The total genetic information possessed by the reproductive members of a POPULATION of sexually reproducing organisms.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
An acquired disorder characterized by recurrent symptoms, referable to multiple organ systems, occurring in response to demonstrable exposure to many chemically unrelated compounds at doses below those established in the general population to cause harmful effects. (Cullen MR. The worker with multiple chemical sensitivities: an overview. Occup Med 1987;2(4):655-61)
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Tactical warfare using incendiary mixtures, smokes, or irritant, burning, or asphyxiating gases.
A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.
A broad class of substances encompassing all those that do not include carbon and its derivatives as their principal elements. However, carbides, carbonates, cyanides, cyanates, and carbon disulfide are included in this class.
Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Chemicals that are used to cause the disturbance, disease, or death of humans during WARFARE.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific chemicals.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.
An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.
Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Large collections of small molecules (molecular weight about 600 or less), of similar or diverse nature which are used for high-throughput screening analysis of the gene function, protein interaction, cellular processing, biochemical pathways, or other chemical interactions.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Exogenous agents, synthetic and naturally occurring, which are capable of disrupting the functions of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM including the maintenance of HOMEOSTASIS and the regulation of developmental processes. Endocrine disruptors are compounds that can mimic HORMONES, or enhance or block the binding of hormones to their receptors, or otherwise lead to activating or inhibiting the endocrine signaling pathways and hormone metabolism.
The science concerned with the detection, chemical composition, and biological action of toxic substances or poisons and the treatment and prevention of toxic manifestations.
Sympathectomy using chemicals (e.g., 6-hydroxydopamine or guanethidine) which selectively and reversibly destroy adrenergic nerve endings while leaving cholinergic nerve endings intact.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
An organization of insurers or reinsurers through which particular types of risk are shared or pooled. The risk of high loss by a particular insurance company is transferred to the group as a whole (the insurance pool) with premiums, losses, and expenses shared in agreed amounts.
Chemical and physical transformation of the biogenic elements from their nucleosynthesis in stars to their incorporation and subsequent modification in planetary bodies and terrestrial biochemistry. It includes the mechanism of incorporation of biogenic elements into complex molecules and molecular systems, leading up to the origin of life.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
The use of chemical agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of nerve agents, blood agents, blister agents, and choking agents (NOXAE).
Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
Procedures, such as TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES; mathematical models; etc., when used or advocated for use in place of the use of animals in research or diagnostic laboratories.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Drugs that act locally on cutaneous or mucosal surfaces to produce inflammation; those that cause redness due to hyperemia are rubefacients; those that raise blisters are vesicants and those that penetrate sebaceous glands and cause abscesses are pustulants; tear gases and mustard gases are also irritants.
Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Tests to experimentally measure the tumor-producing/cancer cell-producing potency of an agent by administering the agent (e.g., benzanthracenes) and observing the quantity of tumors or the cell transformation developed over a given period of time. The carcinogenicity value is usually measured as milligrams of agent administered per tumor developed. Though this test differs from the DNA-repair and bacterial microsome MUTAGENICITY TESTS, researchers often attempt to correlate the finding of carcinogenicity values and mutagenicity values.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Uncontrolled release of a chemical from its containment that either threatens to, or does, cause exposure to a chemical hazard. Such an incident may occur accidentally or deliberately.
Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.
Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Rapid methods of measuring the effects of an agent in a biological or chemical assay. The assay usually involves some form of automation or a way to conduct multiple assays at the same time using sample arrays.
A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to a DEOXYRIBOSE containing a bond to a phosphate group.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.
Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Disorder characterized by a decrease or lack of platelet dense bodies in which the releasable pool of adenine nucleotides and 5HT are normally stored.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
Preservative for wines, soft drinks, and fruit juices and a gentle esterifying agent.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The study of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION and the toxic effects of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS on the ECOSYSTEM. The term was coined by Truhaut in 1969.
A quantitative prediction of the biological, ecotoxicological or pharmaceutical activity of a molecule. It is based upon structure and activity information gathered from a series of similar compounds.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Compounds which contain the methyl radical substituted with two benzene rings. Permitted are any substituents, but ring fusion to any of the benzene rings is not allowed.
Membrane-bound compartments which contain transmitter molecules. Synaptic vesicles are concentrated at presynaptic terminals. They actively sequester transmitter molecules from the cytoplasm. In at least some synapses, transmitter release occurs by fusion of these vesicles with the presynaptic membrane, followed by exocytosis of their contents.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
A technology, in which sets of reactions for solution or solid-phase synthesis, is used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.
The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.
Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
The reactions and interactions of atoms and molecules, the changes in their structure and composition, and associated energy changes.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.
The system of glands that release their secretions (hormones) directly into the circulatory system. In addition to the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, included are the CHROMAFFIN SYSTEM and the NEUROSECRETORY SYSTEMS.
Mixtures of many components in inexact proportions, usually natural, such as PLANT EXTRACTS; VENOMS; and MANURE. These are distinguished from DRUG COMBINATIONS which have only a few components in definite proportions.
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
The study of the composition, chemical structures, and chemical reactions of living things.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
The study of existing genetic knowledge, and the generation of new genetic data, to understand and thus avoid DRUG TOXICITY and adverse effects from toxic substances from the environment.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A subclass of IMIDES with the general structure of pyrrolidinedione. They are prepared by the distillation of ammonium succinate. They are sweet-tasting compounds that are used as chemical intermediates and plant growth stimulants.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in definite quantities called quanta (E) which vary in size and are defined by the equation E=hv in which h is Planck's constant and v is the frequency of the radiation.
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The above-ground plant without the roots.
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.
Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A group of compounds that has the general structure of a dicarboxylic acid-substituted benzene ring. The ortho-isomer is used in dye manufacture. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Swimming Pools[edit]. When a swimmer enters a pool, they add up to one billion organisms to the water. Chlorination kills all ... Although the actual chemical processes involved are complex, they can be simply represented by the following equation: NaCl + H ... This is used to disinfect water and make it safe for human use, such as for drinking water or swimming pools. ... These random chemicals pose no threat to the system however, due to the simplicity of the process. The low voltage DC current ...
... swimming pool , tennis court , gymnasium, athletics arena ). The main, chemical, mining and energy buildings are architectural ... Chemical. Mining and energy) is an architectural monument of republican significance. Protected by the Law. The complex was ... University buildings in the 1930s Mining Faculty Chemical faculty Faculty of Energy On 27 February 1948, via order No. 264 of ... This construction project included the main, robotic (modern name), chemical, mining corps and was finally completed in 1930. ...
Similarly, we add HOCl to swimming pools to kill bacteria. Harris, Daniel C. (2009). Exploring Chemical Analysis (Fourth ed.). ... Hypochlorous acid and hypobromous acid are each dissolved in water in order to sanitize it, hypochlorous acid in swimming pools ...
... is also included among swimming pool chemicals. It is used as a stain inhibitor to prevent metal ions coming out ... of solution and staining the sides of swimming pools. Etidronic acid can be prepared by reaction of Phosphorus trichloride with ... chemical industry, metallurgy, fertilizer, etc. In light woven industry, HEDP is used as detergent for metal and nonmetal. In ...
It is also used in drinking water and swimming pools to kill bacteria. The extent of poisoning chlorine causes depends on the ... Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense. (Sep. 1995). Medical Management of Chemical Casualties Handbook: Pulmonary ... It is one of the most commonly manufactured chemicals in the United States. It is used to make pesticides, rubber, and solvents ... A pulmonary agent, or choking agent, is a chemical weapon agent designed to impede a victim's ability to breathe. They operate ...
Several chemicals can eliminate cyanobacterial blooms from smaller water-based systems such as swimming pools. They include: ... Internal photosynthetic pathways can be coupled to chemical mediators that transfer electrons to external electrodes. In the ...
Recreational water illness prevention, including from swimming pools, spas and ocean and freshwater bathing places. Safe ... and exposure science can be combined to conduct a risk assessment for specific chemicals, mixtures of chemicals or other risk ... TOXMAP's chemical and environmental health information is taken from the NLM's Toxicology Data Network (TOXNET) and PubMed, and ... Toxic chemical exposure whether in consumer products, housing, workplaces, air, water or soil. Vector control, including the ...
It is used in swimming pools as an algicide. A dilute solution of copper sulfate is used to treat aquarium fishes for parasitic ... Media related to Copper(II) sulfate at Wikimedia Commons International Chemical Safety Card 0751 International Chemical Safety ... Several chemical tests utilize copper sulfate. It is used in Fehling's solution and Benedict's solution to test for reducing ... Copper(II) sulfate, also known as copper sulphate, are the inorganic compounds with the chemical formula CuSO4(H2O)x, where x ...
Both chemicals are used in the disinfection of water, for human consumption, animal consumption and in swimming pools. When ... Msufini Company Limited was formed to design, build, operate and maintain a chemical plant that will turn 2,500 tonnes of un- ... Corporate News (26 March 2018). "Serba Dinamik takes 25% stake in JV for Tanzania chemical plant". Kuala Lumpur: The Star ( ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Lamtey, Gadiosa (25 April 2018). "Tanzania: Construction of Sh250 Billion Chemical ...
Dang, 1996 EPA SOP Estimating post application dermally absorbed dose from chemicals in Swimming pools Gujral, J. S.; Proctor, ... b. The second scenario is total body immersion, such as swimming in a pool or lake. Exposure in swimming pools is only ... Close pools or lakes to swimmers. Limit the exposure time to chemicals, i.e. workers can only work with certain chemicals for a ... This can be done in animals or humans with a dry chemical powder or a chemical in solution. Rats are commonly used for these ...
... also refers to an active ingredient in green algae preventatives used in swimming pools. In medicinal chemistry, the ... Alkane Alkene Alkyne Aryl Hydrocarbon IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry IUPAC, Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed ... Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book") (1997). Online corrected version: (2006-) "cycloalkyl groups". ... incorporation of alkyl chains into some chemical compounds increases their lipophilicity. This strategy has been used to ...
... s are used for soil measurements in agriculture, water quality for municipal water supplies, swimming pools, ... ISBN 978-0-941901-23-9. "Development of the Beckman pH Meter". National Historic Chemical Landmarks. American Chemical Society ... National Historic Chemical Landmark of the American Chemical Society pH Measurement Handbook - A publication of the Thermo- ... The rate and outcome of chemical reactions taking place in water often depends on the acidity of the water, and it is therefore ...
Chronic exposure, for example, from the air at swimming pools where chlorine is used as the disinfectant, can lead to the ... This chemical is commonly handled as a dilute water solution. It is used as an alternative to chlorine and sodium hypochlorite ... swimming pools, tableware, farming installations, and air; and as an industrial deodorant. It is also used for bleaching ... for disinfection of drinking water and swimming pools. Chloramine-T, or tosylchloramide sodium salt, [(H 3C)(C 6H 4)(SO 2)(NHCl ...
... a swimming pool chlorinator, a water softener. Revlon briefly owned the company (as well as a shoe polish maker and a minority ... In 1960, O'Hare sold Ty-D-Bol Chemical to its other executives for less than $100,000; independently he pursued an assortment ...
