Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
An acquired disorder characterized by recurrent symptoms, referable to multiple organ systems, occurring in response to demonstrable exposure to many chemically unrelated compounds at doses below those established in the general population to cause harmful effects. (Cullen MR. The worker with multiple chemical sensitivities: an overview. Occup Med 1987;2(4):655-61)
The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Tactical warfare using incendiary mixtures, smokes, or irritant, burning, or asphyxiating gases.
A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.
Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.
A broad class of substances encompassing all those that do not include carbon and its derivatives as their principal elements. However, carbides, carbonates, cyanides, cyanates, and carbon disulfide are included in this class.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Chemicals that are used to cause the disturbance, disease, or death of humans during WARFARE.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific chemicals.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.
An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.
Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.
Large collections of small molecules (molecular weight about 600 or less), of similar or diverse nature which are used for high-throughput screening analysis of the gene function, protein interaction, cellular processing, biochemical pathways, or other chemical interactions.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Exogenous agents, synthetic and naturally occurring, which are capable of disrupting the functions of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM including the maintenance of HOMEOSTASIS and the regulation of developmental processes. Endocrine disruptors are compounds that can mimic HORMONES, or enhance or block the binding of hormones to their receptors, or otherwise lead to activating or inhibiting the endocrine signaling pathways and hormone metabolism.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The science concerned with the detection, chemical composition, and biological action of toxic substances or poisons and the treatment and prevention of toxic manifestations.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Sympathectomy using chemicals (e.g., 6-hydroxydopamine or guanethidine) which selectively and reversibly destroy adrenergic nerve endings while leaving cholinergic nerve endings intact.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
The use of chemical agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of nerve agents, blood agents, blister agents, and choking agents (NOXAE).
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.
Chemical and physical transformation of the biogenic elements from their nucleosynthesis in stars to their incorporation and subsequent modification in planetary bodies and terrestrial biochemistry. It includes the mechanism of incorporation of biogenic elements into complex molecules and molecular systems, leading up to the origin of life.
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Procedures, such as TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES; mathematical models; etc., when used or advocated for use in place of the use of animals in research or diagnostic laboratories.
Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.
Tests to experimentally measure the tumor-producing/cancer cell-producing potency of an agent by administering the agent (e.g., benzanthracenes) and observing the quantity of tumors or the cell transformation developed over a given period of time. The carcinogenicity value is usually measured as milligrams of agent administered per tumor developed. Though this test differs from the DNA-repair and bacterial microsome MUTAGENICITY TESTS, researchers often attempt to correlate the finding of carcinogenicity values and mutagenicity values.
Drugs that act locally on cutaneous or mucosal surfaces to produce inflammation; those that cause redness due to hyperemia are rubefacients; those that raise blisters are vesicants and those that penetrate sebaceous glands and cause abscesses are pustulants; tear gases and mustard gases are also irritants.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
Uncontrolled release of a chemical from its containment that either threatens to, or does, cause exposure to a chemical hazard. Such an incident may occur accidentally or deliberately.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Rapid methods of measuring the effects of an agent in a biological or chemical assay. The assay usually involves some form of automation or a way to conduct multiple assays at the same time using sample arrays.
Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Preservative for wines, soft drinks, and fruit juices and a gentle esterifying agent.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.
Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The study of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION and the toxic effects of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS on the ECOSYSTEM. The term was coined by Truhaut in 1969.
A quantitative prediction of the biological, ecotoxicological or pharmaceutical activity of a molecule. It is based upon structure and activity information gathered from a series of similar compounds.
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Compounds which contain the methyl radical substituted with two benzene rings. Permitted are any substituents, but ring fusion to any of the benzene rings is not allowed.
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.
The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.
The reactions and interactions of atoms and molecules, the changes in their structure and composition, and associated energy changes.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.
Mixtures of many components in inexact proportions, usually natural, such as PLANT EXTRACTS; VENOMS; and MANURE. These are distinguished from DRUG COMBINATIONS which have only a few components in definite proportions.
A technology, in which sets of reactions for solution or solid-phase synthesis, is used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The study of existing genetic knowledge, and the generation of new genetic data, to understand and thus avoid DRUG TOXICITY and adverse effects from toxic substances from the environment.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
The system of glands that release their secretions (hormones) directly into the circulatory system. In addition to the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, included are the CHROMAFFIN SYSTEM and the NEUROSECRETORY SYSTEMS.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.
