Bipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Mood Disorders: Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Depressive Disorder, Major: Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity: A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, persistent obsessions or compulsions. Obsessions are the intrusive ideas, thoughts, or images that are experienced as senseless or repugnant. Compulsions are repetitive and seemingly purposeful behavior which the individual generally recognizes as senseless and from which the individual does not derive pleasure although it may provide a release from tension.Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic: A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Phobic Disorders: Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.Child Development Disorders, Pervasive: Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.Psychotic Disorders: Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Conduct Disorder: A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. These behaviors include aggressive conduct that causes or threatens physical harm to other people or animals, nonaggressive conduct that causes property loss or damage, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations of rules. The onset is before age 18. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Tic Disorders: Disorders characterized by recurrent TICS that may interfere with speech and other activities. Tics are sudden, rapid, nonrhythmic, stereotyped motor movements or vocalizations which may be exacerbated by stress and are generally attenuated during absorbing activities. Tic disorders are distinguished from conditions which feature other types of abnormal movements that may accompany another another condition. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Borderline Personality Disorder: A personality disorder marked by a pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects, and marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. (DSM-IV)Somatoform Disorders: Disorders having the presence of physical symptoms that suggest a general medical condition but that are not fully explained by a another medical condition, by the direct effects of a substance, or by another mental disorder. The symptoms must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning. In contrast to FACTITIOUS DISORDERS and MALINGERING, the physical symptoms are not under voluntary control. (APA, DSM-V)Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Sleep Disorders: Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)Lymphoproliferative Disorders: Disorders characterized by proliferation of lymphoid tissue, general or unspecified.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Alcohol-Related Disorders: Disorders related to or resulting from abuse or mis-use of alcohol.Movement Disorders: Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.Speech Disorders: Acquired or developmental conditions marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or generate spoken forms of language.Combat Disorders: Neurotic reactions to unusual, severe, or overwhelming military stress.Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Includes two similar disorders: oppositional defiant disorder and CONDUCT DISORDERS. Symptoms occurring in children with these disorders include: defiance of authority figures, angry outbursts, and other antisocial behaviors.Impulse Control Disorders: Disorders whose essential features are the failure to resist an impulse, drive, or temptation to perform an act that is harmful to the individual or to others. Individuals experience an increased sense of tension prior to the act and pleasure, gratification or release of tension at the time of committing the act.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Antisocial Personality Disorder: A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Binge-Eating Disorder: A disorder associated with three or more of the following: eating until feeling uncomfortably full; eating large amounts of food when not physically hungry; eating much more rapidly than normal; eating alone due to embarrassment; feeling of disgust, DEPRESSION, or guilt after overeating. Criteria includes occurrence on average, at least 2 days a week for 6 months. The binge eating is not associated with the regular use of inappropriate compensatory behavior (i.e. purging, excessive exercise, etc.) and does not co-occur exclusively with BULIMIA NERVOSA or ANOREXIA NERVOSA. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Dysthymic Disorder: Chronically depressed mood that occurs for most of the day more days than not for at least 2 years. The required minimum duration in children to make this diagnosis is 1 year. During periods of depressed mood, at least 2 of the following additional symptoms are present: poor appetite or overeating, insomnia or hypersomnia, low energy or fatigue, low self esteem, poor concentration or difficulty making decisions, and feelings of hopelessness. (DSM-IV)Myeloproliferative Disorders: Conditions which cause proliferation of hemopoietically active tissue or of tissue which has embryonic hemopoietic potential. They all involve dysregulation of multipotent MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS, most often caused by a mutation in the JAK2 PROTEIN TYROSINE KINASE.Interview, Psychological: A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis, evaluation, treatment planning, etc. The interview may be conducted by a social worker or psychologist.Dissociative Disorders: Sudden temporary alterations in the normally integrative functions of consciousness.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Temporomandibular Joint Disorders: A variety of conditions affecting the anatomic and functional characteristics of the temporomandibular joint. Factors contributing to the complexity of temporomandibular diseases are its relation to dentition and mastication and the symptomatic effects in other areas which account for referred pain to the joint and the difficulties in applying traditional diagnostic procedures to temporomandibular joint pathology where tissue is rarely obtained and x-rays are often inadequate or nonspecific. Common diseases are developmental abnormalities, trauma, subluxation, luxation, arthritis, and neoplasia. (From Thoma's Oral Pathology, 6th ed, pp577-600)Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Conversion Disorder: A disorder whose predominant feature is a loss or alteration in physical functioning that suggests a physical disorder but that is actually a direct expression of a psychological conflict or need.Learning Disorders: Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.Schizotypal Personality Disorder: A personality disorder in which there are oddities of thought (magical thinking, paranoid ideation, suspiciousness), perception (illusions, depersonalization), speech (digressive, vague, overelaborate), and behavior (inappropriate affect in social interactions, frequently social isolation) that are not severe enough to characterize schizophrenia.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Neurotic Disorders: Disorders in which the symptoms are distressing to the individual and recognized by him or her as being unacceptable. Social relationships may be greatly affected but usually remain within acceptable limits. The disturbance is relatively enduring or recurrent without treatment.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Antimanic Agents: Agents that are used to treat bipolar disorders or mania associated with other affective disorders.Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Affective Disorders, Psychotic: Disorders in which the essential feature is a severe disturbance in mood (depression, anxiety, elation, and excitement) accompanied by psychotic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, gross impairment in reality testing, etc.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Diagnosis, Dual (Psychiatry): The co-existence of a substance abuse disorder with a psychiatric disorder. The diagnostic principle is based on the fact that it has been found often that chemically dependent patients also have psychiatric problems of various degrees of severity.Personality Assessment: The determination and evaluation of personality attributes by interviews, observations, tests, or scales. Articles concerning personality measurement are considered to be within scope of this term.Adjustment Disorders: Maladaptive reactions to identifiable psychosocial stressors occurring within a short time after onset of the stressor. They are manifested by either impairment in social or occupational functioning or by symptoms (depression, anxiety, etc.) that are in excess of a normal and expected reaction to the stressor.Peroxisomal Disorders: A heterogeneous group of inherited metabolic disorders marked by absent or dysfunctional PEROXISOMES. Peroxisomal enzymatic abnormalities may be single or multiple. Biosynthetic peroxisomal pathways are compromised, including the ability to synthesize ether lipids and to oxidize long-chain fatty acid precursors. Diseases in this category include ZELLWEGER SYNDROME; INFANTILE REFSUM DISEASE; rhizomelic chondrodysplasia (CHONDRODYSPLASIA PUNCTATA, RHIZOMELIC); hyperpipecolic acidemia; neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy; and ADRENOLEUKODYSTROPHY (X-linked). Neurologic dysfunction is a prominent feature of most peroxisomal disorders.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Language Disorders: Conditions characterized by deficiencies of comprehension or expression of written and spoken forms of language. These include acquired and developmental disorders.Bulimia Nervosa: An eating disorder that is characterized by a cycle of binge eating (BULIMIA or bingeing) followed by inappropriate acts (purging) to avert weight gain. Purging methods often include self-induced VOMITING, use of LAXATIVES or DIURETICS, excessive exercise, and FASTING.Body Dysmorphic Disorders: Preoccupations with appearance or self-image causing significant distress or impairment in important areas of functioning.Age of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: An umbrella term used to describe a pattern of disabilities and abnormalities that result from fetal exposure to ETHANOL during pregnancy. It encompasses a phenotypic range that can vary greatly between individuals, but reliably includes one or more of the following: characteristic facial dysmorphism, FETAL GROWTH RETARDATION, central nervous system abnormalities, cognitive and/or behavioral dysfunction, BIRTH DEFECTS. The level of maternal alcohol consumption does not necessarily correlate directly with disease severity.Cognitive Therapy: A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.Child Behavior Disorders: Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation: A genetically heterogeneous group of heritable disorders resulting from defects in protein N-glycosylation.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Psychophysiologic Disorders: A group of disorders characterized by physical symptoms that are affected by emotional factors and involve a single organ system, usually under AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM control. (American Psychiatric Glossary, 1988)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Antidepressive Agents: Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Agoraphobia: Obsessive, persistent, intense fear of open places.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Factitious Disorders: Disorders characterized by physical or psychological symptoms that are not real, genuine, or natural.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Language Development Disorders: Conditions characterized by language abilities (comprehension and expression of speech and writing) that are below the expected level for a given age, generally in the absence of an intellectual impairment. These conditions may be associated with DEAFNESS; BRAIN DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; or environmental factors.Memory Disorders: Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.Hemorrhagic Disorders: Spontaneous or near spontaneous bleeding caused by a defect in clotting mechanisms (BLOOD COAGULATION DISORDERS) or another abnormality causing a structural flaw in the blood vessels (HEMOSTATIC DISORDERS).Blood Platelet Disorders: Disorders caused by abnormalities in platelet count or function.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Psychotherapy: A generic term for the treatment of mental illness or emotional disturbances primarily by verbal or nonverbal communication.Musculoskeletal Diseases: Diseases of the muscles and their associated ligaments and other connective tissue and of the bones and cartilage viewed collectively.Cumulative Trauma Disorders: Harmful and painful condition caused by overuse or overexertion of some part of the musculoskeletal system, often resulting from work-related physical activities. It is characterized by inflammation, pain, or dysfunction of the involved joints, bones, ligaments, and nerves.Personality Inventory: Check list, usually to be filled out by a person about himself, consisting of many statements about personal characteristics which the subject checks.Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders: Disorders characterized by impairment of the ability to initiate or maintain sleep. This may occur as a primary disorder or in association with another medical or psychiatric condition.Voice Disorders: Pathological processes that affect voice production, usually involving VOCAL CORDS and the LARYNGEAL MUCOSA. Voice disorders can be caused by organic (anatomical), or functional (emotional or psychological) factors leading to DYSPHONIA; APHONIA; and defects in VOICE QUALITY, loudness, and pitch.Asperger Syndrome: A disorder beginning in childhood whose essential features are persistent impairment in reciprocal social communication and social interaction, and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. These symptoms may limit or impair everyday functioning. (From DSM-5)Psychotropic Drugs: A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).Motor Skills Disorders: Marked impairments in the development of motor coordination such that the impairment interferes with activities of daily living. (From DSM-V)Communication Disorders: Disorders of verbal and nonverbal communication caused by receptive or expressive LANGUAGE DISORDERS, cognitive dysfunction (e.g., MENTAL RETARDATION), psychiatric conditions, and HEARING DISORDERS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cyclothymic Disorder: An affective disorder characterized by periods of depression and hypomania. These may be separated by periods of normal mood.Compulsive Personality Disorder: Disorder characterized by an emotionally constricted manner that is unduly conventional, serious, formal, and stingy, by preoccupation with trivial details, rules, order, organization, schedules, and lists, by stubborn insistence on having things one's own way without regard for the effects on others, by poor interpersonal relationships, and by indecisiveness due to fear of making mistakes.