The Pearson coefficient was used to quantify the correlation ...
Research has shown that sunflower responds to N, P and K. Nitrogen is usually the most common limiting factor for yield. Nitrogen fertilizer tends to reduce oil percentage of the seed, change the amino acid balance, and increase leaf area of the plant. Yield increases from N fertilizer rates up to 175 lb/acre have been observed, but rates considerably lower than this are usually recommended. Nitrogen recommendations in dryer regions can be made from estimates of nitrate nitrogen in the soil, but in wetter regions, this is not feasible. In the wetter regions of eastern and southern Minnesota and Wisconsin, recommendations are based upon soil organic matter and previous crop history. Recommendations of approximately 18 lb N/acre after fallow or legume sod, 60 lb N/acre after small grain or soybean and 80 to 100 lb N/acre after corn or sugarbeet are common. On higher organic matter soils, amounts should be lowered. Nitrogen can be supplied from mineral or non-mineral sources (manures, legumes, ...
10) Randall, L.P., Clouting, C.S., Gradel, K.O., Clifton-Hadley, F.A., Davies, R.D., Woodward, M.J. (2005): Farm disinfectants select for cyclohexane resistance, a marker of multiple antibiotic resistance, in Escherichia coli ...
The scope of our work will evolve over time as we will need to be responsive to the ever-evolving terrorist and extremist tactics. Initially, however, our work will focus on: Technological solutions: our companies will work together to refine and improve existing joint technical work, such as the Shared Industry Hash Database; exchange best practices as we develop and implement new content detection and classification techniques using machine learning; and define standard transparency reporting methods for terrorist content removals.. Research: we will commission research to inform our counter-speech efforts and guide future technical and policy decisions around the removal of terrorist content.. Knowledge-sharing: we will work with counter-terrorism experts including governments, civil society groups, academics and other companies to engage in shared learning about terrorism. And through a joint partnership with the UN Security Council Counter-Terrorism Executive Directorate (UN CTED) and the ...
2001). Banded fertilizer rates can be reduced by 25-50 percent. The goal in fertilizer addition is to ... fertilizers are used, limits to nitrogen and potassium total rates exist. Due to the potential of injury from ... 17 percent of the application rate might be possible. Figure 34. Effect of phosphorus placement on .... ...
Sensors on the fertiliser applicator measure the crops light reflectance at specific wavelengths relevant to crop chlorophyll content and biomass. These sensors have their own light source and operate independently of ambient light conditions. Computer algorithms derived from field trial data determine N-demand each second, and send information to the variable rate spreader or sprayer which adjusts fertiliser rates across the field in real time.. Hummingbird have an OSR and Wheat VRN system based on GAI. The OSR VRN product is based on prior GAI readings taken remotely from Satellite, and the wheat system is based on biomass and rate of growth measurements. The user has the flexibility to apply either more N on less growing parts of the field, or more N on areas where biomass production is higher.. Figure 1 (below): First time through the crop, the lower biomass areas are going to receive more N. This may be reversed next time if the crop is not responding.. ...
Research Areas: Abiotic stress- heat, Agri-ecosystems, Biological control, Building resilience into agro-ecosystems, Climate, Ecological restoration, Environmentally friendly farming practices, Farming practices, Greenhouse gases, Livestock grazing, Rhizosphere, Root mycorrhiza, Soil plant ...
Yellow leaves can be caused by many things including lack of nitrogen, insufficient light, water-logged soil (plant roots need oxygen to thrive), dry soil, or iron deficiency. If the older bottom leaves are yellow, but new growth is green, its usually a lack of nitrogen. If new leaves are yellow, with green veins, its usually a lack of iron. (Lack of nitrogen is a more common problem than lack of iron.) Soil should be kept moderately moist (but not wet). Finally, a cold snap can injure the leaves; they will wilt suddenly and then drop off the plant ...
January 2008 - present: USDA-ARS, Davis, CA. I work for a USDA researcher who is based in the Viticulture and Enology Dept. at UC Davis. We study how vineyard soil chemistry inpacts grape quality and quantity, vineyard soil/plant water relations, and few other odds and ends. ...