As a common disinfectant, chlorine compounds are used in swimming pools to keep them clean and sanitary. In the upper ... Period 3 in the periodic table A period 3 element is one of the chemical elements in the third row (or period) of the periodic ... Aluminium (symbol Al) or aluminum (American English) is a silvery white member of the boron group of chemical elements and a p- ... The periodic table is laid out in rows to illustrate recurring (periodic) trends in the chemical behaviour of the elements as ...
... associated with swimming pools is not the result of elemental chlorine itself, but of chloramine, a chemical compound produced ... to kill bacteria and other microbes in drinking water supplies and public swimming pools. In most private swimming pools, ... especially potable water supplies and water used in swimming pools. Several catastrophic collapses of swimming pool ceilings ... The drawback of using chlorine in swimming pools is that the chlorine reacts with the proteins in human hair and skin. Contrary ...
... indoor swimming pool, horse sports, handball. Eschweiler (or Weisweiler) isn't too remarkable with industries. Chemicals and ... Soccer, ice hockey, golf, open-air swimming pool, ...
Each complex also has facilities like gym, swimming pool, car parking for residents, security guard. Some complexes also ... Institute of Chemical Biology This is another respected national research center. Jadavpur University A premier University in ... Jadavpur University Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science Indian Institute of Chemical Biology Dinabandhu Andrews ... Indian Institute of Chemical Biology and KPC Medical College & Hospital. The intersection of Raja SC Mullick Road and Central ...
Modern swimming pool plant will have bulk storage of chemicals held in separate dosing tanks, and will have automated controls ... Commercial swimming pools also require chemical dosing in order to control pH balance, chlorine level, and other such water ... The required chemicals will be added to the fluid system by use of a dosing pot; a multi-valved chamber in which the chemical ... In a power station treatment chemicals are injected or fed to boiler and also to feed and make up water under pressure, but in ...
... swimming pool "chlorine"). The Cl-O distance in ClO- is 210 pm. The name can also refer to esters of hypochlorous acid, namely ... In chemistry, hypochlorite is an anion with the chemical formula ClO−. It combines with a number of cations to form ... Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry. 69 (4): 122-125. doi:10.1002/jctb.5000690411. V. R. Sastri; et al. (2003). Modern ...
... this bill could also affect other businesses such as those related to swimming pool chemicals. The bill was opposed by Senators ...
... refers to the capacity of a municipal swimming pool, a water fountain, or similar facility. Often bather load is ... dictated by the capacity of water treatment equipment (filters, chemical processing, and the like). Facilities intended only ... Bather load can be defined as the number of bathers using the pool in a 24-hour period. A certain per capita capacity for ... Such percentage is expressed as the BLPP (Bather Load as a Percentage of Population). Bathing "Hot Tub Spa & Pool Glossary". ...
Performances of Black Rebel Motorcycle Club and Ou Est Le Swimming Pool were cancelled. 2011: Foo Fighters, Seeed, Rise Against ... Dropkick Murphys, Good Charlotte, Simple Plan, Apocalyptica, The Chemical Brothers, Kasabian, Panic! at the Disco, Kasabian. ...
Sanitize swimming pools and spas Kill insects in stored grain Scrub yeast and mold spores from the air in food processing ... Manufacture chemical compounds via chemical synthesis Clean and bleach fabrics[citation needed] (the former use is utilized in ... "Chemical Synthesis with Ozone". Ozone-Information.com. Archived from the original on 2008-04-10. Retrieved 2008-05-17. "Clean ... Ozone (/ˈoʊzoʊn/), or trioxygen, is an inorganic molecule with the chemical formula O 3. It is a pale blue gas with a ...
Various industrial compounds (e.g. toluene diisocyanate ) and other chemicals, notably sulfites; chlorinated swimming pools ... Nemery B, Hoet PH, Nowak D (2002). "Indoor swimming pools, water chlorination and respiratory health". Eur. Respir. J. 19 (5): ... Inflammation results: chemicals are produced that cause the wall of the airway to thicken, cells which produce scarring to ...
One entire swimming pool had been popped up from its foundation, afloat now on a small sea of chemicals. Puddles of noxious ... By the end of the 1940s, Hooker Chemical Company was searching for a place to dispose its large quantity of chemical waste. The ... Relates the chronology of Hooker Chemical Company and the discovery of toxic chemicals at Love Canal and describes the medical ... of chemical wastes lying exposed on the surface in numerous places pervasive, pernicious and obnoxious chemical vapors and ...
For recreation, there are sports fields, an indoor swimming pool, a recreational lake, and the nature reserve Weingartener Moor ... The village's main industries are wine and fruit production, gastronomy, and wood, chemical, and metal production. ...
They grow and multiply rapidly in moist environments such as sinks, swimming pools and sponges. The seal between the nail and ... The use of green dye, paint or chemical lacquers can also lead to confusion. Green Nail Syndrome is caused by exposing the nail ... A man working with in a job where he was regularly mixing chemicals developed green nail syndrome. While he mostly wore latex ... The combination of moisture within his gloves and contact with chemicals caused his nails to lift from the nail bed. He ...
... he jumped into his swimming pool. With burns covering 95% of his body, chlorine and other chemicals used to keep the pool ...
The first natural swimming pool in the United States opened in Webber Park in 2015. The outdoor pool does not use any chemicals ... Hirsi, Ibrahim (July 30, 2015). "North Minneapolis' Webber pool, the country's first natural public swimming pool, to hold ... and walking paths and used for swimming, fishing, picnics, boating, and ice skating. A parkway for cars, a bikeway for riders, ...
They swim together as she lay eggs in the water.[14]p7 Sometimes, males fight to mate with a female.[14]p7 Frogs can lay up to ... Tree frogs usually lay their eggs on a leaf in a rainwater pool. Bullfrogs, such as the male American bullfrog and the male ... They like to eat earthworms and will find them by picking up their chemical signals. Salamanders and newts are fed a lot of ... Some had developed primitive lungs to help them breathe air when the stagnant pools of the Devonian swamps were low in oxygen. ...
When swimming, whales rely on their tail fin propel them through the water. Flipper movement is continuous. Whales swim by ... They were kept in a tidal pool with a sea-gate at the Izu Mito Sea Paradise. Another, unsuccessful, attempt was made by the U.S ... High levels of organic chemicals accumulate in these animals since they are high in the food chain. They have large reserves of ... Whales swim in response to sonar and sometimes experience decompression sickness due to rapid changes in depth. Mass strandings ...
Access to the water is made via the 'wet porch', a chamber equipped with a moon pool, which keeps the air pressure inside the ... Swimming at the 1900 Summer Olympics - Men's underwater swimming. Organisations. *AIDA International ... Chemical hazard. *Physical hazard. *Psychosocial hazard. *Occupational hygiene *Exposure assessment. *Occupational exposure ...
Role in chemical cyclingEdit. Further information: Biogeochemical cycle. Archaea recycle elements such as carbon, nitrogen and ... the cell membranes of archaea are usually bounded by a cell wall and they swim using one or more flagella.[98] Structurally, ... square archaea that live in hypersaline pools.[88] These unusual shapes are probably maintained both by their cell walls and a ... Phototrophic archaea use light to produce chemical energy in the form of ATP. In the Halobacteria, light-activated ion pumps ...
Walter Pacheco, Defense bombshell: Caylee Anthony drowned in family swimming pool[dead link], Orlando Sentinel, May 24, 2011. ... based on the presence of five key chemical compounds out of over 400 possible chemical compounds that Dr. Vass' research group ... The defense team, led by Jose Baez, countered that the child had drowned accidentally in the family's swimming pool on June 16 ... Although Cindy Anthony testified that Caylee could not put the ladder on the side of the pool and climb up, Baez alleged that ...
1967 picture of swimming facilities at McNiven Beach. Yellowknife's growth was briefly interrupted by World War II, but when it ... Chemical analysis of the water showed similarities to Kam Lake. Like the larger lake, it had a notably alkaline pH of 8.5, ... Just south of McNiven Beach is a recreational facility with an arena and pool, again close to the water's edge.[11] ... Residents were still swimming and boating in the lake in the early 1980s, but in smaller numbers. Some were scared off by ...
... like Acanthamoeba keratitis is characterized by severe pain and is associated with contact lens users swimming in pools. ... They are caused by trauma, particularly with vegetable matter, as well as chemical injury, contact lenses and infections. Other ...
Chemical structure of riluzole, a medication that prolongs survival by 2-3 months[6] ... swimming, and stationary bicycling can strengthen unaffected muscles, improve cardiovascular health, and help people fight ... "Smoking and risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a pooled analysis of 5 prospective cohorts". Archives of Neurology. 68 (2 ... including chemical exposure, electromagnetic field exposure, occupation, physical trauma, and electric shock.[58][59] There is ...
... and lung damage from pool chemicals). The American Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends swimming lessons for ... These children most commonly drowned in swimming pools, often at their own homes. Traditionally, swimming lessons started at ... Children are essentially taught to swim, flip over and float, then flip over and swim again. Thus, the method is called "swim, ... Infant Babies Swimming Underwater on YouTube Infant Swimming Resource: Teaching Progression on YouTube Infant Swim Self-Rescue ...
Neutral buoyancy pool. *Neutral buoyancy simulation as a training aid. *Neutral Buoyancy Simulator ... Swimming at the 1900 Summer Olympics - Men's underwater swimming. Organisations. *AIDA International ... Chemical hazard. *Physical hazard. *Psychosocial hazard. *Occupational hygiene *Exposure assessment. *Occupational exposure ...
swimming pool AWF Wrocław (all year). *swimming pool WKS Śląsk Wrocław (all year) ... Wrocław's industry manufactures buses, railroad cars, home appliances, chemicals and electronics. The city houses factories and ...
Zimmerman, Tim (2011). "The Killer in the Pool". The Best American Sampler 2011. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 336.. ... The killer whale named Old Tom swims alongside a whaleboat, flanking a whale calf. The boat is being towed by a harpooned whale ... in Science found that global killer whale populations are poised to dramatically decline due to exposure to toxic chemical and ... In late 2005, the southern resident killer whales, which swim in British Columbia and Washington state waters, were placed on ...
Gus is forced to watch his partner's fatal head wound bleed into the swimming pool, a vision that stays with him. After moving ... Duane Chow (played by James Ning) is the owner of Golden Moth Chemical, an industrial chemical manufacturing company that ... but he collapses dead into the swimming pool before he can take any action.[34] ... While mixing chemicals, Walter creates a small explosion that produces phosphine gas which appears to kill both Emilio and ...
Swimming at the 1900 Summer Olympics - Men's underwater swimming. Organisations. *AIDA International ... Chemical hazard. *Physical hazard. *Psychosocial hazard. *Occupational hygiene *Exposure assessment. *Occupational exposure ... Moon pool. *Underwater habitat *Aquarius Reef Base. *Continental Shelf Station Two. *Helgoland Habitat ...
Some common places for sunbathing include beaches, open air swimming pools, parks, gardens, and sidewalk cafes. Sunbathers ... into chemical energy that can be used to fuel the organisms' activities. ...
2). It is used as a disinfectant in water treatment, especially to make drinking water and in large public swimming pools. It ... Chemical bleaches work in one of two ways: *An oxidizing bleach works by breaking the chemical bonds that make up the ... making them useful for disinfecting and sterilizing and are used in swimming pool sanitation to control bacteria, viruses, and ... treat water for drinking and keep swimming pools free of infectious agents. ...