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Antipsychotic Agents: Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.Alcohol-Induced Disorders: Disorders stemming from the misuse and abuse of alcohol.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Neurodegenerative Diseases: Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.Psychomotor Disorders: Abnormalities of motor function that are associated with organic and non-organic cognitive disorders.Migraine Disorders: A class of disabling primary headache disorders, characterized by recurrent unilateral pulsatile headaches. The two major subtypes are common migraine (without aura) and classic migraine (with aura or neurological symptoms). (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)United StatesLongitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Metabolism, Inborn Errors: Errors in metabolic processes resulting from inborn genetic mutations that are inherited or acquired in utero.Delirium, Dementia, Amnestic, Cognitive Disorders: Cognitive disorders including delirium, dementia, and other cognitive disorders. These may be the result of substance use, trauma, or other causes.Anorexia Nervosa: An eating disorder that is characterized by the lack or loss of APPETITE, known as ANOREXIA. Other features include excess fear of becoming OVERWEIGHT; BODY IMAGE disturbance; significant WEIGHT LOSS; refusal to maintain minimal normal weight; and AMENORRHEA. This disorder occurs most frequently in adolescent females. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Stress Disorders, Traumatic, Acute: A class of traumatic stress disorders that is characterized by the significant dissociative states seen immediately after overwhelming trauma. By definition it cannot last longer than 1 month, if it persists, a diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder (STRESS DISORDERS, POST-TRAUMATIC) is more appropriate.Metabolic Diseases: Generic term for diseases caused by an abnormal metabolic process. It can be congenital due to inherited enzyme abnormality (METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS) or acquired due to disease of an endocrine organ or failure of a metabolically important organ such as the liver. (Stedman, 26th ed)Schizophrenic Psychology: Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.Sleep Disorders, Circadian Rhythm: Dyssomnias associated with disruption of the normal 24 hour sleep wake cycle secondary to travel (e.g., JET LAG SYNDROME), shift work, or other causes.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.REM Sleep Behavior Disorder: A disorder characterized by episodes of vigorous and often violent motor activity during REM sleep (SLEEP, REM). The affected individual may inflict self injury or harm others, and is difficult to awaken from this condition. Episodes are usually followed by a vivid recollection of a dream that is consistent with the aggressive behavior. This condition primarily affects adult males. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p393)Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Social Behavior Disorders: Behaviors which are at variance with the expected social norm and which affect other individuals.Lithium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain lithium as an integral part of the molecule.Suicide, Attempted: The unsuccessful attempt to kill oneself.Auditory Perceptual Disorders: Acquired or developmental cognitive disorders of AUDITORY PERCEPTION characterized by a reduced ability to perceive information contained in auditory stimuli despite intact auditory pathways. Affected individuals have difficulty with speech perception, sound localization, and comprehending the meaning of inflections of speech.Child of Impaired Parents: Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.Life Change Events: Those occurrences, including social, psychological, and environmental, which require an adjustment or effect a change in an individual's pattern of living.Taste Disorders: Conditions characterized by an alteration in gustatory function or perception. Taste disorders are frequently associated with OLFACTION DISORDERS. Additional potential etiologies include METABOLIC DISEASES; DRUG TOXICITY; and taste pathway disorders (e.g., TASTE BUD diseases; FACIAL NERVE DISEASES; GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE DISEASES; and BRAIN STEM diseases).Psychopathology: The study of significant causes and processes in the development of mental illness.Blood Coagulation Disorders: Hemorrhagic and thrombotic disorders that occur as a consequence of abnormalities in blood coagulation due to a variety of factors such as COAGULATION PROTEIN DISORDERS; BLOOD PLATELET DISORDERS; BLOOD PROTEIN DISORDERS or nutritional conditions.Methylphenidate: A central nervous system stimulant used most commonly in the treatment of ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER in children and for NARCOLEPSY. Its mechanisms appear to be similar to those of DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The d-isomer of this drug is referred to as DEXMETHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Parkinsonian Disorders: A group of disorders which feature impaired motor control characterized by bradykinesia, MUSCLE RIGIDITY; TREMOR; and postural instability. Parkinsonian diseases are generally divided into primary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE), secondary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE, SECONDARY) and inherited forms. These conditions are associated with dysfunction of dopaminergic or closely related motor integration neuronal pathways in the BASAL GANGLIA.Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Impulsive Behavior: An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.Bulimia: Eating an excess amount of food in a short period of time, as seen in the disorder of BULIMIA NERVOSA. It is caused by an abnormal craving for food, or insatiable hunger also known as "ox hunger".Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Pigmentation DisordersGenetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors: Compounds that specifically inhibit the reuptake of serotonin in the brain.Tobacco Use Disorder: Tobacco used to the detriment of a person's health or social functioning. Tobacco dependence is included.Genetic Diseases, Inborn: Diseases that are caused by genetic mutations present during embryo or fetal development, although they may be observed later in life. The mutations may be inherited from a parent's genome or they may be acquired in utero.Central Nervous System Stimulants: A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.Blood Coagulation Disorders, Inherited: Hemorrhagic and thrombotic disorders that occur as a consequence of inherited abnormalities in blood coagulation.Sensation Disorders: Disorders of the special senses (i.e., VISION; HEARING; TASTE; and SMELL) or somatosensory system (i.e., afferent components of the PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM).Developmental Disabilities: Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)Pelvic Floor Disorders: Injury, weakening, or PROLAPSE of the pelvic muscles, surrounding connective tissues or ligaments (PELVIC FLOOR).Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Tourette Syndrome: A neuropsychological disorder related to alterations in DOPAMINE metabolism and neurotransmission involving frontal-subcortical neuronal circuits. Both multiple motor and one or more vocal tics need to be present with TICS occurring many times a day, nearly daily, over a period of more than one year. The onset is before age 18 and the disturbance is not due to direct physiological effects of a substance or a another medical condition. The disturbance causes marked distress or significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. (From DSM-IV, 1994; Neurol Clin 1997 May;15(2):357-79)Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Lipid Metabolism Disorders: Pathological conditions resulting from abnormal anabolism or catabolism of lipids in the body.Gastrointestinal Diseases: Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Endocrine System Diseases: Pathological processes of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, and diseases resulting from abnormal level of available HORMONES.Diseases in Twins: Disorders affecting TWINS, one or both, at any age.Mitochondrial Diseases: Diseases caused by abnormal function of the MITOCHONDRIA. They may be caused by mutations, acquired or inherited, in mitochondrial DNA or in nuclear genes that code for mitochondrial components. They may also be the result of acquired mitochondria dysfunction due to adverse effects of drugs, infections, or other environmental causes.Intellectual Disability: Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)Parkinson Disease: A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Chronobiology Disorders: Disruptions of the rhythmic cycle of bodily functions or activities.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Perceptual Disorders: Cognitive disorders characterized by an impaired ability to perceive the nature of objects or concepts through use of the sense organs. These include spatial neglect syndromes, where an individual does not attend to visual, auditory, or sensory stimuli presented from one side of the body.Dystonic Disorders: Acquired and inherited conditions that feature DYSTONIA as a primary manifestation of disease. These disorders are generally divided into generalized dystonias (e.g., dystonia musculorum deformans) and focal dystonias (e.g., writer's cramp). They are also classified by patterns of inheritance and by age of onset.Articulation Disorders: Disorders of the quality of speech characterized by the substitution, omission, distortion, and addition of phonemes.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Delusions: A false belief regarding the self or persons or objects outside the self that persists despite the facts, and is not considered tenable by one's associates.Neuromuscular Diseases: A general term encompassing lower MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and certain MUSCULAR DISEASES. Manifestations include MUSCLE WEAKNESS; FASCICULATION; muscle ATROPHY; SPASM; MYOKYMIA; MUSCLE HYPERTONIA, myalgias, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.Skin DiseasesNeurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Suicide: The act of killing oneself.Abnormalities, MultipleMutation, Missense: A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)Disorders of Excessive Somnolence: Disorders characterized by hypersomnolence during normal waking hours that may impair cognitive functioning. Subtypes include primary hypersomnia disorders (e.g., IDIOPATHIC HYPERSOMNOLENCE; NARCOLEPSY; and KLEINE-LEVIN SYNDROME) and secondary hypersomnia disorders where excessive somnolence can be attributed to a known cause (e.g., drug affect, MENTAL DISORDERS, and SLEEP APNEA SYNDROME). (From J Neurol Sci 1998 Jan 8;153(2):192-202; Thorpy, Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine, 2nd ed, p320)Lysosomal Storage Diseases: Inborn errors of metabolism characterized by defects in specific lysosomal hydrolases and resulting in intracellular accumulation of unmetabolized substrates.Veterans: Former members of the armed services.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Genes, Recessive: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Body Image: Individuals' concept of their own bodies.Affective Symptoms: Mood or emotional responses dissonant with or inappropriate to the behavior and/or stimulus.46, XY Disorders of Sex Development: Congenital conditions in individuals with a male karyotype, in which the development of the gonadal or anatomical sex is atypical.Personality: Behavior-response patterns that characterize the individual.Nerve Tissue ProteinsCognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Growth Disorders: Deviations from the average values for a specific age and sex in any or all of the following: height, weight, skeletal proportions, osseous development, or maturation of features. Included here are both acceleration and retardation of growth.Lithium Carbonate: A lithium salt, classified as a mood-stabilizing agent. Lithium ion alters the metabolism of BIOGENIC MONOAMINES in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, and affects multiple neurotransmission systems.Consciousness Disorders: Organic mental disorders in which there is impairment of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment and to respond to environmental stimuli. Dysfunction of the cerebral hemispheres or brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION may result in this condition.Irritable Mood: Abnormal or excessive excitability with easily triggered anger, annoyance, or impatience.Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Fear: The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Ocular Motility Disorders: Disorders that feature impairment of eye movements as a primary manifestation of disease. These conditions may be divided into infranuclear, nuclear, and supranuclear disorders. Diseases of the eye muscles or oculomotor cranial nerves (III, IV, and VI) are considered infranuclear. Nuclear disorders are caused by disease of the oculomotor, trochlear, or abducens nuclei in the BRAIN STEM. Supranuclear disorders are produced by dysfunction of higher order sensory and motor systems that control eye movements, including neural networks in the CEREBRAL CORTEX; BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; and BRAIN STEM. Ocular torticollis refers to a head tilt that is caused by an ocular misalignment. Opsoclonus refers to rapid, conjugate oscillations of the eyes in multiple directions, which may occur as a parainfectious or paraneoplastic condition (e.g., OPSOCLONUS-MYOCLONUS SYNDROME). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p240)Anti-Anxiety Agents: Agents that alleviate ANXIETY, tension, and ANXIETY DISORDERS, promote sedation, and have a calming effect without affecting clarity of consciousness or neurologic conditions. ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS are commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of anxiety but are not included here.Central Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of any component of the brain (including the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum) or the spinal cord.Heredodegenerative Disorders, Nervous System: Inherited disorders characterized by progressive atrophy and dysfunction of anatomically or physiologically related neurologic systems.