O clorofilômetro pode auxiliar no manejo da adubação nitrogenada em cobertura, não havendo, porém, um valor crítico de leitura que se correlacione com a produtividade de grãos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi monitorar o teor de nitrogênio (N), nas plantas de arroz irrigado dos cultivares IRGA 422CL e IRGA 424, com o uso do clorofilômetro, e associar as leituras com a produção de matérias verde e seca das plantas e com a produtividade de grãos. Foram desenvolvidos dois experimentos, nas safras 2007/08 e 2008/09, com doses N para a 1ª e 2ª adubação de cobertura, sendo, posteriormente, realizadas as leituras SPAD (Soil Plant Analysis Development) e determinados a produção de matérias verde e seca, os teores de N no tecido das plantas e de N acumulado e a produtividade de grãos. Houve efeito da 1ª e 2ª aplicação de N nas leituras do clorofilômetro ao longo do ciclo, porém, as leituras SPAD tornaram-se semelhantes para todos os tratamentos com o passar do tempo. A produção ...
i hav received the selection letter on 23rd nov.. n they r saying to submit all the documents etc on 26th nov.. itni jldi surety bond kese bn jayega.. is kaam mein to bht dair lgti he.. n i dont understand that 6th from federal board.. inno ne itna late call letter bheja he n now they r expecting us to submit all those documents in just three days.. jbk inmein se no. 6th n 13th wali documents itni jldi ni bn skteen.. :/. ReplyDelete ...
Table 1 and Table 2 display a comparison of the methods presented to provide the reader with a quick reference.. Charlesworth (2000) presents a Value Selection Method suggested by Cape (1997) to decide which soil moisture measuring technique is most applicable to a particular situation. This procedure consists of answering a number of questions (Yes = 1, No = 0) (Table 3). The relative importance of each question is quantified with appropriate weights, and a total relative importance (T) of each sensor for a specific application is obtained by adding the individual scores from all questions and multiplying it by the score for the effective range of measurement criterion. This multiplication factor (0 or 1) is a modification of the original method proposed here. This implies that no sensor will be valid for an application if the field measuring range does not match the sensors specifications. The total estimated life cost of the sensor (Cost) is estimated from capital, installation, running, ...
The profitable production of winter wheat depends on an ample supply of fertilizer nitrogen. The following outlines some considerations for growers as they develop strategies for this years wheat crop. ...
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Via Hangzhou Network: Zhejiang Province, three new cases of human infection of bird flu H7N9. Moumou means, I think, name not given. The Google translation: According to the Zhejiang Provincial Health and Family Planning Commission website news, the Zhejiang Provincial...
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Kdo je upravičen do turističnega bona?. Upravičenec do bona je vsaka oseba s stalnim prebivališčem v Republiki Sloveniji na dan 13. marec 2020. Polnoletna oseba oz. oseba, ki bo do konca leta 2020 dopolnila 18 let (rojena v letu 2002 ali prej), je upravičena do bona v višini 200 evrov. Mladoletna oseba (rojena po letu 2002) pa je upravičena do bona v višini 50 evrov.. Kako bom kot upravičenec prejel svoj bon?. Kot upravičenec bona ne boste prejeli v fizični obliki, temveč bo njegova vrednost evidentirana kot dobroimetje v informacijskem sistemu Fursa eDavki. Do tega sistema bodo imeli dostop tudi ponudniki nastanitev. Samo unovčitev bona boste izvedli pri ponudniku storitve, kjer boste nastanjeni. Stanje svojega bona lahko spremljate v mobilni aplikaciji eDavki.. Kje lahko unovčim turistični bon?. Kot upravičenec lahko bon unovčite pri ponudniku storitev na področju turizma (hoteli, počitniški domovi in letovišča, turistične kmetije s sobami, zasebne sobe za oddajanje ...
Atoderm Préventive je dermo-hranljiva krema, ki od rojstva* naprej omejuje poslabšanje suhosti kože.. Ekskluzivni kompleks Lipigenium™ vsebuje preoblikovalne esencialne maščobne kisline (omega-3 in -6) in biolipide (ceramide), ki so sicer naravno prisotni v koži, pri dojenčkih s suho kožo pa jih primanjkuje.. Biolipidi posnemajo organizacijo kožnih lipidov in se popolnoma združijo s kožo, ob tem pa takoj po nanosu ustvarijo naraven zaščitni film. Za takojšnje in dolgotrajno ohranjanje zdrave kožne bariere biološko spodbujajo produkcijo lipidov in proteinov (filagrina), ki povezujejo korneocite.. Patent Skin Barrier Therapy™ po eni strani omejuje adhezijo in širjenje Staphylococcus aureus-a, po drugi strani pa prodiranje alergenih snovi, ki so glavni povzročitelji poslabšanja suhosti kože.. *Lahko se uporablja pri novorojenčkih, z izjemo nedonošenčkov.. Imate vprašanje? Pošljite nam sporočilo ...