In responding to the chemical environment at the intestinal wall, the V. cholerae bacteria produce the TcpP/TcpH proteins, ... "the signal that makes the cholera bacteria stop swimming and start to colonize (that is, adhere to the cells of) the small ... in the Indian subcontinent are believed to have been the result of poor living conditions as well as the presence of pools of ... cholerae responds to the changing chemical environments of the stomach, mucous layers, and intestinal wall. Researchers have ...
They swim by undulating their body from side to side. They are mostly active at night, soon lose their gills and make sorties ... They are attracted there by the calling of the first male to find a suitable place, perhaps a pool that forms in the same place ... "Journal of Chemical Ecology. 25 (9): 2161-2175. doi:10.1023/A:1021049125805.. ... Pond tadpoles tend to have deep bodies, large caudal fins and small mouths; they swim in the quiet waters feeding on growing or ...
... swim spa, or indoor swimming pool, where warm humid air is exhausted in the summer, and a supply of cooler drier replacement ... chemicals or burners and only blowers are required to move the air. These are used for either partial or full cooling and/or ...
... as well as certain drugs and other chemicals.[citation needed] ... Swimming at the 1900 Summer Olympics - Men's underwater ... Moon pool. *Underwater habitat *Aquarius Reef Base. *Continental Shelf Station Two. *Helgoland Habitat ...
Swimming pools[edit]. Floating pool covering systems and separate STCs are used for pool heating. ... hotels swimming pool etc.. An ETC can operate at a range of temperatures from medium to high for solar hot water, swimming pool ... Solar chemical and artificial photosynthesis. *Space-based solar power. *Solar sail. *Magnetic sail ... STCs for nonpotable pool water use are often made of plastic. Pool water is mildly corrosive due to chlorine. Water is ...
There is an underwater viewing window and view to a tidal pool that creates a wave-like effect for the birds.[11] ... Displaying animals found in Maryland, visitors can watch otters swim over their heads, jump across lily pads, explore a cave, ... One can visit a submerged archway, and watch as otters swim overhead. ... Grace Chemicals. *JoS. A. Bank Clothiers. *Legg Mason. *McCormick & Company. *Schmidt Bakeries ...
The shape of the aggregates depends on the chemical structure of the surfactants, namely the balance in size between the ... Swimming at the 1900 Summer Olympics - Men's underwater swimming. Organisations. *AIDA International ... Anti-fog - Chemicals that prevent the condensation of water as small droplets on a surface ... In solution, detergents help solubilize a variety of chemical species by dissociating aggregates and unfolding proteins. ...
Places such as a swimming pool, a locker room, or a military facility have multiple showers. There may be communal shower rooms ... For descaling, various acidic chemicals or brushes can be used or some heads have rubber-like jets that can be manually ... Open showers are often provided at public swimming pools and at popular beaches. Military forces around the world set up field ... Emergency showers, installed in laboratories and other facilities that use hazardous chemicals, are required by law in the ...
As a swimming pool chemical, it is blended with other chemicals less often than other forms of chlorine, due to dangerous ... Calcium hypochlorite is commonly used to sanitize public swimming pools and disinfect drinking water. Generally the commercial ... Chemical Products Synopsis: Calcium Hypochlorite (Technical report). Asbuiy Park, NJ: Mannsvile Chemical Products. 1987.. ... National Research Council (1995). Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The ...
... a motel and the town 2000m³ swimming pool in Portland. Commissioned in 1983, naturally hot groundwater (58 °C) was extracted ... The smelter was commissioned in 1987 and is managed by Alcoa World Alumina and Chemicals for Portland Aluminium (a joint ...
Swimming at the 1900 Summer Olympics - Men's underwater swimming. Organisations. *AIDA International ... Chemical hazard. *Physical hazard. *Psychosocial hazard. *Occupational hygiene *Exposure assessment. *Occupational exposure ...
Contact with certain chemicals, including pulmonary agents (such as phosgene) and blood agents (such as hydrogen cyanide) ... Swimming at the 1900 Summer Olympics - Men's underwater swimming. Organisations. *AIDA International ... Moon pool. *Underwater habitat *Aquarius Reef Base. *Continental Shelf Station Two. *Helgoland Habitat ...
... chemical engineering 28th,[69] environmental engineering 30th,[70] computer engineering 31st,[71] civil engineering 32nd,[72] ... swimming); and Kerron Clement, Dennis Mitchell, Frank Shorter, Christian Taylor and Bernard Williams (track and field). ... four campus pools, outdoor rock climbing, an adventure travel recreation program, campus fields and facilities, a skate park ...
Each chemical odor, emitted from the organism's epicuticles, is unique and varies according to age, sex, location, and ... Most likely reasons are that a diverse worker pool attained by multiple mating by the queen increases disease resistance and ... this allows them to detect vibrational stimuli produced by swimming prey and use this to orient towards and clutch at prey.[20] ... The natural world is replete with examples of signals, from the luminescent flashes of light from fireflies, to chemical ...
Chemical Handling. *Only allow those who have been trained in pool chemical safety practices to handle pool chemicals. ... Chemical Emergency Preparedness and Prevention Advisory - Swimming Pool Chemicals: Chlorine CDC [PDF - 4 pages] pdf icon ... Pool Chemical Training for Staff. *Train all staff in pool chemical safety basics and provide additional training for those ... Follow these recommendations to prevent pool chemical injuries:. Design of Pool Chemical Storage Area and Pump Room. * ...
It is quite common that the people possessing a swimming pool are sure to make use of the swimming pool chemicals for many ... reasons like maintaining the quality of water or to maintain the level of algae in pool. - PR12072523 ... Know about the use of swimming pool chemicals. ... Algae in pool. • Chemicals for pool. • Chlorine for pool. ... Magic Pools even takes care about clear pool, algae in swimming pool, and chemicals for pool as well as chlorine for pool.. End ...
Swimming pools require frequent application of disinfectants and other pool chemicals, and exposure to these chemicals can ... Acute Illness and Injury from Swimming Pool Disinfectants and Other Chemicals --- United States, 2002--2008. Swimming pools ... Additional measures to reduce exposures to pool chemicals that are suggested by these findings include altering pool chemical ... a case in a person who sprained their ankle when they fell into the pool while adding pool chemicals to the pool water, cases ...
It turns out there is an alternative, natural swimming pools, like these from Clear Water Revival are not only chemical free, ... Natural swimming pools use a living base of aquatic plants, filters and micro organisms to clean and regenerate the swimming ... A natural swimming pool, sometimes called a swimming pond where designed as such, offers a completely natural alternative to ... Natural pools use smaller pumps and dont need chemicals but you might need to jump in every now-and-then and trim the plants. ...
PoolStore was the first company in Europe to sell swimming pool products on the Internet. For over 21 years we have been the ... The first company in Europe to sell pool products on-line.. Over 21 years as the UKs favourite internet pool supplies store. ... Follow the link below to work out the volume of your pool ... Pool Chemicals » Speciality » Products. Qty : Flex Patch Repair ...
... just after 11am as the crowded pool was evacuated. The youngsters are aged two, five and nine. ... Three children have been rushed to hospital after a chemical leak in the swimming pool of a popular holiday park on Monday. ... They were coughing and had stomach aches: Three children hospitalised after chemical leak in swimming pool at popular UK ... Is this the worlds most bizarre public swimming pool? Bathers in new Copenhagen aquatics centre will be able to drift between ...
... Toys Travel UV Rays Vaccinations and Immunization Violence and Exploitation Virus Water Safety ...
... cloudy pool water with customer reviews so you know the best Clarifying Chemicals for your above ground or inground pool. ... Add to pool by pouring solution around inside perimeter of pool.. - After 24 hours of continuous filtration, vacuum the pool of ... If the use of the In the Swim Super Clarifier does not clear up the water you must first, make sure chemicals are at the proper ... What will the In the Swim Super Clarifier do for my pool? ... Pace® is a registered trademark of Arch Chemicals. In The Swim ...
Swimming Pool Chemicals and tagged Above Ground Pools, swimming pool safety, swimming pool safety equipment, swimming pools on ... This entry was posted in Swimming Pool Chemicals and tagged algae in swimming pools, killing algae, Swimming Pool Chemicals, ... This entry was posted in Spa Chemicals, Swimming Pool Chemicals, Swimming Pool Cleaning, Swimming Pool Covers and tagged ... Swimming Pool Kits and tagged pool dosing systems, salt chlorination, salt chlorinators, Swimming Pool Chemicals, swimming pool ...
The 105-year-old pool will always need major injections of taxpayers cash to keep it usable, according to Reading Borough ... Arthur Hill Swimming Pool: Chemical corrosion, unsafe balconies and subsidence. The 105-year-old pool will always need major ... The pool In times of huge funding cuts, can the council really keep pumping money into a 100-year-old swimming pool that isnt ... Arthur Hill Swimming Pool campaigners force council to postpone closure plans. That decision has since been postponed, but the ...
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POOL ALERT Two infants taken to hospital after chemical leak at holiday parks swimming pool. *The Sun ... TWO infants were taken to hospital after a chemical leak at a holiday parks swimming pool. ... Two infants were taken to hospital after a chemical leak at a pool at Carlton Meres Holiday Park in SuffolkCredit: East Anglia ... at Carlton Meres Holiday Park as to how a small quantity of excess chlorine was discharged into the parks swimming pool whilst ...
We sell spare parts for all types of swimming pool equipment. Pool Filter Spares. Pool Pump Spares. Pool Heater Spares. Pool ... UK online store for swimming pool spare parts. ... Spare Parts for Swimming Pool Equipment We still sell spare ... Welcome to Aspects Pools. The shop that specialises in spare parts for swimming pool equipment. ... We have access to spare parts for all types of swimming pool equipment and we will be happy to help you find what you need by ...
These swimming pool chemicals will protect humans from infection. However, these chemicals that are added to the pool water can ... Swimming pool chemicals were announced by the ASPCA Poison Control Center as one of the top ten poisons for pets. A swimming ... It would be a good idea to give the dog a good rinse to remove traces of swimming pool chemicals that can damage the fur. Doing ... The greatest worry a pet owner would have is if the dogs had a free go at the container of swimming pool chemicals. The need to ...
Cleaning Chemicals, Swimming Pool Accessories & Cleaning Services Manufacturer from Hyderabad, Telangana, India ... Our offered range consists of best grade Cleaning Chemicals, House Hold Chemicals, Pool Chemicals, Swimming Pool Accessories, ... trader and wholesaler an extensive array of Swimming Pool Accessories And Cleaning Chemicals. ... Moreover, our team makes sure that this offered range of cleaning and pool chemicals should be free from adulteration.. Our ...
Millions of pool owners rely on Blue Wave chemicals to keep their pools crystal clear! You will not find Blue Wave products at ... Millions of pool owners rely on Blue Wave chemicals to keep their pools crystal clear! You will not find Blue Wave products at ... Home How-To Videos Pool & Spa Products Advanced Search Parts Mailing List Order Status Contact View Cart. ... Simple, effective method for chlorinating pool water. *Keeps pool in sanitary condition and protects pool against growth of ...
