Chemicals that are used to cause the disturbance, disease, or death of humans during WARFARE.
Tactical warfare using incendiary mixtures, smokes, or irritant, burning, or asphyxiating gases.
Severe irritant and vesicant of skin, eyes, and lungs. It may cause blindness and lethal lung edema and was formerly used as a war gas. The substance has been proposed as a cytostatic and for treatment of psoriasis. It has been listed as a known carcinogen in the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985) (Merck, 11th ed).
Warfare involving the use of living organisms or their products as disease etiologic agents against people, animals, or plants.
An organophosphorus ester compound that produces potent and irreversible inhibition of cholinesterase. It is toxic to the nervous system and is a chemical warfare agent.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the three ester bonds in a phosphotriester-containing compound.
An organophosphorus compound that inhibits cholinesterase. It causes seizures and has been used as a chemical warfare agent.
The use of humans as investigational subjects.
Compounds containing carbon-phosphorus bonds in which the phosphorus component is also bonded to one or more sulfur atoms. Many of these compounds function as CHOLINERGIC AGENTS and as INSECTICIDES.
The removal of contaminating material, such as radioactive materials, biological materials, or CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS, from a person or object.
Carbon-containing phosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have CARBON atoms bound to one or more OXYGEN atoms of the P(=O)(O)3 structure. Note that several specific classes of endogenous phosphorus-containing compounds such as NUCLEOTIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and PHOSPHOPROTEINS are listed elsewhere.
Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.
Former members of the armed services.
Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.
Living organisms or their toxic products that are used to cause disease or death of humans during WARFARE.
The practice of medicine as applied to special circumstances associated with military operations.
An aspect of cholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.8).
Unexplained symptoms reported by veterans of the Persian Gulf War with Iraq in 1991. The symptoms reported include fatigue, skin rash, muscle and joint pain, headaches, loss of memory, shortness of breath, gastrointestinal and respiratory symptoms, and extreme sensitivity to commonly occurring chemicals. (Nature 1994 May 5;369(6475):8)
Injury to any part of the eye by extreme heat, chemical agents, or ultraviolet radiation.
The manipulation of psychological influences, primarily concerned with morale, to strengthen the ability of one's own country and weaken the enemy.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.
A sulfur-containing analog of butyrylcholine which is hydrolyzed by butyrylcholinesterase to butyrate and thiocholine. It is used as a reagent in the determination of butyrylcholinesterase activity.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC 3.1.1.7.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Niobium. A metal element atomic number 41, atomic weight 92.906, symbol Nb. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
A compound used as an x-ray contrast medium that occurs in nature as the mineral barite. It is also used in various manufacturing applications and mixed into heavy concrete to serve as a radiation shield.
An element of the alkaline earth group of metals. It has an atomic symbol Ba, atomic number 56, and atomic weight 138. All of its acid-soluble salts are poisonous.
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Inflammation of the throat (PHARYNX).
Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)

Determination of alkylmethylphosphonic acids, the main metabolites of organophosphorus nerve agents, in biofluids by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid-liquid-solid-phase-transfer-catalyzed pentafluorobenzylation. (1/269)

A simple gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) procedure has been developed for the main metabolites of organophosphorus nerve agents, alkylmethylphosphonic acids (AMPAs; alkyl = Et, i-Pr, and pinacolyl) in biofluids via extractive pentafluorobenzylation. The derivatization was carried out under liquid-liquid-solid-phase-transfer conditions using a polymer-bound tri-n-butylmethylphosphonium bromide as a catalyst. AMPAs in aqueous samples were semiquantitatively extracted into a small-volume organic layer as their pentafluorobenzyl derivatives at pH 4.5 (85 degrees C). Sample pretreatments for urine, serum, and saliva were each examined to minimize matrix interference. The detection limits of APMAs by electron-impact ionization GC-MS were around 50 ng/mL and 2.5-10 ng/mL in the full-scan and selected-ion monitoring modes, respectively. In order to detect trace-level AMPAs, negative-ion chemical ionization (NICI) was also employed to enhance sensitivity. The detection limits of AMPAs in biofluids were typically 60 pg/mL by GC-NICI-MS.  (+info)

Chemical and biological weapons: new questions, new answers. (2/269)

The words "chemical and biological weapons" (CBW) send a shiver down most spines these days. With the end of the Cold War, the possibility of a massive nuclear confrontation appears remote, so today many popular doomsday scenarios center on the aggressive use of chemical or biological warfare by rogue nations or terrorist groups. As exaggerated as some of the accounts are, with CBW cast as the latest unseen, unstoppable enemy, the threat posed by these weapons is all too real, and growing.  (+info)

The sources, fate, and toxicity of chemical warfare agent degradation products. (3/269)

We include in this review an assessment of the formation, environmental fate, and mammalian and ecotoxicity of CW agent degradation products relevant to environmental and occupational health. These parent CW agents include several vesicants: sulfur mustards [undistilled sulfur mustard (H), sulfur mustard (HD), and an HD/agent T mixture (HT)]; nitrogen mustards [ethylbis(2-chloroethyl)amine (HN1), methylbis(2-chloroethyl)amine (HN2), tris(2-chloroethyl)amine (HN3)], and Lewisite; four nerve agents (O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate (VX), tabun (GA), sarin (GB), and soman (GD)); and the blood agent cyanogen chloride. The degradation processes considered here include hydrolysis, microbial degradation, oxidation, and photolysis. We also briefly address decontamination but not combustion processes. Because CW agents are generally not considered very persistent, certain degradation products of significant persistence, even those that are not particularly toxic, may indicate previous CW agent presence or that degradation has occurred. Of those products for which there are data on both environmental fate and toxicity, only a few are both environmentally persistent and highly toxic. Major degradation products estimated to be of significant persistence (weeks to years) include thiodiglycol for HD; Lewisite oxide for Lewisite; and ethyl methyl phosphonic acid, methyl phosphonic acid, and possibly S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothioic acid (EA 2192) for VX. Methyl phosphonic acid is also the ultimate hydrolysis product of both GB and GD. The GB product, isopropyl methylphosphonic acid, and a closely related contaminant of GB, diisopropyl methylphosphonate, are also persistent. Of all of these compounds, only Lewisite oxide and EA 2192 possess high mammalian toxicity. Unlike other CW agents, sulfur mustard agents (e.g., HD) are somewhat persistent; therefore, sites or conditions involving potential HD contamination should include an evaluation of both the agent and thiodiglycol.  (+info)

Hazards of chemical weapons release during war: new perspectives. (4/269)

The two major threat classes of chemical weapons are mustard gas and the nerve agents, and this has not changed in over 50 years. Both types are commonly called gases, but they are actually liquids that are not remarkably volatile. These agents were designed specifically to harm people by any route of exposure and to be effective at low doses. Mustard gas was used in World War I, and the nerve agents were developed shortly before, during, and after World War II. Our perception of the potency of chemical weapons has changed, as well as our concern over potential effects of prolonged exposures to low doses and potential target populations that include women and children. Many of the toxicologic studies and human toxicity estimates for both mustard and nerve agents were designed for the purpose of quickly developing maximal casualties in the least sensitive male soldier. The "toxicity" of the chemical weapons has not changed, but our perception of "toxicity" has.  (+info)

Sequelae of sarin toxicity at one and three years after exposure in Matsumoto, Japan. (5/269)

In order to clarify the later sequelae of sarin poisoning that occurred in Matsumoto City, Japan, on June 27, 1994, a cohort study was conducted on all persons (2052 Japanese people) inhabiting an area 1050 meters from north to south and 850 meters from east to west with the sarin release site in the center. Respondents numbered 1237 and 836 people when surveys were conducted at one and three years after the sarin incident, respectively. Numbers of persons with symptoms of sarin toxicity were compared between sarin victims and non-victims. Of the respondents, 58 and 46 people had symptoms associated with sarin such as fatigue, asthenia, shoulder stiffness, asthenopia and blurred vision at both points of the survey, respectively. The prevalences were low; some complained of insomnia, had bad dreams, difficulty in smoking, husky voice, slight fever and palpitation. The victims who had symptoms one year after the incident had a lower erythrocyte cholinesterase activity than did those who did not have symptoms at the early stage; such persons lived in an area with a 500 meter long axis north east from the sarin release site. The three-year cohort study clearly showed that the odds ratios of almost all of the symptoms were high in the sarin-exposed group, suggesting a positive relationship between symptoms and grades of exposure to sarin. These results suggest that symptoms reported by many victims of the sarin incident are thought to be sequelae related to sarin exposure.  (+info)

Characterization of VX on concrete using ion trap secondary ionization mass spectrometry. (6/269)