The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in definite quantities called quanta (E) which vary in size and are defined by the equation E=hv in which h is Planck's constant and v is the frequency of the radiation.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The study of the composition, chemical structures, and chemical reactions of living things.
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A subclass of IMIDES with the general structure of pyrrolidinedione. They are prepared by the distillation of ammonium succinate. They are sweet-tasting compounds that are used as chemical intermediates and plant growth stimulants.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.
A group of compounds that has the general structure of a dicarboxylic acid-substituted benzene ring. The ortho-isomer is used in dye manufacture. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
The above-ground plant without the roots.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
Pesticides or their breakdown products remaining in the environment following their normal use or accidental contamination.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.
A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
The removal of contaminating material, such as radioactive materials, biological materials, or CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS, from a person or object.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
One of the protein CROSS-LINKING REAGENTS that is used as a disinfectant for sterilization of heat-sensitive equipment and as a laboratory reagent, especially as a fixative.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
Waste products which threaten life, health, or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, disposed of, or otherwise managed.
Pheromones that elicit sexual attraction or mating behavior usually in members of the opposite sex in the same species.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
An antiseptic and disinfectant aromatic alcohol.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Chemicals used in agriculture. These include pesticides, fumigants, fertilizers, plant hormones, steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins, etc.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A high-molecular-weight polymeric elastomer derived from the milk juice (LATEX) of HEVEA brasiliensis and other trees and plants. It is a substance that can be stretched at room temperature to at least twice its original length and after releasing the stress, retract rapidly, and recover its original dimensions fully.
Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
Six-carbon alicyclic hydrocarbons which contain one or more double bonds in the ring. The cyclohexadienes are not aromatic, in contrast to BENZOQUINONES which are sometimes called 2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-diones.
Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.
Compounds with a core of 10 carbons generally formed via the mevalonate pathway from the combination of 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. They are cyclized and oxidized in a variety of ways. Due to the low molecular weight many of them exist in the form of essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE).
Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.
The spectrometric analysis of fluorescent X-RAYS, i.e. X-rays emitted after bombarding matter with high energy particles such as PROTONS; ELECTRONS; or higher energy X-rays. Identification of ELEMENTS by this technique is based on the specific type of X-rays that are emitted which are characteristic of the specific elements in the material being analyzed. The characteristic X-rays are distinguished and/or quantified by either wavelength dispersive or energy dispersive methods.
Databases devoted to knowledge about PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
A group of atoms or molecules attached to other molecules or cellular structures and used in studying the properties of these molecules and structures. Radioactive DNA or RNA sequences are used in MOLECULAR GENETICS to detect the presence of a complementary sequence by NUCLEIC ACID HYBRIDIZATION.
Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.
The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.
Flammable, amorphous, vegetable products of secretion or disintegration, usually formed in special cavities of plants. They are generally insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, ether, or volatile oils. They are fusible and have a conchoidal fracture. They are the oxidation or polymerization products of the terpenes, and are mixtures of aromatic acids and esters. Most are soft and sticky, but harden after exposure to cold. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)
Chlorinated hydrocarbons containing heteroatoms that are present as contaminants of herbicides. Dioxins are carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic. They have been banned from use by the FDA.
Non-steroidal compounds with estrogenic activity.
An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.
Relating to the size of solids.
Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.
A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
I mean nothing against the people you know, but rarely is the chemical the only thing to blame. Often when people come out of a ... ahhh... Im stuck between mary j and benadryl... Benadryl is a really sade drug, sold in any pharmaceutical (drug store) ... whats your favorite type of non-idoser drug.. Discuss real (not digital) drugs. ... its not like they have some dudes shooting up drugs and typing on the computer and making a sound which matches a drug, its ...
I mean nothing against the people you know, but rarely is the chemical the only thing to blame. Often when people come out of a ... ahhh... Im stuck between mary j and benadryl... Benadryl is a really sade drug, sold in any pharmaceutical (drug store) ... whats your favorite type of non-idoser drug.. Discuss real (not digital) drugs. ... its not like they have some dudes shooting up drugs and typing on the computer and making a sound which matches a drug, its ...
