Organic chemistry methodology that mimics the modular nature of various biosynthetic processes. It uses highly reliable and selective reactions designed to "click" i.e., rapidly join small modular units together in high yield, without offensive byproducts. In combination with COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES, it is used for the synthesis of new compounds and combinatorial libraries.
The specialty of ANALYTIC CHEMISTRY applied to assays of physiologically important substances found in blood, urine, tissues, and other biological fluids for the purpose of aiding the physician in making a diagnosis or following therapy.
The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Laboratory tests demonstrating the presence of physiologically significant substances in the blood, urine, tissue, and body fluids with application to the diagnosis or therapy of disease.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
The branch of chemistry dealing with detection (qualitative) and determination (quantitative) of substances. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A technology, in which sets of reactions for solution or solid-phase synthesis, is used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.
An examination of chemicals in the blood.
Hydrocarbons with at least one triple bond in the linear portion, of the general formula Cn-H2n-2.
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Methods used for the chemical synthesis of compounds. Included under this heading are laboratory methods used to synthesize a variety of chemicals and drugs.
Pollution prevention through the design of effective chemical products that have low or no toxicity and use of chemical processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances.
The conformation, properties, reaction processes, and the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds.
Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
Chemical and physical transformation of the biogenic elements from their nucleosynthesis in stars to their incorporation and subsequent modification in planetary bodies and terrestrial biochemistry. It includes the mechanism of incorporation of biogenic elements into complex molecules and molecular systems, leading up to the origin of life.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.
The study of the composition, chemical structures, and chemical reactions of living things.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Finely divided solid matter with particle sizes smaller than a micrometeorite, thus with diameters much smaller than a millimeter, moving in interplanetary space. (NASA Thesaurus, 1994)
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The origin of life. It includes studies of the potential basis for life in organic compounds but excludes studies of the development of altered forms of life through mutation and natural selection, which is BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The reactions, changes in structure and composition, the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds, and the associated energy changes.
A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
The science concerned with celestial bodies and the observation and interpretation of the radiation received in the vicinity of the earth from the component parts of the universe (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in definite quantities called quanta (E) which vary in size and are defined by the equation E=hv in which h is Planck's constant and v is the frequency of the radiation.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
The study of the energy of electrons ejected from matter by the photoelectric effect, i.e., as a direct result of absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation. As the energies of the electrons are characteristic of a specific element, the measurement of the energy of these electrons is a technique used to determine the chemical composition of surfaces.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
The study of the chemical and physical phenomena of radioactive substances.
The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.
Neutral or negatively charged ligands bonded to metal cations or neutral atoms. The number of ligand atoms to which the metal center is directly bonded is the metal cation's coordination number, and this number is always greater than the regular valence or oxidation number of the metal. A coordination complex can be negative, neutral, or positively charged.
A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The interdisciplinary science that studies evolutionary biology, including the origin and evolution of the major elements required for life, their processing in the interstellar medium and in protostellar systems. This field also includes the study of chemical evolution and the subsequent interactions between evolving biota and planetary evolution as well as the field of biology that deals with the study of extraterrestrial life.
Chemical reactions effected by light.
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Method of analyzing chemicals using automation.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.
The group of celestial bodies, including the EARTH, orbiting around and gravitationally bound by the sun. It includes eight planets, one minor planet, and 34 natural satellites, more than 1,000 observed comets, and thousands of lesser bodies known as MINOR PLANETS (asteroids) and METEOROIDS. (From Academic American Encyclopedia, 1983)
Organic compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen forming a closed ring that may be either alicyclic or aromatic.
Large collections of small molecules (molecular weight about 600 or less), of similar or diverse nature which are used for high-throughput screening analysis of the gene function, protein interaction, cellular processing, biochemical pathways, or other chemical interactions.
Tests used in the analysis of the hemic system.
A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A polyhedral CARBON structure composed of around 60-80 carbon atoms in pentagon and hexagon configuration. They are named after Buckminster Fuller because of structural resemblance to geodesic domes. Fullerenes can be made in high temperature such as arc discharge in an inert atmosphere.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Compounds similar to hydrocarbons in which a tetravalent silicon atom replaces the carbon atom. They are very reactive, ignite in air, and form useful derivatives.
Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The study of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION and the toxic effects of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS on the ECOSYSTEM. The term was coined by Truhaut in 1969.
Tree-like, highly branched, polymeric compounds. They grow three-dimensionally by the addition of shells of branched molecules to a central core. The overall globular shape and presence of cavities gives potential as drug carriers and CONTRAST AGENTS.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The reactions and interactions of atoms and molecules, the changes in their structure and composition, and associated energy changes.
Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.
A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a very sharp conducting needle is swept just a few angstroms above the surface of a sample. The tiny tunneling current that flows between the sample and the needle tip is measured, and from this are produced three-dimensional topographs. Due to the poor electron conductivity of most biological samples, thin metal coatings are deposited on the sample.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.
A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
Relating to the size of solids.
Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.
Substances that comprise all matter. Each element is made up of atoms that are identical in number of electrons and protons and in nuclear charge, but may differ in mass or number of neutrons.
A group of atoms or molecules attached to other molecules or cellular structures and used in studying the properties of these molecules and structures. Radioactive DNA or RNA sequences are used in MOLECULAR GENETICS to detect the presence of a complementary sequence by NUCLEIC ACID HYBRIDIZATION.
An interdisciplinary field in materials science, ENGINEERING, and BIOLOGY, studying the use of biological principles for synthesis or fabrication of BIOMIMETIC MATERIALS.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A group of compounds with an 8-carbon ring. They may be saturated or unsaturated.
The quality or state of being wettable or the degree to which something can be wet. This is also the ability of any solid surface to be wetted when in contact with a liquid whose surface tension is reduced so that the liquid spreads over the surface of the solid.
Any solid objects moving in interplanetary space that are smaller than a planet or asteroid but larger than a molecule. Meteorites are any meteoroid that has fallen to a planetary surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Chemicals used in agriculture. These include pesticides, fumigants, fertilizers, plant hormones, steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins, etc.
The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
The branch of medicine concerned with the application of NANOTECHNOLOGY to the prevention and treatment of disease. It involves the monitoring, repair, construction, and control of human biological systems at the molecular level, using engineered nanodevices and NANOSTRUCTURES. (From Freitas Jr., Nanomedicine, vol 1, 1999).
Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
Synthetic organic reactions that use reactions between unsaturated molecules to form cyclical products.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.
Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.
Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.
Techniques used to synthesize chemicals using molecular substrates that are bound to a solid surface. Typically a series of reactions are conducted on the bound substrate that results in either the covalent attachment of specific moieties or the modification of existing function groups. These techniques offer an advantage to those involving solution reactions in that the substrate compound does not have to be isolated and purified between the reaction steps.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
Hospital facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
An abrupt high-current electric discharge that occurs in the ATMOSPHERE and that has a path length ranging from hundreds of feet to tens of miles. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.
A family of nonmetallic, generally electronegative, elements that form group 17 (formerly group VIIa) of the periodic table.
Creation and development of bodies within solar systems, includes study of early planetary geology.
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The urea concentration of the blood stated in terms of nitrogen content. Serum (plasma) urea nitrogen is approximately 12% higher than blood urea nitrogen concentration because of the greater protein content of red blood cells. Increases in blood or serum urea nitrogen are referred to as azotemia and may have prerenal, renal, or postrenal causes. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
A field of chemistry which pertains to chemical compounds or ions that do not contain the element carbon (with the exception of carbon dioxide and compounds containing a carbonate radical, e.g., calcium carbonate).
Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.
High molecular weight polymers containing a mixture of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides chained together by ribose or deoxyribose linkages.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.
Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
Nucleic acid which complements a specific mRNA or DNA molecule, or fragment thereof; used for hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms and for genetic studies.
Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.
Liquid water present beneath the surface of the earth.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
The sixth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its twelve natural satellites include Phoebe and Titan.
A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A halogen with the atomic symbol Br, atomic number 36, and atomic weight 79.904. It is a volatile reddish-brown liquid that gives off suffocating vapors, is corrosive to the skin, and may cause severe gastroenteritis if ingested.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
Methods utilizing the principles of MICROFLUIDICS for sample handling, reagent mixing, and separation and detection of specific components in fluids.
Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
Programs of study which span the traditional boundaries of academic scholarship.
Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.
Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.
Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Large members of the FALCONIFORMES order of birds, family Accipitridae, most especially the genera Aquila, Haliaeetus, Harpia, and Circaetus. They are characterized by their powerful talons, which carry long, curved, pointed claws and by their opposable hindtoe.
The study of fluid channels and chambers of tiny dimensions of tens to hundreds of micrometers and volumes of nanoliters or picoliters. This is of interest in biological MICROCIRCULATION and used in MICROCHEMISTRY and INVESTIGATIVE TECHNIQUES.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
The chemical processes, enzymatic activities, and pathways of living things and related temporal, dimensional, qualitative, and quantitative concepts.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
Cyclic compounds with a ring size of approximately 1-4 dozen atoms.
The sciences dealing with processes observable in nature.
Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.
Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.
Elements of the lanthanoid series including atomic number 57 (LANTHANUM) through atomic number 71 (LUTETIUM).
Covalent attachment of HALOGENS to other compounds.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
Polymerized forms of styrene used as a biocompatible material, especially in dentistry. They are thermoplastic and are used as insulators, for injection molding and casting, as sheets, plates, rods, rigid forms and beads.
Positively charged particles composed of two protons and two NEUTRONS, i.e. equivalent to HELIUM nuclei, which are emitted during disintegration of heavy ISOTOPES. Alpha rays have very strong ionizing power, but weak penetrability.
Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.
Elements with partially filled d orbitals. They constitute groups 3-12 of the periodic table of elements.
The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.
The univalent radical OH. Hydroxyl radical is a potent oxidizing agent.
The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.
An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.
Alicyclic hydrocarbons in which three or more of the carbon atoms in each molecule are united in a ring structure and each of the ring carbon atoms is joined to two hydrogen atoms or alkyl groups. The simplest members are cyclopropane (C3H6), cyclobutane (C4H8), cyclohexane (C6H12), and derivatives of these such as methylcyclohexane (C6H11CH3). (From Sax, et al., Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)