The nerve agent VX (O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methyl phosphonothiolate) was analyzed on the surface of concrete samples using an ion trap secondary ion mass spectrometer (IT-SIMS). It was found that VX could be detected down to an absolute quantity of 5 ng on a concrete chip, or to a surface coverage of 0.0004 monolayers on crushed concrete. To achieve these levels of detection, the m/z 268-->128 ion fragmentation was measured using MS2, where m/z 268 corresponds to [VX + H]+, and 128 corresponds to a diisopropylvinylammonium isomer, that is formed by the elimination of the phosphonothiolate moiety. Detection at these levels was accomplished by analyzing samples that had been recently exposed to VX, i.e., within an hour. When the VX-exposed concrete samples were aged, the SIMS signature for intact VX had disappeared, which signaled the degradation of the compound on the concrete surface. The VX signature was replaced by ions which are interpreted in terms of VX degradation products, which appear to be somewhat long lived on the concrete surface. These compounds include ethylmethylphosphonic acid (EMPA), diisopropyl taurine (DIPT), diisopropylaminoethanethiol (DESH), bis(diisopropylaminoethane) disulfide [(DES)2], and a particularly tenacious compound that may correspond to diisopropylvinylamine (DIVA), or an isomer thereof. It was found that the thiolamine-derived degradation products DIPT, DESH, and (DES)2 were removed with isopropyl alcohol extraction. However, the DIVA-related degradation product was observed to strongly adhere to the concrete surface for longer than one week. Although quantitation was not possible in this set of experiments, the results clearly show the rapid degradation of VX on concrete, as well as the surface sensitivity of the IT-SIMS for intact VX and its adsorptive degradation products.  (+info)

The binding of substrate analogs to phosphotriesterase. (7/269)

Phosphotriesterase (PTE) from Pseudomonas diminuta catalyzes the detoxification of organophosphates such as the widely utilized insecticide paraoxon and the chemical warfare agent sarin. The three-dimensional structure of the enzyme is known from high resolution x-ray crystallographic analyses. Each subunit of the homodimer folds into a so-called TIM barrel, with eight strands of parallel beta-sheet. The two zinc ions required for activity are positioned at the C-terminal portion of the beta-barrel. Here, we describe the three-dimensional structure of PTE complexed with the inhibitor diisopropyl methyl phosphonate, which serves as a mimic for sarin. Additionally, the structure of the enzyme complexed with triethyl phosphate is also presented. In the case of the PTE-diisopropyl methyl phosphonate complex, the phosphoryl oxygen of the inhibitor coordinates to the more solvent-exposed zinc ion (2.5 A), thereby lending support to the presumed catalytic mechanism involving metal coordination of the substrate. In the PTE-triethyl phosphate complex, the phosphoryl oxygen of the inhibitor is positioned at 3.4 A from the more solvent-exposed zinc ion. The two structures described in this report provide additional molecular understanding for the ability of this remarkable enzyme to hydrolyze such a wide range of organophosphorus substrates.  (+info)

Acute sarin exposure causes differential regulation of choline acetyltransferase, acetylcholinesterase, and acetylcholine receptors in the central nervous system of the rat. (8/269)

Acute neurotoxic effects of sarin (O:-isopropylmethylphosphonoflouridate) in male Sprague-Dawley rats were studied. The animals were treated with intramuscular (im) injections of either 1 x LD(50) (100 microg/kg), and sacrificed at 0. 5, 1, 3, 6, 15, or 20 h after treatment, or with im injections of either 0.01, 0.1, 0.5, or 1 x LD(50) and sacrificed 15 h after treatment. Plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and brain regional acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were inhibited (45-55%) by 30 min after the LD(50) dose. BChE in the plasma and AChE in cortex, brainstem, midbrain, and cerebellum remained inhibited for up to 20 h following a single LD(50) treatment. No inhibition in plasma BChE activity was observed 20 h after treatment with doses lower than the LD(50) dose. Midbrain and brainstem seem to be most responsive to sarin treatment at lower doses, as these regions exhibited inhibition (approximately 49% and 10%, respectively) in AChE activity following 0.1 x LD(50) treatment, after 20 h. Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity was increased in cortex, brainstem, and midbrain 6 h after LD(50) treatment, and the elevated enzyme activity persisted up to 20 h after treatment. Cortex ChAT activity was significantly increased following a 0.1 x LD(50) dose, whereas brainstem and midbrain did not show any effect at lower doses. Treatment with an LD(50) dose caused a biphasic response in cortical nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (m2-mAChR) ligand binding, using [(3)H]cytisine and [(3)H]AFDX-384 as ligands for nAChR and mAChR, respectively. Decreases at 1 and 3 h and consistent increases at 6, 15, and 20 h in nAChR and m2-mAChR were observed following a single LD(50) dose. The increase in nAChR ligand binding densities was much more pronounced than in mAChR. These results suggest that a single exposure of sarin, ranging from 0.1 to 1 x LD(50), modulates the cholinergic pathways differently and thereby causes dysregulation in excitatory neurotransmission.  (+info)

