Click Chemistry: Organic chemistry methodology that mimics the modular nature of various biosynthetic processes. It uses highly reliable and selective reactions designed to "click" i.e., rapidly join small modular units together in high yield, without offensive byproducts. In combination with COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES, it is used for the synthesis of new compounds and combinatorial libraries.Chemistry, Clinical: The specialty of ANALYTIC CHEMISTRY applied to assays of physiologically important substances found in blood, urine, tissues, and other biological fluids for the purpose of aiding the physician in making a diagnosis or following therapy.Chemistry, Organic: The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Clinical Chemistry Tests: Laboratory tests demonstrating the presence of physiologically significant substances in the blood, urine, tissue, and body fluids with application to the diagnosis or therapy of disease.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Chemistry, Analytic: The branch of chemistry dealing with detection (qualitative) and determination (quantitative) of substances. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Combinatorial Chemistry Techniques: A technology, in which sets of reactions for solution or solid-phase synthesis, is used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.Blood Chemical Analysis: An examination of chemicals in the blood.Alkynes: Hydrocarbons with at least one triple bond in the linear portion, of the general formula Cn-H2n-2.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Nobel PrizeMolecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Chemistry Techniques, Synthetic: Methods used for the chemical synthesis of compounds. Included under this heading are laboratory methods used to synthesize a variety of chemicals and drugs.Green Chemistry Technology: Pollution prevention through the design of effective chemical products that have low or no toxicity and use of chemical processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances.Organic Chemistry Phenomena: The conformation, properties, reaction processes, and the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds.Chemistry Techniques, Analytical: Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.Chemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Evolution, Chemical: Chemical and physical transformation of the biogenic elements from their nucleosynthesis in stars to their incorporation and subsequent modification in planetary bodies and terrestrial biochemistry. It includes the mechanism of incorporation of biogenic elements into complex molecules and molecular systems, leading up to the origin of life.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Cyclization: Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Azides: Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.Biochemistry: The study of the composition, chemical structures, and chemical reactions of living things.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Cosmic Dust: Finely divided solid matter with particle sizes smaller than a micrometeorite, thus with diameters much smaller than a millimeter, moving in interplanetary space. (NASA Thesaurus, 1994)Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Extraterrestrial Environment: The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Biogenesis: The origin of life. It includes studies of the potential basis for life in organic compounds but excludes studies of the development of altered forms of life through mutation and natural selection, which is BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION.Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Organic Chemistry Processes: The reactions, changes in structure and composition, the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds, and the associated energy changes.Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Astronomy: The science concerned with celestial bodies and the observation and interpretation of the radiation received in the vicinity of the earth from the component parts of the universe (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Quantum Theory: The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in definite quantities called quanta (E) which vary in size and are defined by the equation E=hv in which h is Planck's constant and v is the frequency of the radiation.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Photoelectron Spectroscopy: The study of the energy of electrons ejected from matter by the photoelectric effect, i.e., as a direct result of absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation. As the energies of the electrons are characteristic of a specific element, the measurement of the energy of these electrons is a technique used to determine the chemical composition of surfaces.Copper: A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Carbonates: Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Radiochemistry: The study of the chemical and physical phenomena of radioactive substances.Drug Discovery: The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Enzymes: Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Biological Products: Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.Coordination Complexes: Neutral or negatively charged ligands bonded to metal cations or neutral atoms. The number of ligand atoms to which the metal center is directly bonded is the metal cation's coordination number, and this number is always greater than the regular valence or oxidation number of the metal. A coordination complex can be negative, neutral, or positively charged.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Organometallic Compounds: A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Exobiology: The interdisciplinary science that studies evolutionary biology, including the origin and evolution of the major elements required for life, their processing in the interstellar medium and in protostellar systems. This field also includes the study of chemical evolution and the subsequent interactions between evolving biota and planetary evolution as well as the field of biology that deals with the study of extraterrestrial life.Photochemical Processes: Chemical reactions effected by light.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Autoanalysis: Method of analyzing chemicals using automation.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Sulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.Biology: One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.Solar System: The group of celestial bodies, including the EARTH, orbiting around and gravitationally bound by the sun. It includes eight planets, one minor planet, and 34 natural satellites, more than 1,000 observed comets, and thousands of lesser bodies known as MINOR PLANETS (asteroids) and METEOROIDS. (From Academic American Encyclopedia, 1983)Hydrocarbons, Cyclic: Organic compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen forming a closed ring that may be either alicyclic or aromatic.Small Molecule Libraries: Large collections of small molecules (molecular weight about 600 or less), of similar or diverse nature which are used for high-throughput screening analysis of the gene function, protein interaction, cellular processing, biochemical pathways, or other chemical interactions.Hematologic Tests: Tests used in the analysis of the hemic system.Amines: A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Metals: Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Fullerenes: A polyhedral CARBON structure composed of around 60-80 carbon atoms in pentagon and hexagon configuration. They are named after Buckminster Fuller because of structural resemblance to geodesic domes. Fullerenes can be made in high temperature such as arc discharge in an inert atmosphere.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Silanes: Compounds similar to hydrocarbons in which a tetravalent silicon atom replaces the carbon atom. They are very reactive, ignite in air, and form useful derivatives.Nanostructures: Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Ecotoxicology: The study of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION and the toxic effects of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS on the ECOSYSTEM. The term was coined by Truhaut in 1969.Dendrimers: Tree-like, highly branched, polymeric compounds. They grow three-dimensionally by the addition of shells of branched molecules to a central core. The overall globular shape and presence of cavities gives potential as drug carriers and CONTRAST AGENTS.