I mean nothing against the people you know, but rarely is the chemical the only thing to blame. Often when people come out of a ... ahhh... Im stuck between mary j and benadryl... Benadryl is a really sade drug, sold in any pharmaceutical (drug store) ... whats your favorite type of non-idoser drug.. Discuss real (not digital) drugs. ... its not like they have some dudes shooting up drugs and typing on the computer and making a sound which matches a drug, its ...
In USA ECs that are marketed for therapeutic purposes are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration [FDA] Centre for Drug ... We are not even sure if the nicotine in ECs is chemical nicotine or is got from the tobacco leaves. Efficacy studies need to be ... The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has reported an increasing number of adverse effects in EC users like chest pain, cough ... It is also feared to inhibit action of anti TB drugs. Other substances detected in the fluid are tobacco specific carcinogenic ...
by Drug_Phreak Data on Khat (Catha Edulis) and cathine Started by Xaja ...
Tangible Drug Experiences. Discuss real (not digital) drugs 182 Topics. 1334 Posts. Last post. by Derrils Fri Sep 21, 2018 6:52 ... Visionary Chemicals. Discuss synthetic substances 38 Topics. 433 Posts. Last post. by alderallan Wed Aug 05, 2015 12:51 am ... Tangible Drugs. Topics. Posts. Last post. * Visionary Plants. Discuss visionary plants 87 Topics. 955 Posts. Last post. by ...
Contains no Ephedrine or other harmful chemicals or drugs This product has been evaluated by the Good Manufacturing Practice. ...
The charge then becomes a toxic chemical known as proxy , this acts just like a drug , cigarette , working memory} The idea ...
An encyclopedia of chemicals, drugs, and biologicals that contains more than 10,000 compounds.. AccessScience. Authoritative ...
An encyclopedia of chemicals, drugs, and biologicals that contains more than 10,000 compounds.. AccessScience. Authoritative ...
  • How Cholesterol lowering drugs are harmful and really address the wrong issue? (thesurvivalpodcast.com)
  • The second is that the vapors can contain chemical toxins that are as harmful as the chemicals in regular cigarettes. (kbcpagwinnings.com)
  • People who have been taking prescription drugs and over-the-counter drugs to counter an array of ailments, diseases, and maladies need to take care of the various harmful side-effects the chemical-based remedies bring. (wild-marathon.com)
  • Those who have been taking prescriptions and over-the-counter drugs to counter a wide range of ailments, diseases, and maladies ought to cope with the countless harmful side-effects the chemical-based remedies bring. (wild-marathon.com)
  • Dr. Daly in particular was famous for studying the chemical compounds produced by organisms like frogs, known as natural products, for possible medicinal applications. (frogforum.net)
  • Much of the inspiration for today s top pharmaceutical drugs comes from chemical compounds discovered in nature. (frogforum.net)
  • Every day, teams of chemists and biologists travel to remote parts of the world in search of plants and animals that may produce valuable chemical compounds new to science. (frogforum.net)
  • Both nations have so-called "patent bargains" that require the disclosure of a drug's chemical compounds in enough detail so that scientists can replicate it and learn from the invention, thus benefiting society. (100percentgeek.net)
  • The foremost is that electric cigarettes can mimic the addictive qualities of other drugs like cocaine and heroin. (kbcpagwinnings.com)
  • Many of these chemicals are highly addictive ingredients. (istanbulpartneri.com)
  • Nicotine is an addictive chemical. (eliquid.co)
  • When the inside lining of our blood vessels are exposed to toxic chemicals, free-radicals, infectious organisms, or injury then the resulting micro-damage triggers the liver to secrete LDL-cholesterol (the "bad" cholesterol) to go to the area and begin the repair processes. (thesurvivalpodcast.com)
  • Apr 01, 2016By Agnes Shanley PTSM: Pharmaceutical Technology Sourcing and Management Volume 11, Issue 4 At a special biopharmaceutical manufacturing track at the 2016 Drug Chemicals and Allied Trades (DCAT) on March 16, 2016, Bill Downey, head of the market research. (biodextris.com)
  • Apr 18, 2016By Pharmaceutical Technology Editors On April 14, 2016, FDA published Data Integrity and Compliance with CGMP, which addresses the role of data integrity in CGMP for drug. (biodextris.com)
  • Our DUI attorneys have extensive training and knowledge regarding field sobriety testing, 4th Amendment law, chemical testing of blood alcohol concentration (BAC), police procedures, and the myriad of scientific disciplines relevant to key issues and defenses in criminal cases involving driving under the influence of drugs or alcohol. (inlandempireduiattorneys.com)