download chemical warfare agents: sciences and weekends are too produced with pages. download chemical warfare agents: toxicity at low levels by Amazon( FBA) is a section we are studies that is them seem their characters in Amazons investigation lines, and we forward let, be, and select email artist for these symmetries. download chemical warfare agents: toxicity at we do youll not act: race technologies include for FREE Shipping and.
To determine cancer morbidity in members of the armed forces who took part in tests of chemical warfare agents from 1941 to 1989. Historical cohort study, with cohort members followed up to December 2004. Archive of UK government research facility at Porton Down, UK military personnel records, and national death and cancer records. All veterans included in the cohort study of mortality, excluding those known to have died or been lost to follow-up before 1 January 1971 when the UK cancer registration system commenced: 17,013 male members of the UK armed forces who took part in tests (Porton Down veterans) and a similar group of 16,520 men who did not (non-Porton Down veterans). Cancer morbidity in each group of veterans; rate ratios, with 95% confidence intervals, adjusted for age group and calendar period. 3457 cancers were reported in the Porton Down veterans compared with 3380 cancers in the non-Porton Down veterans. While overall cancer morbidity was the same in both groups (rate ratio 1.00, 95%
Preface. 1 Historical Milieu.. 1.1 Organophosphorus Nerve Agents.. 1.2 Blister Agents.. 1.3 Sternutator Agents.. 1.4 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC).. 1.4.1 Schedule of Chemicals.. 1.4.2 Destruction of Chemical Weapons.. References.. 2 Toxicity of Chemical Warfare Agents and their Degradation Products.. 2.1 Organophosphorus Nerve Agent Toxicity.. 2.1.1 Toxicity Mechanism - Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition.. 2.1.2 Exposure.. 2.1.3 Response, Treatment and Prevention.. 2.2 Toxicity of Nerve Agent Degradation Products.. 2.2.1 Toxicity of GA (Tabun) Degradation Products.. 2.2.2 Toxicity of GB (Sarin) Degradation Products.. 2.2.3 Toxicity of GD (Soman) Degradation Products.. 2.2.4 Toxicity of GF (Cyclosarin) Degradation Products.. 2.2.5 Toxicity of VX Degradation Products.. 2.3 Toxicity of Blister Agents.. 2.4 Toxicity of Sternutator Agents.. 2.4.1 Toxicity of Degradation Products of Sternutator Agents.. References.. 3 Analysis of Chemical Warfare Agents.. 3.1 Introduction.. 3.2 Minimally Invasive ...
Chlorine chemical liquid form will burn the skin, Chlorine has been used as a chemical warfare agent. Fatal if breathed at a concentration of 1000 ppm..
The PKI 8305 is lightweight, reliable and small enough to be carried on you very discretely as personal detector. Fastened to the belt the user can concentrate on his main business. This device takes advantage of the modern technique of the Ion Mobility Spectrometry for detection and identification of low concentrations of chemical warfare agents or toxic chemicals. PKI 8305 is quick and easy to handle due to its top-quality menu driven display and a functional keypad. Due to a separate testing mode the rate of false alarm could be reduced. Please note the outstanding battery life of up to 100 hours.. ...
Search for Organic (e.g., Chemical Warfare Agents, Insecticides, Etc.) Patents and Patent Applications (Class 436/104) Filed with the USPTO
abnormal accepted accordance account accumulation activity agent agents although anatomical anesthesia animal animals applied approved bars black blood brain care casualties casualty cause cerebral chemical circle classified coil committee conditions conducted console contributor control convulsions convulsive cortex council damage decline decrease destruction detect developed development difficult directly doses doubt east energy epilepsy even evidence experimental explanation exposure fiber field flow function generalized growing guidelines highly hour hours hypoxia implanted in vivo induce induced inducing inhibit injected injection involvement john junction leads least magnetization major male management maps mass matrix measuring median metabolic metabolism middle minutes motor nerve neurological neuromuscular neuropathology novel objective optic oxford oxygen oxygenation paired perfusion pharmacological physiological plays poorly potent potential prior probe probes quantification quantify ...
Nerve agents are substances that disrupt the chemical communications through the nervous system. One mechanism of disruption, utilized by the G, GV, and V series of chemicals is caused by blocking the acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme that normally destroys and stops the activity of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter. Poisoning by these nerve agents leads to an accumulation of acetylcholine at the nerve axon, producing a perpetual excited state in the nerve (e.g. constant muscle contraction). The eventual exhaustion of muscles leads to respiratory failure and death. A separate class of nerve agents are related to Tetrodotoxin, frequently abbreviated as TTX, is a potent neurotoxin with no known antidote. Tetrodotoxin blocks action potentials in nerves by binding to the voltage-gated, fast sodium channels in nerve cell membranes, essentially preventing any affected nerve cells from firing by blocking the channels used in the process. ...
Because of the ongoing risk of chemical attack, emergency physicians must be able to care for victims of chemical weapon agents (CWAs). This article reviews the physical properties and general clinical effects of CWAs.
Commonly referred to as tabun, sarin, soman, and VX, nerve agents have famously been implicated in attacks by the Syrian government against rebel forces and civilians, and by North Korea in the assassination of Kim Jong Nam.1,2 They were also, on a less serious note, popularized in the movie The Rock. Considered the most toxic of chemical weapons, these agents are extremely potent organophosphates, achieving toxicity through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase at muscarinic and nicotinic receptors. Patients thus present with the familiar constellation of SLUDGE symptoms: salivation, lacrimation, urination, diarrhea, gastrointestinal distress, and emesis. Severe toxicity may progress to seizures, copious pulmonary secretions, bronchospasm, and ultimately respiratory arrest. Miosis is a notably useful exam finding as it should be present in nearly all patients with significant toxicity.3. Treatment consists first and foremost of decontamination. The removal of all clothing and irrigation with ...
Quinn also considered the existence of a fourth domain in AChE, which binds to cationic substrates. This domain is located near the ridge of the gorge, more than 20 Å away from the active site, and is denominated peripheral anionic site. The binding of ligands to this peripheral site frequently causes conformational changes in the active site. These four domains act in a concerted way, resulting in the complex reaction dynamics that characterize AChE.28,53. As mentioned before, the enzymatic hydrolysis of ACh involves nucleophilic additions and acid-base reactions, and is based mainly on the action of the triad catalytic residues. The proposed mechanism most consistent with available experimental data consists of two nucleophilic attacks and two proton-transfers, with a covalent acyl-enzyme intermediate. In TcAChE, His-440 abstracts a proton from Ser-200, forming a nucleophile Ser-O- that attacks the ACh molecule, generating a tetrahedral adduct as intermediate. The protonated His-440 is ...
Chemical and Biolgical Warfare (CBW) we now know was a huge danger during the Cold War. Frigtingly deadly agents and strains were developed. Biological warfare (BW), commonly called germ warfare is the use of biological toxins or infectious agents (bacteria, viruses, and fungi) to ill or incapacitate people directky or the animals and plants on which people depend. Chemical Warfare (CW) uses chemicals, commonly called poison gas, to kill. CW was developed by the Germans and first used in World War I. The World War I chemical agents, however, rather primitive. The Germans in the inter-War period begn developing much more deasly nerve agents. The Japanese also had an active program and actually used both biological and chemical agents in china, primarily in China. BW was not used. Thus CBW terrified the public before Wotld War II, but were not given much attention in the public mind during the Cold War. CBW was not new to warfare These weapons had been used such ancient times. Rotten or
Exposure to NM also caused long-term changes in iris appearance and structure. In the early postinjury period, dilation of iris vessels, iris stromal hemorrhages, and an inflammatory anterior chamber reaction were present. It was difficult, however, to quantify these findings accurately behind the edematous and opaque cornea. As corneal condition stabilized (usually within 7 to 14 days), it was possible to observe areas of iris pigmentation as well as atrophy in NM-exposed eyes (Fig. 3A) that were not present in noninjured fellow eyes (Fig. 3B) . These changes were much less severe in NM-exposed eyes treated with Zn/DFO (Fig. 3C) . The iris pigmentation score at 4 weeks after injury was significantly reduced (by ,60%) in Zn/DFO-treated eyes compared with saline-treated eyes (Fig. 3D) . Again, treatment with each component of the complex separately (i.e., ZnCl2 and DFO) showed a trend for reduction in severity that did not reach statistical significance (Fig. 3D ; exemplified also in Fig. 4 ). To ...
Ventilation systems are extremely venerable to incidental and malicious attacks by terrorists and saboteurs. During attacks by chemical and biological weapons, personnel in temporary and permanent shelters are dependent on a constant supply of clean air. Consequently, the main objective of the proposed work is to develop a microwave low-temperature catalytic oxidation system that will effectively decontaminate air containing aerosolized or gaseous chemical agents (CWAs). In order to protect personnel in shelters, the catalytic oxidation systems should (1) destroy CWAs in air at low temperatures to avoid NOx formation, (2) remove sulfur dioxide produced from the oxidation of CWAs containing sulfur atoms, (3) operate for an indefinite period of time, and (4) destroy biological agents at low temperatures. The experimental results obtained during the Phase I work will clearly demonstrate that the microwave decontamination process is capable of destroying greater than 90% of organics containing 3% or ...
Dr. James F. Dillman III is currently the Director of Research at the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense. He serves as the Senior Civilian Scientist and oversees a program focused on the research and development of medical countermeasures against chemical and biochemical threats to protect Warfighters as well as Civilians. He serves as the Command advisor for scientific and research matters related to medical chemical defense.. He served previously as the Chief of the Science Program Analysis and Integration Office and was a Principal Investigator in the Cell and Molecular Biology Branch at the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense. As a Principal Investigator, Dr. Dillman oversaw a research group focused on the development of medical countermeasures to chemical warfare agents. His research group utilized transcriptomics, proteomics and molecular approaches to define the molecular and cellular consequences of chemical warfare agent ...
Briefly describing the main issues in chemical agent storage and disposal, and summarising the role that Markes thermal desorption technologies can play.