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Palladium: A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Chemical Processes: The reactions and interactions of atoms and molecules, the changes in their structure and composition, and associated energy changes.Biosensing Techniques: Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.Microscopy, Scanning Tunneling: A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a very sharp conducting needle is swept just a few angstroms above the surface of a sample. The tiny tunneling current that flows between the sample and the needle tip is measured, and from this are produced three-dimensional topographs. Due to the poor electron conductivity of most biological samples, thin metal coatings are deposited on the sample.Electrons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Metal Nanoparticles: Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.Gold: A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.PhotochemistryFluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Alkenes: Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)Sulfur Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.Elements: Substances that comprise all matter. Each element is made up of atoms that are identical in number of electrons and protons and in nuclear charge, but may differ in mass or number of neutrons.Molecular Probes: A group of atoms or molecules attached to other molecules or cellular structures and used in studying the properties of these molecules and structures. Radioactive DNA or RNA sequences are used in MOLECULAR GENETICS to detect the presence of a complementary sequence by NUCLEIC ACID HYBRIDIZATION.Biomimetics: An interdisciplinary field in materials science, ENGINEERING, and BIOLOGY, studying the use of biological principles for synthesis or fabrication of BIOMIMETIC MATERIALS.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cyclooctanes: A group of compounds with an 8-carbon ring. They may be saturated or unsaturated.Wettability: The quality or state of being wettable or the degree to which something can be wet. This is also the ability of any solid surface to be wetted when in contact with a liquid whose surface tension is reduced so that the liquid spreads over the surface of the solid.Meteoroids: Any solid objects moving in interplanetary space that are smaller than a planet or asteroid but larger than a molecule. Meteorites are any meteoroid that has fallen to a planetary surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Agrochemicals: Chemicals used in agriculture. These include pesticides, fumigants, fertilizers, plant hormones, steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins, etc.Volcanic Eruptions: The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Nanomedicine: The branch of medicine concerned with the application of NANOTECHNOLOGY to the prevention and treatment of disease. It involves the monitoring, repair, construction, and control of human biological systems at the molecular level, using engineered nanodevices and NANOSTRUCTURES. (From Freitas Jr., Nanomedicine, vol 1, 1999).Laboratories: Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Cycloaddition Reaction: Synthetic organic reactions that use reactions between unsaturated molecules to form cyclical products.Cross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Physics: The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Clinical Laboratory Techniques: Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.Solid-Phase Synthesis Techniques: Techniques used to synthesize chemicals using molecular substrates that are bound to a solid surface. Typically a series of reactions are conducted on the bound substrate that results in either the covalent attachment of specific moieties or the modification of existing function groups. These techniques offer an advantage to those involving solution reactions in that the substrate compound does not have to be isolated and purified between the reaction steps.Hydrocarbons, FluorinatedBenzene DerivativesChromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Heterocyclic Compounds: Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Silicon: A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Glass: Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Laboratories, Hospital: Hospital facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Lightning: An abrupt high-current electric discharge that occurs in the ATMOSPHERE and that has a path length ranging from hundreds of feet to tens of miles. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Silicon Dioxide: Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.Halogens: A family of nonmetallic, generally electronegative, elements that form group 17 (formerly group VIIa) of the periodic table.Evolution, Planetary: Creation and development of bodies within solar systems, includes study of early planetary geology.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Oligonucleotides: Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Aldehydes: Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Blood Urea Nitrogen: The urea concentration of the blood stated in terms of nitrogen content. Serum (plasma) urea nitrogen is approximately 12% higher than blood urea nitrogen concentration because of the greater protein content of red blood cells. Increases in blood or serum urea nitrogen are referred to as azotemia and may have prerenal, renal, or postrenal causes. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Chemistry, Inorganic: A field of chemistry which pertains to chemical compounds or ions that do not contain the element carbon (with the exception of carbon dioxide and compounds containing a carbonate radical, e.g., calcium carbonate).Acid Rain: Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.Nucleic Acids: High molecular weight polymers containing a mixture of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides chained together by ribose or deoxyribose linkages.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Spectrum Analysis, Raman: Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.Calcium Carbonate: Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Nucleic Acid Probes: Nucleic acid which complements a specific mRNA or DNA molecule, or fragment thereof; used for hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms and for genetic studies.IminesNitrogen Oxides: Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.Groundwater: Liquid water present beneath the surface of the earth.Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Saturn: The sixth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its twelve natural satellites include Phoebe and Titan.Microscopy, Atomic Force: A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Bromine: A halogen with the atomic symbol Br, atomic number 36, and atomic weight 79.904. It is a volatile reddish-brown liquid that gives off suffocating vapors, is corrosive to the skin, and may cause severe gastroenteritis if ingested.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Anions: Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.Microfluidic Analytical Techniques: Methods utilizing the principles of MICROFLUIDICS for sample handling, reagent mixing, and separation and detection of specific components in fluids.Free Radicals: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.Interdisciplinary Studies: Programs of study which span the traditional boundaries of academic scholarship.Ferric Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.Earth (Planet): Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.Electrolytes: Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Eagles: Large members of the FALCONIFORMES order of birds, family Accipitridae, most especially the genera Aquila, Haliaeetus, Harpia, and Circaetus. They are characterized by their powerful talons, which carry long, curved, pointed claws and by their opposable hindtoe.Microfluidics: The study of fluid channels and chambers of tiny dimensions of tens to hundreds of micrometers and volumes of nanoliters or picoliters. This is of interest in biological MICROCIRCULATION and used in MICROCHEMISTRY and INVESTIGATIVE TECHNIQUES.KetonesCations: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions: The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.Bilirubin: A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Biochemical Phenomena: The chemical processes, enzymatic activities, and pathways of living things and related temporal, dimensional, qualitative, and quantitative concepts.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Macrocyclic Compounds: Cyclic compounds with a ring size of approximately 1-4 dozen atoms.Natural Science Disciplines: The sciences dealing with processes observable in nature.Isotope Labeling: Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.Carboxylic Acids: Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.Lanthanoid Series Elements: Elements of the lanthanoid series including atomic number 57 (LANTHANUM) through atomic number 71 (LUTETIUM).Halogenation: Covalent attachment of HALOGENS to other compounds.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Polystyrenes: Polymerized forms of styrene used as a biocompatible material, especially in dentistry. They are thermoplastic and are used as insulators, for injection molding and casting, as sheets, plates, rods, rigid forms and beads.HydrocarbonsAlpha Particles: Positively charged particles composed of two protons and two NEUTRONS, i.e. equivalent to HELIUM nuclei, which are emitted during disintegration of heavy ISOTOPES. Alpha rays have very strong ionizing power, but weak penetrability.Organophosphorus Compounds: Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.Transition Elements: Elements with partially filled d orbitals. They constitute groups 3-12 of the periodic table of elements.Biocatalysis: The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.Hydroxyl Radical: The univalent radical OH. Hydroxyl radical is a potent oxidizing agent.Alkylation: The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.Graphite: An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.