Identification of workers exposed concomitantly to heat stress and chemicals. (1/2)

In the context of climate change, concomitant exposure to heat stress and chemicals takes on great importance. However, little information is available in this regard. The purpose of this research, therefore, was to develop an approach aimed at identifying worker groups that would be potentially most at risk. The approach comprises 5 consecutive steps: - Establishment of a list of occupations for all industry sectors - Determination of heat stress parameters - Identification of occupations at risk of heat stress - Determination of exposure to chemicals - Identification of occupations potentially most at risk. Overall, 1,010 occupations were selected due to their representativeness of employment sectors in Quebec. Using a rating matrix, the risk stemming from exposure to heat stress was judged "critical" or "significant" for 257 occupations. Among these, 136 occupations were identified as showing a high potential of simultaneous exposure to heat stress and chemicals. Lastly, a consultation with thirteen experts made it possible to establish a list of 22 priority occupations, that is, 20 occupations in the metal manufacturing sector, as well as roofers and firefighters. These occupations would merit special attention for an investigation and evaluation of the potential effects on workers' health.  (+info)

Student preferences regarding teaching methods in a drug-induced diseases and clinical toxicology course. (2/2)

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Watch the video lecture Amphetamines - Drugs of Abuse & boost your knowledge! Study for your classes, USMLE, MCAT or MBBS. Learn online with high-yield video lectures by world-class professors & earn perfect scores. Save time & study efficiently. ➨ Try now for free! Online Learning with Lecturio - anytime, anywhere
We hear much these days about our young adults being indoctrinated into cults, not realizing that we all can become indoctrinated into a cult or special interest group or school of thought of some sort if we fail to recognize the difference between indoctrination and education and the techniques applied by both.. Our nation today faces a serious threat of being incapacitated, even annihilated by drugs. Most of us have been indoctrinated into drugs and drug medicine since youth. Our nations drug problem is an extension of our drug mentality. We accept drugs, we think theyre good, we believe in them, and most of us do not think there is an alternative. Were locked into a system that is now responsible for more sickness and disease than it is helping. This irony is iatrogenic, or drug-induced disease.. Because the news media is controlled by the medical establishment, for your own health, safety and future it is vital that you become aware of the fact that when we read a report or watch medical ...
One crucial warning is in order. Looking at the number of users of the various psychoactive drugs and their frequency of use is one crucial piece of the drug puzzle. Its possible, however, that there is a much more important piece of the puzzle: societys addicts. It can be argued that the occasional or less-than-weekly drug user rarely poses a comparably serious threat of harm to the society. It is entirely possible that the public health issue, as well as the issue of any and all potential dangers that drug use poses to the society, is more or less entirely confined to the heavy or chronic user. The less-than-weekly user of even heroin and cocaine is much less likely to rob to support a drug habit; die of an overdose; contract a serious, life-threatening, drug-induced disease; or kill someone in connection with drug use. It could be that the harms we associate with drug use and abuse are mostly confined to that segment of users we refer to as the behaviorally dependent in a word, to ...
Carotenoids have been implicated in numerous epidemiological studies as being protective against cancer at many sites, and their chemopreventive properties have been confirmed in laboratory studies. Astaxanthin (AST), primarily a carotenoid of marine origin, responsible for the pink coloration of sa …
Aims (i)protection against development of spontaneous and chemically-induced tumors in animal systems (ii)identification of targets for immune recognition of human cancer
... Chapter Editor: Heikki Savolainen Table of Contents Tables and Figures The EarMarcel-André Boillat Chemically-Induced Hearing Dis...
Free Course on Cell Damage and Tissue Repair, Reversible Cell Damage, Lethal Injury (Cell Death), Homeostasis, Toxicity & Neurotoxicity. Toxicology , Toxicology education, Toxicology Programs, study Toxicology , Toxicology exams, Toxicology major, major in Toxicology , Toxicology certification exams, career info on Toxicology , admissions in Toxicology schools, Toxicology Degrees
Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN) is a life-threatening, immunologically mediated, and usually drug-induced disease with a high burden to individuals, their families, and society with an annual incidence of 1 to 5 per 1,000,000. To effect significant reduction in short- and long-term morbidity and mortality, and advance clinical care and research, coordination of multiple medical, surgical, behavioral, and basic scientific disciplines is required. On March 2, 2017, an investigator-driven meeting was held immediately before the American Academy of Dermatology Annual meeting for the central purpose of assembling, for the first time in the United States, clinicians and scientists from multiple disciplines involved in SJS/TEN clinical care and basic science research ...
Dr. Charles Miller uses biochemical, cellular, and animal model systems to investigate the mechanistic actions of synthetic and naturally occurring chemicals. He is investigating the major toxic compounds in crude oil as they age in the environment. He also is investigating mechanisms of chemical entry into cells. He teaches basic and advanced toxicology courses. His undergraduate training was in the life sciences at the University of Alabama in Birmingham (UAB). He was a research associate UAB and studied immunology of natural killer cells.
Report on Erowids participation in the 2006 North American Congress of Clinical Toxicology including description of medical toxicology
A doctor turned victim from side-effects of prescription meds after an accident. Subsequently developed leaky gut, multiple allergic responses to food and airborne substances, and home bound. Now recovered 10 years, she consults, teaches, lectures and helps others overcome chemically-induced immune system disorders.
A doctor turned victim from side-effects of prescription meds after an accident. Subsequently developed leaky gut, multiple allergic responses to food and airborne substances, and home bound. Now recovered 10 years, she consults, teaches, lectures and helps others overcome chemically-induced immune system disorders.
ASMCUE is shaped by attendeess. No matter your professional level, you can showcase teaching methods, share knowledge with colleagues, and contribute...
In this handy, pocket-size compilation of information about drug usage, the text is essentially in tabular form. Besides the usual tables on conversion factors, normal laboratory values, dialyzable drugs, and the potassium and sodium content of drugs and foods, this handbook provides lists of drug-induced diseases, pharmacogenetic abnormalities, and drug-drug interactions. The authors even attempt to categorize the clinical significance of the individual interactions.. A five-page course in the application of pharmaco-kinetics and biopharmaceutics to patient care is followed by information on dosage and contraindications of 190 widely used drugs. Although supplemented in a few instances with the plasma half-life, ...
This topic contains 451 study abstracts on Statin Drugs indicating they may contribute to Statin-Induced Pathologies, Myopathies, and Chemically-Induced Liver Damage
This gene encodes a member of the matrix metalloproteinase family of endopeptidases that are involved in remodeling extracellular matrix during, for example, embryonic development and tumor progression. The encoded protein undergoes post-translational proteolytic processing by furin endopeptidase to form an active enzyme. Subcutaneous introduction of cells expressing the encoded protein into nude mice results in increased tumor incidence. Mice lacking the encoded protein exhibit a decreased incidence of chemically-induced tumors. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2015 ...
Here we report further our investigation of the role of BRE in HCC. HCC was chemically-induced in the transgenic (TTR-V5-BRE) and non-transgenic littermates, bred with C57BL/6, by intraperitoneal injection of diethylnitosamine (DEN) at 15 days postnatally. At 8 months after injection, the mice were sacrificed, and livers collected for determination of tumor number and maximal size, and for immunohistochemistry. Parts of each liver sample were also dissected visually into tumor and adjacent normal portions for Western Blot analysis of BRE expression. By comparison between the DEN-treated male transgenic mice (n=12) and non-transgenic littermate controls (n=8), we observed significantly increased tumor size shown by the former (p=0.049, Exact Wilcoxon Rank Sum test), with the median tumor size 2-fold larger than the latter. There was, however, no statistically significant difference between tumor numbers of the two groups. Female C57BL/6 mice are known to be less sensitive to DEN-treated ...