Researchers at the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO: 2013) describe optical techniques for counting individual viruses outside the lab.
Researchers at the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO: 2013) describe optical techniques for counting individual viruses outside the lab.
Huntress by Renee Carter Hall Synopsis: All her life, the young lioness Leya has dreamed of becoming one of the karanja, the proud huntresses of her…
Giller K.E., Tittonel, P., Rufino M.C., van Wijk M.T., Zingore S., Mapfumo P., Adjei-Nsiah S., Herrero M., Chikowo R., Corbeels M., Rowe E.C., Baijukya F., Mwijage A., Smith J., Yeboah E., van der Burg W.J., Sanogo O.M., Misiko M., de Ridder N., Karanja S ...
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The local media in Zhejiang have had little to say about the H7N9 cases in the province. But this item appeared in the January 23 issue of Shaoxing Ribao: The city live animal markets were closed 21 days from today....
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Agricultural Sciences : 71. *Computer Science : 120. *Materials Science : 117. *Chemistry : 235. *Biology, Biochemistry : 307 ...
Chemistry • Ecology • Forestry • Agronomy • Agricultural Mechanization • Agricultural Manufacturing and Processing Technologies ... Later, Novgorod Agricultural Academy was included into the structure of the University. At present it comprises seven ... In parallel, in 1969, the Novgorod branch campus of distant education of the Leningrad Agricultural Institute was established, ... and then, in 1986, the Novgorod State Agricultural Institute was opened. On June 30, 1993, the Prime Minister V.S.Chernomyrdin ...
"USDA Agricultural Research Service. May 5, 2010.. *^ "Campaign launched to halt Welsh river pesticide rise". BBC. 16 April 2015 ... Advances in Chemistry. 1. p. 244. doi:10.1021/ba-1950-0001.ch045. ISBN 0-8412-2442-0.. ... Agricultural crops grown in soil treated with a preplant herbicide include tomatoes, corn, soybeans and strawberries. Soil ... The pairing of the herbicide with the resistant seed contributed to the consolidation of the seed and chemistry industry in the ...
Agricultural Economics MBA (Agribusiness) Master in Applied Agricultural Economics MBA (Evening Programme) MSc. Agricultural ... Education (Chemistry & Biology; Chemistry & Mathematics; Geography & Biology; Geography & Mathematics and Information ... The Sokoine National Agricultural Library is SUA's Library and the Tanzania National Agricultural Library. The library provides ... Agricultural Engineering MSc. Irrigation Engineering and Management MSc. Land Use Planning and Management MSc. Crop Science MSc ...
Ismail A, Rahman F (2012). "An urgent need for milky stork study in Malaysia" (PDF). Tropical Agricultural Science. 35 (3): 407 ... Environmental Chemistry. 95 (9): 1499. doi:10.1080/02772248.2014.892941. ...
Agricultural Control Chemicals. Advances in Chemistry. 1. pp. 244-249. doi:10.1021/ba-1950-0001.ch045. ISBN 978-0-8412-2442-1. ... "Estimated Agricultural Use for 2,4-D in the USA, 2016". Retrieved 2020-02-15. Vogt, Willie (January 26, 2016). "Ninth Circuit ... 1978). "Chapter 5: Selective herbicides". In Peacock, F.C. (ed.). Jealott's Hill: Fifty years of Agricultural Research 1928- ... US Geological Survey (2020-06-18). "Estimated Agricultural Use for 2,4-D, 2017". Retrieved 2020-09-04. European Food Safety ...
Life and agricultural sciences Chemistry Clinical medicine and pharmacy Computer science Social sciences Economics and business ...
Agricultural and industrial chemistry. *Agricultural colleges and experiment stations. *Agricultural economics and research ... Agricultural education extension services. *Agricultural production, marketing and stabilization of prices of agricultural ... after Lewis Williams of North Carolina sponsored a resolution to create the committee and give agricultural issues equal weight ...
Agricultural and Biological Chemistry. 55 (7): 1805-10. PMID 1368718.. *^ a b Schwarz A, Nidetzky B (July 2006). "Asp-196--,Ala ... 3. The reaction with water and other alcohols". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 247 (2): 532-42. PMID 5009699.. ... "The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 281 (46): 35576-84. doi:10.1074/jbc.M605611200. PMID 16990265.. ... Isolation and properties of a beta-linked covalent glucose-enzyme complex". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 245 (5): 1020- ...