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  • Pool chemicals, such as chlorine and bromine, are added to treated venues (for example, pools, hot tubs/spas, and water playgrounds) to protect swimmers from the spread of germs and prevent outbreaks. (cdc.gov)
  • Plus, proper operation of public pools, hot tubs, and water playgrounds (such as at an apartment complex or owned by a community) and disinfection of the water (with chlorine or bromine ) should inactivate the virus. (hydropool.com)
  • Another widely used pool chemical is the bromine. (swimmingpoolbuilderbrisbane.com.au)
  • From bromine to chlorine, pool stun to algaecides and pool clarifiers, in the conveys what you need and what your pool needs. (blackhand-machinima.de)
  • Sanitizers (like chlorine and bromine) disinfect pool water. (thumbtack.com)
  • The new study details a comprehensive investigation of DBPs and mutagenicity of water samples collected from two indoor pools, one disinfected with chlorine, the other with bromine. (newswise.com)
  • Chlorine serves as the primary chemical sanitizer in all of the above systems except Bromine. (hydrologicblog.com)
  • Use either chlorine or bromine shock to raise the chemical levels to 10 parts per million (ppm). (ehow.com)
  • According to Dr. Robert Glatter, an emergency medicine physician at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York City, 'The same chemicals (chlorine, bromine) that we add to our pools, hot tubs and spas to reduce infection and improve water clarity may also lead to toxic exposures to the eyes, skin, lungs and gastrointestinal tract if not handled properly. (newsmax.com)
  • Chlorine and other pool chemicals were designed to kill potentially harmful bacteria and algae that naturally build up in the pool. (sarahsdogs.com)
  • Keeps pool in sanitary condition and protects pool against growth of bacteria and algae. (poolandspa.com)
  • Occasionally, no more than once a week you may need to super chlorinate (shock) the pool to burn any built up bacteria, algae and ammonia. (poolcaptain.com)
  • They kill bacteria and anything else in your pool or spa that might threaten your health. (hubpages.com)
  • A cocktail of chemicals is necessary to keep pools, which are basically large bodies of stagnant water, safe for swimming and, in particular, to kill harmful bacteria or parasites such as E. Coli and Giardia lamblia . (theconversation.com)
  • Shocking: Eliminate contaminants, bacteria, & algae by shocking your pool. (walmart.com)
  • Their main application is to disinfect swimming pool water, to make it free from bacteria and prevent growth of algae. (siagchemicals.com)
  • The problem with peeing in a swimming pool or hot tub is not the release of bacteria. (youmemindbody.com)
  • In addition, the water in pools and tubs usually contains disinfectants that kill bacteria and other microbes. (youmemindbody.com)
  • Chlorine reacts with the pool water when it is added to form hypochlorous acid, which is effective at killing bacteria and other pathogens through an oxidation reaction. (poolbuilders.in)
  • The solution to this chloramine problem is to shock treat your pool by adding an unusually potent dose of chemicals to eliminate both bacteria and the unwanted chemical compounds. (poolbuilders.in)
  • Oxidizers are a second type of sanitizing chemical meant to kill bacteria and algae. (thumbtack.com)
  • Chlorine powder is crucial to killing germs for instance algae and bacteria that exist within your pool and multiply at rather fast speeds. (poolbuilders.in)
  • You'll also take off other impurities, bacteria, and dead skin cells that can be present even in the cleanest of public pools. (wikihow.com)
  • If you go swimming when you're thirsty, you might be inclined to (even subconsciously) take a few gulps of pool water, which could contain bacteria and make you ill. (wikihow.com)
  • Keep your pool safe by getting rid of any bacteria in it. (ehow.com)
  • The pseudomonas bacteria is common in the environment and can be virtually impossible to completely eradicate from swimming pools. (ehow.com)
  • Such measures as removing your swim suit and showering with soap after swimming can help prevent illness, but the bacteria must be eradicated as much as possible to truly solve the problem. (ehow.com)
  • Brush the sides and bottom of the pool periodically to help to keep the water stirred up and the bacteria from settling back on the pool surfaces. (ehow.com)
  • The amount of chemicals they use would kill bacteria. (drugs.com)
  • Bacteria from swimmers' bodies, rain, debris or animals can enter and contaminate pool water. (pinchapenny.com)
  • Magnetic treatment has been shown to stabilize pH, eliminate corrosion, reduce downtime, maintenance and cleaning costs and bacteria and remove the risks associated with the handling of chemical detergents such as sodium hypochlorite used in swimming pool water treatment (Ifill, 1994). (enviromagnetics.net)
  • Sweat, personal care products and debris on our body reacts with chlorine to reduce the amount of chemical available to kill and inactivate bacteria,' he explained. (newsmax.com)
  • The plants enrich the pool with oxygen, support beneficial bacteria that consume debris and potentially harmful organisms, and give habitat to frogs, dragonflies and other water life. (motherearthnews.com)
  • A rim within an inch of the water's surface keeps plants in their place but allows water from the swimming area to move to the plant zone for filtering, As water passes through the fibrous root structure of the plants, bacteria concentrated on the plants' roots act as a biological filter, removing contaminants and excess nutrients in the water. (motherearthnews.com)
  • While not dangerous to humans, excessive algae in swimming pool water can be breeding ground for many different dangerous types of bacteria and so must be controlled. (instrumentchoice.com.au)
  • If chlorine is the preferred chemical to deal with bugs in your pool, the free residual chlorine concentration in your pool should be maintained at 1.0 to 3.0 mg/L. The ideal level is 2 mg/L. If chlorine levels are maintained at ideal levels, not only should bacteria and many pathogens be held at bay, there should be no chlorine smell. (instrumentchoice.com.au)
  • In a traditional chlorine pool, you'll need to use large buckets, automatic chlorine dispensers or chlorine tablets to disinfect the water and remove bacteria that can be harmful to your health. (fitstep.com)
  • All kinds of bacteria and pathogens can be floating in your backyard pool if you fall behind on maintenance and stop using pool chemicals. (fitstep.com)
  • Salt-free chlorine pools need a constant supply of chlorine to prevent the spread of bacteria, which can be tricky if you're not always home or you only use your pool occasionally. (fitstep.com)
  • This means that if you make sure the salt levels in your pool are consistent, you can rest assured that every inch of your pool is free of bacteria. (fitstep.com)
  • Some areas of the pool may be more chlorinated than others, which means you might not always be safe from bacteria. (fitstep.com)
  • Public health pathogens can be present in swimming pools as viruses, bacteria, protozoa and fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • CDC is not aware of any scientific reports of the virus that causes COVID-19 spreading to people through the water in pools, hot tubs, or water playgrounds. (hydropool.com)
  • First off, it's worth looking at the kind of chemicals used in pool spas and hot tubs and what their job is. (hubpages.com)
  • At Walmart.com, you can find a wide variety of above-ground pools, hot tubs and kiddie pools from brands like Coleman, Intex, Summer Waves and H20Go! (walmart.com)
  • Inflatable hot tubs and saunas are perfect for relaxing and unwinding when it gets chilly, while metal-frame above-ground pools are great for keeping cool during the summer. (walmart.com)
  • In a recent investigation, researchers from the University of Alberta in Edmonton collected water samples from pools and hot tubs in two Canadian cities. (youmemindbody.com)
  • The researchers tested a total of 250 water samples from 31 pools and hot tubs. (youmemindbody.com)
  • They also tested 90 samples of the tap water used to fill the pools and tubs. (youmemindbody.com)
  • Since ACE is not deliberately added to swimming pools or hot tubs and is excreted in human urine, the investigators concluded that people had urinated in the water. (youmemindbody.com)
  • Hot tubs and spas are pools filled with water that is heated and then used for relaxation or hydrotherapy . (wikipedia.org)
  • The bottom line is this: Don't treat pools and hot tubs like a communal bathtub,' Glatter concluded. (newsmax.com)
  • Pool chemicals are not suitable for spas and hot tubs. (hottubworks.com)
  • Swimming pools require disinfectants and other chemicals to maintain water quality and prevent swimmers from acquiring infections ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • In both cases, wrongful us of these chemicals can be fatal to swimmers' health. (swimmingpoolbuilderbrisbane.com.au)
  • They also react with chemicals introduced to the water by the swimmers. (theconversation.com)
  • Swimming pools seem to be the perfect summer hang-out: They can help you cool off on a hot day and everyone can join in, even if they're not strong swimmers. (cleanwater.news)
  • Of disturbing news for indoor swimming pool patrons are studies that show much higher levels of these chemicals are found in swimmers. (ecochildsplay.com)
  • Members of the general public and elite swimmers alike have admitted to peeing during swims. (youmemindbody.com)
  • Some elite swimmers urinate in pool water frequently. (youmemindbody.com)
  • Lest readers get the impression that only Canadians like to pee in pools, it should be noted that peeing in swimming pools is common in elite U.S. swimmers. (youmemindbody.com)
  • Resulting in poor swimming pool water disinfection which is bad for swimmers. (swimming-pool-care.com)
  • This study is the first to provide a comprehensive characterization of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in an indoor pool environment and the first to study the genotoxicity of exposure to these chemicals among swimmers in an indoor chlorinated pool. (newswise.com)
  • DBPs form in pool water from reactions between disinfectants such as chlorine and organic matter that is either present naturally or is introduced by swimmers, such as sweat, skin cells, and urine. (newswise.com)
  • In addition, short-term changes in biomarkers of genotoxicity and respiratory effects were studied in swimmers who swam in the chlorinated pool. (newswise.com)
  • Detailed measurements were also made of the most common exhaled DBPs (trihalomethanes) in air around the pool and in exhaled breath of the swimmers before and after swimming. (newswise.com)
  • So, bathers gradually became swimmers, and bathing pools became swimming pools. (wikipedia.org)
  • The exposure of workers and swimmers at an indoor swimming pool to trihalomethanes (THMs) as a consequence of water chlorination was evaluated by analyzing alveolar air and urine samples. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The sampling was done concurrently, taking the urine and alveolar air samples before and after the work shift for 15 workers and the swimming activity for 12 swimmers. (biomedsearch.com)
  • After 1 h swimming, the increases found in swimmers were ca. 20 and 3 times in alveolar air and urine, respectively. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Balancing your pool water and keeping pool chemicals in their ideal ranges will help ensure that your water will not harm your swimming pool or swimmers. (pinchapenny.com)
  • The most efficient way to sanitize your pool and keep swimmers safe is with chlorine. (pinchapenny.com)
  • The contaminants of swimming pool water are mainly urine, sweat and micro-organisms introduced by the swimmers. (enviromagnetics.net)
  • Chloramines result from the combination of two ingredients: (a) chlorine disinfectants and (b) perspiration, oils and urine that enter pools on the bodies of swimmers.Pool smell is an indication that shock dosing with chlorine is needed to remove chloramines. (instrumentchoice.com.au)
  • Genotoxic effects in swimmers exposed to disinfection by-products in indoor swimming pools. (airwaterbestprices.com)
  • When 4 persons slip into a 400 gallon spa, that's the equivalent of 200 swimmers in a 20000 gallon pool. (hottubworks.com)
  • Swimming pool contaminants are introduced from environmental sources and swimmers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Contaminants introduced by swimmers can dramatically influence the operation of indoor and outdoor swimming pools. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other illnesses commonly occurring in poorly maintained swimming pools include otitis externa, commonly called swimmers ear, skin rashes and respiratory infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the six SENSOR-Pesticides states (California, Iowa, Louisiana, Michigan, North Carolina, and Texas),* a case of poisoning associated with pool disinfectants was defined as two or more acute adverse health effects resulting from exposure to any pool disinfectant. (cdc.gov)