An investigation into the binding of the carcinogen 15,16-dihydro-11-methylcyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-one to DNA in vitro. (1/7085)

After metabolic activation the carcinogen 15,16-dihydro-11-[3H]methylcyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-one binds to DNA in vitro, and this binding is prevented by 7,8-benzoflavone. Radioactivity cannot be removed from the DNA with organic solvents or by chromatography on Sephadex G-50, even after heat denaturation of the DNA. Enzymatic hydrolysis yields radioactive fractions, which elute from a column of Sephadex LH-20 immediately after the natural nucleosides. At least two species of reactive metabolites are involved in this bending, those with a half-life of a few hr and others with greater stability. After extraction from the aqueous incubation mixture, they could be detected in discrete polar fractions from separations of the complex metabolite mixture by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Their ability to bind to DNA decreased with time at ambient temperature, and they were rapidly deactivated by acid. 7,8-Benzolflavone acted by suppressing the formation of polar metabolites derived from enzymatic oxidation of the aromatic double bonds. The inhibitor had no effect on the enzymes hydroxylating saturated carbon; hence it is unlikely that metabolism of the methyl group is important in conversion of this carcinogen to its proximate form, although the presence of the 11-methyl group is essential for carcinogenic activity in this series.  (+info)

The interaction of rhodium(II) carboxylates with enzymes. (2/7085)

The effect of rhodium(II) acetate, propionate, and methoxyacetate on the activity of 17 enzymes was evaluated. The enzymes were preincubated with the rhodium(II) complexes in order to detect irreversible inhibition. All enzymes that have essential sulfhydryl groups in or near their active site were found to be irreversibly inhibited. Those enzymes without essential sulfhydryl groups were not affected. In each case, the rate of inactivation closely paralleled the observed toxicity and antitumor activity of rhodium(II) carboxylates; that is, rhodium(II) propionate greater than rhodium(II) acetate greater than rhodium(II) methoxyacetate. In addition, those enzymes that have been demonstrated to be most sensitive to established sulfhydryl inhibitors, such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, were also most sensitive to rhodium(II) carboxylate inactivation. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance measurements made during the titration of rhodium(II) acetate with cysteine showed that breakdown of the carboxylate cage occurred as a result of reaction with this sulfhydryl-containing amino acid.  (+info)