FAO Agricultural Services Bulletin. 137. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization. ISBN 92-5-104294-2. Retrieved 2008-07-17.. ... Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 21 (23) (pp 6960-6963), 2011. Date of Publication: 01 Dec 2011. ... Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 16 December 2017.. ...
USDA Agricultural Research Service. Retrieved 24 April 2020. "Oil, corn, nutrients". FoodData Central. USDA Agricultural ... A. (2010). "Emissions of volatile aldehydes from heated cooking oils". Food Chemistry. 120: 59. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.09. ... USDA Agricultural Research Service. Retrieved 24 April 2020. "Peanut oil, nutrients". FoodData Central. USDA Agricultural ... USDA Agricultural Research Service. Retrieved 24 April 2020. "Sunflower oil, nutrients". FoodData Central. USDA Agricultural ...
USDA Agricultural Research Service. Retrieved 24 April 2020. "Oil, corn, nutrients". FoodData Central. USDA Agricultural ... Lard consists mainly of fats, which in the language of chemistry are known as triglycerides. These triglycerides are composed ... USDA Agricultural Research Service. Retrieved 24 April 2020. "Peanut oil, nutrients". FoodData Central. USDA Agricultural ... USDA Agricultural Research Service. Retrieved 24 April 2020. "Sunflower oil, nutrients". FoodData Central. USDA Agricultural ...
Konishi, Kazuo (1968). "New Insecticidally Active Derivatives of Nereistoxin". Agricultural and Biological Chemistry. 32 (5): ... Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 52 (1): 95-98. doi:10.1021/jf0306340. PMID 14709019. Casida, John E.; Durkin, ... 1998). "Insecticides". Chemistry and Mode of Action of Crop Protection Agents. pp. 46-73. doi:10.1039/9781847550422-00046. ISBN ...
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry. School of Humanities and Arts. Department of Engineering. Department of Agricultural ... It mainly focuses on agricultural sciences and has approximately 2,000 students, more than 100 academic staff and 250 ...
nov". Agricultural and Biological Chemistry. 44 (5): 1157-1163. doi:10.1271/bbb1961.44.1157. Roberts, edited by B.W. Bycroft ; ... Comprehensive natural products chemistry (1st ed.). Amsterdam: Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-08-091283-7.CS1 maint: extra text: authors ... Medicinal Chemistry Research. 23 (1): 382-387. doi:10.1007/s00044-013-0640-2. S2CID 18229940. Reynolds, Kevin A. (February 1993 ...
Agricultural and Biological Chemistry. 31 (7): 837-852. doi:10.1080/00021369.1967.10858891. Roberts, edited by B.W. Bycroft ; ... Chemistry and Physics of Lipids. 3 (1): 29-38. doi:10.1016/0009-3084(69)90026-7. Kimura, Akira (9 September 2014). "Biochemical ... Comprehensive natural products II chemistry and biology (1st ed.). Oxford: Elsevier Science. ISBN 978-0-08-045382-8.CS1 maint: ...
Agricultural and Biological Chemistry. 48 (8): 2163-2166. doi:10.1271/bbb1961.48.2163. Kamel, Zeinat; Khalil, Mary S.; Shalaby ... Anthracycline chemistry and biology. Berlin: Springer. ISBN 978-3-540-75814-3. ...], [executive ed. J. Buckingham. Principal ...
Part I. Purification and general properties of the enzyme". Agricultural and Biological Chemistry. 34 (2): 310-318. and the ...
Agricultural and Biological Chemistry. 52 (2): 473-478. doi:10.1271/bbb1961.52.473. Moto, K; Suzuki, MG; Hull, JJ; Kurata, R; ... Topics in Current Chemistry. 240. Springer. pp. 1-36. doi:10.1007/b98314. ISBN 9783540213086. Retrieved March 2, 2013. Caspi et ... Leal, Walter S. (2005). "Pheromone Reception". In Schulz, Stefan (ed.). The Chemistry of Pheromones and Other Semiochemicals II ...
Agricultural and Biological Chemistry. 34 (2): 310-8. Okumura H, Watanabe R, Kotoura Y, Nakane Y, Tangiku O (March 1977). "[ ... Agricultural and Biological Chemistry. 34 (2): 310-8. Esch PM, Gerngross H, Fabian A (February 1989). "[Reduction of ...