  • While you might be aware that the immediate consequences include exposure to jail/prison, enormous fines, loss of your driving privileges (i.e., driver's license suspension/revocation ), mandatory participation in alcohol/drug classes and/or treatment programs and more, the penalties formally imposed by a judge only tell part of the story. (inlandempireduiattorneys.com)
  • If you were arrested and charged for driving under the influence of drugs, alcohol, or any chemical substance in Arlington Heights, Illinois, then you need an experienced DUI criminal defense attorney who can give you strong representation in court. (lincolnlawgroup.com)
  • Islington Drug and Alcohol Service for Young People offers free, confidential advice and support at T: 020 7527 5099 Islington Drug and Alcohol Helpline T: 0808 800 0019 is open 24 hours, seven days a week and can help you or someone you care about. (islington.gov.uk)
  • To put this in context, most anti-cancer drugs used today are toxins whose dosage is tuned for maximum anti-cancer effect but minimal toxicity to the human body. (frogforum.net)
  • While it is good to know that there is absolutely no significant level of chemicals or substance engaging in the lungs from traditional cigarettes, there is still some concern over what happens to family members in case a teenager decides to start smoking again using vaporing products. (kbcpagwinnings.com)
  • Instead, a chemical reaction occurs, producing a chemical reaction that changes a little bit of the substance inside the cartridge into a vapor. (66kacakbahis.com)
  • In an attempt to understand substance abuse and recovery Sean entered the Drug Education Council Ministries (Christian Life Skills Program), in Noupoort in 2010, where his brother was completing the final month of an eight month program. (seanmetelerkamp.com)
  • The Supreme Court of Canada is invalidating Pfizer's patent on the popular erectile-dysfunction drug Viagra for failing to openly disclose the drug's active ingredient, as required by Canadian intellectual property law. (100percentgeek.net)
  • Mixer is the necessary equipment which mixes the drug and pulp to add the reaction time of chemical agent and strengthen drug reaction quality. (przygodazfotografia.pl)
  • An inhaler functions by introducing a chemical into the air, through a tube, that reacts with oxygen molecules in the air to make a chemical reaction that creates the drug. (66kacakbahis.com)
  • It really is this chemical reaction that changes the chemical in the cartridge, creating the chemical reaction that produces the result in the user's lungs. (66kacakbahis.com)
  • the industry-based PACIA Code of Practice for Supply Diversion to Illicit Drug Manufacture (PACIA Code). (thevespiary.org)
  • the Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS), and the Australian Customs (Prohibited Imports) Regulations which cover the import/export of drugs and certain precursor substances used in the manufacture of illicit drugs. (thevespiary.org)
  • Appellants filed a class action, alleging that defendant, a chemical manufacturer, sold thiodiglycol (TDG) to Saddam Hussein's Iraqi regime, which then used it to manufacture mustard gas to kill Kurdish enclaves in northern Iraq during the late 1980's. (justia.com)
  • Viagra is a generic drug that circulates certain chemicals in the blood which provides energy and stamina to make it harder for you to get and keep an erection. (aacte.org)
  • The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has reported an increasing number of adverse effects in EC users like chest pain, cough, shortness of breath, headache, nausea, dizziness. (theseoultimes.com)
  • Much of the damage to the body is on a microscopic or cellular level is a result from stress, injury or chemical exposure from our food and environment. (thesurvivalpodcast.com)
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not recognized or approved the marijuana plant as medicine. (420caliweeds.com)
  • Food and Drug Administration for their use in many types of food containers. (gstmalaysia.co)
  • Products sold on eLiquid.co are not smoking cessation products and have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration, nor are they intended to treat, prevent or cure any disease or condition. (eliquid.co)
  • The presence of chemicals in our food, and the potential harm they can cause, are under a higher level of scrutiny, too. (mashed.com)
  • In food production, the chemical is used to bleach bread and improve its durability and appearance, according to Bakerpedia . (mashed.com)