An investigation into the binding of the carcinogen 15,16-dihydro-11-methylcyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-one to DNA in vitro. (1/7085)

After metabolic activation the carcinogen 15,16-dihydro-11-[3H]methylcyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-one binds to DNA in vitro, and this binding is prevented by 7,8-benzoflavone. Radioactivity cannot be removed from the DNA with organic solvents or by chromatography on Sephadex G-50, even after heat denaturation of the DNA. Enzymatic hydrolysis yields radioactive fractions, which elute from a column of Sephadex LH-20 immediately after the natural nucleosides. At least two species of reactive metabolites are involved in this bending, those with a half-life of a few hr and others with greater stability. After extraction from the aqueous incubation mixture, they could be detected in discrete polar fractions from separations of the complex metabolite mixture by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Their ability to bind to DNA decreased with time at ambient temperature, and they were rapidly deactivated by acid. 7,8-Benzolflavone acted by suppressing the formation of polar metabolites derived from enzymatic oxidation of the aromatic double bonds. The inhibitor had no effect on the enzymes hydroxylating saturated carbon; hence it is unlikely that metabolism of the methyl group is important in conversion of this carcinogen to its proximate form, although the presence of the 11-methyl group is essential for carcinogenic activity in this series.  (+info)

The interaction of rhodium(II) carboxylates with enzymes. (2/7085)

The effect of rhodium(II) acetate, propionate, and methoxyacetate on the activity of 17 enzymes was evaluated. The enzymes were preincubated with the rhodium(II) complexes in order to detect irreversible inhibition. All enzymes that have essential sulfhydryl groups in or near their active site were found to be irreversibly inhibited. Those enzymes without essential sulfhydryl groups were not affected. In each case, the rate of inactivation closely paralleled the observed toxicity and antitumor activity of rhodium(II) carboxylates; that is, rhodium(II) propionate greater than rhodium(II) acetate greater than rhodium(II) methoxyacetate. In addition, those enzymes that have been demonstrated to be most sensitive to established sulfhydryl inhibitors, such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, were also most sensitive to rhodium(II) carboxylate inactivation. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance measurements made during the titration of rhodium(II) acetate with cysteine showed that breakdown of the carboxylate cage occurred as a result of reaction with this sulfhydryl-containing amino acid.  (+info)

Glycopeptides from the surgace of human neuroblastoma cells. (3/7085)

Glycopeptides suggesting a complex oligosaccharide composition are present on the surface of cells from human neuroblastoma tumors and several cell lines derived from the tumors. The glycopeptides, labeled with radioactive L-fucose, were removed from the cell surface with trypsin, digested with Pronase, and examined by chromatography on Sephadex G-50. Human skin fibroblasts, brain cells, and a fibroblast line derived from neuroblastoma tumor tissue show less complex glycopeptides. Although some differences exist between the cell lines and the primary tumor cells, the similarities between these human tumors and animal tumors examined previously are striking.  (+info)

The isolation and partial characterization of the serum lipoproteins and apolipoproteins of the rainbow trout. (4/7085)

1. VLD (very-low-density), LD (low-density) and HD (high-density) lipoproteins were isolated from the serum of trout (Salmo gairdneri Richardson). 2. Each lipoprotein class resembled that of the human in immunological reactivity, electrophoretic behaviour and appearance in the electron microscope. Trout LD lipoprotein, however, was of greater density than human LD lipoprotein. 3. The trout lipoproteins have lipid compositions which are similar to those of the corresponding human components, except for their high contents of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids. 4. HD and LD lipoproteins were immunologically non-identical, whereas LD lipoproteins possessed antigenic determinants in common with VLD lipoproteins. 5. VLD and HD lipoproteins each contained at least seven different apoproteins, whereas LD liprotein was composed largely of a single apoprotein which resembled human apolipoprotein B. 6. At least one, and possibly three, apoprotein of trout HD lipoprotein showed features which resemble human apoprotein A-1.7. The broad similarity between the trout and human lipoprotein systems suggests that both arose from common ancestral genes early in evolutionary history.  (+info)