Glycopeptides from the surgace of human neuroblastoma cells. (3/7085)

Glycopeptides suggesting a complex oligosaccharide composition are present on the surface of cells from human neuroblastoma tumors and several cell lines derived from the tumors. The glycopeptides, labeled with radioactive L-fucose, were removed from the cell surface with trypsin, digested with Pronase, and examined by chromatography on Sephadex G-50. Human skin fibroblasts, brain cells, and a fibroblast line derived from neuroblastoma tumor tissue show less complex glycopeptides. Although some differences exist between the cell lines and the primary tumor cells, the similarities between these human tumors and animal tumors examined previously are striking.  (+info)

The isolation and partial characterization of the serum lipoproteins and apolipoproteins of the rainbow trout. (4/7085)

1. VLD (very-low-density), LD (low-density) and HD (high-density) lipoproteins were isolated from the serum of trout (Salmo gairdneri Richardson). 2. Each lipoprotein class resembled that of the human in immunological reactivity, electrophoretic behaviour and appearance in the electron microscope. Trout LD lipoprotein, however, was of greater density than human LD lipoprotein. 3. The trout lipoproteins have lipid compositions which are similar to those of the corresponding human components, except for their high contents of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids. 4. HD and LD lipoproteins were immunologically non-identical, whereas LD lipoproteins possessed antigenic determinants in common with VLD lipoproteins. 5. VLD and HD lipoproteins each contained at least seven different apoproteins, whereas LD liprotein was composed largely of a single apoprotein which resembled human apolipoprotein B. 6. At least one, and possibly three, apoprotein of trout HD lipoprotein showed features which resemble human apoprotein A-1.7. The broad similarity between the trout and human lipoprotein systems suggests that both arose from common ancestral genes early in evolutionary history.  (+info)

Studies of the binding of different iron donors to human serum transferrin and isolation of iron-binding fragments from the N- and C-terminal regions of the protein. (5/7085)

1. Trypsin digestion of human serum transferrin partially saturated with iron(III)-nitrilotriacetate at pH 5.5 or pH 8.5 produces a carbohydrate-containing iron-binding fragment of mol.wt. 43000. 2. When iron(III) citrate, FeCl3, iron (III) ascorabate and (NH4)2SO4,FeSO4 are used as iron donors to saturate the protein partially, at pH8.5, proteolytic digestion yields a fragment of mol.wt. 36000 that lacks carbohydrate. 3. The two fragments differ in their antigenic structures, amino acid compositions and peptide 'maps'. 4. The fragment with mol.wt. 36000 was assigned to the N-terminal region of the protein and the other to the C-terminal region. 5. The distribution of iron in human serum transferrin partially saturated with various iron donors was examined by electrophoresis in urea/polyacrylamide gels and the two possible monoferric forms were unequivocally identified. 6. The site designated A on human serum transferrin [Harris (1977) Biochemistry 16, 560--564] was assigned to the C-terminal region of the protein and the B site to the N-terminal region. 7. The distribution of iron on transferrin in human plasma was determined.  (+info)

Carbon 13 NMR study of nonenzymatic reactions of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate with selected amino acids and of related reactions. (6/7085)

Carbon 13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been used to monitor the nonenzymatic reactions of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate with glycine, alanine, valine, serine, and with several other model compounds. Isotopically enriched amino acids were employed so that low concentrations could be utilized while still allowing relatively rapid acquisition of spectral data. The results for alanine and serine are particularly noteworthy in that alanine is deaminated to pyruvate and pyruvate is aminated to alanine, but contrary to the enzymatic reactions of various serine dehydratases wherein serine is converted to pyruvate, the nonenzymatic reaction utilizing serine results in hydroxypruvate rather than pyruvate formation. In the reverse reaction, hydroxypyruvate is aminated to serine but very inefficiently relative to the amination of pyruvate to alanine. The experimental results have been formulated into a proposed reaction mechanism for deamination of amino acids by pyridoxal-P.  (+info)

Herpetic keratitis. Proctor Lecture. (7/7085)

Although much needs to be learned about the serious clinical problem of herpes infection of the cornea, we have come a long way. We now have effective topical antiviral drugs. We have animal models which, with a high degree of reliability, clearly predict the effect to be expected clinically in man, as well as the toxicity. We have systemically active drugs and the potential of getting highly active, potent, completely selective drugs, with the possibility that perhaps the source of viral reinfection can be eradicated. The biology of recurrent herpes and stromal disease is gradually being understood, and this understanding may result in new and better therapy of this devastating clinical disease.  (+info)

Crystal structure of the FMN-binding domain of human cytochrome P450 reductase at 1.93 A resolution. (8/7085)

The crystal structure of the FMN-binding domain of human NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (P450R-FMN), a key component in the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system, has been determined to 1.93 A resolution and shown to be very similar both to the global fold in solution (Barsukov I et al., 1997, J Biomol NMR 10:63-75) and to the corresponding domain in the 2.6 A crystal structure of intact rat P450R (Wang M et al., 1997, Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 94:8411-8416). The crystal structure of P450R-FMN reported here confirms the overall similarity of its alpha-beta-alpha architecture to that of the bacterial flavodoxins, but reveals differences in the position, number, and length of the helices relative to the central beta-sheet. The marked similarity between P450R-FMN and flavodoxins in the interactions between the FMN and the protein, indicate a striking evolutionary conservation of the FMN binding site. The P450R-FMN molecule has an unusual surface charge distribution, leading to a very strong dipole, which may be involved in docking cytochrome P450 into place for electron transfer near the FMN. Several acidic residues near the FMN are identified by mutagenesis experiments to be important for electron transfer to P4502D6 and to cytochrome c, a clear indication of the part of the molecular surface that is likely to be involved in substrate binding. Somewhat different parts are found to be involved in binding cytochrome P450 and cytochrome c.  (+info)