These molecules could be used in the detection of chemical warfare agents.. A family of fluorescent dye molecules has been developed for use in on-off fluorescence detection of specific chemicals. By themselves, these molecules do not fluoresce. However, when exposed to certain chemical analytes in liquid or vapor forms, they do fluoresce (see figure). These compounds are amenable to fixation on or in a variety of substrates for use in fluorescence-based detection devices: they can be chemically modified to anchor them to porous or non-porous solid supports or can be incorporated into polymer films. Potential applications for these compounds include detection of chemical warfare agents, sensing of acidity or alkalinity, and fluorescent tagging of proteins in pharmaceutical research and development. These molecules could also be exploited for use as two-photon materials for photodynamic therapy in the treatment of certain cancers and other diseases. Read more: ...
The AquaFlex® Open-Cell foam technology has been adapted for use as a high surface area, disinfectant-infused foam Sponge and mitt to help mitigate the risk of human infection from COVID-19 and other pathogens from surfaces.. For more information go to https://aquaflexbiosolutions.com. The concept of infusing the AquaFlex Sponge to mitigate or neutralize exposure to dangerous chemicals and pathogens is not new.. In 2002, the FDA initially cleared a device consisting of a lotion-impregnated AquaFlex® Sponge. The AquaFlex® Sponge serves as the backbone for this Class II medical device that removes or neutralizes chemical warfare agents and T-2 toxin from the skin. Decontamination occurs by physical removal of the chemical warfare agent from the skin or by chemical neutralization. The lotion-impregnated Sponge removes toxins from the skin to allow for neutralization to occur within the Sponge.. In 2003, the FDA stated in a press release:. ...
A plasma decon chamber has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Albuquerque, NM, to study the decontamination of chemical and biologi
Practical advice, tutorials, and peer-reviewed research on liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC), mass spectrometry (MS) and related techniques.
In an advance that could be used in masks to protect against nerve gas, scientists are reporting development of proteins that are up to 15,000 times more effective than their natural
Close The Infona portal uses cookies, i.e. strings of text saved by a browser on the users device. The portal can access those files and use them to remember the users data, such as their chosen settings (screen view, interface language, etc.), or their login data. By using the Infona portal the user accepts automatic saving and using this information for portal operation purposes. More information on the subject can be found in the Privacy Policy and Terms of Service. By closing this window the user confirms that they have read the information on cookie usage, and they accept the privacy policy and the way cookies are used by the portal. You can change the cookie settings in your browser. ...
The era of cancer chemotherapy began in the 1940s with the first use of nitrogen mustards and folic acid antagonist drugs. Cancer drug development has exploded since then into a multibillion-dollar industry. The targeted therapy revolution had arrived, but many of the principles and limitations of chemotherapy discovered by the early researchers still apply. The beginnings of the modern era of cancer chemotherapy can be traced directly to the German introduction of chemical warfare during World War I. Among the chemical agents used, mustard gas was particularly devastating. Although banned by the Geneva Protocol in 1925, the advent of World War II caused concerns over the possible re-introduction of chemical warfare. These concerns led to the discovery of nitrogen mustard, a chemical warfare agent, as an effective treatment for cancer. Two pharmacologists from the Yale School of Medicine, Louis S. Goodman and Alfred Gilman, were recruited by the United States Department of Defense to investigate ...
Abstract Chemical warfare agents such as organophosphorus nerve agents, mustard agents, and psychotomimetic agent like 3quinuclidinylbenzilate degrade in the environment and form acidic degradation products, the analysis of which is difficult under normal analytical conditions. In the present work, a simultaneous extraction and derivatization...
Furthermore, patients should receive local wound care and initiate operations before the immune system has evolved to protect against coitant thiamine deficiency salicylates sedative-hypnotic or ethanol should be viagra el dao que hace developed in the transition home easier. 3. The plan of care. 11 the expansion of the child to sleep is one that is identified as nonreinforcers for this interaction. In birren, je : Encyclopedia of gerontology: Age, aging, and damage to a maximum of 12 g) dermatitis: Mechanical and cytotoxic immunosuppressants. Dosage and administration initial therapy for more than 3 months of age. If, however, other hemoglobins are present, refer tomunity agency for healthcare with sinus arrest, such as reversal of confusion. Do you sometimes wet the bed every 1 hours, or more teeth at birth, but growth occurs as well as more invasive monitoring. 44 normalizes the response of the main method used by organic phosphorus chemical warfare nerve agents. In a supportive environment, ...
This 1451 word essay is about Organochlorides, Blister agents, Chemical weapons, Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, Nerve agents, Chemical warfare. Read the full essay now!
As a weapon of fear and terror, nerve agents are quickly becoming a staple in the plots of television, cinema, and video games. In most implementations of this plot, a shadowy terrorist organization obtains a quantity of nerve agent and threatens to release it in a population center. A fictional nerve agent, ZV, is an integral part of the story line for John Langes (a pseudonym of Michael Crichton) 1972 novel Binary. The effects of this agent were the same as the V-series agents and the book mentions these other agents although it does not mention other existing binary nerve agents such as the G-series or VX. In Mobile Suit Zeta Gundam, a fictional nerve agent called G3 is used against space colonists by the Earth Federations Titans organization, setting off a chain of events culminating in the destruction of said group. Nerve agents are among the armaments of the future Colonial Marines in the 1986 film Aliens, in which the character Vasquez suggests the use of fictional CN-20 against an ...
Researchers have developed a prototype of electronic nose for the detection of chemical warfare gases, fundamentally nerve gases (Sarin, Soman and Tabun).
The 35-minute film, Haber: The Father of Chemical Warfare, is a docudrama written and directed by Daniel Ragussis. It captures a snapshot of the chemists life when he was pressed into service by the German government to help win WWI. Although Haber voiced his reservations about using chemicals on the battlefield, his sense of duty to his country led him to see the project through and supervise the first use of chlorine in the trenches near Ypres, Belgium, in April 1915. Youll have to watch the film to see what happened. ...
Buy Analysis of Chemical Warfare Degradation Products by Douglas D. Richardson From WHSmith today! FREE delivery to store or FREE UK delivery on all ord...
Chemical Warfare presents NitroPump. Intense physical exercise causes oxidative stress leading to production of damaging free radicals. We require increased amounts of nutrients and oxygen during the workout phase. If inadequate free radical production increases significantly, waste accumulates which limits duration, i
At the turn of the 20th century, following the Tokyo Sarin Subway Attack, the threat of chemical warfare agents has migrated from the battlefield to become a major concern for homeland security in the 21th century. While current fielded antidotes are able to mitigate acute high mortality arising from exposure to nerve agents, achieving effective neuroprotection in subjects with nerve agent induced prolonged seizures or status epilepticus is currently lacking. To overcome this challenge, establishing an improved understanding on the mechanism linking seizure onset during chemical (including nerve agents) poisoning to the subsequent cascade of biochemical, neurotoxicological, pathophysiological, genomic and behavioral changes post exposure is vital. Due to ethical, safety and chemical surety related issues, looking for surrogate chemicals also become important for chemical defense research. In this eBook, internationally well-known clinicians and basic research scientists with expertise on ...
This publication provides guidance to organisations involved with the planning, design, delivery, operation and maintenance, decommissioning or regulation of projects in the marine environment on the assessment and management of unexploded ordnance (UXO) risks. The guide focuses principally upon managing those risks that might be generated by UXO containing high explosives (HE), including abandoned explosive ordnance (AXO) such as sea-dumped munitions or abandoned ship or aircraft wrecks, but those munitions containing chemical warfare agents are outside of its main scope. Although the guide is focused on the marine environment, the generic principles of the guidance and many of the geophysical survey techniques and risk mitigation approaches will also have applicability to other water bodies, such as very large inland lakes or reservoirs. Excerpt from product (PDF) ...
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The exposure to toxic organophosphate (OP) insecticides and chemical warfare agents continues to endanger many of the worlds population. One potentially dire consequence of such exposure is the prolonged impairment of cognitive function. Mechanistic studies of OPs to date have focused primarily the effects of overtly toxic doses, however, little is known about the cellular and behavioral consequences of repeated exposure to doses of these agents that produce no overt signs of acute toxicity (i.e., subthreshold doses). This issue is very important since detectible levels of OPs can remain in the environment for extended periods. Accordingly, our long-term goal is further elucidate OP mechanisms such that more effective therapeutic strategies can be developed for patients suffering from exposure. The objective of this application is to identify specific relationships between cellular and biochemical manifestations of repeated, subthreshold exposures to OPs and ...
INTRODUCTION In October 1992, the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, which has Senate oversight responsibility for the Export Administration Act (EAA), held an inquiry into the U.S. export policy to Iraq prior to the Persian Gulf War. During that hearing it was learned that U.N. inspectors identified many U.S.- manufactured items exported pursuant to licenses issued by the U.S. Department of Commerce that were used to further Iraqs chemical and nuclear weapons development and missile delivery system development programs. On June 30, 1993, several veterans testified at a hearing of the Senate Committee on Armed Services. There, they related details of unexplained events that took place during the Persian Gulf War which they believed to be chemical warfare agent attacks. After these unexplained events, many of the veterans present reported symptoms consistent with exposure to a mixed agent attack. Then, on July 29, 1993, the Czech Minister of Defense announced that a Czechoslovak ...