Studies of the binding of different iron donors to human serum transferrin and isolation of iron-binding fragments from the N- and C-terminal regions of the protein. (5/7085)

1. Trypsin digestion of human serum transferrin partially saturated with iron(III)-nitrilotriacetate at pH 5.5 or pH 8.5 produces a carbohydrate-containing iron-binding fragment of mol.wt. 43000. 2. When iron(III) citrate, FeCl3, iron (III) ascorabate and (NH4)2SO4,FeSO4 are used as iron donors to saturate the protein partially, at pH8.5, proteolytic digestion yields a fragment of mol.wt. 36000 that lacks carbohydrate. 3. The two fragments differ in their antigenic structures, amino acid compositions and peptide 'maps'. 4. The fragment with mol.wt. 36000 was assigned to the N-terminal region of the protein and the other to the C-terminal region. 5. The distribution of iron in human serum transferrin partially saturated with various iron donors was examined by electrophoresis in urea/polyacrylamide gels and the two possible monoferric forms were unequivocally identified. 6. The site designated A on human serum transferrin [Harris (1977) Biochemistry 16, 560--564] was assigned to the C-terminal region of the protein and the B site to the N-terminal region. 7. The distribution of iron on transferrin in human plasma was determined.  (+info)

Carbon 13 NMR study of nonenzymatic reactions of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate with selected amino acids and of related reactions. (6/7085)

Carbon 13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been used to monitor the nonenzymatic reactions of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate with glycine, alanine, valine, serine, and with several other model compounds. Isotopically enriched amino acids were employed so that low concentrations could be utilized while still allowing relatively rapid acquisition of spectral data. The results for alanine and serine are particularly noteworthy in that alanine is deaminated to pyruvate and pyruvate is aminated to alanine, but contrary to the enzymatic reactions of various serine dehydratases wherein serine is converted to pyruvate, the nonenzymatic reaction utilizing serine results in hydroxypruvate rather than pyruvate formation. In the reverse reaction, hydroxypyruvate is aminated to serine but very inefficiently relative to the amination of pyruvate to alanine. The experimental results have been formulated into a proposed reaction mechanism for deamination of amino acids by pyridoxal-P.  (+info)

Herpetic keratitis. Proctor Lecture. (7/7085)

Although much needs to be learned about the serious clinical problem of herpes infection of the cornea, we have come a long way. We now have effective topical antiviral drugs. We have animal models which, with a high degree of reliability, clearly predict the effect to be expected clinically in man, as well as the toxicity. We have systemically active drugs and the potential of getting highly active, potent, completely selective drugs, with the possibility that perhaps the source of viral reinfection can be eradicated. The biology of recurrent herpes and stromal disease is gradually being understood, and this understanding may result in new and better therapy of this devastating clinical disease.  (+info)

Crystal structure of the FMN-binding domain of human cytochrome P450 reductase at 1.93 A resolution. (8/7085)

The crystal structure of the FMN-binding domain of human NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (P450R-FMN), a key component in the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system, has been determined to 1.93 A resolution and shown to be very similar both to the global fold in solution (Barsukov I et al., 1997, J Biomol NMR 10:63-75) and to the corresponding domain in the 2.6 A crystal structure of intact rat P450R (Wang M et al., 1997, Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 94:8411-8416). The crystal structure of P450R-FMN reported here confirms the overall similarity of its alpha-beta-alpha architecture to that of the bacterial flavodoxins, but reveals differences in the position, number, and length of the helices relative to the central beta-sheet. The marked similarity between P450R-FMN and flavodoxins in the interactions between the FMN and the protein, indicate a striking evolutionary conservation of the FMN binding site. The P450R-FMN molecule has an unusual surface charge distribution, leading to a very strong dipole, which may be involved in docking cytochrome P450 into place for electron transfer near the FMN. Several acidic residues near the FMN are identified by mutagenesis experiments to be important for electron transfer to P4502D6 and to cytochrome c, a clear indication of the part of the molecular surface that is likely to be involved in substrate binding. Somewhat different parts are found to be involved in binding cytochrome P450 and cytochrome c.  (+info)