Who DOES Meghan need to curtsey to? A proof in the etiquette minefield Meaning shell often have to bend the knee to Camilla and Sophie but under no circumstances to Zara NFL Corridor of Fame quarterback Warren Moon grabbed assistant at his firm through the crotch and taken off her bathing fit after slipping drug into her drink The way to rest similar to a little one in mentor class: Airplane designer reveals his hacks for finding shut-eye with a flight Disgraced Matt Lauer has no intention of wanting to come up with a Billy Bush comeback and just really wants to Perform golf and stay in the Hamptons I was suffering from chemically-induced psychosis and dementia: Fergie reveals the effects of her devastating addiction to crystal meth... as she displays on her break up from husband Josh Duhamel Disappearing act: Billionaire developer Harry Macklowe promises his real-estate holdings have SHRUNK in worth from $548.9m to just $23m as he prepares to finalize his bitter divorce from his spouse ...
Sabha, Nadeen Bassam Izzat (2015) Near and mid-infrared observations of the galactic center: on the nature of diffuse emission and faint compact sources. PhD thesis, Universität zu Köln.. Saedler, Katarzyna (2015) Role of peripheral tissue FTO in energy homeostasis and in chemically-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. [Thesis Abstract]. Saggiorato, Guglielmo (2015) How Sperm Beat and Swim: From Filament Deformation to Activity. PhD thesis, Universität zu Köln.. Sagirli, Gülay (2015) Die Einführung des Neuen Steuerungsmodells im deutschen Hochschulsystem. Erklärungsansätze für den Wandel im Management und der Verwaltung von Hochschulen. PhD thesis, Universität zu Köln.. Sahler, Sebastian (2015) Über die Wasserstoffspeichereigenschaften von Ethylendiaminbisboran und Hydrazinbisboran in Gegenwart von Ionischen Flüssigkeiten. [Thesis Abstract]. Sahler, Sebastian and Scott, Martin and Gedig, Christian and Prechtl, Martin H. G. (2015) Transfer Hydrogenation Employing Ethylene Diamine Bisborane ...
Turmeric is the most studied herb with coumarins. A study evaluated the chemopreventative effects of curcumin, the most active coumarin, on radiation- induced tumors in rat mammary glands. One control group was fed a basic diet while the other control group was fed a diet containing 1% curcumin. The control group fed curcumin had 28% reduction in tumors while 84% of the other group developed mammary tumors. Other studies also show that curcumin inhibits chemically-induced carcinogenesis of the skin, colon, and stomach. ...
OPEN SCIENTIFIC SEMINAR SERIES - Avdelningen för Klinisk Farmakologi, Institutionen för laboratoriemedicin Clinical toxicology service and research at the University of Saarland University Professor Dr Markus R Meyer,Abteilung fur Experimentelle und Klinische Pharmakologie and Toxikologie, Homburg, Deutschland
BACKGROUND: The abuse of new psychoactive substances or NPS has been dramatically increasing all around the world since the late 2000s and has become a serious public health problem. NPS are a challenge for the worldwide forensic community due to the difficulties to accurately document the cases. The N-benzylmethoxy (NBOMe) group is a new class of hallucinogenic designer drugs and has gained importance in the recent years. 25I-NBOMe (2-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine) is an analog of the 2C series of psychedelic phenethylamine drugs that contain an N-methoxybenzyl substituent, which significantly affects their pharmacological activities ...
ACMT members are encouraged to submit a proposal for the ACMT Pre-Meeting at the 2018 North American Congress of Clinical Toxicology (NACCT) in Chicago, IL. This symposium will be held on Thursday, October 25, 2018. The Premeeting offers a full day of content centered on a theme and requires separate enrollment from the main congress. As such, subject matter appealing to a wide audience is essential to the success of the symposium ...
Andor Labs is an independent clinical toxicology reference laboratory performing drug confirmation testing using LC-MS/MS technology. We specialize in the pain management field….
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genetically engineered mouse models for liver cancer. AU - Cho, Kyungjoo. AU - Ro, Simon Weonsang. AU - Seo, Sang Hyun. AU - Jeon, Youjin. AU - Moon, Hyuk. AU - Kim, Do Young. AU - Kim, Seung Up. PY - 2020/1. Y1 - 2020/1. N2 - Liver cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death globally, accounting for approximately 800,000 deaths annually. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer, comprising approximately 80% of cases. Murine models of HCC, such as chemically-induced models, xenograft models, and genetically engineered mouse (GEM) models, are valuable tools to reproduce human HCC biopathology and biochemistry. These models can be used to identify potential biomarkers, evaluate potential novel therapeutic drugs in pre-clinical trials, and develop molecular target therapies. Considering molecular target therapies, a novel approach has been developed to create genetically engineered murine models for HCC, employing hydrodynamics-based ...
Conscious sampling allows the teacher to assess the comparative effectiveness of his teaching methods by measuring the conscious attention of his students to what is going on in the classroom. (CK)
Stephanie H. Hernandez, Maryann Howland, Thomas D. Schiano & Robert S. Hoffman (2015): The pharmacokinetics and extracorporeal removal of N-acetylcysteine during renal replacement therapies, Clinical Toxicology, DOI: 10.3109/15563650.2015. ...
Several of the pressing scientific challenges in the filed of environmental toxicology are to understand the basic mechanisms of chemically-induced toxic substances and of the design, interpretation, and extrapolation of data from non-human bioassay systems to the human situation. The objective is to offer a new paradigm, namely the idea that cytotoxic and epigenetic effects of chemicals can contribute to many toxic endpoints in human beings. We will speculate that the disruption of calcium homeostasis by a wide variety of chemicals and the conditions of their use might provide an unification of mechanisms leading to either cytotoxicity or epigenetic changes. Depending on the conditions, the effects of this disruption, a pleiotropy of diseases might result, namely, embryotoxicity, teratogenesis, tumor promotion, immune modulation, neurotoxicity, and preproductive dysfunction. In summary, there are at least three biological endpoints at the cell level which chemicals can influence - mutations, cell death
BACKGROUND: The two projects were part of a Specialized Center of Research (SCOR) in Occupational and Immunologic Lung Disease. Since its inception in 1972, researchers in the SCOR have conducted epidemiologic studies on asbestosis, silicosis in sandblasters, and respiratory reactions in workers exposed to detergent enzymes and polyvinyl chloride film fumes. Irritant gases and vapors are utilized in herbicides, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, household cleaners, explosives, fertilizers, refrigeration, plastics, paints, fumigants and a variety of other products. These chemicals are produced and used immediately or shipped to end-users. The potential for chemical accidents is great. A report for the Environmental Protection Agency estimated that 6,928 chemical accidents have occurred in the United States since 1980, an average of five accidents each day. As a result, 1,500 people were injured and 135 killed. More information was needed on the consequences of chemically-induced sublethal acute lung ...
Drug-induced photosensitivity may present in a variety of ways. Most reactions are either phototoxic or photoallergic. Photoallergy is a rare, immunological response, which is not dose-related and occurs after continuous exposure. Photoallergy occurs when light causes a drug to act as a hapten, triggering a hypersensitivity response which often manifests as pruritic and eczematous rash.Phototoxic reactions are chemically-induced reactions which occur when the drug absorbs UVA light and causes cellular damage. This reaction can be seen with initial exposure to a drug, may be dose-related, and doesnt demonstrate cross-sensitivity. It usually has rapid onset and manifests as an exaggerated sunburn. This reaction will be seen only on skin areas exposed to the sun ...
Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common complication of hepatitis C virus related cirrhosis (HCV-C). Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) has been proposed as a biomarker of HCC risk. S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) is a food supplement that has an excellent safety profile. The use of SAMe as a chemopreventive is based on abnormalities in methionine cycle (with decreased SAMe levels) in patients with cirrhosis, increased risk of HCC in experimental animals deprived of SAMe, and the prevention of liver cancer by SAMe administration in animal models of chemically-induced HCC.. Methods: This was a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind phase IIb trial to determine if SAMe (up to 2.4 grams/day) for 24 weeks reduced serum AFP levels in patients with HCV-C. Inclusion criteria: lab evidence of HCV-C (platelet count ,150,000/mm3), AFP 15-100 ng/mL (normal less than 9 ng/mL). Exclusion criteria: non-HCV liver diseases, decompensated HCV-C (MELD,15), or history of, or mass suspicious for ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Editorial on "exposure assessment of a mercury spill in a Nevada school - 2004". AU - Burgess, Jefferey L. PY - 2007/5. Y1 - 2007/5. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=34248211151&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=34248211151&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1080/15563650601033417. DO - 10.1080/15563650601033417. M3 - Article. C2 - 17486489. AN - SCOPUS:34248211151. VL - 45. SP - 431. JO - Clinical Toxicology. JF - Clinical Toxicology. SN - 1556-3650. IS - 4. ER - ...
1.. Jacob J, Heard K.Second case of the use of intravenous fat emulsion therapy for propafenone toxicity. Clinical Toxicology 49: 946-947, No. 10, Dec 2011. Available from: URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/15563650.2011.629202 - USA ...
Large-scale initiatives, such as ToxCast, promote a shift in the paradigm for regulatory evaluations of new and existing substances; specifically, away from time-consuming in vivo assays towards predictive, short-term in vitro assays. Unfortunately, the assays included in such initiatives are ill-equipped to assess chemically-induced genetic damage and mutation. Moreover, many currently used mammalian cell genotoxicity assays generate an unacceptably high frequency of false or irrelevant positive results with respect to in vivo mutagenicity and/or carcinogenicity. A novel in vitro gene mutation assay utilizing primary hepatocytes from the transgenic Muta™Mouse was been developed to address the shortfalls of existing in vitro mutagenicity assays. In order to assess the utility of the Muta™Mouse primary hepatocyte assay, the cells were extensively characterized. Freshly isolated cells were found to have a hepatocyte-like morphology, with a large proportion of binucleated cells. After 24 hours ...