Examples of neglected diseases include:

1. Dengue fever: A mosquito-borne viral disease that affects millions of people worldwide, particularly in urban slums and other areas with poor sanitation and hygiene.
2. Chagas disease: A parasitic disease caused by the Trypanosoma cruzi parasite, which is transmitted through the bite of an infected triatomine bug. It affects millions of people in Latin America and can cause serious heart and gastrointestinal complications.
3. Leishmaniasis: A parasitic disease caused by several species of the Leishmania parasite, which is transmitted through the bite of an infected sandfly. It affects millions of people worldwide, particularly in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
4. Onchocerciasis (river blindness): A parasitic disease caused by the Onchocerca volvulus parasite, which is transmitted through the bite of an infected blackfly. It affects millions of people in Africa and can cause blindness, skin lesions, and other serious complications.
5. Schistosomiasis: A parasitic disease caused by the Schistosoma parasite, which is transmitted through contact with contaminated water. It affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America.
6. Lymphatic filariasis: A parasitic disease caused by the Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Loa loa parasites, which are transmitted through the bite of an infected mosquito. It affects millions of people worldwide, particularly in Africa and Asia, and can cause severe swelling of the limbs and other serious complications.
7. Chagas disease: A parasitic disease caused by the Trypanosoma cruzi parasite, which is transmitted through the bite of an infected triatomine bug. It affects millions of people in Latin America and can cause heart failure, digestive problems, and other serious complications.

These diseases are often chronic and debilitating, and can have a significant impact on the quality of life of those affected. In addition to the physical symptoms, they can also cause social and economic burdens, such as lost productivity and reduced income.

In terms of public health, these diseases pose a significant challenge for healthcare systems, particularly in developing countries where resources may be limited. They require sustained efforts to control and eliminate, including disease surveillance, vector control, and treatment.

In addition, these diseases are often interconnected with other health issues, such as poverty, poor sanitation, and lack of access to healthcare. Therefore, addressing these diseases requires a comprehensive approach that takes into account the social and economic factors that contribute to their spread.

Overall, the impact of these diseases on public health is significant, and sustained efforts are needed to control and eliminate them.

Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.

Types of Neoplasms

There are many different types of neoplasms, including:

1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.

Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms

The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:

1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.

Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms

The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:

1. Unusual lumps or swelling
2. Pain
3. Fatigue
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms

The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.

The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:

1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.

Prevention of Neoplasms

While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:

1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.

It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.

Body weight is an important health indicator, as it can affect an individual's risk for certain medical conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Maintaining a healthy body weight is essential for overall health and well-being, and there are many ways to do so, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, and other lifestyle changes.

There are several ways to measure body weight, including:

1. Scale: This is the most common method of measuring body weight, and it involves standing on a scale that displays the individual's weight in kg or lb.
2. Body fat calipers: These are used to measure body fat percentage by pinching the skin at specific points on the body.
3. Skinfold measurements: This method involves measuring the thickness of the skin folds at specific points on the body to estimate body fat percentage.
4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive method that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage.
5. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a more accurate method of measuring body composition, including bone density and body fat percentage.

It's important to note that body weight can fluctuate throughout the day due to factors such as water retention, so it's best to measure body weight at the same time each day for the most accurate results. Additionally, it's important to use a reliable scale or measuring tool to ensure accurate measurements.

The definition of DILI has been revised several times over the years, but the most recent definition was published in 2013 by the International Consortium for DILI Research (ICDCR). According to this definition, DILI is defined as:

"A clinically significant alteration in liver function that is caused by a medication or other exogenous substance, and is not related to underlying liver disease. The alteration may be biochemical, morphological, or both, and may be acute or chronic."

The ICDCR definition includes several key features of DILI, including:

1. Clinically significant alteration in liver function: This means that the liver damage must be severe enough to cause symptoms or signs of liver dysfunction, such as jaundice, nausea, vomiting, or abdominal pain.
2. Caused by a medication or other exogenous substance: DILI is triggered by exposure to certain drugs or substances that are not related to underlying liver disease.
3. Not related to underlying liver disease: This means that the liver damage must not be caused by an underlying condition such as hepatitis B or C, alcoholic liver disease, or other genetic or metabolic disorders.
4. May be acute or chronic: DILI can occur as a sudden and severe injury (acute DILI) or as a slower and more insidious process (chronic DILI).

The ICDCR definition provides a standardized way of defining and diagnosing DILI, which is important for clinicians and researchers to better understand the cause of liver damage in patients who are taking medications. It also helps to identify the drugs or substances that are most likely to cause liver injury and to develop strategies for preventing or treating DILI.

Dental deposits refer to the accumulation of plaque, tartar, and other substances on the teeth and dental restorations. These deposits can lead to various oral health problems, such as tooth decay, gum disease, and bad breath. Dental deposits can be removed through regular brushing, flossing, and professional dental cleanings.

Types of Dental Deposits:

There are several types of dental deposits that can accumulate on the teeth and dental restorations, including:

1. Plaque: A sticky film of bacteria that forms on the teeth and can lead to tooth decay and gum disease.
2. Tartar (calculus): A hard, yellowish deposit that forms on the teeth and dental restorations, made up of mineralized plaque.
3. Stains: Discoloration of the teeth due to various factors such as smoking, coffee, tea, or certain medications.
4. Biofilm: A complex community of microorganisms that adhere to the surfaces of the teeth and dental restorations, which can contribute to the development of periodontal disease.