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The giardins are a family of approximately 30000 Mr structural proteins found in microribbons attached to microtubules in the disc cytoskeleton of Giardia. After examining the solubility of giardins in various agents, a method has been developed to extract these polypeptides and subsequently precipitate them selectively. The giardin chains are soluble in 10 mM-HEPES/EDTA buffer at high pH and low ionic strength, but become insoluble in 10 mM-MES/EDTA buffer at pH 6.7 when the ionic strength is raised above 50 mM salt. By dialysing giardin extracts in turn against dissociating and reassembly buffers, the purification is obtained of a subset of giardin chains identified by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as the cytoskeleton bands 14a, 14b and 15. The structures forming under assembly conditions are all composed of fine filaments, 2-3 nm in diameter. Filaments after the first cycle of assembly are found in bundles, narrow ribbons of two or three filaments, and large ...
Brine, G., Boldt, K., Huang, P-T., Sawyer, D., & Carroll, F. (1989). Carbon-13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectra of Fentanyl Analogs. Journal of Heterocyclic Chemistry, 26, 677 ...
Imidazole, appears in a number of pharmaceuticals, is characterized by a ring structure composed of three carbon atoms and two nitrogen atoms at nonadjacent positions. The simplest member of the imidazole family is itself, a compound with molecular formula C3H4N2. Labs can produce it and its derivatives, like clotrimazole and econazole, synthetically. This allows for efficient mass production in a controlled environment.. The chemical was first prepared in 1858. Other imidazole compounds have been known longer: allantoin (discovered in 1800) and parabanic acid were prepared in 1837 from uric acid. The amino acid histidine and its decomposition product histamine have the structure, as does biotin, a growth factor for both humans and yeast.. Patients may be told to take an imidazole to treat a fungal infection because it has a broad mechanism of action and is usually easy to use. It can be applied topically to skin infections as well as fungal infections in the eyes and orifices, like vaginal ...
... , appears in a number of pharmaceuticals, is characterized by a ring structure composed of three carbon atoms and two nitrogen atoms at nonadjacent positions. The simplest member of the imidazole family is itself, a compound with molecular formula C3H4N2. Labs can produce it and its derivatives, like clotrimazole and econazole, synthetically. This allows for efficient mass production in a controlled environment.. The chemical was first prepared in 1858. Other imidazole compounds have been known longer: allantoin (discovered in 1800) and parabanic acid were prepared in 1837 from uric acid. The amino acid histidine and its decomposition product histamine have the structure, as does biotin, a growth factor for both humans and yeast.. Patients may be told to take an imidazole to treat a fungal infection because it has a broad mechanism of action and is usually easy to use. It can be applied topically to skin infections as well as fungal infections in the eyes and orifices, like vaginal ...
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Aniline Compounds are organic compounds, consisting of a phenyl group attached to an amine group, with a molecular formula (C6H5NH2)
Sodium Polystyrene Sulphonate,Intermediates,Products,Baoding Lucky Chemical Co.Ltd.,[ Structure][Molecular formula] C8H7SO3Na]n[Molecular weight][CAS No.] 25704-18-1[ Technical Specification]Appearance: Light yellow transparent viscous liquidSolid co
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Unit Size 100 mcg/vial, 2 mg, 5mg, 10 mg Unit Quantity 1 Vial CAS NO. 57773-63-4 Synonyms Triptorelin Acetate, GnRH Molecular Formula C64H82N18O13 Molecular Weight 1311.45 Sequence pGlu-His-Trp-Ser-Tyr-D-Trp-Leu-Arg-Pro-Gly-NH2 Appearance Whit ...
Draw the structures of 4 amines with formula C3H9N. Draw the structures of all monoiodo derivatives of 3-methylpentane, C6H13I, which have the iodine on a
... Identifiers CAS number 58-82-2 PubChem 6026 MeSH Bradykinin Properties Molecular formula C50H73N15O11 Molar mass 1060.21 Except where
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CAS Number: 13103-34-9 Assay:99% Molecular Formula: C30H44O3 Molecular Weight: 452.67 Packing:100g/foil ba - Manufacturer - Producer - PSL117122YH
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noun ● A drug traditionally prescribed for hypertension, having the chemical formula C9H9Cl2N3, and acting by stimulating α2 receptors in the brain
Qualitative chemical analysis, branch of chemistry that deals with the identification of elements or grouping of elements present in a sample. The techniques employed in qualitative analysis vary in complexity, depending on the nature of the sample. In some cases it is necessary only to verify the
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నెల్లూరు: మనుబోలు మండలం బద్వేలు క్రాస్‌రోడ్డు దగ్గర కారు బోల్తా, ముగ్గురికి గాయాలు,కర్నూలు: 16 వ రోజు జగన్ ప్రజా సంకల్ప యాత్ర,రంగారెడ్డి: మైలార్‌దేవ్‌పల్లిలో కింగ్స్‌ కాలనీలో ముస్తఫా అనే వ్యక్తిపై దుండగుల కాల్పులు,కడప: జగన్ సీఎం అయితే తన ఆస్తులు పెరుగుతాయి..చంద్రబాబు సీఎంగా ఉంటే ప్రజల ఆస్తులు పెరుగుతాయి: మంత్రి సోమిరెడ్డి,సిరిసిల్ల: అన్ని గ్రామాల్లో కేసీఆర్ గ్రామీణ ప్రగతి ...
నెల్లూరు: మనుబోలు మండలం బద్వేలు క్రాస్‌రోడ్డు దగ్గర కారు బోల్తా, ముగ్గురికి గాయాలు,కర్నూలు: 16 వ రోజు జగన్ ప్రజా సంకల్ప యాత్ర,రంగారెడ్డి: మైలార్‌దేవ్‌పల్లిలో కింగ్స్‌ కాలనీలో ముస్తఫా అనే వ్యక్తిపై దుండగుల కాల్పులు,కడప: జగన్ సీఎం అయితే తన ఆస్తులు పెరుగుతాయి..చంద్రబాబు సీఎంగా ఉంటే ప్రజల ఆస్తులు పెరుగుతాయి: మంత్రి సోమిరెడ్డి,సిరిసిల్ల: అన్ని గ్రామాల్లో కేసీఆర్ గ్రామీణ ప్రగతి ...
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A thermal and chemical degradation approach was followed to determine the precursors of pristane (Pr) and phytane (Ph) in samples from the Gessoso-solfifera, Ghareb and Green River Formations. Hydrous pyrolysis of these samples yields large amounts of Pr and Ph carbon skeletons, indicating that their precursors are predominantly sequestered in high-molecular-weight fractions. However, chemical degradation of the polar fraction and the kerogen of the unheated samples generally does not release large amounts of Pr and Ph. Additional information on the precursors of Pr and Ph is obtained from flash pyrolysis analyses of kerogens and residues after hydrous pyrolysis and after chemical degradation. Multiple precursors for Pr and Ph are recognised in these three samples. The main increase of the Pr/Ph ratio with increasing maturation temperature, which is associated with strongly increasing amounts of Pr and Ph, is probably due to the higher amount of precursors of Pr compared to Ph,...
General Biotech China, Eptifibatide Acetate Cas Number 188627 80 7, AIGP0019 Eptifibatide Acetate Molecular Formula: C35H49N11O9S2 Relative Molecular Mass: 831.97 g/mol CAS-Number: 188627-...