Video articles in JoVE about ovarian follicle include A Method for Ovarian Follicle Encapsulation and Culture in a Proteolytically Degradable 3 Dimensional System, Methods for Imaging Intracellular pH of the Follicle Stem Cell Lineage in Live Drosophila Ovarian Tissue, Culture and Co-Culture of Mouse Ovaries and Ovarian Follicles, In Vitro Growth of Mouse Preantral Follicles Under Simulated Microgravity, Studying Mitochondrial Structure and Function in Drosophila Ovaries, Analysis of Chromosome Segregation, Histone Acetylation, and Spindle Morphology in Horse Oocytes, Three-dimensional Reconstruction of the Vascular Architecture of the Passive CLARITY-cleared Mouse Ovary, A Method to Study the Impact of Chemically-induced Ovarian Failure on Exercise Capacity and Cardiac Adaptation in Mice, Assessment of Ovarian Cancer Spheroid Attachment and Invasion of Mesothelial Cells in Real Time, Alginate Hydrogels for Three-Dimensional Organ Culture of Ovaries and Oviducts, Orthotopic Ovarian
Hysteretic behavior of bladder afferent neurons in response to changes viagra without a doctor prescription in bladder pressure. Polyclonal increase in certain IgG subclasses in mice persistently infected with the 87V strain of scrapie.. Rapatar, a nanoformulation of rapamycin, decreases chemically-induced benign prostate hyperplasia in rats. Morphological characteristics of the mandibular first premolars in viagra without doctor prescription people from Pearl River Delta region in Guangdong province Moreover, the levels of markers of the protein-modification process were similar to those of the control group.. Their spontaneous rhythmic activity was perturbed by delivering excitatory single pulses or periodic pulses via their synaptic inputs. Deglutition disorders-simple to diagnose viagra vs cialis and difficult to treat? Of the top 33 strains most sensitive to radiation in this assay, 14 contained genes known to be involved in DNA repair.. The ratios did not correlate in a statistically ...
This pages outlines the methods of teaching, the types of assessment and examinations, lecture delivery and how this differs for research students.
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An inverse association between dietary intake of cruciferous vegetables and cancer risk has been established for different types of malignancies, including breast cancer. The anticarcinogenic effect of cruciferous vegetables has been attributed to chemicals with an isothiocyanate (ITC) functional moiety. Research over the past three decades has provided extensive preclinical evidence for the efficacy of various ITCs against cancer in preclinical models. Benzyl Isothiocyanate (BITC) is one such compound with the ability to inhibit chemically-induced cancer, oncogenic-driven tumor formation, and human tumor xenografts in rodent cancer models. Prior work also has established that BITC has the ability to influence carcinogen metabolism and signaling pathways relevant to tumor progression and invasion. In this issue, Kim et al. show that BITC inhibits breast cancer stem cell growth, both in vitro and in vivo, in association with suppression of the full-length receptor tyrosine kinase RON as well as ...
Hepatoprotective action: The natural ingredients in Liv.52 DS exhibit potent hepatoprotective properties against chemically-induced hepatotoxicity. It restores the functional efficiency of the liver by protecting the hepatic parenchyma and promoting hepatocellular regeneration. The antiperoxidative activity of Liv.52 DS prevents the loss of functional integrity of the cell membrane, maintains cytochrome P-450 (a large and diverse group of enzymes, which catalyze the oxidation of organic substances), hastens the recovery period and ensures early restoration of hepatic functions in infective hepatitis. It facilitates the rapid elimination of acetaldehyde (produced by the oxidation of ethanol that is popularly believed to cause hangovers) and ensures protection from alcohol-induced hepatic damage. Liv.52 DS also diminishes the lipotropic (compounds that help catalyze the breakdown of fat) effect in chronic alcoholism and prevents fatty infiltration of the liver. In pre-cirrhotic conditions, Liv.52 ...
QuickJump to Pedagogic Modules: Assessment Calibrated Peer Review™ (CPR) Campus Living Laboratory Classroom Experiments Classroom Response Systems Coached Problem Solving ConcepTests Context-Rich Problems ...
This Video Explains What we do in our Collectiva Knowledge Academy.We give IT courses in our Mother Language of Tamil.Because We can understand all subjects ...
This Video Explains What we do in our Collectiva Knowledge Academy.We give IT courses in our Mother Language of Tamil.Because We can understand all subjects ...
Mutations in the mitochondrial enzyme have been associated with a number of genetic disorders including Leigh syndrome, West ... induces oxidative stress, which triggers a build up of mitochondrial tRNA mutations. It has also been discovered that tRNA ... Another use is introducing amino acids bearing reactive functional groups for chemically modifying the target protein. ... Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) is the most frequent heritable disorder of the peripheral nervous system (a neuronal disease) and is ...
The programs support research in rheumatoid arthritis; adjuvant and chemically induced inflammatory arthritis; systemic lupus ... Research is underway to better understand keratinizing disorders such as psoriasis and ichthyosis; disorders of pigmentation ... Other studies encompass acne and the physiologic activity of the sebaceous glands, as well as disorders of the hair, such as ... This includes work that advances the understanding of the natural history of these disorders, as well as mechanisms of disease ...
High calcium intake decreases fat-induced epithelial hypoproliferation of mammary gland and chemically induced carcinogenesis. ... High calcium intake is associated with a reduced risk of benign proliferative epithelial disorders which are thought to be ... DMBA induces mammary tumors and allows chemicals that predispose for mammary cancer to increase the number of mammary ... BPA was able to induce transformation of human breast MCF-10F epithelial cells. After treatment with BPA, the cells produced ...
... chemically induced models, and electrically induced models. Sarkisian, Matthew R. (31 May 2001). "Overview of the Current ... Animal Models for Human Seizure and Epileptic Disorders". Epilepsy & Behavior. 2 (3): 201-216. doi:10.1006/ebeh.2001.0193. ...
... some researchers hypothesized that these immune irregularities suggested that MCS was caused by a chemically induced ... Other proposed explanations include somatic symptom disorder,[22][non-primary source needed] panic disorder,[23][non-primary ... Many people with MCS also meet the criteria for major depressive disorder or anxiety disorder.[21][non-primary source needed] ... MCS was originally promoted as a type of allergy, and later as a type of non-allergic immunological disorder. However, these ...
... naturally or chemically induced) Retinal detachment Scarring of the cornea or sclera Uveitis Neurological causes for ... "Abnormal transient pupillary light reflex in individuals with autism spectrum disorders". J Autism Dev Disord. 39 (11): 1499- ... ISBN 978-0-12-709801-2. Wakakura M, Tsubouchi T, Inouye J (March 2004). "Etizolam and benzodiazepine induced blepharospasm". J ... photophobia include: Autism spectrum disorders Chiari malformation Occipital Neuralgia Dyslexia Encephalitis including Myalgic ...
ISBN 0-07-142280-3. Schardein, James L. (2000). "Hormones and Hormone Antagonists". Chemically Induced Birth Defects (3rd ed ... ISBN 0-7236-7045-5. Jaffe, Robert B. (2004). "Disorders of Sexual Development". In Strauss, Jerome F.; Barbieri, Robert L. Yen ... ISBN 0-7216-9546-9. Forest, Maguelone G. (2006). "Diagnosis and Treatment of Disorders of Sexual Development". In DeGroot, ...
... chemically induced neuron damage. A common category with the greatest number of injuries is traumatic brain injury (TBI) ... such as the carefully placed brain lesion used to treat epilepsy and other brain disorders. These lesions are induced by ... from a genetic disorder, or from a congenital disorder. Symptoms of brain injuries vary based on the severity of the injury or ... other neurological disorder), and poisoning from heavy metals including mercury and its compounds of lead. Vascular disorders ...
Musculoskeletal disorders; soft-tissue disorders; sore throat.. As per diclofenac. Bromfenac. Comes in free acid form; ... Chemically related to indometacin.. As per acetametacin.. Topical, ophthalmologic.. N/A. Skin conditions (such as contact ... Opioid-induced hyperalgesia is when exposure to opioids increases the sensation of pain (hyperalgesia) and can even make non- ... Musculoskeletal and joint disorders.. As per diclofenac. Proquazone. Comes in free form.. As per diclofenac.. PO, rectal.. Not ...
Musculoskeletal disorders; soft-tissue disorders; sore throat.. As per diclofenac. Bromfenac. Comes in free acid form; ... Chemically related to indometacin.. As per acetametacin.. Topical, ophthalmologic.. N/A. Skin conditions (such as contact ... Refractory chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting; anorexia; neuropathic pain.. Dizziness, euphoria, paranoia, somnolence, ... Musculoskeletal and joint disorders.. As per diclofenac. Proquazone. Comes in free form.. As per diclofenac.. PO, rectal.. Not ...
Although electrogustometry is widely used, there seems to be a poor correlation between electrically and chemically induced ... National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, "Taste Disorders," 25 June 2008, 23 Oct. 2009 The University ... Because taste disorders can have detrimental effects on a patient's quality of life, more research needs to be conducted ... In a study of forty-four patients diagnosed with the disorder, one half was treated with the drug for two months while the ...
Chemically, betulin is a triterpenoid of lupane structure. It has a pentacyclic ring structure, and hydroxyl groups in ... Blackfoot Indians used an infusion made from the bark of red alder to treat lymphatic disorders and tuberculosis. Green, Brian ... In vivo, betulin ameliorated diet-induced obesity, decreased the lipid contents in serum and tissues, and increased insulin ...
Some sleep disorders such as narcolepsy do require pharmacological treatment. Sleep disorder Sleep medicine Snoring Bradley DT ... Benzodiazepine causes the GABA receptor to better bind to GABA, allowing the medication to induce sleep. Generally, these ... Pharmacological treatments are used to chemically treat sleep disturbances such as insomnia or excessive daytime sleepiness. ... Sleep disorders are separated into four distinct categories: parasomnias; dyssomnias; sleep disorders associated with mental, ...