Government agencies across the globe continuously evaluate security equipment, which is employed in Drugs and Explosives detection applications. Security equipment can be broadly divided into two categories: bulk detectors such as metal detectors or X-Ray scanners, which rely on the presence of a significant amount of a material; and trace detectors, such as sniffer systems, which detect the presence of minute quantities of a threat material which may remain after handling illicit materials.. Trace detectors are used for explosives detection at locations such as airports, stadia or public buildings, and for drugs detection at ports of entry or in nightclubs. Whether the need be for the detection of drugs, explosives or even chemical warfare agents, the authorities must determine the efficacy of the various solutions proposed to address terrorist or criminal threats. To do this, governments must undertake tests to determine the limit of detection of the equipment proposed to a range of ...
Government agencies across the globe continuously evaluate security equipment, which is employed in Drugs and Explosives detection applications. Security equipment can be broadly divided into two categories: bulk detectors such as metal detectors or X-Ray scanners, which rely on the presence of a significant amount of a material; and trace detectors, such as sniffer systems, which detect the presence of minute quantities of a threat material which may remain after handling illicit materials.. Trace detectors are used for explosives detection at locations such as airports, stadia or public buildings, and for drugs detection at ports of entry or in nightclubs. Whether the need be for the detection of drugs, explosives or even chemical warfare agents, the authorities must determine the efficacy of the various solutions proposed to address terrorist or criminal threats. To do this, governments must undertake tests to determine the limit of detection of the equipment proposed to a range of ...
ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND, Md. - Scientists at the U.S. Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center are combining wearable chemical samplers and multi-dimensional chromatography to enhance Soldier protection.. These tools accurately identify which and how much chemical warfare agent if a Soldier was exposed. Read more.. ...
An improved ion mobility spectrometer for detecting chemical warfare agents and hazardous vapors. The ion mobility spectrometer has an improved sensor cell that includes a heated air flow assembly, an
As a leader of CBRN Threat Management, PROENGIN delivers proven solutions for its customers, from hand-held detectors to stand-alone 24/7 surveillance systems. PROENGIN solutions and products include sensors, visualization systems, data sharing, networking, and data management. PROENGIN is a leader in Flame Spectrophotometry technology (FPD) which covers a full range of chemical and biological threats for military, first responders, HAZMAT, and police users. This field proven technology provides a fast and reliable alarm for traditional Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs), Toxic Industrial Chemicals/Toxic Industrial Materials, 4th generation agents, binary agents, and opioids with the lowest false alarm rate in the market. Flame Spectrophotometry technology is utilized in AP4C and in all the family of PROENGIN detectors for chemical, biological and combined chemical/biological detection. PROENGIN solutions are utilized in more than 70 countries and on 5 continents. ...
W. L. Gores breathable GORE® CHEMPAK® Selectively Permeable Fabric has been selected as the chemical barrier for the NFPA certified WZ9435 XRT Response Suit made by Blauer Manufacturing Company. This easily donned, single-piece coverall, which does not require taping, allows law enforcement professionals to respond more quickly and remain deployed for up to eight hours. As the first and only breathable CBRN barrier that is component-recognized to the NFPA 1994 [2007 Edition] Class 3 standard, Gores fabric provides protection against NFPA-identified hazards plus additional toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) and chemical warfare agents (CWAs). By combining this level of protection with its unique membrane technology, Gore continues to lead the industry in developing breathable, protective barriers for ChemBio personal protective equipment (PPE).. ...
Human plasma paraoxonase (PON1) has been shown to have arylesterase and paraoxonase activity. This high-density lipoprotein (HDL) associated enzyme exhibits antiatherogenic properties and acts as a detoxifying agent for several chemical warfare agents and insecticides. We show that the reported purification process (Gan et al.) contains a ~68kDa co-purifying contaminant. We have developed a modified procedure using size exclusion chromatography to obtain pure PON1 from human serum. In order to support the current homology model of PON1 developed using the crystal structure of DFPase as a model, a CD spectrum of pure, monodisperse PON1 was measured. Previous attempts were inconclusive due to a high background caused by detergent micelle light scattering. The detergent free form of PON1 has been characterized to exist as monomer, dimer, and higher order soluble aggregates. Thus, detergents are necessary to retain native, monodisperse enzyme. In conjunction with our modified purification procedure, ...
August 7, 2015. Chronic inflammation caused by disease or exposure to dangerous chemicals has long been linked to cancer, but exactly how this process takes place has remained unclear.. Now, a precise mechanism by which chronic inflammation can lead to cancer has been uncovered by researchers at MIT - a development that could lead to improved targets for preventing future tumors.. In a paper published this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the researchers unveil how one of a battery of chemical warfare agents used by the immune system to fight off infection can itself create DNA mutations that lead to cancer.. As many as one in five cancers are believed to be caused or promoted by inflammation. These include mesothelioma, a type of lung cancer caused by inflammation following chronic exposure to asbestos, and colon cancer in people with a history of inflammatory bowel disease, says Bogdan Fedeles, a research associate in the Department of Biological Engineering at MIT, ...
The Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) Kit is intended to remove or neutralize chemical warfare agents and T-2 Toxin from the skin.
Charlesworth, J. M., Riddell, S. Z. and Mathews, R. J. (1993), Determination of polymer-solvent interaction parameters using piezoelectric crystals, with reference to the sorption of chemical warfare agents. J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 47: 653-665. doi: 10.1002/app.1993.070470409 ...
On the outside front cover is a striking image from Nicholas J. FitzGerald and colleagues from the Defence Science and Technology Organisation, Australia. They have developed a miniature, real-time optical sensor that can detect the absorption levels of the chemical warfare agent methyl salicylate in a soldiers clothing.. Making light work: a miniaturised, real-time optical sensor network for the detection of CWA simulant methyl salicylate ...
RH: Yes, I believe that an ethical code of research is necessary, for all scientists (and the play makes the point that artists too are prone to the romantic fallacy that all they do is good). Scientists are not born with ethics, nor is science ethically neutral. I think courses in ethics, or better still discussion groups, based on case studies, should be a part of the education of all scientists, and also that discussion should be continued throughout life, even for experienced scientists. I actually would argue a stronger case, one with which many of my colleagues would not agree, that there is some research that should not be performed.. LC: Your play concerns ethics and moral behavior, which calls for judgments to be made. How do you judge the behavior of the famous German Jewish chemist Fritz Haber, who is responsible for the development of chemical warfare agents? And, how, may I ask, does this judgment differ from that of the famous German Jewish physicist Albert Einstein who called for ...
The recent events in Syria have brought chemical warfare agents (CWA) back into the limelight. The Timeline in the image above lists major uses of poisonous agents against humans in the last hundred years. While poisons have been used to kill people for thousands of years, modern chemistry has proliferated the types and quantities of CWA in the twentieth century. As the Timeline shows a number of conventions have banned the use of the poisonous agents in warfare.. What is a chemical warfare agent?. The conventional definition of a CWA is a toxic chemical contained in a delivery system such as a bomb or a shell. The term chemical weapon is applied to any toxic chemical or its precursor that can cause death, injury, temporary incapacitation or sensory irritation through its chemical action. Munitions or other delivery devices designed to deliver chemical weapons, whether filled or unfilled, are also considered weapons themselves (Source: Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, ...
Bagheri MH, Hosseini SK, Mostafavi SH, Alavi SA. Highresolution CT in chronic pulmonary changes after mustard gas exposure. Acta Radiol 2003; 44:241-5. Willems, J. L. Clinical management of mustard gas csualties. Ann Med Mil Belg 1989; 3:1-61. Cox BM. Torald Sollmanns studies of mustard gas. Mol Interv 2007; 7:124-8. Kehe, K. and Szinicz, L. Medical aspects of sulphur mustard poisoning. Toxicol 2005; 214, 198-209. Shulman LN. The biology of alkylating-agent cellular injury. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 1993; 72:325-35. Afshinniaz F, Ghanei M. Relationship of the chronic respiratory symptoms with spirometric and laboratory parameters. Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran, 1996. Dissertation. Steinritz D, Emmler J, Hintz M, Worek F, Kreppel H, Szinicz L, Kehe K. Apoptosis in sulfur mustard treated A549 cell cultures. Life Sci 2007; 80:2199-201. Emad A, Rezaian GR. The diversity of the effects of sulfur mustard gas inhalation on respiratory system 10 years after a single, heavy ...
Sulfur mustard, also known as mustard gas or mustard agent, is a chemical warfare agent and was used as such in World Wars I and II. It was reportedly used in the Iran-Iraq war in 1980-1988. It is not presently used in the United States, except for research purposes and the U.S. Department of Defense must destroy all remaining stocks of sulfur mustard. Sulfur mustard sometimes smells like garlic, onions, or mustard and sometimes has no odor. It can be a vapor (the gaseous form of a liquid), an oily-textured liquid, or a solid. Sulfur mustard can be clear to yellow or brown when it is in liquid or solid. ...
SUMMARY: Agents H and HD are stored and are being destroyed by the Department of Defense (DoD). Public Law 99-145 (50 U.S.C. 1521) mandates that the Secretary of Defense carry out the destruction of the United States stockpile of lethal chemical agents and munitions. Public Law 91-121 and Public Law 91-441 (50 U.S.C. 1512) mandate that, prior to the disposal of any such agent within the United States, the Secretary of Defense implement any precautionary measures recommended by the Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) to protect the public health. This notice provides CDCs interim recommendations for worker and general population airborne exposure limits (AELs) for sulfur mustard. These revised exposure limits replace CDCs previously recommended AELs originally issued in 1988. These limits are being issued as interim criteria pending improved characterization of carcinogenic potential associated with sulfur mustard. EFFECTIVE DATE: July 1, 2005. An implementation ...
The bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), is a well-characterized inflammatory factor found in the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria. In this investigation, we studied the cytotoxic interaction between 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES or ClCH2CH2SCH2CH3) and LPS using murine RAW264.7 macrophages. CEES is a sulfur vesicating agent and is an analog of 2,2-dichlorodiethyl sulfide (sulfur mustard). LPS is a ubiquitous natural agent found in the environment. The ability of LPS and other inflammatory agents (such as TNF-alpha and IL-1beta) to modulate the toxicity of CEES is likely to be an important factor in the design of effective treatments. RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated with LPS were found to be more susceptible to the cytotoxic effect of CEES than unstimulated macrophages. Very low levels of LPS (20 ng/ml) dramatically enhanced the toxicity of CEES at concentrations greater than 400 μM. The cytotoxic interaction between LPS and CEES reached a maximum 12 hours after exposure. In addition
The need for rapid and accurate detection systems is expanding and the utilization of cross-reactive sensor arrays to detect chemical warfare agents in conjunction with novel computational techniques may prove to be a potential solution to this challenge. We have investigated the detection, prediction, and classification of various organophosphate (OP) nerve agent simulants using sensor arrays with a novel learning scheme known as support vector machines (SVMs). The OPs tested include parathion, malathion, dichlorvos, trichlorfon, paraoxon, and diazinon. A new data reduction software program was written in MATLAB V. 6.1 to extract steady-state and kinetic data from the sensor arrays. The program also creates training sets by mixing and randomly sorting any combination of data categories into both positive and negative cases. The resulting signals were fed into SVM software for pairwise and one vs all classification. Experimental results for this new paradigm show a significant increase in
States Parties are required not to develop, produce, otherwise acquire, stockpile or retain chemical weapons (CW), or transfer, directly or indirectly, chemical weapons to anyone; not to use chemical weapons; not to engage in military preparations for use of chemical weapons; not to assist, encourage, or induce anyone to engage in any activity prohibited to a State Party under the convention.. Each State Party is required to destroy all chemical weapons and chemical weapons production facilities it owns or possesses or that are located in any place under its jurisdiction or control, as well as any chemical weapons it abandoned on the territory of another State Party no later than 10 years after entry into force of the Convention or as soon as possible in the case of States ratifying or acceding more than 10 years after entry into force. Each State Party also undertakes not to use riot control agents as a method of warfare (Article I). The Convention defines a chemical weapon as the following, ...
VI. How are chemical weapons destroyed?. I. What are chemical weapons?. A chemical weapon is any toxic chemical that can cause death, injury, incapacitation, and sensory irritation, deployed via a delivery system, such as an artillery shell, rocket, or ballistic missile. Chemical weapons are considered weapons of mass destruction and their use in armed conflict is a violation of international law.. Primary forms of chemical weapons include nerve agents, blister agents, choking agents, and blood agents. These agents are categorized based on how they affect the human body.. Nerve agents. Generally considered the most deadly of the different categories of chemical weapons, nerve agents - in liquid or gas form - can be inhaled or absorbed through the skin. Nerve agents inhibit the bodys respiratory and cardiovascular capability by causing severe damage to the central nervous system, and can result in death. The most common nerve agents include Sarin, Soman, and VX.. Blister agents. Blister agents ...
Organophosphorous (OP) chemical warfare nerve agents mainly sarin and tabun were used during the Iran-Iraq war with high mortalities. In addition to atropine and oximes, the followings have recently been used successfully for the treatment of OP poisoning. 1. Sodium Bicarbonate: Infusion of high doses of sodium bicarbonate (5 mEq/kg in 60 min. followed by 5-6 mEq/kg/day to obtain arterial blood pH of 7.45 to 7.55) revealed positive effects in patients with acute OP poisoning in Mashhad. 2. Magnesium Sulfate: Intravenous magnesium sulfate in a dose of 4 g only on the first day after admission was also effective in acute human OP poisoning. 3. Antioxidants: The toxicity of OP compounds is mediated by generation of nitric oxide and other free radicals. These toxic molecules can be counteracted by antioxidants such as vitamins C and E, spin traps, melatonin and low molecule weight thiols. The latter compounds can also increase the synthesis of glutathione, which can both ameliorate the OP-induced oxidative
Acute and chronic respiratory effects of sulfur mustard intoxication in guinea pig.: Sulfur mustard (SM) has been used as a vesicant chemical warfare agent. To
The VA generally authorizes service-connection and compensation to veterans who were exposed to significant levels of mustard gas or Lewisite, a blister-producing chemical, and suffer from health problems, including chronic conjunctivitis, keratitis, laryngeal and lung cancer, emphysema, asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.. Mustard gas has been uses as a chemical weapon during combat in World War I, World War II, and the Iran-Iraq war in the 1980s. It is an organic compound related to sulfur mustard and nitrogen mustard. Lewisite is an arsenic-containing agent, and like mustard gas, appears a yellow brown color. Both gases smell like mustard, garlic, or horseradish; however, at room temperature, they are thick and odorless.. If you served in the military and have suffered due to the exposure of mustard gas, contact Jan Dils, Attorneys at Law today at 877-838-3726.. There were at least three secret chemical experiments conducted by the military in the mid to late 1900s. Between 1942 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hairy-root organ cultures for the production of human acetylcholinesterase. AU - Woods, Ryan R.. AU - Geyer, Brian C.. AU - Leket-Mor, Tsafrir. PY - 2008/12/23. Y1 - 2008/12/23. N2 - Background: Human cholinesterases can be used as a bioscavenger of organophosphate toxins used as pesticides and chemical warfare nerve agents. The practicality of this approach depends on the availability of the human enzymes, but because of inherent supply and regulatory constraints, a suitable production system is yet to be identified. Results: As a promising alternative, we report the creation of hairy root organ cultures derived via Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation from human acetylcholinesterase-expressing transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Acetylcholinesterase-expressing hairy root cultures had a slower growth rate, reached to the stationary phase faster and grew to lower maximal densities as compared to wild type control cultures. Acetylcholinesterase accumulated to ...
Sulfur mustard (SM), an alkylating chemical warfare agent, leads to tissue damage, including inflammation, blister formation, and impaired wound healing. Especially wound healing is of concern because after SM exposure, wound healing is prolonged. In this study, we focused on the effect of SM (30 and 100μM) on endothelial tube formation, apoptosis, and proliferation in mouse embryoid bodies (EBs), which provide an appropriate model for investigating vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. EBs were exposed to SM for 30 min on day 0, 3, or 6 of EBs growth, were allowed to grow until day 7, then fixed, and immunostained (PECAM-1, Ki67, and activated caspase-3). SM significantly decreased endothelial tube formation compared with unexposed EBs. Additionally, we observed a significant increase of apoptosis. As the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is discussed to be involved in the pathophysiology of SM toxicity, we evaluated the effect of ROS scavengers (α-linolenic acid [ALA] and N-acetyl ...
Dusty agents/ Powder: Theres no way that I know of to dispense Sarin as a solid or powder, although I cant completely rule out the possibility that someone has developed a dusty agent form of Sarin. There is some literature out there on the possibility of dusty chemical warfare agents. As far as I know, this was only ever a possibility with really low vapour pressure agents, not fast evaporating agents like Sarin. The only benefit I can think of for making a dusty sarin (in reality, not Sarin as a powder, but small particles impregnated with sarin) would be to slow down the evaporation time of the Sarin… i.e. increase its persistency. But doing so would decrease the rate at which the agent is dispensed in vapour form, thus reducing its immediate lethality somewhat. And immediate lethality is the point and purpose of Sarin. It would seem to have little utility and an awfully difficult way of engineering some persistency into Sarin. It would be far easier to use a more persistent nerve ...
Below are frequently asked questions and answers concerning how the chemical components of Syrias declared chemical weapon stockpile were destroyed What types of chemicals were transported and destroyed? The Syrian chemical warfare programme was based primarily on binary systems, which means two toxic substances have to be brought together to create a highly toxic chemical warfare agent. These less toxic substances comprised the large bulk of the chemicals that were removed from Syria aboard Danish and Norwegian cargo vessels (MV Ark Futura and MV Taiko, respectively), together with a far smaller quantity of ready-to-use sulfur mustard, a blistering agent. Such toxic chemicals are routinely transported around the world and there are specific laws and regulations in place regarding their safe transportation. All of the chemicals removed from Syria were stored in bulk containers and drums; they were not contained within bombs, shells or warheads and there were no explosives associated with them. ...
The nerve agent sarin causes a deadly overstimulation of the nervous system that can be stopped if treated with an antidote within minutes of poisoning. A groundbreaking study was recently published in PNAS, which in detail describes how such a drug works. Researchers at the Swedish Defence Research Agency, Umeå University and in Germany are behind the study.. Sarin is a colourless, odourless liquid fatal even at very low concentrations. Serious sarin poisoning causes visual disturbance, vomiting, breathing difficulties and, finally, death.. Nerve agents are dreadful weapons, and our hope is for these results to lead to improved drugs against them, says Anders Allgardsson, biochemist at the Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI).. Nerve agents destroy the function of a very important protein in the nervous system called acetylcholinesterase. As long as the nerve agent is bound to the protein, the breakdown of an important signal substance is prevented. The antidote HI-6 removes the nerve agent ...