Effects of Dental Deposits:

Dental deposits can have a significant impact on oral health if left untreated. Some of the effects of dental deposits include:

1. Tooth Decay: The accumulation of plaque and tartar on the teeth can lead to tooth decay, which can cause pain, sensitivity, and potentially lead to tooth loss.
2. Gum Disease: Plaque and tartar can also contribute to the development of gum disease, which can cause inflammation, bleeding, and receding gums.
3. Bad Breath: Dental deposits can cause bad breath (halitosis), which can be embarrassing and affect an individual's self-confidence.
4. Tooth Discoloration: Stains on the teeth can cause discoloration, which can make the teeth appear yellow or brown.
5. Increased Risk of Dental Caries: Dental deposits can provide a conducive environment for the growth of cariogenic bacteria, which can increase the risk of dental caries.
6. Difficulty Chewing and Speaking: Advanced periodontal disease can cause teeth to become loose or fall out, making it difficult to chew and speak properly.
7. Self-Esteem Issues: Poor oral health can affect an individual's self-esteem and confidence, which can impact their overall quality of life.
8. Systemic Diseases: There is evidence that suggests a link between periodontal disease and systemic diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, and respiratory disease.

Prevention of Dental Deposits:

Preventing dental deposits is essential for maintaining good oral health. Some ways to prevent dental deposits include:

1. Brushing and Flossing: Regular brushing and flossing can help remove plaque and tartar from the teeth, reducing the risk of dental deposits.
2. Dietary Changes: Avoiding sugary and starchy foods, drinking plenty of water, and consuming a balanced diet can help prevent the formation of dental deposits.
3. Professional Cleaning: Regular professional cleaning by a dentist or hygienist can remove tartar and plaque that is difficult to remove with brushing and flossing alone.
4. Fluoride Treatment: Fluoride treatment can help strengthen teeth and prevent the formation of dental deposits.
5. Salivary Substitutes: For individuals with dry mouth, salivary substitutes can help stimulate saliva production and reduce the risk of dental deposits.
6. Oral Rinses: Using an oral rinse can help remove plaque and bacteria from the teeth and gums.
7. Tobacco Cessation: Quitting tobacco use can help improve oral health and reduce the risk of dental deposits.
8. Regular Dental Check-Ups: Regular dental check-ups can help identify early signs of dental deposits and prevent more serious problems from developing.

Shellfish poisoning, also known as paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), is a type of foodborne illness caused by consuming shellfish that have ingested toxins produced by certain types of algae. These toxins can accumulate in the tissues of the shellfish, including mussels, clams, oysters, and scallops.


The symptoms of shellfish poisoning can vary in severity and may include:

* Tingling or numbness in the mouth and extremities
* Weakness, fatigue, and dizziness
* Headaches, nausea, and vomiting
* Abdominal cramps, diarrhea, and constipation
* In severe cases, paralysis, respiratory failure, and even death


Shellfish poisoning is caused by consuming shellfish that have ingested toxins produced by certain types of algae, including the dinoflagellate Pyrodinium bahamense and the diatom Cyclotella sp. These toxins can accumulate in the tissues of the shellfish, including mussels, clams, oysters, and scallops.


Diagnosis of shellfish poisoning is based on a combination of symptoms, medical history, and laboratory tests. Laboratory tests may include blood tests to detect elevated levels of the toxins in the body, as well as tests to assess liver function and nerve damage. Imaging studies, such as X-rays or CT scans, may also be used to evaluate the extent of any nerve damage.


There is no specific treatment for shellfish poisoning, but supportive care may be provided to manage symptoms and prevent complications. This may include fluids, electrolyte replacement, and medication to control nausea and vomiting. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat any complications.


The best way to prevent shellfish poisoning is to avoid consuming shellfish that may be contaminated with toxins. This can be achieved by only consuming shellfish from reputable sources, such as licensed fisheries or restaurants, and by following local health advisories regarding the safety of shellfish consumption. It is also important to properly store and cook shellfish to reduce the risk of contamination.


Shellfish poisoning can be a serious and potentially life-threatening condition, but with prompt diagnosis and appropriate supportive care, most individuals can recover fully. By understanding the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of shellfish poisoning, individuals can take steps to protect their health and avoid this potentially dangerous condition.

1. Rabies: A deadly viral disease that affects the central nervous system and is transmitted through the saliva of infected animals, usually through bites.
2. Distemper: A highly contagious viral disease that affects dogs, raccoons, and other carnivorous animals, causing symptoms such as seizures, vomiting, and diarrhea.
3. Parvo: A highly contagious viral disease that affects dogs and other animals, causing severe gastrointestinal symptoms and dehydration.
4. Heartworm: A parasitic infection caused by a worm that infects the heart and blood vessels of animals, particularly dogs and cats.
5. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV): A viral disease that weakens the immune system of cats, making them more susceptible to other infections and diseases.
6. Avian influenza: A type of flu that affects birds, including chickens and other domesticated fowl, as well as wild birds.
7. Tuberculosis: A bacterial infection that can affect a wide range of animals, including cattle, pigs, and dogs.
8. Leptospirosis: A bacterial infection that can affect a wide range of animals, including dogs, cats, and wildlife, and can cause symptoms such as fever, kidney failure, and death.
9. Lyme disease: A bacterial infection transmitted through the bite of an infected tick, primarily affecting dogs and humans.
10. Fungal infections: Fungal infections can affect a wide range of animals, including dogs, cats, and livestock, and can cause symptoms such as skin lesions, respiratory problems, and death.

Animal diseases can have a significant impact on animal health and welfare, as well as human health and the economy. They can also be transmitted between animals and humans, making it important to monitor and control animal disease outbreaks to prevent their spread.

Vaccination is an effective way to prevent animal diseases in pets and livestock. Regular vaccinations can help protect against common diseases such as distemper, hepatitis, parvovirus, and rabies, among others. Vaccines can be administered orally, through injection, or through a nasal spray.