  • Chlorine, for example, is the most widely known disinfectant used in swimming pools. (theconversation.com)
  • When they are used together with an electronic swimming pool controller, they can help you prevent over or under feeding of your pool disinfectant chemical. (swimming-pool-care.com)
  • Failure to do so, can result in false readings which can caused too much or too little pool disinfectant being feed into your swimming pool or spa water. (swimming-pool-care.com)
  • The main pool disinfectant people use to kill water pathogens is the element chlorine, which comes in chemical forms such as calcium hypochlorite (a solid) or sodium hypochlorite (a liquid). (poolbuilders.in)
  • Test the pool water to determine the level of disinfectant that is present. (ehow.com)
  • The major disinfectant used in swimming pool water treatment is sodium hypochlorite which has a bactericidal action that can be suppressed to some extent by interaction with other chemical contaminants (Black, 1996). (enviromagnetics.net)
  • Calcium Hypochlorite 65, 70 Granular for Water Disinfection and Swimming Pool Property: Efficient disinfectant and bleaching agent, it can whiten cotton, hemp, fibre, and starch, and also can sterilize drinking water and swimming pools. (burrillandco.com)
  • Brenntag is a leading distributer of treatment chemicals to the water treatment market, and our team is prepared to assist in selecting the best disinfectant for your application. (brenntag.com)
  • It is quite common that the people possessing a swimming pool are sure to make use of the swimming pool chemicals for many reasons like maintaining the quality of water or to maintain the level of algae in pool. (prlog.org)
  • The other thing to be taken care about is the level of algae in pool . (prlog.org)
  • Besides all these facilities, Magic Pools even takes care about clear pool , algae in swimming pool , and chemicals for pool as well as chlorine for pool . (prlog.org)
  • The problem with using a chemical like that in a pool is that the phosphate formed by the reaction with the carbonate is food for algae. (poolstore.co.uk)
  • Add a winterising product - this is a long life algicide designed to keep your pool free of algae over the winter months. (poolstore.co.uk)
  • While small amounts of algae are present in swimming pools, they are not detectable by the human eye and the chemicals used to treat the water usually keep them at bay. (theconversation.com)
  • Warm weather conditions compounded by low winds may have contributed to an algae outbreak, but it seems more likely that a chemical imbalance or broken filter system is the underlying cause of the change in colour. (theconversation.com)
  • You'll be able to find everything you need from pool salt to pool shock from brands like hth to keep your water free from algae and harsh chlorine smells. (walmart.com)
  • By spot-cleaning when needed, such as skimming leaves and debris out of the pool or scrubbing away an algae spot, you can keep your pool in prime condition. (thumbtack.com)
  • Douglas Buege and Vicky Uhland explain how to build a natural swimming pool on your homestead, includes information on pool zoning, natural filtration, sealing the pool and algae control. (motherearthnews.com)
  • In addition to measuring the levels of key chemicals, observing the presence of algae is important. (instrumentchoice.com.au)
  • Good pool maintenance can prevent algae growth. (instrumentchoice.com.au)
  • In pools disinfected with chlorine, the presence of algae is an indicator that free chlorine is not being properly maintained. (instrumentchoice.com.au)
  • Affecting primarily outdoor swimming pools, environmental contaminants include windblown dirt and debris, incoming water from unsanitary sources, rain containing microscopic algae spores and droppings from birds possibly harboring disease-causing pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemicals that are used to sanitise pools and spas fit the definition of an agricultural chemical product and must be registered with the APVMA before they can be legally advertised and supplied in Australia. (apvma.gov.au)
  • When these chemicals are supplied for the purpose of sanitising water in pools and spas they are considered to be agricultural chemical products and must be registered with the APVMA. (apvma.gov.au)
  • If you supply bulk liquid chlorine, and there is a reasonable expectation that it will be further supplied or used in sanitising pools or spas, then you are supplying an agricultural chemical product. (apvma.gov.au)
  • For spas and home pools, chlorine comes in a liquid or solid form. (hubpages.com)
  • Endless Pools and Spas - No Odor! (airwaterbestprices.com)
  • Although many spa owners treat their spas and swimming pools the same, using the same test kits and even the same chemical treatments, there is a world of difference between the two. (hottubworks.com)
  • In spas, as in swimming pools, there needs to be a balance of sanitation and filtration. (hottubworks.com)
  • It has been known for some time that these react with chlorine-based disinfectants in pool water to form disinfection by-products, or DBPs. (youmemindbody.com)
  • Disinfection by-products are present in treated tap water, including the water used to fill swimming pools. (youmemindbody.com)
  • Most disinfection by-products in a pool are made after people have entered it and voluntarily or involuntarily released substances from their body. (youmemindbody.com)
  • But traditional chlorine systems that use buckets of chemicals or chlorine tablets can create disinfection by-products, which can irritate your skin, eyes and lungs. (fitstep.com)
  • With fewer disinfection by-products in the water, saltwater pools help you see more clearly underwater without the risk of irritation. (fitstep.com)
  • But if you happen to inhale some water in a saltwater pool, the chances of you inhaling some disinfection by-products are greatly diminished. (fitstep.com)
  • In addition, the interaction between disinfectants and pool water contaminants can produce a mixture of chloramines and other disinfection by-products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Swimming Pool Chemicals, Alkalinity Plus, Water Treatment Chemicals manufacturer / supplier in China, offering High Quality Sodium Bicarbonate for Sale, Calcium Chloride 90% Pellet with Reach, Swimming Pool Chemical Soda Ash pH Plus and so on. (made-in-china.com)
  • There is such a high concentration of chlorine as the pool water passes through the cells that superchlorination actually occurs, thus eliminating the buildup of chloramines. (campbusiness.com)
  • Chloramines are compounds formed when chlorine combines with other chemicals from human perspiration, body oils, and other byproducts. (hydrologicblog.com)
  • Rocky Mount started chloraminating in 2003 because in comparison to chlorine, chloramines form fewer chemicals in water, improve the smell and odor of water, and last longer to prevent bacterial growth in water. (rockymountnc.gov)
  • Will chloramines affect swimming pools? (rockymountnc.gov)
  • Chloramines are destroyed by swimming pool chlorine. (rockymountnc.gov)
  • The real culprits are chloramines, chemical compounds that build up in pool water that make their present felt when your pool it is not managed well. (instrumentchoice.com.au)
  • Chloramines and other chlorine like chemicals are the most common way to purify drinking water. (giraudinternational.com)
  • Moreover, nowadays there are automatic pool cleaners that actually work with timers where you just need to preset the time of operation after which the machine will play its role automatically. (prlog.org)
  • The appeal of all automatic pool cleaners is that they work with little to no human supervision. (yellowpages.com)
  • Pinch A Penny Pool Patio & Spa is your headquarters for pool and spa supplies & chemicals, chlorine tablets & shock products, toys, floats & swim gear, swimming pool pumps, motors & filters, automatic pool cleaners, pool heating systems, above-ground swimming pools and other swimming pool accessories. (pinchapenny.com)
  • Olympian perspiration, urine and sun tan lotion can all react with the chemicals added to the water to produce byproducts. (theconversation.com)
  • Once people start swimming in a pool, skin cells, sweat, urine, and other materials from their body are also added to the water. (cleanwater.news)
  • The organics are contributed by bathers in the pool in the form of sweat, dander, urine and other organics. (ecochildsplay.com)
  • Unfortunately, chemicals in urine react with the disinfectants to create potentially harmful products. (youmemindbody.com)
  • The chemicals are produced not only from the components of urine but also from chemicals in sweat, personal care products, dirt, dead cells, and hair. (youmemindbody.com)
  • According to the CDC, urine and poop in public swimming pools is more common and problematic than you might have. (jonbarron.org)
  • Alveolar air and urine analyses as biomarkers of exposure to trihalomethanes in an indoor swimming pool. (biomedsearch.com)
  • for example, it was estimated by researchers that swimming pools contain, on average, 30 to 80 mL of urine for each person that uses the pool. (wikipedia.org)
  • The journal Environmental Science & Technology reported that sweat and urine react with chlorine and produce trichloramine and cyanogen chloride, two chemicals dangerous to human health. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been used by researchers as a marker to estimate to what degree swimming pools are contaminated by urine. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was estimated that a commercial-size swimming pool of 220,000 gallons would contain about 20 gallons of urine, equivalent to about 2 gallons of urine in a typical residential pool. (wikipedia.org)
  • These chemicals come in liquid, granular or tablet form and are very concentrated. (emcins.com)
  • In the choice of a pool chemical containing chlorine, you must first ascertain whether it is best to use tablet chlorine than granular ones. (swimmingpoolbuilderbrisbane.com.au)
  • Calcium Hypochlorite Chemical Formula: Ca(ClO)2 Molecular weight: 143 HS CODE:28281000 Calcium process(UNNO1748) Active Chlorine: 65% Moisture:3% max Granular size: 8 to 30 meshes (0.055mm-2mm) Calcium chlorite: 9%Sodium process(UNNO2880. (burrillandco.com)
  • Natural pools use smaller pumps and don't need chemicals but you might need to jump in every now-and-then and trim the plants. (redferret.net)
  • Shop the San Carlos Park Pinch A Penny for the best selection of pool supplies i ncluding liquid chlorine, tablets, pumps, filters and more. (dexknows.com)
  • Our Offer Chemical Pumps are highly demanded in the Hyderabad market. (contextpolitic.net)
  • Our manufactured Electronic Chemical Dosing Metering Pumps constantly remain high on demands owing to its heavy-duty work and low operating cost. (contextpolitic.net)
  • Our range of pumps are chemical dosing pump, chemical metering pump, electric diaphragm pump, solenoid driven metering pump, electromagnetic dosing pump and others. (contextpolitic.net)
  • Entire range of swimming pool pumps and filters are produced strictly under the international quality standards. (contextpolitic.net)
  • Dosing pumps and chemical metering equipment from Accepta. (contextpolitic.net)
  • Over time, calcium from municipal water tends to accumulate, developing salt deposits in the swimming pool walls and equipment (filters, pumps), reducing their effectiveness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Natural swimming pools use a living base of aquatic plants, filters and micro organisms to clean and regenerate the swimming water. (redferret.net)
  • Ideal for use with sand and cartridge pool filters. (intheswim.com)
  • Not recommended for use with DE pool filters. (intheswim.com)
  • While super clarifier is not recommended for diatomaceous earth (DE) pool filters, it works great with sand and cartridge filters. (intheswim.com)
  • A graffiti-covered door leads us into the maintenance room, which holds the filters to the pool itself. (getreading.co.uk)
  • Leaves, yard debris, and rocks can all clog pool filters and lead to expensive repairs. (wikihow.com)
  • If calcium hardness levels get too high, scale forms on pool surfaces and in the pipes, plumbing and filters. (reference.com)
  • Also, by improving the function of your pool's filter, you will be able to enjoy the benefits of longer-lasting pool equipment. (intheswim.com)
  • Also note that before you add any chemical-especially an acid-to the water, you need to first turn on the pool's equipment. (poolcaptain.com)
  • While a swimming pool's filtration system is the hardest worker when it comes to keeping the water clean, without maintaining the right chemical balance, you simply cannot get the job done. (poolbuilders.in)