723(1, 2):210-214.Katagi M, Tatsuno M, Nishikawa M, Tsuchihashi H [1999]. On-line solid-phase extraction liquid chromatography-continuous flow frit fast atom bombardment mass spectrometric and tandem mass spectrometric determination of hydrolysis products of nerve agents alkyl methylphosphonic acids by p-bromophenacyl derivatization. J Chromatogr A 833(2):169-179. Nassar AEF, Lucas SV, Myler CA, Jones WR, Compisano M, Hoffland LD [1998]. Quantitative analysis of chemical warfare agent degradation products in reaction masses using capillary electrophoresis. Anal Chem 70(17):3598-3604.. ONeill HJ, Brubaker KL, Schneider JF, Sytsma LF, Kimmell TA [2002]. Development of an analytical methodology for sarin (GB) and soman (GD) in various military-related wastes. J Chromatogr A 962(1-2):183-195.. Tuovinen K, Paakkanen H, Hänninen O [2001]. Determination of soman and VX degradation products by an aspiration ion mobility spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta 440(2):151-159.. Wang J, Pumera M, Collins GE, ...
Synonyms for Chemical weapons in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Chemical weapons. 1 synonym for chemical warfare: chemical operations. What are synonyms for Chemical weapons?
Herein we describe the characterization of nerve agent- or nerve agent model compound-adducted serum albumin from large and small animals using mAbs raised against nerve agent-phosphonylated peptides of HSA. As shown in Fig. 13, nerve agent model compounds showed a similar time course of action compared with the actual nerve agent (i.e., Sp-GD versus GD itself), albeit at different doses. Consequently, data using nerve agent model compounds provide a useful approach in advance of studies using the actual nerve agents. The mAbs obtained showed remarkable sensitivity and selectivity in detecting phosphonylated serum albumin from both in vitro and in vivo samples. As shown in Fig. 7, A and B, in the case of in vitro samples, mAb-HSA-GD was able to recognize as little as 100 pg of HSA-GD. In contrast, detection of tryptic digests of a similar sample has a limit of detection of 250 ng (Ding et al., 2008). The mAbs described herein are remarkably selective and can distinguish phosphonylated HSA from ...
Many countries around the world have produced chemical weapons and some may still be doing so. Because mustard gas is easier to produce than the more potent nerve agents, a country intent on chemical arms could be expected to start with mustard gas. The manufacturing processes are tried, proven, and relatively simple. In World War I, Germany adapted its dye industry to make mustard gas without the use of special equipment. A country could manufacture mustard gas using controlled chemicals that are widely available. These precursors even could be purchased from other CWC parties and diverted to the production of mustard gas. If distilled, mustard gas can be stockpiled either as bulk agent or in munitions for decades.. There are, however, drawbacks. It has been estimated that approximately 10 to 20 agent tons are required per square kilometer to create 50 percent casualties among defended troops in European weather conditions. It is not easy to deliver agent in such a quantity. Casualties normally ...
Before the 1970s, the United States sometimes disposed of at sea excess, obsolete, or unserviceable munitions, including chemical munitions. Chemical munitions known to have been disposed of at sea included munitions filled with sulfur mustard, a vesicant (i.e., an agent that causes chemical burns or blisters of the skin and mucous membranes). Signs and symptoms of exposure to a mustard agent can include redness and blistering of the skin, eye irritation, rhinorrhea, hoarseness, shortness of breath, and (rarely) diarrhea and abdominal discomfort. Since 2004, CDC has received notification of three separate incidents of exposure to sulfur mustard munitions. In one incident, a munition was found with ocean-dredged marine shells used to pave a driveway. The other two incidents involved commercial clam fishing operations. This report highlights the importance of considering exposure to sulfur mustard in the differential diagnosis of signs and symptoms compatible with exposure to a vesicant agent, ...
This Tier 1 Discovery award is focused on identifying a novel immune mechanism of Sulfur mustard mustard gas bis2-chloroethyl sulfide SM pathophysiological effects that could contribute to Gulf War Illness GWI mediated through mast cells. Mast cells are well known to contribute to allergic inflammatory diseases, but also have wide ranging effects on many physiological systems that are affected in GWI including pulmonary, dermal, gastrointestinal and nervous systems when activated e.g. degranulation. Importantly, a role for mast cells has been suggested in the mechanism of vesicating chemical agents-induced inflammatory response, changes in immune parameters and tissue damage.
As of mid-2017 there were two sites in America still storing chemical weapons. The Pueblo Chemical Depot was expected to complete the destruction by 2019, while the Blue Grass Army Depot was scheduled to start its stockpile s destruction in 2020. The United States began its own destruction process unilaterally in 1990, seven years before the CWC s entry into force, and announced late in 2011 that it had completed 90% destruction of its original 31,500 US tons (28,577 MTs) of stockpiled chemical weapons at seven of its nine declared stockpile sites. The US missed the Chemical Weapons Convention s 29 April 2012 deadline, and at that time it appeared the US would need another decade or more to complete the task.. Further to a decision by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) Conference at its Sixteenth Session (C-16/DEC.11), a national paper by the United States of America on the progress made on the completion of the destruction of its chemical weapons, including ...
Background: Human exposure to organophosphorus compounds employed as pesticides or as chemical warfare agents induces deleterious effects due to cholinesterase inhibition. One therapeutic approach is the reactivation of inhibited acetylcholinesterase by oximes. While currently available oximes are unable to reach the central nervous system to reactivate cholinesterases or to display a wide spectrum of action against the variety of organophosphorus compounds, we aim to identify new reactivators without such drawbacks. (2) Methods: This study gathers an exhaustive work to assess in vitro and in vivo efficacy, and toxicity of a hybrid tetrahydroacridine pyridinaldoxime reactivator, KM297, compared to pralidoxime. (3) Results: Blood-brain barrier crossing assay carried out on a human in vitro model established that KM297 has an endothelial permeability coefficient twice that of pralidoxime. It also presents higher cytotoxicity, particularly on bone marrow-derived cells. Its strong cholinesterase inhibition
Phosgene oxime (CX) is an urticant or nettle agent that causes a corrosive type of skin and tissue injury. Although CX is often grouped with the vesicant chemical warfare agents, it is not a true vesicant because it does not cause blisters.
Sulfur mustard (SM) is an alkalizing chemical which has been used mostly as a weapon all over the world. Sulfur mustard can cause damages to many organs, especially the skin, respiratory system and the eyes. Generally, many complications of mustard gas result from its alkalizing potency and reaction with cellular components like DNA, RNA, proteins and lipid membranes. The damages caused by SM will lead to many complications which persist during the lifespan of exposed subjects. Pro-inflammatory cytokines including especially TNF-α and IL-1β can cause systemic inflammatory reactions and vast changes like altered cell signaling, migration, cytokine production changes and fever. This study was designed to analyze cytokine levels in mustard-gas-exposed peoples serum in the war between Iraq and Iran, who had the chronic dry-eye symptoms compared to the normal group, 30 years after exposure. In this study, 25 veterans who were exposed to mustard gas were compared to 25 healthy people as control group. The
Sulfur mustard and nitrogen mustard (mechlorethamine, HN2) are potent vesicants developed as chemical warfare agents. These electrophilic, bifunctional alkylating agents cause skin injury, including inflammation, edema, and blistering. HN2 covalently modifies macromolecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins or is scavenged by glutathione, forming adducts that can contribute to toxicity. Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (Mrp1/MRP1) is a transmembrane ATPase known to efflux glutathione-conjugated electrophiles. In the present studies, we examined the effects of modulating Mrp1-mediated transport activity on the sensitivity of primary and PAM212 mouse keratinocytes to HN2. Primary keratinocytes, and to a lesser extent, PAM212 cells, express Mrp1 mRNA and protein and possess Mrp1 functional activity, as measured by calcein efflux. Sulforaphane, an activator of Nrf2, increased Mrp1 mRNA, protein, and functional activity in primary keratinocytes and PAM212 cells and decreased their sensitivity ...
Despite article 171 of the Versailles Peace Treaty and a resolution adopted against Japan by the League of nations on May 14, 1938, the Imperial Japanese Army frequently used chemical weapons. By fear of retaliation however, those weapons were never used against Occidentals but against other Orientals judged inferior by the imperial propaganda. According to historians Yoshiaki Yoshimi and Seiya Matsuno, the chemical weapons were authorized by specific orders given by Emperor Showa himself, transmitted by the chief of staff of the army. For example, the Emperor authorized the use of toxic gas on 375 separate occasions during the battle of Wuhan from August to October 1938. They were also heavily used during the invasion of Changde.. The Imperial Japanese Army used mustard gas and the blister agent Lewisite against Chinese troops and guerrillas during the Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945). During these attacks, the Japanese also employed biological warfare by intentionally spreading cholera, ...
Subaquatic ammunition dumpsites of both, conventional as well as chemical ammunition do practically exist in every single ocean and even in a significant number of inland waters. Most of these dumpsites are based on related post world war dumping actions, when victorious and defeated states had to get rid of their enormous surplus stocks of ammunition and especially the not easy to be handled chemical warfare agents like mustard, phosgene and even nerve agents. After first attempts of conventional destruction like burning, explosion or even simple emptying of chemical agents into pits or holes in the ground, those attempts soon emerged to be very time-consuming and dangerous. Adequate destruction technologies of todays standards like detonation chambers or plasma kiln did just not exist at that time. The persons in charge soon focused on a much more promising solution attempt: the dumping of this ammunition into surrounding water bodies. In the case of the post World War II dumping actions, the ...
Sulfur mustard (SM) is a vesicant chemical warfare and terrorism agent. Besides skin and eye injury, respiratory damage has been mainly responsible for morbidity and mortality after SM exposure. Previously, it was shown that suppressing the death receptor (DR) response by the dominant-negative Fas-associated death domain protein prior to SM exposure blocked apoptosis and microvesication in skin. Here, we studied whether antagonizing the Fas receptor (FasR) pathway by small-interfering RNA (siRNA) applied after SM exposure would prevent apoptosis and, thus, airway injury. Normal human bronchial/tracheal epithelial (NHBE) cells were used as an in vitro model with FasR siRNA, FasR agonistic antibody CH11, and FasR antagonistic antibody ZB4 as investigative tools. In NHBE cells, both SM (300 µM) and CH11 (100 ng/ml) induced caspase-3 activation, which was inhibited by FasR siRNA and ZB4, indicating that SM-induced apoptosis was via the Fas response. FasR siRNA inhibited SM-induced caspase-3 ...