Preventative care is key in avoiding animal disease outbreaks. Some of the best ways to prevent animal diseases include:

1. Regular vaccinations: Keeping pets and livestock up to date on their vaccinations can help protect against common diseases.
2. Proper sanitation and hygiene: Keeping living areas clean and free of waste can help prevent the spread of disease-causing bacteria and viruses.
3. Avoiding contact with wild animals: Wild animals can carry a wide range of diseases that can be transmitted to domesticated animals, so it's best to avoid contact with them whenever possible.
4. Proper nutrition: Providing pets and livestock with a balanced diet can help keep their immune systems strong and better able to fight off disease.
5. Monitoring for signs of illness: Regularly monitoring pets and livestock for signs of illness, such as fever, vomiting, or diarrhea, can help identify and treat diseases early on.
6. Quarantine and isolation: Isolating animals that are showing signs of illness can help prevent the spread of disease to other animals and humans.
7. Proper disposal of animal waste: Properly disposing of animal waste can help prevent the spread of disease-causing bacteria and viruses.
8. Avoiding overcrowding: Overcrowding can contribute to the spread of disease, so it's important to provide adequate living space for pets and livestock.
9. Regular veterinary care: Regular check-ups with a veterinarian can help identify and treat diseases early on, and also provide guidance on how to prevent animal diseases.
10. Emergency preparedness: Having an emergency plan in place for natural disasters or other unexpected events can help protect pets and livestock from disease outbreaks.

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

Example sentences:

1. The patient developed a foreign-body reaction after receiving a defective hip implant, resulting in severe pain and swelling.
2. The transplanted liver was rejected by the recipient's immune system, causing a foreign-body reaction that led to its failure.
3. The use of a certain drug was associated with a high risk of foreign-body reactions, leading to its withdrawal from the market.

The exact cause of vitiligo is still unknown, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. In people with vitiligo, the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys melanocytes, leading to a loss of skin pigmentation. The disease can also be triggered by physical or emotional stress, sun exposure, and certain medications.

The symptoms of vitiligo can vary in severity and progression. They may include:

1. White patches on the skin, which can appear suddenly or gradually over time.
2. Loss of skin pigmentation in specific areas, such as the face, hands, or limbs.
3. Thinning or loss of hair on affected areas.
4. Premature whitening or graying of the hair.
5. Itching, pain, or sensitivity in the affected areas.
6. Emotional distress and reduced quality of life due to the visible appearance of the disease.

There is no cure for vitiligo, but various treatments can help manage the symptoms and slow down its progression. These may include:

1. Topical corticosteroids to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system.
2. Topical immunomodulators to suppress the immune system and promote skin repigmentation.
3. Narrowband ultraviolet B (UVB) phototherapy to slow down the progression of the disease and improve skin appearance.
4. Psoralen photochemotherapy to promote skin repigmentation and reduce inflammation.
5. Surgical skin grafting or blister grafting to cover small areas of depigmentation.
6. Camouflage makeup to cover the affected areas and improve self-esteem.

In addition to these treatments, it is essential for patients with vitiligo to protect their skin from the sun by using broad-spectrum sunscreens, wearing protective clothing, and seeking shade when the sun is strongest.

Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can help improve the quality of life for patients with vitiligo. However, the emotional and psychological impact of the disease should not be underestimated, and patients may require long-term support and counseling to cope with the challenges of living with this condition.

There are several different types of weight gain, including:

1. Clinical obesity: This is defined as a BMI of 30 or higher, and is typically associated with a range of serious health problems, such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and certain types of cancer.
2. Central obesity: This refers to excess fat around the waistline, which can increase the risk of health problems such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes.
3. Muscle gain: This occurs when an individual gains weight due to an increase in muscle mass, rather than fat. This type of weight gain is generally considered healthy and can improve overall fitness and athletic performance.
4. Fat gain: This occurs when an individual gains weight due to an increase in body fat, rather than muscle or bone density. Fat gain can increase the risk of health problems such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes.

Weight gain can be measured using a variety of methods, including:

1. Body mass index (BMI): This is a widely used measure of weight gain that compares an individual's weight to their height. A BMI of 18.5-24.9 is considered normal, while a BMI of 25-29.9 is considered overweight, and a BMI of 30 or higher is considered obese.
2. Waist circumference: This measures the distance around an individual's waistline and can be used to assess central obesity.
3. Skinfold measurements: These involve measuring the thickness of fat at specific points on the body, such as the abdomen or thighs.
4. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a non-invasive test that uses X-rays to measure bone density and body composition.
5. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive test that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage and other physiological parameters.

Causes of weight gain:

1. Poor diet: Consuming high amounts of processed foods, sugar, and saturated fats can lead to weight gain.
2. Lack of physical activity: Engaging in regular exercise can help burn calories and maintain a healthy weight.
3. Genetics: An individual's genetic makeup can affect their metabolism and body composition, making them more prone to weight gain.
4. Hormonal imbalances: Imbalances in hormones such as insulin, thyroid, and cortisol can contribute to weight gain.
5. Medications: Certain medications, such as steroids and antidepressants, can cause weight gain as a side effect.
6. Sleep deprivation: Lack of sleep can disrupt hormones that regulate appetite and metabolism, leading to weight gain.
7. Stress: Chronic stress can lead to emotional eating and weight gain.
8. Age: Metabolism slows down with age, making it more difficult to maintain a healthy weight.
9. Medical conditions: Certain medical conditions such as hypothyroidism, Cushing's syndrome, and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) can also contribute to weight gain.

Treatment options for obesity:

1. Lifestyle modifications: A combination of diet, exercise, and stress management techniques can help individuals achieve and maintain a healthy weight.
2. Medications: Prescription medications such as orlistat, phentermine-topiramate, and liraglutide can aid in weight loss.
3. Bariatric surgery: Surgical procedures such as gastric bypass surgery and sleeve gastrectomy can be effective for severe obesity.
4. Behavioral therapy: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and other forms of counseling can help individuals develop healthy eating habits and improve their physical activity levels.
5. Meal replacement plans: Meal replacement plans such as Medifast can provide individuals with a structured diet that is high in protein, fiber, and vitamins, and low in calories and sugar.
6. Weight loss supplements: Supplements such as green tea extract, garcinia cambogia, and forskolin can help boost weight loss efforts.
7. Portion control: Using smaller plates and measuring cups can help individuals regulate their portion sizes and maintain a healthy weight.
8. Mindful eating: Paying attention to hunger and fullness cues, eating slowly, and savoring food can help individuals develop healthy eating habits.
9. Physical activity: Engaging in regular physical activity such as walking, running, swimming, or cycling can help individuals burn calories and maintain a healthy weight.