Basic info: Product Name Methylstenbolones CAS Number 5197-58-0 Molecular Formula C20H30O2 Molecular Weight 302.455 Assay 99.5% Appearance White powder Methylstenbolone/M-Sten Powder Description: Methylstenbolone or M-Sten is a mass-building prohormone that helps users gain size and strength without sacrificing definition. M-Sten is derived from DHT, so it doesnt convert to estrogen, resulting in little to no water…
CAS: 71-58-9 Packing specifications: 25 kg Specification: 99% Molecular formula C24H34O4 Molecular weight of 386.53 Product Name: medroxyprogester
This program works with chemistry problems that give the amounts of CO2 and H2O formed from combustion of a compound, and expect you to find the empirical or molecular formula of the compound. The program first prompts for the grams of: the sample combusted, the CO2 created, and the H2O created. It also asks for the molar mass of the third element involved (the one that isnt carbon or hydrogen). It then comes up with the number of moles of each element in the original compound and the empirical formula of the original compound. If you tell it the molar mass of the compound, it will give you the molecular formula. It only works with problems that involve the combustion of a compound containing carbon, hydrogen, and one other element. This is a very accurate, well put together program. If youre currently covering this material in chemistry class, this program can be a big help! ...
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Divergent synthesis and chemical reactivity of bicyclic lactone fragments of complex rearranged spongian diterpenes.: The synthesis and direct comparison of the
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Molecular formula: C3H6NS2Na?2H2O (SDD) Molecular weight: 179 CAS No.: 128-04-1 Properties: 1. Solid - Manufacturer - Producer - PSL109116YH
Product Number , 70623648. CAS Number , 32042-43-6. EC , 250-903-0. Molecular Formula , C6H14N4O2HCl. Molecular Weight , 210.67. Storage Temp , Harmonized Tariff code , 29252900. Signal Word , ...
Product Number , 18379374. CAS Number , 319-78-8. EC , 206-269-2. Molecular Formula , C6H13NO2. Molecular Weight , 131.18. Storage Temp , +20°C. Harmonized Tariff code , 29224985. Signal Word , ...
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Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of 7.BETA.-[2-(2-aminothiazol-4-yl)acetamido]-cephalosporin derivatives. III. Synthesis and antibacterial activity of 7.BETA.-[2-amino-2-(2-aminothiazol-4-yl)acetamido]cephalosporins.:III. SYNTHESIS AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF 7β-[2-AMINO- 2-(2-A MINOTHIAZOL-4-YL)ACETAMIDO]CEPHALOSPORINS (1980 ...
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Calcitriol ,Calcitriol manufacturer,Calcitriol CAS No 32222-06-3,Calcitriol Molecular Formula C27H44O3,Calcitriol Synonyms (1R,3S)-5-[2-[(1R,3aR,7aS)-1-[(2R)-6-hydroxy-6-methyl-heptan-2-yl]-7a-methyl-2,3,3a,5,6,7-hexahydro-1H- inden-4-ylidene]ethylidene]-4-methylidene-cyclohexane-1,3-diol,Calcitriol Molecular weight 416.64 g/mol,Calcitriol manufacturing by A.S.Joshi & Company
Ecadotril IUPAC name[hide] Benzyl N-[(2S)-3-(acetylsulfanyl)-2-benzylpropanoyl]glycinate Identifiers CAS number 112573-73-6 PubChem 60561 ChemSpider 54591 SMILES [show] O=C(SC[[email protected]](C(=O)NCC(=O)OCc1ccccc1)Cc2ccccc2)C InChI [show] InChI=InChI=1S/C21H23NO4S/c1-16(23)27-15-19(12-17-8-4-2-5-9-17)21(25)22-13-20(24)26-14-18-10-6-3-7-11-18/h2-11,19H,12-15H2,1H3,(H,22,25)/t19-/m1/s1 Properties Molecular formula C21H23NO4S Molar mass 385.48 g mol−1 Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox references Ecadotril a neutral endopeptidase inhibitor ((NEP[1]) EC…
4P (s) + 5O2 (g) 2P2O5 (s). (d) When 0.27 g of aluminium is added to excess copper(II) sulphate solution, 0.96 g of copper is precipitated. Deduce the equation for the reaction.. Molar Volumes of Gases. Calculation of empirical and molecular formulae from analytical data and molar masses. The empirical formula of a compound is the simplest form of the ration of the atoms of different elements in it. The molecular formula tells the actual number of each kind of atom in one molecule of the substance ...
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KOHNO Jun , ASAI Yasuyuki , NISHIO Maki , SAKURAI Masaaki , KAWANO Kimio , HIRAMATSU Hajime , KAMEDA Noriaki , KISHI Noboru , OKUDA Toru , KOMATSUBARA Saburo Journal of antibiotics 52(12), 1114-1123, 1999-12-25 参考文献6件 被引用文献2件 ...
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Product Name: Glucosamine Hydrochloride CAS No.: 66-84-2 Molecular Formula: C6H13NO5, HCI Molecular Weight: 215.63 Appearan
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The compound calcium nitrate consists of a total of nine atoms, including one atom of calcium, two of nitrogen and six of oxygen. Calcium nitrate has the molecular formula Ca(NO3)2 and a molecular...
The molar mass of (NH4)3PO4 is 149.087 grams per mole. Finding this answer involves using the number of atoms of each element in the molecular formula for this compound and their atomic...
(2-AZEPAN-1-YLMETHYL-PHENYL)-METHANOL. CAS Number: 356539-02-1. Catalog Number: AA00C0DV. MDL Number: MFCD03211257. Molecular Formula: C14H21NO. Molecular Weight: 219.3226. AA Blocks.
The degradation of proteins in reductively [3H]methylated mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) transplanted into cells by a poly(ethylene glycol)-mediated process has been studied. The average rate of degradation (t1/2 24-28 h) of MOM proteins transplanted into HTC cells was not the same as for endogenous MOM proteins (t1/2 56 h), mitoplast proteins (t1/2 120 h), plasma membrane proteins (t1/2 approx. 90 h) or cytosol proteins (t1/2 75 h). The degradation of transplanted MOM proteins was inhibited to the same extent (30-45%) as that of endogenous mitochondrial and plasma membrane proteins by leupeptin and NH4Cl. No inhibition of HTC cell cytosol protein degradation by NH4Cl was observed. NH4Cl differentially inhibited the degradation of endogenous MOM and mitoplast protein subunits as shown after sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Proteins in MOM transplanted into tissue culture cells were degraded either with t1/2 24-28 h (MRC-5, B82 and A549 cells) or with t1/2 55-70 h ...
Pantothenase (EC 3.5.1.22) from Pseudomonas fluorescens UK-1 was purified to homogeneity as judged by disc-gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing. The purification procedure consisted of four steps: DEAE-Sephadex chromatography, (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, hydroxyapatite chromatography and preparative polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Gel filtration on Ultrogel AcA 34 was used to determine the molecular weight, and sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis to study the subunit molecular weight. The enzyme appeared to be composed of two subunits with mol.wts. of approx. 50000 each. The total mol.wt. of the enzyme was thus about 100000. The isoelectric point was 4.7 at 10 degrees C. ...
Provided are azeotrope-like compositions comprising iodine heptafluoride and hydrogen fluoride and uses thereof, including methods for separating iodine heptafluoride or hydrogen fluoride from a mixture comprising iodine heptafluoride and hydrogen fluoride by removing an azeotrope-like composition of the present invention therefrom.