  • Ultimately, the cost you pay will vary by your pool's size, the chemicals needed and the type of service you request. (thumbtack.com)
  • The time it takes to clean a swimming pool depends heavily on the pool's condition and size. (thumbtack.com)
  • Visit your public pool to check the pool inspection results and check the pool's clarity. (wikihow.com)
  • Carelessness in a pool's operation can lead to chemical burns. (psblaw.com)
  • These findings suggest that the increasing exposure to chlorine-based disinfectants used in swimming pools and their by-products might be an unsuspected risk factor in the rising incidence of childhood asthma and allergic diseases," noted Dr. Simone Carbonnelle, who conducted the study. (ecochildsplay.com)
  • Susceptibilities of fungal species to common disinfectants used in swimming pools were investigated, according to M38-A and M27A3 protocols. (researchsquare.com)
  • For the 77% of state cases and 49% of NEISS cases that had sufficient information to determine factors contributing to illness or injury, the most common contributing factors included mixing incompatible products, spills and splashes of chemicals, lack of appropriate PPE use, and dust clouds or fumes generated by opening a chemical container. (cdc.gov)
  • The first company in Europe to sell pool products on-line. (poolstore.co.uk)
  • In The Swim® is not affiliated with them and does not carry their products. (intheswim.com)
  • Unlike cheap look-alikes, Blue Wave products will not stain your pool, cause clouding of water, or excessive foaming. (poolandspa.com)
  • Most pools disinfect water using chlorine-based products. (emcins.com)
  • If you sell swimming pool chemical products to the leisure industry or to the general public you need to be aware of important laws that govern the supply of such products. (apvma.gov.au)
  • The advertisement or supply of agricultural chemical products that are not registered contravenes national agriculture and veterinary chemicals law. (apvma.gov.au)
  • I am a pool shop owner-what can I do to determine if the pool products I am selling are compliant? (apvma.gov.au)
  • Large chemical companies who have sought product registration for liquid chlorine products will often supply their registered liquid chlorine product to retail outlets in bulk form. (apvma.gov.au)
  • Where can I find out more about registering pool chemical products or updating my details? (apvma.gov.au)
  • For certain pool chemical products, registration can occur through a listed registration process. (apvma.gov.au)
  • We are pleased to offer a line of Anchem brand products such as Alkalinity Booster (sodium bicarbonate) and Anchlor 12 (sodium hypochlorite), along with our traditional brands such as Sifto Pool Salt and Arm & Hammer Bicarbonate of Soda. (anchemsales.com)
  • Indeed, there are very cheap pool chemical products in the market and online. (swimmingpoolbuilderbrisbane.com.au)
  • Kurita Water Solutions offers a wide range of products for the water treatment in swimming pools. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Since 1973 Robelle Industries has been providing superior, dependable, and affordable swimming pool products. (hayneedle.com)
  • They have painstakingly built a line of quality swimming pool products that include pool chemicals, pool accessories, and everything in between. (hayneedle.com)
  • The nature of these products and the extent to which they are generated depends upon the prevailing physical and chemical conditions (PWTAG, 1995). (enviromagnetics.net)
  • Find out how to choose and safely use products for cleaning pool and spa water. (canada.ca)
  • We Swim Well breathe with the aim to satisfy our clients with our smart products/services. (slideshare.net)
  • Misusing products such as bleach, oven cleaners and paint thinners may result in chemical burns. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Most chemical burns occur as a result of misuse of products. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Many other products used at home and work may contain chemicals that cause burns. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • We have the widest selection of water treatment chemicals and related products to meet any water treatment requirements . (brenntag.com)
  • Corrosion inhibitors are chemical products which, when added to water or to any other process fluid, slow down the rate of corrosion. (brenntag.com)
  • pool products on the market that either use very high levels of copper (causes staining), produce harmful long term free-radicals,require constant and active PH adjusting, or actually produce chlorine. (airwaterbestprices.com)
  • Not to mention all those chemicals from cosmetics, lotions, hair care products, shampoo and soaps. (hottubworks.com)
  • While saltwater pools still use chlorine to disinfect the water, they are free of the by-products that can have an adverse effect on your health. (fitstep.com)
  • While saltwater pools still use chlorine to keep the water sanitary, there tends to be fewer by-products in the water so you can swim with more peace of mind. (fitstep.com)
  • But saltwater pools tend to be free of potentially harmful by-products that can irritate your skin. (fitstep.com)
  • Saltwater pools are free of these by-products that can damage your lungs. (fitstep.com)
  • The common perception of people is that chlorine is the only one out of the many swimming pool chemicals and is even harmful for the individuals who opt for swimming for hours. (prlog.org)
  • Always use scoops and containers meant specifically for use with your pool cleaning agents, as other containers may contain chemical residues that can cause harmful reactions. (drclouthier.com)
  • Pool chemicals are harmful if breathed in, likewise if they enter through the eyes, so save your pool maintenance for days with little to no wind, and open containers slowly to prevent dust shaking up when removing lids. (drclouthier.com)
  • In fact, the chlorine in the water reacts with organic matter and produces harmful chemicals . (cleanwater.news)
  • Don't spend too much time in your pool to limit your exposure to harmful chemicals. (cleanwater.news)
  • Visit Chemicals.news to read more articles about harmful chemicals like DBPs and how to avoid them. (cleanwater.news)
  • Rather than raise the level of alkalinity by adding harmful chemicals, try using sodium bicarbonate. (ehow.com)
  • Natural swimming pools use gravel stone and clay in place of concrete or fiberglass, and aquatic plants instead of harmful chemicals and complicated mechanical filtering systems. (motherearthnews.com)
  • Natural swimming pools require no harmful chemicals, are fairly low-tech, and once established call for only a modicum of management. (motherearthnews.com)
  • Sodium Bicarbonate, Chemical, Water Treatment manufacturer / supplier in China, offering High-Quality Sodium Bicarbonate for Swimming Pool, Bkc - Benzalkonium - Swimming Pool Algaecide, Muriatic Acid - Hydrochloric Acid - Swimming Pool Acid - 31% 32% Purity and so on. (made-in-china.com)
  • Since 2000, with more than 45000 square meters factory, Hotchem-Qingdao Hot Chemicals Co., Ltd. has grown into the leading producer, repackager and supplier of swimming pool and spa chemicals in China. (made-in-china.com)
  • With more than 45000 square meters factory and 110 square meters trading office, Hotchem has grown into the leading producer and supplier of swimming pool and spa chemicals, moisture absorber, ice melter, oil drilling chemicals and packages in China since 2000. (made-in-china.com)
  • Many people utilize public pools during the summer in order to beat the heat. (wikihow.com)
  • Public pools can be full of germs and diseases known as recreational water illnesses. (wikihow.com)
  • [1] X Trustworthy Source Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Main public health institute for the US, run by the Dept. of Health and Human Services Go to source In order to avoid contributing to these illnesses and to help avoid getting them, there are ways to be hygienic in public pools. (wikihow.com)
  • Then, once a week, you're reminded to do routine chemical maintenance, like replacing the chlorine tablet in the floating dispenser or adding shock to keep the pools clean and clear. (zdnet.com)
  • Shock the pool with the addition of a specialized disinfecting shock treatment, available from a pool supply store. (ehow.com)
  • There are five important properties of pool spa and hot tub water that need to be routinely monitored: the sanitizer, total alkalinity, pH level, hardness, and total dissolved solids. (hubpages.com)
  • The pool pH should be maintained at 7.2-7.6 for optimum chlorine or sanitizer activity and best water quality. (americasbestpoolsupply.com)
  • All public swimming pools must have a chemical sanitizer, as mandated by the local public health code. (hydrologicblog.com)
  • This is generally done by adding a chemical sanitizer to the water as it passes through the treatment system in the pool equipment room. (hydrologicblog.com)
  • This effectively treats the water at the point of injection, but also leaves residual sanitizer in the pool water itself to handle contamination sources in the pool. (hydrologicblog.com)
  • To kill pathogens and help prevent recreational water illnesses, pool operators must maintain proper levels of chlorine or another sanitizer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorine present as either calcium hypochlorite, lithium hypochlorite, sodium hypochlorite, sodium dichloroisocyanuric acid or trichloroisocyanuric acid is a chemical with a range of applications, including use as an industrial chemical. (apvma.gov.au)
  • Leading Wholesale Trader of swimming pool chemicals, trichloroisocyanuric acid granules, magnesium choride, carboxymethyl cellulose, propylene glycol and lactose monohydrate from Pune. (benzerpharma.in)
  • Cyanuric acid stabilizer (sometimes called 'conditioner') helps maintain levels of free chlorine in the pool or spa water. (hubpages.com)
  • Free chlorine residuals and pH values shall be determined not less than four (4) times during any day the pool is in operation. (ecode360.com)
  • Chlorine levels, specifically the level of free chlorine in a pool is the most important measure for ensuring a safer swim. (instrumentchoice.com.au)
  • Typically in swimming pools the acid is phosphoric acid which turns the calcium carbonate into calcium phosphate (as found in your bones) which stays in the water and does not form a scale. (poolstore.co.uk)
  • One cannot just administer pool chemicals without ascertaining the water's pH, alkaline, acid, and chlorine levels. (swimmingpoolbuilderbrisbane.com.au)
  • Adding acid to pool water lowers its pH. (reference.com)
  • To lower the pH in your pool, you need a pool water testing kit, a bucket and acid. (reference.com)
  • The problem with hypochlorous acid is that it's not a stable chemical, meaning it's prone to degradation when exposed to ultraviolet light from the sun. (poolbuilders.in)
  • To combat this, it's advisable to use a pool chlorinator that includes a stabilising agent, such as cyanuric acid. (poolbuilders.in)
  • The second problem with hypochlorous acid is that it has the potential to combine with other chemicals to form new, undesirable compounds that can reduce its ability to sanitise the water and also cause irritation to your eyes while swimming. (poolbuilders.in)
  • The pool water's pH amounts to its overall balance of acid and alkaline. (poolbuilders.in)
  • If your pool water is not at these levels, you will need to counterbalance by adding either extra acid or alkaline. (poolbuilders.in)
  • Although chlorine inside your water will help to kill off germs, it may also raise the level of acid inside your pool. (poolbuilders.in)
  • To prevent chlorine from rapidly breaking down in pools exposed to direct sunlight (and therefor to reduce the amount of chlorine consumed) cyanuric acid is needed. (instrumentchoice.com.au)
  • Chemicals that are used are for instance sodium chloride, potassium chloride, citric acid and chlorine dioxide. (giraudinternational.com)
  • So, if you don't treat your pool water with chemicals, these micro-organisms will pose a health risk when you swim in it. (poolbuilders.in)
  • Chemical reactions can generate a variety of hazards, including poisonous fumes, caustic liquids and even explosions. (emcins.com)
  • In order to protect the public health from the hazards of certain waterborne infections, the following swimming water quality standards shall be maintained by the owners and/or operators of swimming pools. (ecode360.com)
  • The World Health Organization has published international guidelines for the safety of swimming pools and similar recreational-water environments, including standards for minimizing microbial and chemical hazards. (wikipedia.org)
  • Just one quart of super swimming pool clarifier treats 160,000 gallons. (intheswim.com)
  • One mistake many aquatic professionals make is to purchase a generator solely based on volume (gallons) of pool water. (campbusiness.com)