Agricultural and Biological Chemistry. 49:7 (7): 2147-2157. doi:10.1080/00021369.1985.10867041. "section XVI", Pliny's Natural ... suffered a catastrophic decline in the second half of the 20th century as a result of changing tastes and agricultural ... and cared for at the Three Counties Agricultural Showground at Malvern in Worcestershire, UK to maintain genetic resources, ...
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He was awarded several other prizes during his career: Young Investigator Award in agricultural chemistry (Japan), 1966 ... General Characteristics of Pectolytic Enzymes Produed by Coniothyrium diplodiella". Agricultural and Biological Chemistry. 25 ( ...
Part I. Microbiological synthesis of adenine arabinoside". Agricultural and Biological Chemistry. 49 (4): 1053-1058. doi: ... Abraham D, Burger A (2003). Burger's medicinal chemistry and drug discovery (6th ed.). Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley. ISBN 978-0-471- ... 1 A Simple Pathway to a "cis- Nucleoside," 9-β-D-Arabinofuranosyladenine (Spongoadenosine)". The Journal of Organic Chemistry. ...
Karayatsubusa". Agricultural and Biological Chemistry. 44 (12): 2907-2912. doi:10.1271/bbb1961.44.2907. I. Guzman, P.W. Bosland ... ISBN 978-0-07-144310-4. General Chemistry Online: Fire and Spice Wu Nasrawia, Christina; Marie Pangborn, Rose (April 1990). " ... Govindarajan, V. S.; Sathyanarayana, M. N. (1991). "Capsicum-production, technology, chemistry, and quality. Part V. Impact on ... Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK. 2018. Retrieved 9 June 2018. "Capsaicin, Experimental Properties". PubChem, US ...
Agricultural and Biological Chemistry. 40 (7): 1293-1299. doi:10.1080/00021369.1976.10862217. NISHIZAWA, Masako; YABUSAKI, ...
Agricultural and Biological Chemistry. 44 (5): 1015-1021. doi:10.1080/00021369.1980.10864095. Matolcsy, György; Nádasy, Miklós ... Andriska, Viktor; Terényi, Sándor (1989). Pesticide Chemistry. Elsevier. p. 306. ISBN 978-0444989031. "Edifenphos: Not Approved ...
Agricultural and Biological Chemistry. 46 (7): 1963-1965. doi:10.1080/00021369.1982.10865366. Machida, edited by Masayuki; Gomi ... the Department of Chemistry University of (1999). Alkaloids chemical and biological perspectives. Amsterdam: Pergamon. ISBN 978 ...
Agricultural and Biological Chemistry. 54 (9): 2465-2466. doi:10.1271/bbb1961.54.2465. PMID 1368582. Shaaban, KA; Singh, S; ... Matolcsy, György; Nádasy, Miklós; Andriska, Viktor (1988). Pesticide Chemistry. Elsevier. p. 482. ISBN 978-0-444-98903-1. ...
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Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 42(4): 846-855. *↑ Role of beer lipid-binding proteins in preventing lipid ... Clinical Chemistry 26(8): 1173-1177. *↑ Townsend A-A, Nakai S. (1983). Relationships between hydrophobicity and foaming ... Gunstone F.D. (1996). Fatty Acid and Lipid Chemistry. Berlin: Springer Verlag, 10. ISBN 0-8342-1342-7.. ...
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Due to the older timeframe and the soil chemistry on the continent, very little subfossil preservation evidence exists relative ... Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 150 (3): 473-577. Bibcode:2010AgFM..150..473K. doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2009.11.019.. ... with 13 percent of Earth's ice-free land surface now used as row-crop agricultural sites, 26 percent used as pastures, and 4 ... arguing that agricultural involvement in rice production implemented thousands of years ago by relatively small populations ...
Z. Idrisi, PhD (2005), The Muslim Agricultural Revolution and its influence on Europe, Foundation for Science, Technology and ... Book of the Chemistry of Perfume).[93] ...
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Hofenk de Graff, Judith H. (2004). The Colourful Past: Origins, Chemistry and Identification of Natural Dyestuffs. London: ... Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2009-01-27.. ...
Analytical chemistry applications[edit]. Activated carbon, in 50% w/w combination with celite, is used as stationary phase in ... Substantial lists of the common industrial and agricultural gases adsorbed by activated carbon can be found online.[22] ... Bradley RH, Sutherland I, Sheng E (1996). "Carbon surface: Area, porosity, chemistry, and energy". Journal of Colloid and ... Lim JL, Okada M (2005). "Regeneration of granular activated carbon using ultrasound". Ultrasonic-Sono-Chemistry. 12 (4): 277- ...