2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry: The Ribosome - The Scientific Activist2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry: The Ribosome - The Scientific Activist

... chemistry, and physics, so its reasonable that such work is often recognized by the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. ... This prize marks the sixth time in eight years that the Nobel Prize in Chemistry has been awarded for biological work, and most ... The winners of this years Nobel Prize in Chemistry have been announced, and the prize will be shared equally between ... 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry: The Ribosome. Posted by Nick Anthis on October 7, 2009 ...
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Nobel Prize in Chemistry Awarded to Microscopist and MBL Visiting Scientist and Faculty Member Eric BetzigNobel Prize in Chemistry Awarded to Microscopist and MBL Visiting Scientist and Faculty Member Eric Betzig

Also awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry today were Stefan W. Hell of the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry and ... Nobel Prize in Chemistry Awarded to Microscopist and MBL Visiting Scientist and Faculty Member Eric Betzig. October 8, 2014 by ... You are here: Home / Homepage Feature / Nobel Prize in Chemistry Awarded to Microscopist and MBL Visiting Scientist and Faculty ... Today, Betzig received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for development of that microscope technology, which allows one to ...
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Cool Microscope Technology - Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2017 | The Lindau Nobel Laureate MeetingsCool Microscope Technology - Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2017 | The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings

Cool Microscope Technology - Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2017. Posted on 04/10/2017. by Susanne Dambeck ... TheNobel Laureates in Chemistry 2017: Jacques Dubochet, Joachim Frank, and Richard Henderson (from left). Illustrations: Niklas ... Visualising biomolecules is crucial for both the basic understanding of the chemistry of life and for the design of ...
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Nobel Prize in Chemistry: How ribosome pieces together proteins? | X-InformaticsNobel Prize in Chemistry: How ribosome pieces together proteins? | X-Informatics

Scientific AmericanThe 2009 Nobel Prize in chemistry will be split among three researchers who, over the course of the past two ... Chemistry Nobel Awarded to Modelers of Living Cells Protein-Maker: ... Nobel Prize in Chemistry: How ribosome pieces together proteins?. Unraveling the Ribosome: Chemistry Nobel Awarded to Modelers ... The 2009 Nobel Prize in chemistry will be split among three researchers who, over the course of the past two decades, puzzled ...
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Cryo Electron Microscopy scoops Nobel Prize in Chemistry. | Department of Political StudiesCryo Electron Microscopy scoops Nobel Prize in Chemistry. | Department of Political Studies