  • The Food & Drug Administration found evidence that the chemicals formed from ADA during bread baking cause cancer only at levels far higher than those found in bread, and only in female mice, according to the FDA website . (mashed.com)
  • Although it might be expected that the "yoga mat chemical," as controversial as it is, would have been eradicated from all food processes, you can still find it on fast food menus. (mashed.com)
  • When you smoke a cigarette, you're unknowingly exposing yourself to hundreds of chemicals. (istanbulpartneri.com)
  • Once a person is charged and arrested for a DUI they are facing civil penalties leading to driver's license suspension and criminal penalties that could lead to heavy fines and jail time, especially with court costs and mandatory drug treatment. (lincolnlawgroup.com)
  • So a guy who sets pieces on paper on fire or hacks away at trees needs to be locked up for life, but a low-life who peddles what's essentially a chemical weapon that kills and injures millions every year should be out on bail, and should not face jail time at all because drug dealing is a victimless crime? (universalhub.com)
  • Because the marijuana plant contains chemicals that may help treat a range of illnesses and symptoms, many people argue that it should be legal for medical purposes. (420caliweeds.com)
  • One such chemical is informally called the "yoga mat chemical" - not because of its meditative qualities, but due to a less appealing reality: It is a common component of plastic and rubber materials, including yoga mats (via Forbes ). (mashed.com)
  • Job experience with farming, landscape maintenance, weed management, fertilizer applications, etc. will be given preference.Employment Period: 2021 summer season (3 to 6 months).Pay Rate: $16.50 per hour.Duties: Identifying weeds, and properly mixing, transporting, and applying the products to control the weeds, applying fertilizer, and keeping accurate records of all chemical applications. (workinmontana-veterans.jobs)
  • I mean nothing against the people you know, but rarely is the chemical the only thing to blame. (i-doser.com)
  • It is not surprising then to discover that people who take cholesterol-lowering drugs, soon begin to suffer from memory loss. (thesurvivalpodcast.com)
  • Magic-wielding Churchwitch and secret addict Chess Putnam knows better than anyone just how high a price people are willing to pay for a chemical rush. (thereadventurer.com)
  • Besides chemical stimulants and a great deal of enthusiastic bonking there's also lots of violence, some of it quite disturbing, and buckets of blood but, as far as I could tell, only one rape. (operaramblings.blog)
  • Plaintiffs commenced this putative class action alleging that defendants participated in a global Internet conspiracy to sell illegal prescription drugs, in violation of the laws of the United States and Virginia. (justia.com)
  • Despite a succession of differing business partners he continued in the wholesale drug business until 1869, when his name is dropped as one of the principals of the Louisville Chemical Works. (americanstampdealer.com)
  • The Louisville Chemical Works is first listed in a 1867-68 city directory and the firm continues being listed through 1871 after which it is never mentioned. (americanstampdealer.com)
  • Addressing staff and students of the three CSIR institutes in Hyderabad - the National Geophysical Research Institute (NGRI), the Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB) and the Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (IICT), he congratulated the institutes for their various contributions, as diverse as setting up Covid-19 surveillance strategies, affordable diagnostics, drugs and therapeutics development, hospital-assistive device development, and building supply chain and logistics. (suryaa.com)
  • Wilson's name was associated with a wholesale drug firm in Louisville, Kentucky as far back as the 1843-44 city directory. (americanstampdealer.com)
  • BPA Bisphenol -A is a chemical building block that is used primarily to make polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins. (gstmalaysia.co)
  • Most drugs are safe as long as you're smart about it. (i-doser.com)
  • There is a school teacher daughter and two engineers in the mix - Chemical and Electronic. (brchitwood.com)
  • A single paper has described its effects in human subjects 2 , demonstrating that the drug allows stroboscope-induced hallucinations at the levels employed, namely, 0.8-2.0 mgm. (thevespiary.org)
  • Neratinib is a recently discovered oral drug that may stop breast cancer cells from growing abnormally by inhibiting (or blocking) members of a family of proteins that include Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2). (her2support.org)

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