  • Biguanide is not recommended for more than 25,000 gallons, the pool pump needs to operate for at least 12 hours per day, 7 days a week and should use a sand filter with the pool draining from the bottom. (gochemless.com)
  • Recommended dosage: To raise pool pH, distribute a maximum of 1 Lb of pool pH increaser per 10,000 gallons of water directly into the deep end of the pool. (americasbestpoolsupply.com)
  • A portable pool constructed of a plastic or any similar material, having a capacity of 1,000 gallons or more. (ecode360.com)
  • For example, if you wish to raise the alkalinity to 10 ppm, add 1 ½ pounds of sodium bicarbonate if you have 10,000 gallons of water in your pool. (ehow.com)
  • Easy enough to understand, a spa of 400 gallons is quite a bit smaller than a pool containing 20000 gallons. (hottubworks.com)
  • Add sodium bicarbonate to your pool to raise the alkalinity of your swimming pool. (ehow.com)
  • Make sure you add sodium bicarbonate to your pool without adding other chemicals at the same time. (ehow.com)
  • How do you use calcium chloride in a swimming pool? (reference.com)
  • Calcium chloride is added to pool water to bring up the levels of calcium, magnesium and sodium in the pool. (reference.com)
  • But, the fact is that chlorine is the best cleanser for pool and the presence of it is considered to be hygienic. (prlog.org)
  • It makes pool water hygienic and crystal clear. (siagchemicals.com)
  • In order to be hygienic at the pool, you first need to make sure the pool is hygienic. (wikihow.com)
  • The swimming-pool product range gives you the opportunity to choose your own maintenance program and allows you to operate your swimming pool hygienic and with no harm to human. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Many of these chemicals can be considered toxic at certain levels and so contaminants should be kept from entering the pool or regularly removed. (instrumentchoice.com.au)
  • Water purification is the process of removing undesirable chemicals, biological contaminants, suspended solids, and gases from water. (giraudinternational.com)
  • Indoor pools are less susceptible to environmental contaminants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pathogenic contaminants are of greatest concern in swimming pools as they have been associated with numerous recreational water illnesses (RWIs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Diarrhea is the most commonly reported illness associated with pathogenic contaminants, while other diseases associated with untreated pools are Cryptosporidiosis and Giardiasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Effective treatments are needed to address contaminants in pool water because preventing the introduction of pool contaminants, pathogenic and non-pathogenic, into swimming pools is impossible. (wikipedia.org)
  • A well-maintained, properly operating pool filtration and re-circulation system is the first barrier in combating contaminants large enough to be filtered. (wikipedia.org)
  • Provide adequate lighting for reading labels on containers throughout the chemical storage area and pump room. (cdc.gov)
  • Separate the air handling systems for the chemical storage area, pump room, and venue area from the rest of the building. (cdc.gov)
  • Ensure that the chemical storage area, pump room, and venue area are well-ventilated. (cdc.gov)
  • Secure the chemical storage area and pump room to limit access, especially to children and animals. (cdc.gov)
  • Ensure availability of and easy access to PPE and up-to-date SDSs near (for example, in the hallway just outside of) the chemical storage area, pump room, venue area, and any other location pool chemicals are stored or used. (cdc.gov)
  • Do not store possible ignition sources, particularly gasoline-, diesel-, or gas-powered equipment in the chemical storage area or pump room. (cdc.gov)
  • Do not smoke in the chemical storage area or pump room. (cdc.gov)
  • Prioritize good housekeeping in the chemical storage area and pump room. (cdc.gov)
  • Post instructions on pool chemical safety practices in the chemical storage area and pump room. (cdc.gov)
  • When the pump was reprimed it led to a small vapour leak in the children's swimming area. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • Keep your pump running for 6 to 12 hours to distribute the chlorine to all parts of the pool. (poolstore.co.uk)
  • Turn a chemical feed pump on or off. (swimming-pool-care.com)
  • Automatically turn on your pool lights or swimming pool pump. (swimming-pool-care.com)
  • China Solenoid Diaphragm Dosing Pump for Swimming Pool with High-Quality, Leading Solenoid Diaphragm Dosing Pump for Swimming Pool Manufacturers & Suppliers, find Solenoid Diaphragm Dosing Pump for Swimming Pool Factory & Exporters. (contextpolitic.net)
  • These swimming pool chemical dosing pump are equipped with 12 to 24 filling heads and are loaded with unique technologies such as brackish water treatment, seawater desalination, portable water treatment. (contextpolitic.net)
  • Our company offer a wide range of Diaphragm Motorized Pump, Electric Diaphragm Pump, Air Operated Dosing Pump, Swimming Pool Accessories for industries. (contextpolitic.net)
  • Asha Technocrat is engaged in offering highly efficient EXAT (Electronic) Chemical Dosing Metering Pump. (contextpolitic.net)
  • Cheap Electronics Production Machinery, Buy Quality Electronic Components & Supplies Directly from China Suppliers:SEKO Chemical Dosing pump 603 metering pump For Swimming Pool watertreatment Metering pump water treatment dosing pump 4 8L/H Enjoy Free Shipping Worldwide! (contextpolitic.net)
  • Generally a chemical dosing pump is a small and positive displacement pump mechanically works using tiny electric motor or air actuator.In order to pump an accurate flow rate of chemical materials, it is designed accordingly. (contextpolitic.net)
  • The chemical materials are transformed into water, steam or gas flow to pump by various different methods. (contextpolitic.net)
  • 2021-5-8 · Manage the water quality of your pool with a reliable, high-performing chemical dosing pump from Aqua Industrial Group S.p.A, a leading provider of pool equipment and accessories worldwide. (contextpolitic.net)
  • Super clarifier is powerful, effective and coagulates particles at half the dosage rates of other swimming pool clarifiers. (intheswim.com)
  • Requiring half the dose of other pool water clarifiers and available at competitive prices, super clarifier will provide you with the results and value you've been looking for. (intheswim.com)
  • Other specialty chemicals include clarifiers, flocculant, algaecides and more. (thumbtack.com)
  • Other pool chemicals, such as clarifiers and algaecides, are not produced for use in hot water temperatures. (hottubworks.com)
  • Pool pH increaser (soda ash or sodium carbonate) is used to raise the pH level of swimming pool water. (americasbestpoolsupply.com)
  • Pool pH increaser is also known as pH Plus and pH Up, depending on where you live geographically and which product brands are being sold in your area. (americasbestpoolsupply.com)
  • Pool pH increaser may be used for any pool or spa. (americasbestpoolsupply.com)
  • Adding pH increaser to pool or spa water slows the rapid loss of chlorine caused by the pH being too low. (americasbestpoolsupply.com)
  • pH Increaser is compatible with and just as effective as Baquacil®, Soft Swim® and Revacil® biguanide pool chemicals too. (americasbestpoolsupply.com)
  • The Robelle Calcium Increaser for Swimming Pools will rapidly increase the total hardness of your water, preventing corrosion, etching, and the formation of metallic stains. (hayneedle.com)
  • Even for those chemicals that may be identical, such as pH up or Alkalinity increaser. (hottubworks.com)
  • Your pool water's pH and the output signal from the probe's electrode, will both be changed with temperature differences. (swimming-pool-care.com)
  • These are suction-side or pressure-side pool cleaners. (yellowpages.com)
  • Robotic pool cleaners, which are used to clean larger pools, are self-contained and much more expensive. (yellowpages.com)
  • To get a more accurate estimate, contact several pool cleaners in your area and ask for price quotes. (thumbtack.com)
  • When searching for pool cleaners near you and gathering cost estimates, ask them how long they expect each cleaning will take. (thumbtack.com)
  • You can choose from pressure-side pool cleaners, which can remove leaves, twigs and other objects from the bottom and sides of your pool. (thumbtack.com)
  • And there are robotic pool cleaners that do everything automatically. (thumbtack.com)
  • Pool cleaning services will range from small businesses to larger companies, so to help you narrow down your search, base your decisions on customer reviews, ratings, customer-uploaded photos and conversations you have with the pool cleaners. (thumbtack.com)
  • Contact at least three different pool cleaners to compare their prices (ask for free cost estimates). (thumbtack.com)
  • Water purification additives containing Biguanide chemicals are sold under the trademarked names of Baquacil and Soft Swim. (gochemless.com)
  • Dangerous pathogens will thrive if the pool is filled with untreated water. (sarahsdogs.com)
  • But chlorine's ability to kill pathogens is reduced when the pH of the pool is altered. (theconversation.com)
  • Chemicals such as chlorine aren't just reactive to pathogens, though. (theconversation.com)
  • While disinfection chemicals are necessary for killing pathogens, they don't just float around inertly in the water. (instrumentchoice.com.au)
  • Three children have been rushed to hospital after a chemical leak in the swimming pool of a popular holiday park on Monday. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • TWO infants were taken to hospital after a chemical leak at a holiday park's swimming pool. (thescottishsun.co.uk)
  • Also noted was a need for further research on an array of swimming pools under various conditions of maintenance and use, as well as more complete evaluations of the uptake and potential effects of the wide range of compounds present in pool water. (newswise.com)
  • Every pool owner must take care of chemical compounds at some point in time. (poolbuilders.in)
  • These chemical compounds are extremely essential, as you'll be using them fairly regularly. (poolbuilders.in)
  • Chemicals are distinct compounds or substances, mostly produced by reactions involving changes in atomic or molecular structure. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • Chemicals in the form of elements, compounds, and homogeneous combinations are known as pure substances. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • Maintain good communication among pool chemical handlers, including establishing a chain of command and documenting chemical use. (cdc.gov)
  • Strictly speaking, a pool owner must maintain and monitor the water's alkalinity, pH level, and chlorine level. (swimmingpoolbuilderbrisbane.com.au)
  • Testing for calcium hardness is recommended after these events to maintain the levels in the pool and prevent the costly effects of damage. (reference.com)
  • However, saltwater pools tend to be more expensive to maintain. (yellowpages.com)
  • Use the minimum amount of pool chemicals necessary to maintain water cleanliness. (cleanwater.news)
  • if you wish to maintain the perfect pH balance of your pool water, you must first achieve the proper Alkalinity levels.It is a good powder solution. (blackhand-machinima.de)
  • How much does it cost per year to maintain a pool? (thumbtack.com)
  • The pool expert can give you advice on things you can do to better maintain your pool , and your swimming pool may retain its value longer. (thumbtack.com)
  • If you don't know how to properly use pool cleaning chemicals, consider hiring a professional pool cleaner to help you maintain your pool. (thumbtack.com)
  • This can be a chemical you must have, as it's not possible to maintain your pool absolutely free of germs without having it. (poolbuilders.in)
  • To conduct, maintain or otherwise provide facilities for bathing at a swimming pool. (ecode360.com)
  • We all share the water we swim in and can help maintain the right mix of chemicals in the pool. (newsmax.com)
  • This course covers everything you need to effectively maintain, correctly test and restore pool water so it is safe and pleasant to swim in. (swimming.org)
  • Between 2008 and 2017, there were more than 4,500 pool chemical-related injuries reported each year, a new report from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found. (newsmax.com)