Jacques Dubochet, Joachim Frank and Richard Henderson win the 2017 Nobel prize in chemistry.. The Nobel prize in chemistry has ...
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Rhenium
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  • Modern chemistry is a broadly diverse science positioned at the interface of physics, biology and mathematics. (berry.edu)
  • These accredited degrees are especially helpful for those students planning on attending graduate school to obtain a Masters or Ph.D. in Chemistry, Biochemistry or Molecular Biology. (berry.edu)
  • In the scope of its subject, chemistry occupies an intermediate position between physics and biology . (wikipedia.org)
  • Students with major credit for Biology 40 are not eligible to receive credit for Chemistry 41. (dartmouth.edu)
  • A one term advanced course with in-depth treatment of a number of important concepts in modern biological chemistry, including structural biology (both theoretical and experimental methods), protein folding, ligand binding, allostery, enzyme kinetics, and an introduction to molecular modeling and chemoinformatics. (dartmouth.edu)
  • The ACS DIC wishes to bring to your attention a new award to recognize an Emerging Investigator in Bioinorganic Chemistry, including Medicinal Inorganic Chemistry. (acsdic.org)
  • The division aims to provide students that may be considering applying to graduate programs in the area of inorganic chemistry the opportunity to explore the wide breadth of the Inorganic Chemistry field, identify possible schools/PIs of interest, and utilize the ACS meeting resources for undergraduate students. (acsdic.org)
  • An opening survey symposium introducing the students to the sessions held in the Inorganic Division, highlighting "must-see" talks and introducing the students to a broad range of inorganic chemistry research. (acsdic.org)
  • A dinner with prominent members of the Division of Inorganic Chemistry including the current Division board and recent award winners. (acsdic.org)
  • Preference will be given to students who have completed Inorganic Chemistry, are currently rising seniors considering applying to graduate programs, and are involved in undergraduate research in an inorganic field. (acsdic.org)
  • This course is intended for chemistry majors and will be divided into three sec-tions, using specific examples to demonstrate and stress the role and integration of organic, inorganic and physical chemistry as applied to biochemical processes. (dartmouth.edu)
  • I am looking for a free chemistry simulator that allows me to see generally what would happen under certain chemical reactions. (physicsforums.com)
  • Chemistry volumes continue to rise in the U.S. and chemical market expected to contract this year-As a result, chemical industry capital spending in the U.S. surged 12.1% in 2014 and gained 21.0% in 2015, reaching $43.58 billion and accounting for more than one-half of total construction spending by the manufacturing sector. (conferenceseries.com)
  • Beyond a description of chemical processes and the composition of elements, the study of chemistry delves into biomedicine, chemical physics, and the construction of complex materials, such as plastics and other long-chain polymers. (analyticalchemistry.org)
  • Chemistry addresses topics such as how atoms and molecules interact via chemical bonds to form new chemical compounds . (wikipedia.org)
  • The interactions , reactions and transformations that are studied in chemistry are usually the result of interactions between atoms, leading to rearrangements of the chemical bonds which hold atoms together. (wikipedia.org)
  • Laboratories cover chemical methods applied to biological chemistry problems. (dartmouth.edu)
  • Chemistry is considered to have become an established science with the work of Antoine Lavoisier, who developed a law of conservation of mass that demanded careful measurement and quantitative observations of chemical phenomena. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word chemistry comes from alchemy , which referred to an earlier set of practices that encompassed elements of chemistry, metallurgy , philosophy , astrology , astronomy , mysticism and medicine . (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemistry was preceded by its protoscience, alchemy, which is an intuitive but non-scientific approach to understanding the constituents of matter and their interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemistry as a body of knowledge distinct from alchemy began to emerge when a clear differentiation was made between them by Robert Boyle in his work The Sceptical Chymist (1661). (wikipedia.org)
  • A team of A-level students from the UK have each brought home a medal from the 51st International Chemistry Olympiad (IChO), which took place in Paris in July. (rsc.org)
  • Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • The other strand is the introduction of this approach into synthetic work, mainly in organic chemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • There has always been a place for small-scale working in qualitative analysis, but the new developments can encompass much of chemistry a student is likely to meet. (wikipedia.org)
  • Students are placed into Chemistry 2 based on their pre-matriculation mathematics and science record. (dartmouth.edu)
  • Prerequisite for Chemistry 5: Mathematics 3, or Mathematics 1 and 2, or Mathematics 1 and Chemistry 2. (dartmouth.edu)
  • First year students taking Mathematics 1 will be placed in Chemistry 2). (dartmouth.edu)
  • Prerequisite for Chemistry 6: Mathematics 3 (or Mathematics 1 and 2) and Chemistry 5. (dartmouth.edu)
  • Prerequisite: Mathematics 3 (or Mathematics 1 and 2) and Chemistry 2 (if placed into this course). (dartmouth.edu)
  • Chemistry 5 and Mathematics 2 or 3 are prerequisites for Chemistry 6. (dartmouth.edu)
  • Careers in the field of chemistry range from applied science in industrial settings, to academic research and laboratory development. (analyticalchemistry.org)
  • Such behaviors are studied in a chemistry laboratory . (wikipedia.org)
  • The chemistry laboratory stereotypically uses various forms of laboratory glassware . (wikipedia.org)
  • I want to get the latest chemistry news from C&EN in my inbox every week. (acs.org)
  • Traditional chemistry starts with the study of elementary particles , atoms , molecules , substances , metals , crystals and other aggregates of matter . (wikipedia.org)
  • While much of traditional chemistry teaching centers on multi-gramme preparations, milligrammes of substances are sufficient for microscale chemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • However glassware is not central to chemistry, and a great deal of experimental (as well as applied/industrial) chemistry is done without it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cutting-edge research boosts Chemistry program to second in Canada, according to the latest Shanghai rankings . (ualberta.ca)
  • Get info about University of Findlay AP Chemistry test credit, registering in a technical degree program, and taking free tests online. (apchemistrytest.com)
  • Students who successfully complete Chemistry 10 will also be granted credit for Chemistry 5, if they have not already been granted such credit. (dartmouth.edu)
  • Chemistry 10 is offered in the fall term and is the prerequisite equivalent to Chemistry 5/6. (dartmouth.edu)