It also frequently induces increased hunger. Iversen (2000) categorized the subjective and behavioral effects often associated ... Hypnotics are often used to treat the symptoms of insomnia, or other sleep disorders. Benzodiazepines are still among the most ... Hallucinogens are classified chemically as either indoleamines (specifically tryptamines), sharing a common structure with ... They also study drugs used in the treatment of affective and anxiety disorders, as well as schizophrenia. Clinical studies are ...
Gold can be identified in the skin chemically by light microscopy, electron microscopy, and spectroscopy. There is no way to ... Chrysiasis (Gk, chrysos - 'gold', osis - 'condition of') is a dermatological condition induced by the parenteral administration ... 862, 1928 The University of Massachusetts Online Article on Skin Pigmentation Disorders [1]. ...
... is similar chemically to Risperidone. In 1987, Ziprasidone was first synthesized on the Pfizer central research ... The civil settlement also resolves allegations that Pfizer paid kickbacks to health care providers to induce them to prescribe ... Ziprasidone is also used off-label for depression, bipolar maintenance, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The by mouth ... February 2003). "Ziprasidone-associated mania: a case series and review of the mechanism". Bipolar Disorders. 5 (1): 72-5. doi: ...
This has made it a useful tool for chemically induced dimerization applications where it can be used to manipulate protein ... which is used in treating patients after organ transplant and patients suffering from autoimmune disorders. Tacrolimus has been ... Fegan, A; White, B; Carlson, JC; Wagner, CR (Jun 9, 2010). "Chemically controlled protein assembly: techniques and applications ...
... and chemically isolated by the blood-brain barrier, they are very susceptible if compromised. Nerves tend to lie deep under the ... has been reported to induce neurological problems, at least in the case of lead.[4] The neurological problem may start in ... A neurological disorder is any disorder of the nervous system. Structural, biochemical or electrical abnormalities in the brain ... Cranial nerve disorder such as Trigeminal neuralgia. *Autonomic nervous system disorders such as dysautonomia, Multiple System ...
Neural chemically induced progenitor cells (ciNPCs) can be generated from mouse tail-tip fibroblasts and human urinary somatic ... Mutations can cause diabetes, deafness, eye disorders, gastrointestinal disorders, heart disease, dementia and other ... The chemically induced cardiomyocyte-like cells (ciCMs) uniformly contracted and resembled human cardiomyocytes in their ... Furthermore, dedifferentiation of progenitor cells induced by ACA-dependent signaling pathway leads to ACA-induced pluripotent ...
She also has consulted in cases of chemically-related illnesses. For her contributions in the health professions, Miller was ... She organized and chaired two National Institutes of Health meetings on chemical intolerance, and documented toxicant-induced ... Miller's research interests include "neurodevelopment and the environment (autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder), ... Miller, C. S. (1997). "Toxicant-induced loss of tolerance--an emerging theory of disease?". Environmental Health Perspectives. ...
... use disorder') Meredith SE, Juliano LM, Hughes JR, Griffiths RR (September 2013). "Caffeine Use Disorder: A Comprehensive ... Caffeine-induced increases in performance have been observed in aerobic as well as anaerobic sports (for reviews, see [26,30,31 ... Caffeine is a bitter, white crystalline purine, a methylxanthine alkaloid, and is chemically related to the adenine and guanine ... but they noted that the clinical significance of this disorder is unclear. The DSM-5 instead lists "caffeine use disorder" in ...
... schizoaffective disorder, borderline personality disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder. In at least two cases, ... Lamotrigine can induce a type of seizure known as a myoclonic jerk, which tends to happen soon after the use of the medication ... Lamotrigine is a phenyltriazine, making it chemically different from other anticonvulsants. How it works is not exactly clear. ... Lamotrigine is approved in the US for maintenance treatment of bipolar I disorder and bipolar II disorder. While the ...
... drug-induced nasal congestion), reduced seizure threshold, and tics (a type of movement disorder). Dangerous physical side ... As a member of the phenethylamine class, amphetamine is also chemically related to the naturally occurring trace amine ... Substance-use disorder: A diagnostic term in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ( ... Amphetamine is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy (a sleep disorder), and obesity, and ...
The AAEM works towards the greater recognition, treatment and prevention of illnesses induced by exposures to various ... and Hospital Chemically Less-Contaminated Foods Sauna Depuration Hepatic Detoxication Enhancement Gulf War Syndrome Endocrine ... causing multiple chemical sensitivity and other disorders. Members of the academy may have a background in the field of allergy ... Mimicry Disorders The Role of Mold in the Development of Systemic Illness Yeast Syndrome Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFID)/ ...
What had been shown was that they were potent inhibitors of ADP-induced platelet aggregation, but the P2Y12 receptor had not ... It became more urgent to find a new analog after reports of patients having severe hematological disorders due to ticlopidine. ... that they affect platelets irreversibly because of their long duration of action and the active metabolite was chemically and ... Cangrelor has a 78% mean recovery of ADP induced platelet aggregation in rat after 20 minutes comparison to compound 1C which ...
Some blood and hepatic disorders have also been seen in a small number of patients. Pyrimethamine is used in the treatment of ... It is a sesquiterpene lactone with a chemically rare peroxide bridge linkage. It is this that is thought to be responsible for ... with the drug inducing vomiting and esophagitis. It was not recommended for use during the first trimester, although considered ... Mefloquine was developed during the Vietnam War and is chemically related to quinine. It was developed to protect American ...
Panic disorder. Moclobemide is useful in the treatment and management of panic disorder.[43] Panic disorder is mentioned as an ... Moclobemide is chemically unrelated to irreversible MAOI antidepressants and only has a very weak pressor effect of orally ... induced cognitive impairments thus making moclobemide a good choice in the depression in the elderly and those with dementia.[ ... Tiller JW, Bouwer C, Behnke K (October 1997). "Moclobemide for anxiety disorders: a focus on moclobemide for panic disorder". ...
Freudenreich, Oliver (2007). "Treatment of psychotic disorders". Psychotic disorders. Practical Guides in Psychiatry. ... Chemically, it is classified as a piperazinyl phenothiazine. Originally marketed in the US as Trilafon, it has been in clinical ... Schillevoort I, de Boer A, Herings RM, Roos RA, Jansen PA, Leufkens HG (July 2001). "Antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal ... Perphenazine is used to treat psychosis (e.g. in people with schizophrenia and the manic phases of bipolar disorder). ...
While its involvement in disorders such as diabetes, coronary heart disease and cancer have been well characterized, it remains ... Obesity is a major risk factor associated with a variety of human disorders. ... Obesity is a major risk factor associated with a variety of human disorders. While its involvement in disorders such as ... Humans; Cancer; Nervous-system; Nervous-system-disorders; Neurotoxicity; Models; Animal-studies; Animals; Laboratory-animals ...
Alcohol-Related Disorders. Substance-Related Disorders. Chemically-Induced Disorders. Mental Disorders. Adrenocortical ...
Trauma and Stressor Related Disorders. Mental Disorders. Chemically-Induced Disorders. To Top ... Stress Disorders, Traumatic. Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic. Substance-Related Disorders. Pathologic Processes. Behavioral ... Depressive Symptoms Substance-related Disorders Posttraumatic Stress Disorders Behavioral: Cognitive Processing Therapy- ... The Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist - Civilian version (PCL-C) is a 17 item self-report checklist of PTSD symptoms ...
Substance-Related Disorders. Chemically-Induced Disorders. Mental Disorders. To Top. *For Patients and Families ... Cannabis Use Disorder PREG1 Drug Use Fetal Exposure During Pregnancy Neurodevelopmental Abnormality Other: no intervention, ...
The purpose of the study is to establish drug-induced liver injury databases in China, make criteria for Chinese drug-induced ... Establishment of Drug-induced Liver Injury Databases and Application of Circulating microRNA(miRNA). The safety and scientific ... Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury. Wounds and Injuries. Liver Diseases. Digestive System Diseases. Drug-Related Side ... histological features of drug-induced liver injury obtained by liver biopsy [ Time Frame: within six months of the DILI onset ...
This topic contains 116 study abstracts on Immune Disorders: Low Immune Function indicating that the following substances may ... A selenium/arginine mixture prevents chemically-induced immunosuppresion and accelerated aging.Dec 01, 2007. ... Diseases : Immune Disorders: Low Immune Function, Statin-Induced Pathologies. Problem Substances : Lovastatin, Simvastatin, ... Diseases : Immune Disorders: Low Immune Function, Low Immune Function: Exercise-Induced. Pharmacological Actions : ...
Chemically Induced Birth Defects. 3rd Edition. By James Schardein. Containing over 10,000 citations from the literature, ... As the authors explain, Down syndrome is the only common congenital disorder; the other defects and disorders are rare or very ... Chemically Induced Birth Defects, Third Edition deserves a place on the bookshelves of all toxicologists, teratologists, ... A Dictionary of Congenital Malformations and Disorders. 1st Edition. By J. Gibson, Oliverira Potparic, O. Potparic ...
Bacteriuria / chemically induced*. Creatinine / blood. Female. Hematuria / chemically induced*, epidemiology. Humans. Kidney ... Proteinuria / chemically induced*, epidemiology. Sex Factors. Specific Gravity. Specimen Handling. Switzerland. Time Factors. ... chemically induced*, diagnosis, epidemiology, urine. Middle Aged. Occupational Medicine. Phenacetin / administration & dosage, ... Relation between regular intake of phenacetin-containing analgesics and laboratory evidence for urorenal disorders in a working ...
Up to now direct toxic effects or immunological processes have been said to explain clozapine-induced agranulocytosis. However ... Leukopenia / blood*, chemically induced*. Male. Middle Aged. Psychotic Disorders / blood, complications. Chemical. ... Agranulocytosis / blood, chemically induced. Antipsychotic Agents / adverse effects*, blood*. Clozapine / adverse effects*, ... Next Document: Heme oxygenase-1 upregulated by Ginkgo biloba extract: potential protection against ethanol-induced .... ...