  • The research report studies the global Global swimming pool coping stones sales market report 2017 market on the basis of several criteria, including type, application, and geography to provide a better understanding to the readers. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • The report also sheds light on the current trends related to the demand, supply, and sales of Global swimming pool coping stones sales market report 2017, along with the recent developments in the field. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • The research report takes into consideration the drivers, restraints, trends, and opportunities of the global Global swimming pool coping stones sales market report 2017 market in order to identify the future of the market. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • The report also provides an estimation of the overall market size in terms of both value and volume and offers qualitative and quantitative insights into the key segments and the geographical subdivisions of the Global swimming pool coping stones sales market report 2017 market. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • According to the report, equipment and raw material are two primary components of the manufacturing process of Global swimming pool coping stones sales market report 2017. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • Therefore, the report provides a 360-degree view of the global Global swimming pool coping stones sales market report 2017 market. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • The report also performs a methodical examination of the vendor landscape of the global Global swimming pool coping stones sales market report 2017 market by analyzing the company profiles of prominent companies operating in the market. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • This is because if you added the chlorine directly into your pool using tablets for example, it tends to be too concentrated in certain areas, which can cause damage. (poolbuilders.in)
  • During the summer, when you operate your pool on an every day foundation, you'll have to have to change out your tablets just about every week or so. (poolbuilders.in)
  • Chemical Dispenser for pool Chemical dispenser for 1 1/2" tablets Export price under $0.84 Product Code: 2011301. (burrillandco.com)
  • Detailed Product Description ODM Chemical Feeder Swimming Pool Dispenser for 4lbs 3" Tablets T59 Description: -In Line chemical Feeder for 4lbs 3" Tablets -We make 3, 000, 000pcs annually -Offer both OEM and O. (burrillandco.com)
  • Pool chemical Dispenser Deluxe large chemical dispenser for 3" tablets Export price under $1.58 Product Code: 2011239. (burrillandco.com)
  • Swimming Pool Cleaning Chemicals of Water Purification Tablets Granule Calcium Hypochlorite 65% 70% 1. (burrillandco.com)
  • Cases were categorized by certainty of exposure, reported health effects, and consistency of health effects with known toxicology of the chemical ( 3 ) ( Table 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • NEISS cases † were those involving exposure to swimming pool chemicals (product code 938). (cdc.gov)
  • Rinse your eyes and skin immediately after exposure to pool water. (cleanwater.news)
  • The greatest exposure to these types of chemicals seems to come from patronizing indoor swimming pool, less an issue in the summer months, but hours and hours spent in chlorinated water inside or out can be a hazard. (ecochildsplay.com)
  • Exposure to chemicals in pool water related to possible health effects. (gochemless.com)
  • Faced with high levels of supervisory staff exposure to nitrogen trichloride and high levels of combined chlorine in pool water, indoor swimming pool operators increasingly adopt additional water treatment systems based on UV irradiation. (ilo.org)
  • Previous epidemiologic studies have found an association between exposure to DBPs in drinking water and risk of bladder cancer, and one such study has found this association for dermal/inhalational exposure such as occurs during showering, bathing, or swimming. (newswise.com)
  • They must also label the containers in case of exposure so that doctors know what chemicals they are dealing with. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • When I was a kid we had a saltwater swimming pool in our backyard and although it was kinder to your eyes, you still came out of it with sore lungs and reeking of chlorine. (redferret.net)
  • The chemicals responsible for maintaining a safe pH also influence the multitude of chemical reactions occurring in the swimming pool. (theconversation.com)
  • What this means is that water which is either too acidic or too alkaline will cause undesirable chemical reactions. (poolbuilders.in)
  • How To Measure The Chemical Reactions In Your Swimming Pool For A Safer Swim! (instrumentchoice.com.au)
  • backyard pool without the chemicals. (redferret.net)
  • Natural Swimming Pools - backyard pool without the chemicals. (redferret.net)
  • Ask most American swimming-pool contractors to build a backyard pool and chances are they'll roll out a long list of goods, including rebar, gunite, fiberglass, chlorine and an energy-sapping filtration system. (motherearthnews.com)
  • Sha'ar Chemicals owns and operates a fleet of trucks and tankers with nationwide distribution lines. (shaar.co.il)
  • Abir chemicals is a subsidiary of sha'ar chemicals ltd, one of israel's leading industrial chemicals marketing and distribution companies. (shaar.co.il)
  • These devices greatly enhance your pool water treatment process through precision analysis. (swimming-pool-care.com)
  • Asha Technocrats is providing safe and reliable water treatment systems for converting brackish and sea water into pure, drinkable, fresh water fit for human consumption, Swimming pool and pleasure of water as well as for Heating and Heat recovery application. (contextpolitic.net)
  • Being a client centric firm, our company offers high quality range of Water Treatment Chemical for Swimming Pools . (chemical-supplier.net)
  • There are three basic categories of water treatment systems commonly used in swimming pools: Sanitizers, Supplemental Sanitizers, and pH Buffers. (hydrologicblog.com)
  • In addition to the above chemical sanitizers, secondary water treatment systems are available to further improve the water quality. (hydrologicblog.com)
  • Pool water treatment units. (ecode360.com)
  • ABSTRACT Magnetic water treatment is potentially of great benefit to pool water treatment in terms of the reduction in use of oxidizing chemicals in water treatment. (enviromagnetics.net)
  • The most commonly used chemicals for water treatment process are: Algicide. (giraudinternational.com)
  • It is approved by the Pool Water Treatment Advisory Group (PWTAG). (swimming.org)
  • As a leading distributor of water treatment chemicals in the UK and Ireland, we understand how important it is to ensure that our product portfolio includes the most relevant and advanced technology available. (brenntag.com)
  • Many health clubs , fitness centers , and private clubs have pools used mostly for exercise or recreation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many of these municipal pools are outdoor pools but indoor pools can also be found in buildings such as leisure centers . (wikipedia.org)
  • Pools as a feature in hotels are more common in tourist areas or near convention centers . (wikipedia.org)
  • Abir Chemicals provides loyal service for numerous public swimming pools, sports and recreational centers and some of the biggest hotel chains in Israel. (shaar.co.il)
  • The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention also provides information on pool sanitation and water related illnesses for health professionals and the public. (wikipedia.org)
  • What's more, both high acidity and high alkalinity impact the effectiveness of the chlorine to disinfect your pool. (poolbuilders.in)
  • Make sure you're in a well-ventilated area whenever you handle the chemicals, and avoid breathing in any dust or fumes. (emcins.com)
  • Accidental mixtures of pool chemicals can result in toxic fumes, so have a predetermined retreat point a safe distance from your chemical storage area where you and your family can meet up and contact HVAC and medical personnel. (drclouthier.com)
  • The most common type of injury was poisoning due to breathing in chemical fumes, vapors or gases, such as when opening chlorine containers, the report showed. (newsmax.com)
  • A chemical burn can occur when a person comes in direct contact with a chemical or its fumes. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Saltwater pools tend to be free of these intense fumes, helping you stay relaxed and comfortable around the water's edge. (fitstep.com)
  • Other pool chemicals help with the disinfection process (for example, pH control), improve water quality, stop corrosion and scaling of equipment, and protect against algal growth. (cdc.gov)
  • However, pool chemicals can injure people when mixed together or when appropriate personal protective equipment is not used when handling them. (cdc.gov)
  • Provide aquatics staff and patrons with easily accessible safety showers, eye wash stations, and other appropriate chemical safety equipment. (cdc.gov)
  • When these chemicals are stored or used improperly or when they are handled or applied by persons not using appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE), illness or injury can result ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Helps give you a longer life on the pool equipment. (intheswim.com)
  • We move from the pool to the gym area, which is a perfectly adequate, if unspectacular area filled with modern equipment. (getreading.co.uk)
  • The shop that specialises in spare parts for swimming pool equipment. (aspectspools.co.uk)
  • We have access to spare parts for all types of swimming pool equipment and we will be happy to help you find what you need by email or on the phone. (aspectspools.co.uk)
  • Our offered range consists of best grade Cleaning Chemicals, House Hold Chemicals, Pool Chemicals, Swimming Pool Accessories, Water Testing Equipment , etc. (indiamart.com)
  • Your expensive pool or spa and all of its equipment is under threat from unbalanced water. (hubpages.com)
  • The increasing awareness of recreational water illnesses has led to the prolific advancement and acceptance of swimming pool chemical treatment equipment. (campbusiness.com)
  • If it's too alkaline, it can cause clouding of the water and scaling on the pool surface as well as plumbing equipment. (poolbuilders.in)
  • Abir Chemicals Ltd markets chemicals and auxiliary equipment for public swimming pools and other industries. (shaar.co.il)
  • Includes fill-and-draw, flow-through and recirculation pools, outdoor and indoor, which are artificially constructed to provide recreational facilities for swimming, bathing or wading and all buildings, equipment and appurtenances thereto. (ecode360.com)
  • Wear safety equipment, such as respirators or goggles, when handling pool chemicals. (newsmax.com)
  • The HealthCare Swimming Pool System will pay for itself in chemical,equipment and maintenance savings or your money back! (airwaterbestprices.com)
  • Locate the pool heater, filter, and other equipment behind sturdy fencing or walls at least 5 feet high. (hometips.com)
  • Inspect electrical equipment frequently, and do not use the pool until any needed repairs are made. (hometips.com)
  • The chlorine, which reacts with organic materials, produces chemicals called disinfection byproducts (DBPs). (cleanwater.news)
  • Even if you're using a pool mattress or raft, you can still be exposed to dangerous DBPs. (cleanwater.news)
  • Hundreds of different DBPs can form in and around swimming pools, but some are more common than others. (youmemindbody.com)
  • One researcher has said that he's found the same eleven volatile DBPs in every sample of swimming pool water that he's examined. (youmemindbody.com)
  • In addition, the authors identified more than 100 DBPs in the pool waters, some never reported previously in swimming pool water and/or chlorinated drinking water. (newswise.com)
  • Anybody who frequents a pool is going to be exposed to these DBPs-in the water in the pool or in the air around it. (instrumentchoice.com.au)
  • The other swimming pool chemicals can be identified as sodium hypochlorite, acids, algaecides, and many more. (prlog.org)
  • Include spill containment features, also known as secondary containment, in chemical storage areas to prevent pool chemical leaks or spills from mixing with any other substances. (cdc.gov)
  • Protect individual stored chemicals from mixing together or with other substances by storing each pool chemical separately in a dedicated location and storing incompatible chemicals away from each other. (cdc.gov)
  • Chlorine can be highly reactive when it comes in contact with other substances, so safe usage and storage is important to prevent a dangerous chemical reaction. (emcins.com)
  • You right said once the pool Alkalinity is adjusted, different synthetic substances can carry out their activity legitimately. (blackhand-machinima.de)
  • What's more, it is perfect with other swimming pool synthetic substances. (blackhand-machinima.de)
  • When coping with chemical substances, you will discover a number of issues that you simply must know. (poolbuilders.in)
  • Final although not minimum, you must by no means below any circumstances attempt to manage chemical substances together with your bare hands. (poolbuilders.in)
  • On the basis of their composition, chemicals can be pure substances or mixtures. (qyresearchreports.com)