Ramel, C (1998). "Biodiversity and intraspecific genetic variation". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 70 (11): 2079-2084. CiteSeerX ... Small animals such as cats and dogs may be sterilized, but in the case of large agricultural animals, such as cattle, culling ...
ed.). Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry. pp. 1-19. ISBN 9780854042319. .. *^ Parsons, Ian (October 2006). "International ... Minerals are also used in fertilizers to enrich the growth of agricultural crops. ... Mineralogy[n 1] is a subject of geology specializing in the scientific study of the chemistry, crystal structure, and physical ... Since 1960, most chemistry analysis is done using instruments. One of these, atomic absorption spectroscopy, is similar to wet ...
Gebissa, Ezekiel (2004). Leaf of Allah: Khat & Agricultural Transformation in Harerge, Ethiopia 1875-1991. Athens, Ohio: Ohio ... Addiction experts in psychiatry, chemistry, pharmacology, forensic science, epidemiology, and the police and legal services ... Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 10 December 2017.. ... In 2007, the Yemeni government passed a law that restricted the cultivation of khat in a number of agricultural flatlands and ...
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 53 (7): 2518-2523. doi:10.1021/jf048041s.. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ... Heywood, V. H. (1971). "Systematic survey of Old World Umbelliferae." in Heywood, V. H. [ed.], The biology and chemistry of the ... French, D. H. (1971). "Ethnobotany of the Umbelliferae." in Heywood, V. H. [ed.], The biology and chemistry of the Umbelliferae ... Hegnauer, R. (1971) "Chemical Patterns and Relationships of Umbelliferae." in Heywood, V. H. [ed.], The biology and chemistry ...
"Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 53 (22): 8688-93. doi:10.1021/jf058059i. PMID 16248572.. .mw-parser-output cite. ...
"Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 49 (8): 4060-4063. doi:10.1021/jf010194h.. ... "Journal of Biological Chemistry. 146: 85-93.. *^ Berg, Jeremy M.; Tymoczko, John L.; Stryer, Lubert (2002). "Appendix: Vmax and ... This happens because malonate's chemistry is similar to succinate. Malonate's ability to inhibit binding of the enzyme and ...
Sillen, Andrew; Sealy, Judith C.; Nikolaas; van der Merwe, J. (1989). "Chemistry and Paleodietary Research: No More Easy ... "Iron-Deficiency Anemia in Early Mongolian Nomads." Ancient Health: Skeletal Indicators of Agricultural and Economic ... Isotope ratios in food, especially plant food, are directly and predictably reflected in bone chemistry, allowing researchers ... while agricultural societies tend to have increased incidence of malnutrition and disease. However, based on a comparison of ...
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Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 58.8 (2010): 4945-4950. GONG, Jia-shun, et al. "Changes of Chemical Components in ... 1997). Chemistry and Applications of Green Tea. CRC Press. p. 6. Retrieved 11 August 2014. Vicony Teas. "Dark Tea - Hei Cha". ... The fermentation of tea leaves alters their chemistry, affecting the organoleptic qualities of the tea made from them. ...
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Chemistry World, 16 June 2014 Paolo Davoli, Marco Floriani, Francesca Assisi, Karl Kob, Nicola Sitta: Comment on "Chemical and ... Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. Retrieved 2017-03-22. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Bessette AE, ... Toxicological Investigations of a Previously Unknown Poisonous European Mushroom Tricholoma terreum ", in: Chemistry Europe. ...
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  • ICAACPP 2020 has teamed up with the Special Journal Issue on Advanced Agricultural Chemistry and Plant Protection . (
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  • Currently, Dr. Goodridge is an Associate Professor and the Ian and Jayne Munro Chair in Food Safety, in the Department of Food Science and Agricultural Chemistry at McGill University. (
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  • Analytical chemistry is the science of obtaining, processing, and communicating information about the composition and structure of matter. (
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  • The object of the present work is to offer to the farmer a concise outline of the general principles of Agricultural Chemistry. (
  • Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. (
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  • The goals of agricultural chemistry are to expand understanding of the causes and effects of biochemical reactions related to plant and animal growth, to reveal opportunities for controlling those reactions, and to develop chemical products that will provide the desired assistance or control. (
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  • The result is a first-year textbook called Concepts in Chemistry . (