Parkinsons & Movement disorders. A new drug target for chemically induced Parkinsons disease. More than three decades ago, ... Better care needed for people displaying first symptoms of bipolar disorder. Better care and more research into treatments for ... scientists discovered that a chemical found in a synthetic opioid, MPTP, induced the onset of a form of Parkinsons disease. In ... has concluded that psychiatric diagnoses are scientifically worthless as tools to identify discrete mental health disorders. ...
Affective Disorders, Psychotic / chemically induced * Aged * Blood Pressure / drug effects * Body Weight / drug effects ...
Antisocial Personality Disorder / chemically induced* * Environmental Exposure* * Environmental Pollutants / toxicity* * Female ... Prenatal and postnatal SHS exposure is also associated with increased rates of conduct disorder and attention deficit ...
Necrosis (chemically induced) *Nutrition Disorders. *Rats. *Rats, Wistar. *T-2 Toxin (toxicity) ... Metaphyseal trabecular bone showed sparse disorder and disruption in group C. T-2 toxin combined with a low nutrition diet ...
The day after transfection, cells were induced to differentiate in mitogen-free chemically defined medium for 24 h and then ... 2). The population of stathmin-expressing PSA-NCAM+ cells is increased after a chemically induced demyelinated lesion (Figs. 3 ... Stathmin expression in SVZ migratory progenitors is increased in response to chemically induced demyelination. Demyelination ... Progenitors were induced to differentiate by mitogen deprivation in the presence or in the absence of limiting amounts of ...
Chest Pain (chemically induced) *Cocaine (pharmacology, toxicity) *Cocaine-Related Disorders (complications, diagnosis, ... Myocardial Infarction (chemically induced, diagnosis, drug therapy, physiopathology, surgery) *Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors ...
Journal Article] Cytochrome P450 20A1 in zebrafish: Cloning, regulation and potential involvement in hyperactivity disorders ... Understanding of molecular mechanisms of chemically-induced toxicities and risk evaluation using zebrafish. Research Project ... Journal Article] Dexamethasone-induced hepatomegaly and steatosis in larval zebrafish2017. *. Author(s). Guojun Yin, Liping Cao ...
... experimentally observed in several animal models of autism spectrum disorder, impair learning associations in the brain. ... experimentally observed in several animal models of autism spectrum disorder, impair learning associations in the brain. ... Glutamate receptor exocytosis and spine enlargement during chemically induced long-term potentiation. J. Neurosci. 26, 2000- ... Wei, Y., and Koulakov, A. A. (2014). Long-term memory stabilized by noise-induced rehearsal. J. Neurosci. 34, 15804-15815. doi ...
Thiss definitely some of whats involved in instances of chemically-induced interactive violence. Generalized communication of ... treatment-refractory affective disorders. , , The finding supports theories that affective disorders may result in , allostasis ... Previous message: CSF metabolite linked to affective disorder burden *Next message: CSF metabolite linked to affective disorder ... Previous message: CSF metabolite linked to affective disorder burden *Next message: CSF metabolite linked to affective disorder ...
Child Behavior Disorders -- chemically induced ( mesh ). Department of Clinical and Health Psychology thesis Ph.D ( mesh ). ... disorders have not been linked to alcohol or opiate exposure. alone, Davis et al. (1992) attributed their findings to. cocaine ... complex disease, seizure disorders, mental illness or. retardation, etc., 3) women with no history of illegal drug. use other ... for disordered conduct. The normative sample was 798 parents. of children drawn from six pediatric health care settings. ...
Oxidative stress impacts almost all acute and chronic progressive disorders and on a cellular basis is intimately linked to ... Antioxidants roles in chemically induced disease models (of cancer, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis, or ... Many metabolic disorders and degenerative diseases could be studied under laboratory conditions as models induced by certain ... leading to metabolic disorders and degenerative disorders.. Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of ...
2012) Development of FXR, PXR and CAR agonists and antagonists for treatment of liver disorders. Curr Top Med Chem 12:605-624. ... Chrysin Ameliorates Chemically Induced Colitis in the Mouse through Modulation of a PXR/NF-κB Signaling Pathway. Wei Dou, ... Chrysin Ameliorates Chemically Induced Colitis in the Mouse through Modulation of a PXR/NF-κB Signaling Pathway ... These findings suggest that the effect of chrysin in preventing chemically induced colitis is mediated in large part by a PXR/ ...
cd is chemically near-identical to zinc. cd occupies available zinc receptors. cd toxicity symptom list parallels zn deficiency ... 2. Drug-induced neuromuscular disorders: lists all the. important drugs. I would, however, like a comment. about the fact that ... of Neuromuscular Disorders are:. 1. Drug-induced peripheral neuropathies: this is a comprehensive. chapter dealing with rare ... Drug-Induced Neurological Disorders. Second Edition. Jain KK. Hogrefe & Huber Publishers, Seattle, WA, 2001.. ISBN 0-88937-219- ...
Chemically- induced alterations in sexual and functional development: the wildlife/human connection. Princeton, NJ: Princeton ... 7. R.M.Sharpe, N.E.Skakkeback, Are oestrogens involved in falling sperm counts and disorders of the male reproductive tract? ... We have facts and we have hypotheses on oestrogen exposure inducing male sterility, so it is important that we get together and ... However exposure to phyto-oestrogens alone would probably be insufficient to induce major direct oestrogenic effects in most ...
CNS & Neurological Disorders - Drug Targets *Clinical Applications of Intravenous Immunoglobulins in Child Neurology. Current ... Neuropharmacological Profile of Gamma-Decanolactone on Chemically-induced Seizure in Mice. Author(s): Pricila Pfluger, ... Title:Neuropharmacological Profile of Gamma-Decanolactone on Chemically-induced Seizure in Mice ... "Neuropharmacological Profile of Gamma-Decanolactone on Chemically-induced Seizure in Mice", Central Nervous System Agents in ...
... and in chemically induced forms of the disease (Spencer et al., 1986, 1987). More recent developments include the discovery of ... 1995) N-Methyl-d-aspartate receptor participation in Parkinsons disease, a neurodegenerative disorder. Ann NY Acad Sci 765:327 ... the present study indicates a similar dysfunction in chemically induced motor neuron disease, in experimental animals. It ... This study provides evidence indicating a mechanism for neurodegeneration through mitochondrial dysfunction chemically induced ...
  • To verify this hypothesis the concentrations of clozapine were measured in the plasma and the leukocytes of a patient receiving clozapine who developed clozapine-induced leukocytopenia and in 10 patients receiving clozapine who did not show any serious adverse side effects. (biomedsearch.com)
  • They induce central nervous system (CNS) adverse effects which can be divided into three groups. (nih.gov)
  • This review addresses the incidence, possible mechanisms, and treatment of each of these groups of opioid-induced adverse effects. (nih.gov)
  • The present invention relates to compounds, pharmaceutical compositions comprising same and methods of use thereof for the inhibition of certain pro-apoptotic genes, useful in the treatment of diseases and disorders in which gene expression is adverse. (google.com)
  • We can add that the decision to use a drug recreationally for the purposes of dissociating ourselves from reality through induced euphoria raises significant moral concerns, and, like all unethical human choices, can be expected to correlate with significant adverse ramifications. (thebostonpilot.com)
  • However, a variety of products are available in the market to enhance the appetite but, most of them are chemically made, due to which they may cause adverse effects. (sooperarticles.com)
  • And, one of the most important features of natural products is that, they do not induce any adverse effects on the body. (sooperarticles.com)
  • On the contrary, antioxidants have a plethora of biomedical values and could be used for prevention and treatment of many oxidative damage-related disorders and diseases. (hindawi.com)
  • Many metabolic disorders and degenerative diseases could be studied under laboratory conditions as models induced by certain drugs and toxicants involvingexcessive ROS production. (hindawi.com)
  • Besides cellular molecular chaperones, which are stress-induced proteins, there have been recently reported chemical, or so-called pharmacological chaperones with demonstrated ability to be effective in preventing misfolding of different diseasecausing proteins, specifically in the therapeutic management of sight-threatening eye diseases, essentially reducing the severity of several neurodegenerative disorders (such as age-related macular degeneration), cataract and many other protein-misfolding diseases. (chemweb.com)
  • Emerging evidence from numerous studies suggests that administration of exogenous ketone supplements, such as ketone salts or ketone esters, generates rapid and sustained nutritional ketosis and metabolic changes, which may evoke potential therapeutic effects in cases of central nervous system (CNS) disorders, including psychiatric diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • We conclude that supplement-induced nutritional ketosis leads to metabolic changes and improvements, for example, in mitochondrial function and inflammatory processes, and suggest that development of specific adjunctive ketogenic protocols for psychiatric diseases should be actively pursued. (frontiersin.org)
  • The association of the nuclear receptor signalling pathways with several diseases suggests that they are less likely to be responsible for the unique features of each disease but are involved in aspects common to the disorders, as has been proposed for genes such as DISC1. (springer.com)
  • The present studies indicate that an inhibition of mitochondrial complex I activity mediated through oxidation of thiol groups in distinctive regions of the CNS is a primary event in thiol-reversible, l -BOAA-induced toxicity. (jneurosci.org)
  • In tolerance and toxicity studies on several animal species, this product reveals significantly greater safety factors than related compounds (chlordiazepoxide and diazepam) and manifests a wide separation of effective doses and doses inducing side effects. (egeneralmedical.com)
  • Opioid induced hyperalgesia: clinical implications for the pain practitioner. (nih.gov)
  • This approach recognizes that clinical expressions of ASD are diverse, and that ASD possibly and more appropriately might be considered a collection of discrete disorders with some overlapping clinical expressions. (autismone.org)
  • As a large employer in the United States, the Department of Defense faces significant challenges ensuring that all members of the military, as well as their families, receive appropriate health care for everything from general health and well-being to specialized clinical care for deployment related injuries such as amputations, chemically induced illnesses, and post-traumatic stress disorder. (rand.org)