It's important to note that there is no one-size-fits-all approach to treating obesity, and the most effective treatment plan will depend on the individual's specific needs and circumstances. Consulting with a healthcare professional such as a registered dietitian or a physician can help individuals develop a personalized treatment plan that is safe and effective.

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In other words, the definition of an ideal graphene is different in chemistry and physics. Graphene placed on a soda-lime glass ... Denis, P. A.; Iribarne, F. (2013). "Comparative Study of Defect Reactivity in Graphene". Journal of Physical Chemistry C. 117 ( ... Materials Today Chemistry. 4: 1-16. doi:10.1016/j.mtchem.2017.02.003. Dissanayake, D. M. N. M.; Ashraf, A.; Dwyer, D.; ... Journal of Physical Chemistry C. 117 (48): 25845-25851. doi:10.1021/jp410044v. Yamada, Y.; Yasuda, H.; Murota, K.; Nakamura, M ...
Primary (chemistry) Tertiary (chemistry) Quaternary (chemistry) Ashenhurst, James (2010-06-16). "Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, ... Quaternary In Organic Chemistry". Master Organic Chemistry. Retrieved 2022-10-06. "secondary alcohol (CHEBI:35681)". ... "Amine Reactivity". Retrieved 2022-10-24. Um, Ik-Hwan; Chun, Sun-Mee; Chae, Ok-Mi; Fujio, Mizue; Tsuno, ... Secondary is a general term used in chemistry that can be applied to many molecules, even more than the ones listed here; the ...
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Pure and Applied Chemistry (in German). 85 (5): 903-919. doi:10.1351/PAC-CON-13-01-13. ISSN 1365-3075. PMC 3845684. PMID ...
Dissociation in chemistry is a general process in which molecules (or ionic compounds such as salts, or complexes) separate or ... Laidler K.J. Physical Chemistry with Biological Applications (Benjamin/Cummings) 1978, p.307 ISBN 978-0-8053-5680-9 (Articles ... Physical Chemistry (8th ed. W.H.Freeman 2006) p.763 ISBN 978-0-7167-8759-4 Petrucci, Ralph H.; Harwood, William S.; Herring, F ... Geoffrey (2002). General chemistry: principles and modern applications (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J: Prentice Hall. ISBN ...
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More loosely, outside the field of petroleum chemistry, the term "cracking" is used to describe any type of splitting of ... 2006). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (87th ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0487-3. Information on cracking ... G. Speight (2006). The Chemistry and Technology of Petroleum (4th ed.). CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-9067-2. Reza Sadeghbeigi (2000 ... In petrochemistry, petroleum geology and organic chemistry, cracking is the process whereby complex organic molecules such as ...
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In the areas of coordination chemistry and organometallic chemistry, chirality is pervasive and of practical importance. A ... In chemistry, a molecule or ion is called chiral (/ˈkaɪrəl/) if it cannot be superposed on its mirror image by any combination ... Topics in Current Chemistry. Vol. 340. pp. 1-20. doi:10.1007/128_2013_435. ISBN 978-3-319-03238-2. PMID 23666078. Wikimedia ... ISBN 9780131407480 Organic Chemistry (3rd Edition) Marye Anne Fox, James K. Whitesell Jones & Bartlett Publishers (2004) ISBN ...
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UCD School of Chemistry. UCD School of Chemistry - Research Publications 2020/2021. Below is the list of research publications ... Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry (2020) DOI: 10.1039/d0ob01933j). Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, 18(46), 98538. ... Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 125(10), 2061-2068. Zhong, Y. -J., Liao, J. -H., Chiu, T. -H., Wu, Y. -Y., Kahlal, S., ... Chemistry - A European Journal, 26(51), 11835-11840. Kühne, I. A., Carter, A. B., Kostakis, G. E., Anson, C. E., & Powell, A. K ...
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  • Applicants must have satisfactorily completed a minimum of 30 semester hours in undergraduate and/or graduate level chemistry or biochemistry courses prior to admission into the program to meet certification eligibility requirements by the American Board of Clinical Chemistry. (
  • MIAMI, Aug. 01, 2019 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Chemistry , a 120-person firm twice-named a "Small Agency of the Year" by Ad Age (2018, 2016), has acquired a significant stake in Pinta , a full-service agency focused on cross-cultural marketing. (
  • Fundamentals of contemporary organic chemistry, including skeletal and electronic structure, stereochemistry, and reactions of important functional groups. (
  • Laboratory includes training in basic organic chemistry skills, such as extraction, reaction performance, spectroscopy interpretation and chromatography. (
  • This is where synthetic organic chemistry comes to the rescue. (
  • By considering the frequent handling of volatile organic compounds in practical organic chemistry courses, we took a number of measures to keep the indoor organic vapour level to a minimum for the sake of students' health. (
  • The Organic Chemistry Laboratory is spacious and equipped with 6 newly installed fume cupboards. (
  • Introduction to laboratory methods in general chemistry. (
  • Introductory laboratory study of the properties and chemistry of carbon containing compounds and biological molecules. (
  • The laboratory provides basic services in hematology, clinical chemistry, and urinalysis. (
  • The NIH Department of Laboratory Medicine Clinical Chemistry Fellowship is a two-year postdoctoral training program accredited by the Commission on the Accreditation in Clinical Chemistry. (
  • Qualified candidates must have an MD and/or PhD. Preference is given to individuals who are approximately two years (but no more than six years) beyond the doctoral degree, and who have obtained training in laboratory medicine, clinical medicine, or clinical chemistry. (
  • The 2012 Nobel Prize in chemistry has been awarded to National Institutes of Health grantees Robert J. Lefkowitz, M.D., of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Duke University Medical Center, Durham, N.C. (
  • The first three months of the fellowship are devoted to rotations through various Clinical Chemistry sections: general chemistry, special chemistry, immunoassays, electrophoresis, urinalysis, therapeutic drug monitoring, HPLC, and mass spectrometry. (
  • Congratulations to Dr Paul McGonigal and Dr Yulong Sun of Durham Chemistry on their study in the prestigious journal Chem. (
  • Medicinal chemistry leads and potential drugs from the literature are widely used as chemical tools for studying biological functions. (
  • CHEMISTRY-BIOLOGY INTERFACE PREDOCTORAL TRAINING NIH GUIDE, Volume 21, Number 12, March 27, 1992 PA: PA-92-63 P.T. 44 Keywords: Biomedical Research Training Chemistry, Organic Medicinal Chemistry Chemical Synthesis National Institute of General Medical Sciences PURPOSE The National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) announces a new predoctoral institutional training grant program directed towards training at the interface of the scientific disciplines of chemistry and biology. (