  • In addition, the present invention provides methods for the diagnostic monitoring of patients undergoing clinical evaluation for the treatment of a hemostatic or vascular disorders, and for monitoring the efficacy of compounds in clinical trials. (google.com)
  • Here, we report that upon transplantation into mice with chemically induced hippocampal lesions, human olfactory ecto-mesenchymal stem cells (OE-MSCs) - adult stem cells from human nasal olfactory lamina propria - migrated toward the sites of neural damage, where they differentiated into neurons. (jci.org)
  • Human ingestion of "chickling peas" from the plant Lathyrus sativus , which contains an excitatory amino acid, l -BOAA ( l -β- N -oxalylamino- l -alanine), leads to a progressive corticospinal neurodegenerative disorder, neurolathyrism. (jneurosci.org)
  • A new study, published in Psychiatry Research, has concluded that psychiatric diagnoses are scientifically worthless as tools to identify discrete mental health disorders. (medicalxpress.com)
  • and the ability of the specific AMPA receptor antagonist NBQX (2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfamoyl-benzo(F)quinoxaline) to prevent l -BOAA-induced neuronal damage confirmed that l -BOAA exerted its action through the AMPA receptors ( Pearson and Nunn, 1991 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Dicholine salt of succinic acid, a neuronal insulin sensitizer, ameliorates cognitive deficits in rodent models of normal aging, chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, and beta-amyloid peptide-(25-35)-induced amnesia. (nih.gov)
  • We now demonstrate an additive effect of EcoHIV on dopaminergic neuronal loss and neuroinflammation induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine intoxication. (springer.com)
  • These data show that OE-MSCs can induce neurogenesis and contribute to restoration of hippocampal neuronal networks via trophic actions. (jci.org)
  • These events may underlie the enhanced neurotoxicity seen in the obese mice.In summary, our results implicate obesity as a risk factor associated with chemical- and possibly disease-induced neurodegeneration. (cdc.gov)
  • CAG-creER mice and carried out tamoxifen-induced gene ablation. (deepdyve.com)
  • Strikingly, the lethal wasting disorder of global null mice can be rescued by neuron-specific expression of a Fig4 cDNA transgene (14). (deepdyve.com)
  • Pre-administration of chrysin ameliorated inflammatory symptoms in mouse models of colitis (dextran sodium sulfate- and 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced) and resulted in down-regulation of nuclear transcription factor κ B (NF- κ B) target genes (inducible NO synthase, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, cyclooxygenase 2, tumor necrosis factor- α , and interleukin 6) in the colon mucosa. (aspetjournals.org)
  • IL - 4 was inserted into L. lactis MG1363 FnBPA + in order to evaluate the therapeutic potential of the recombinant strain against TNBS-induced colitis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • it is commonly induced by coactivation of pre- and postsynaptic neurons within a particular time window. (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition, a alpha,beta-meATP induced significantly larger fast-inactivating currents in CCD- than in sham-operated acutely disocciated DRG neurons. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Atrazine induces complete feminization and chemical castration in male African clawed frogs. (tulane.edu)
  • Department of Housing & Urban Development Memorandum for all Regional Counsels by George L. Weidengeller, Deputy General Counsel, regarding 'Multiple Chemical Sensitivity Disorder and Environmental Illness as Handicaps. (ciin.org)
  • Chemical: Certain chemicals can bind with body proteins, making them immunogenic, as occurs in drug-induced hemolytic anemia. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Fine mapping of a susceptibility locus for bipolar and genetically related unipolar affective disorders, to a region containing the C21ORF29 and TRPM2 genes on chromosome 21q22.3. (medscape.com)
  • Diabetic and nondiabetic rats underwent a 3-h infusion of vehicle compared with SSTR2 antagonist (SSTR2a) during insulin-induced hypoglycemia clamped at 3 ± 0.5 mmol/L. Diabetic rats treated with SSTR2a needed little or no glucose infusion compared with untreated rats. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In rats with beta-amyloid peptide-(25-35)-induced amnesia, CS enhanced passive avoidance performance and increased activity of brain choline acetyltransferase, as compared to control rats (saline). (nih.gov)
  • As an example, I would refrain from including 'oral contraceptives' as a separate entity in the drug-induced peripheral neuropathy chapter. (thisisms.com)
  • This could have easily been a section in the drug-induced peripheral neuropathy chapter. (thisisms.com)
  • Both disorders share the general characteristics of involvement of the central nervous system and the immune system. (google.com)
  • These inflammatory cascades induce a wide spectrum of cytokines, which can cause neuron degeneration, have neurotoxic effects on brain tissue, and. (ebscohost.com)
  • Dr. Jane Quinn, a research neurotoxicologist and scientific advisor to the QVFA, said, 'Establishing a SoP for quinoline-induced chemically-acquired brain injury, or neuropsychiatric quinism, is an important step to getting those veterans affected by this condition the recognition, appropriate medical assistance, and compensation they deserve, particularly for those veterans and their families whose lives have been permanently affected by their participation in the Australian Defence Force-sanctioned drug trials. (prweb.com)
  • According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), ADHD is a neuropsychiatric disorder that includes inattentiveness, impulsivity and hyperactivity. (lifeextension.com)
  • Although it is generally accepted that l -BOAA causes neurodegeneration through excitotoxic mechanisms, probably involving the AMPA receptors, the actual molecular mechanisms involved in l -BOAA-induced neurotoxicity generally remain uncharacterized. (jneurosci.org)
  • 10 . A method for inducing hemostasis in a subject, comprising administering to said subject an isolated nucleic acid molecule comprising a nucleotide sequence which encodes a soluble P-selectin polypeptide, such that hemostasis occurs. (google.com)
  • 19 . The method of claim 18 , wherein said subject is further treated with a molecule effective to induce a procoagulant state in tumor associated vasculature. (google.com)
  • It is assumed that changes or abnormalities of clozapine uptake at the cell membrane might play a role in the development of clozapine-induced leukocytopenia and/or agranulocytosis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Obesity is a major risk factor associated with a variety of human disorders. (cdc.gov)
  • While its involvement in disorders such as diabetes, coronary heart disease and cancer have been well characterized, it remains to be determined if obesity has a detrimental effect on the nervous system. (cdc.gov)
  • Interestingly, β2- adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) antagonist ICI 118551 attenuated ischemia-induced BBB damage by regulating HIF-1α expression. (tripdatabase.com)
  • It was hypothesised that the reported decline in sperm counts might be related to an increasing incidence of other disorders of development of the male reproductive system (e.g., testicular cancer) and that this could have arisen because of increased exposure of the developing foetus to oestrogens. (ispub.com)
  • The exposure of the farmers' population studied to different combinations of pesticides induced significant differences in the frequencies of micronuclei (MN) compared to those of the control group. (beyondpesticides.org)
  • There is growing evidence that environmental exposure to pesticides may increase the risk of developing reproductive and developmental disorders. (beyondpesticides.org)
  • Interestingly, the chimeric protein was unable to undergo agonist-induced internalization and remained confined to the plasma membrane even after prolonged agonist exposure (120 min). (jove.com)
  • The results may suggest that patients at risk of developing clozapine-induced leukocytopenia show increased clozapine concentrations in the leukocytes although the clozapine plasma concentration is in the therapeutic range. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Our theory explains how excessively strong spine dynamics, experimentally observed in several animal models of autism spectrum disorder, impair learning associations in the brain. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, more recent studies may suggest that not yet metabolized clozapine is taken up by leukocytes and transformed by oxidative processes to apoptosis-inducing metabolites. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Trailing is a visual perceptual effect commonly experiencedduring LSD consumption and as a long-lasting side effect of the drug (hallucinogenpersisting perception disorder) -. (nih.gov)
  • Meduna used camphor-induced fits on psychiatric patients in a Hungarian state mental hospital after unsuccessful attempts by Nyiro, his superior, to treat schizophrenia by injections of blood from epileptics. (ect.org)
  • Besides easing fatigue in cancer patients and improving Alzheimer's, they share a similar effect on infertility and emotional disorders. (mercola.com)
  • The plants used in Ayurvedic medicine, which has been practiced in India for thousands of years for the treatment of a variety of disorders, are rich in chemicals potentially useful for prevention and treatment of cancer. (mercola.com)
  • With an increasing global prevalence, psychiatric disorders can present as serious medical conditions composed of emotional, cognitive, social, behavioral, and functional impairments ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • What findings of gene expression in rat brains have increased understanding of the pathophysiology of bipolar affective disorder (manic-depressive illness)? (medscape.com)
  • The enhancement of insulin receptor signaling is, therefore, a promising strategy for the treatment of age-related cognitive disorders. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, the aim of this review is to summarize the current information on ketone supplementation as a potential therapeutic tool for psychiatric disorders. (frontiersin.org)
  • The result of downstream cellular and molecular changes is a reduction in the pathophysiology associated with various psychiatric disorders. (frontiersin.org)
  • This chapter details the association of thyroid hormone and vitamin D with these psychiatric disorders. (springer.com)
  • Lack of clear understanding of immunopathogenesis of ACD so far has remained the major hindrance in achieving cure or prevention of these disorders. (cdc.gov)
  • Effort towards prevention of ACD include identification of environmental agents that induce contact hypersensitivity (CH) response as well as individuals that are susceptible for such a response. (cdc.gov)
  • Metaphyseal trabecular bone showed sparse disorder and disruption in group C. T-2 toxin combined with a low nutrition diet could lead to more serious chondrocyte necrosis in the epiphyseal plate and disturb metaphyseal trabecular bone formation. (curehunter.com)
  • The first genomewide interaction and locus-heterogeneity linkage scan in bipolar affective disorder: strong evidence of epistatic effects between loci on chromosomes 2q and 6q. (medscape.com)