  • The purpose of the new program is to promote interdisciplinary training and, especially, to encourage greater participation of faculty in chemistry, pharmaceutical chemistry, and medicinal chemistry departments in the predoctoral training efforts of the NIGMS. (
  • On the chemistry side, the mechanistic/synthetic focus of the program would most likely be relevant to the fields of bio-organic, bio-inorganic, bio-analytical, and medicinal chemistry. (
  • The lab aims to use medicinal chemistry and chemical biology approaches to design, synthesize and biologically characterize novel druggable tools for select GPCRs and enzymatic drug targets implicated in pain, inflammatory and fibrotic disorders. (
  • Michael Schulz, assistant professor of chemistry within the Virginia Tech College of Science , has received a National Science Foundation Faculty Early Career Development (CAREER) award. (
  • Hyperbranched polymers are tree-like 3D macromolecules that have very different viscosity characteristics when compared to linear polymers," said Schulz, a faculty member with the Department of Chemistry since 2017. (
  • The research carried out within the School of Chemistry is diverse and encompasses both fundamental and applied themes. (
  • The School of Chemistry has developed a particular strength in Heterogeneous Catalysis and Surface Science, with a research group dedicated to this exciting area of study. (
  • Each year the School of Chemistry welcomes applicants who have secured funding from external sponsors, or who are self-funded. (
  • In the latest Research Excellence Framework (REF, the UK system for assessing research quality), the School of Chemistry was judged very positively. (
  • Introduction to principles and methods of analytical chemistry. (
  • The Clinical Chemistry Branch (CCB) develops and improves methods for assessing disease status associated with and the risk for selected chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and hormonal disorders. (
  • The Clinical Pathology Group consists of the hematology and clinical chemistry laboratories and is currently staffed by two full-time NIEHS medical technologists and one on-site contract employee. (
  • Over time, considerable efforts regarding acquisition of equipment, upgrading standard operating procedures, developing historical data bases for control animals and implementing appropriate data management, quality control, quality assurance, and proficiency testing programs have been made to ensure that these laboratories continue to provide high quality hematology and clinical chemistry analyses. (
  • The training emphasizes the clinical aspects of clinical chemistry, with active participation by the fellows through on-call rotations. (
  • Fellows are eligible to take the American Board of Clinical Chemistry qualifying examinations upon completion of the fellowship. (
  • Please view the Commission on the Accreditation in Clinical Chemistry website for more information about Clinical Chemistry fellowships. (
  • Fellows are then expected to handle inquiries to the Clinical Chemistry Service from physicians and are encouraged to attend patient rounds. (
  • During the first three months of the program, fellows discuss the research and service responsibilities of each Clinical Chemistry senior staff member. (
  • Fellows are also responsible for developing one or two methods for implementation by the Clinical Chemistry Service. (
  • This award is for underrepresented groups in chemistry including third year chemistry graduate students (minimum) or postdocs. (
  • Available research topics closely mirror the particular research interests of individual staff members, which fall broadly into biological and organic, inorganic, physical, and theoretical and computational chemistries. (
  • Providing probes since 2006, the Chemistry and Synthesis Center (formerly known as Imaging Probe Development Center, IPDC) has provided molecular imaging probes for biological research within the NIH Intramural community and their collaborators. (
  • This program differs from existing NIGMS training programs in its focus on mechanistic and synthetic aspects of the chemistry-biology interface. (
  • We would appreciate it if you could forward the following invitation to chemistry teachers within your department. (
  • The Department of Chemistry offers a full-service fabrication Machine Shop on the second floor of the GeoChem building. (
  • Chemistry is the foundation of toxicology, which is why chemistry support services are vital to NTP's mission of providing world-class and cutting-edge toxicology research. (
  • Chemistry Specifications documents describe the requirements for chemistry activities performed to support NTP toxicology research, as well as include detailed information for Chemistry Services Contractors. (
  • Chemistry has strong roots in creative advertising, digital marketing, public relations and social media, while Pinta's core competencies have traditionally been content creation, influencer marketing, and below-the-line communications. (
  • Urine chemistry is a group of one or more tests done to check the chemical content of a urine sample. (
  • The diminishing pool of scientists trained in chemistry is considered a problem of considerable urgency by the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. (
  • This report identifies gaps in current research and understanding of indoor chemistry and new approaches that can be applied to measure, manage, and limit chemical exposures. (
  • Fundamental principles of chemistry such as chemical bonding and structure, stoichiometry, thermochemistry, oxidation-reductions, and states of matter. (
  • However, their participation in NIGMS predoctoral training programs has not been at a level commensurate with the support of chemistry research by the NIGMS. (
  • Our executives are current York students who have taken chemistry courses and can answers questions from undergraduate students during our office hours. (
  • Feel free to drop by during our office hours in Room 206 of the Chemistry Building! (
  • As part of the Chemistry (PhD/MPhil) programme, students can conduct their research within this group. (
  • The Chemistry Society is a resource for students taking chemistry regardless of what their major is. (
  • Introduction & redox chemistry / T. Moody and D. Wink. (
  • First In the World has provided a grant to establish a group whose purpose is to foster communication between chemistry teachers working at high schools in the North and Northwest suburbs of Chicago. (
  • Widely known as the "Father of Green Chemistry," he has devoted his career to learning about how to create a more sustainable society. (
  • As a PhD/MPhil student in Chemistry, you will undertake cutting-edge research in one of our various research themes. (
  • Chemistry is a member of the American Association of Advertising Agencies (4As). (