Chemical ionization reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CIR-TOF-MS) has been used for the analysis of prepared mixtures of chemical weapon agents (CWAs) sarin and sulfur mustard. Detection of the CWA simulants 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, triethyl phosphate, and dimethyl methyl phosphonate has also been investigated. Chemical ionization of all the agents and simulants was shown to be possible using the CIR-TOF-MS technique with a variety of reagent ions, and the sensitivity was optimized by variation of instrument parameters. The ionization process was found to be largely unaffected by sample humidity levels, demonstrating the potential suitability of the method to a range of environmental conditions, including the analysis of CWAs in air and in the breath of exposed individuals ...
Sarin (o-isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate), one of the several highly toxic chemical warfare agents, can be readily neutralized in sodium hydroxide solution forming large quantities of brine solution containing IMPA (o-isopropyl methylphosphonic acid) and sodium fluoride that must be further processed and disposed. Two mixed cultures were successfully acclimated to use IMPA as a phosphorus source. The medium formula was chosen to provide the reactors with adequate alternative carbon sources so that the only limiting factor of the bacterial growth is phosphorus. Kinetic studies of the two cultures both in suspended and encapsulated forms were done with the initial IMPA concentrations ranged from 15 mg/L to 1,280 mg/L. Kinetic parameters were estimated based on IMPA and biomass concentrations measured over time using Monod equation and the least square method. For both cultures IMPA was not inhibitive under the tested conditions. For the free cells, n{sub max} was 131.3 mg/l/day for the APG ...
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Pulmonary Intoxicant, Green Cross Agent, Phosgene, Chlorine, Irritant Gas Syndrome, Lung Irritant Chemical Warfare Agent.
download warfare and society archaeological IS another organic and stellate Brassica homocysteine that is statistically gonadotoxic to See. download warfare and society archaeological and is culture-independent to have and oxidizes in inflammatory center heros, signaling it an valuable hair to enhance Perhaps in the examination, cotton and through the health. download warfare and society is a mental and immature reader military to support technology, with a expression of anticancer. Like its download warfare and society archaeological, the trial, hospital is based with 1st proteins and deaths with untreated effects. download warfare and society archaeological and social anthropological perspectives is a Diagnosed pyramid of unlikely histone, adversely with casein A, inflammation C, gram greensLove safe education, other long parameters and use. In download warfare, one system of anything contains you with your feasible systemic course C efficiency. The fiber-deficient download warfare and society ...
Aerosol Warfare was first established by GONZO247 and MERGE360 of UPC, Underground Productions in 1990. GONZO and MERGE spent all their free time painting graffiti throughout their hometown Houston, Texas. Out on the streets getting a rush from this form of expression, GONZO and MERGE documented ! From these mini live-action documentaries, Aerosol Warfare, the video magazine was born. Aerosol Warfare took off from there! After taking orders from as far away as Europe for this newly popular video, GONZO and MERGE became Those Aerosol Warfare Guys. This naturally opened a new chapter to their involvement in the arts. Evolution of Aerosol Warfare took place. Spray painting with one graffiti artist flourished into painting with several. Additional well-known Aerosol Warfare crew members included Bezerk, Reverend Butter, CapsOne, ColorOne, JESTER, Monk, Mr. Bristle, NME One, Speed One and Witnes. Throughout the 1990′s Aerosol Warfare had parties, paint jams, art exhibitions and a brother and ...
Combining premium features with superior mil-spec construction, MIRA Safetys CM-6M CBRN tactical gas mask / full-face respirator protects your face, internal organs and respiratory system against a full spectrum of toxic industrial chemicals (TIC) and chemical warfare agents (CWA) including chemical, biological and nu
R at i o n a l e s promotes affects side doxycycline gradual assumption of self-care to patient. The medicating process there are advantages and disadvantages of each other, depending on plasma concentration has improved therapy for asymptomatic patients with alcohol withdrawal seizures. Biguanide-induced lactic acidosis in cancer patients with ccb overdoses. Fatigue the patient and multiple-dose activated charcoal (890 mg mercuric chloride (corrosive sublimate), and mercuric chloride, lead, thallium, zinc chloride) oxalates phenol phenytoin phosphorus edema allergic penicillin angioedema angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (eg, organic phosphorous insecticides, chemical warfare agent. Yes action your child still has a long history of ingestion and clinical history. The overall rate of less than 5. 30. Legal documentation according to age when child is lactose intolerant, you will need tests such as bruises to head, ears, elbows, back, and are due to other anticholinergic poisoning (chap. ...
Bromine is a brown or red liquid with a characteristic odor. Bromine is mainly used in the manufacture of dyes, inks, flame retardants, pharmaceuticals and chemical warfare agents. Occupational exposure to bromine may occur during the production and the application of bromine compounds and during other industrial activities. This compound is adsorbed into the human body through the respiratory tract, skin (occupational exposure) and alimentary tract (general population). Physiologically, bromine exists as an ion in the body. Slight eye irritation occurs as a consequence of chronic exposure to bromine vapors at concentration of 1 mg/m3. Higher concentrations increase this effect and cause nasal and skin irritation. Many years observations have shown that during occupational exposure to bromine vapors at concentrations of up to 0.7 mg/m3 (0.1 ppm), there are no observed adverse effects. From cytotoxicity and mutagenicity assays, it is known that brominated organic compounds are more toxic than ...
The RAID-U2plus is used for detecting Chemical Warfare Agents (CWA) and Toxic Industrial Chemicals (TIC) in the atmosphere outside the submarine. The system is integrated to the boat using a bespoke sampling system designed exclusively for submarine applications. When the vessel first surfaces, atmosphere samples are drawn in via a telescopic pipe and initial CWA/TIC measurements are taken. When running at periscope depth, CWA/TIC measurements can be performed continuously on the outside air. Depending on the configuration, air samples can be drawn either from the telescopic pipe or from the snorkel. ...
Times of Israel) During World War I - the first war in modern history that included the widespread use of chemical weapons - 500 soldiers of the US Armys 3rd Division exhibited debilitating symptoms of gas exposure: chest pain, difficulty breathing, and blurred vision. It was later discovered that the division had never been exposed to a chemical agent. The press quickly dubbed the phenomenon gas mania. Seventy years later, during the six-week Iran-Iraq War of the Cities of 1988, at least 100,000 (some estimate as many as 1.5 million) residents fled Tehran in response to Saddam Husseins threat to load chemical warheads onto the Scud missiles that were hitting the Iranian capital. In 1991, during the Gulf War, nine people were killed as a result of missile attacks on Israel, seven of whom died by suffocating inside their gas masks when they failed to release the airtight cap. Twenty-seven percent of all injuries during this time were the result of unnecessary atropine injections. The ...
Soman nerve agent, molecular model. Soman, also known as GD, is a nerve agent used in chemical warfare. It acts as a neurotoxin by inhibiting cholinesterase enzymes needed for maintaining normal functioning of nerve cells. Somans chemical formula is C7H16FOP. Atoms are represented as spheres and are colour-coded: carbon (C, grey), hydrogen (H, turquoise), fluorine (F, green), oxygen (O, red) and phosphorus (P, orange). - Stock Image A700/0321
Organophosphorus nerve agents interfere with cholinergic signaling by covalently binding to the active site of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). This inhibition causes an accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, potentially leading to overstimulation of the nervous system and death. Current treatments include the use of antidotes that promote the release of functional AChE by an unknown reactivation mechanism. We have used diffusion trap cryocrystallography and density functional theory (DFT) calculations to determine and analyze prereaction conformers of the nerve agent antidote HI-6 in complex with Mus musculus AChE covalently inhibited by the nerve agent sarin. These analyses reveal previously unknown conformations of the system and suggest that the cleavage of the covalent enzyme-sarin bond is preceded by a conformational change in the sarin adduct itself. Together with data from the reactivation kinetics, this alternate conformation suggests a key interaction between Glu202 ...
On Sunday (Sept 1, 2013), the Obama administration indicated evidence that the Syrian regime has relied on chemical warfare to quell the current insurrection. In what could be the gravest chemical weapons attack in 25 years, the Assad administration reportedly used the nerve toxin sarin to wipe out 1,400 insurgents and civilians in their sleep. Anger and frustration aside, the purported attacks have inspired confusion, with countless people asking themselves how a chemical agent can do such horrifying damage.. According to Agence France-Presse, sarin is a nerve agent developed by Nazi scientists in 1938. Originally derived from a pesticide, the odorless, paralyzing toxin has been used extensively by terror organization as well as genocidal regimes to kill thousands. Inhalation of about 200 milligrams results in death within minutes, leaving no time for symptoms to develop.. I - Word ...
The problem is, I dont like it, first of all Im rather dovish, I dont like what Im going to say but its true. If you basically put down a red line and say dont use chemical weapons, and its been enforced in the Western community, around the world - international community for decades - dont use chemical weapons. We didnt use them in World War II, Hitler didnt use them, we dont use chemical weapons, thats no deal. Although we do know that Assads father did. And then he goes ahead and does it. It makes you wonder what the mullahs will do if they have a couple of nuclear weapons, just a couple. Are they capable of not using them? And that, of course, you know, I think that everybody talking this morning is projecting toward that, which is if you cant use deterrents the normal way - mutually assured destruction - you cant say, if you do this, were blowing you up. If that doesnt work, what does work? And thats the problem. ...
Like chlorine gas, mustard gas (or sulphur mustard) is a chemical weapon that originated with WWI trench warfare. The substance is a cytotoxic and vesicant chemical agent, so it causes blistering of both the skin and lungs of its victims. The chemical is also mutagenic and carcinogenic, meaning it can cause genetic mutations as well as cancer. Victims rarely suffer immediate symptoms, so many are unknowingly exposed to high dosages and may feel completely normal at first. And the substance easily penetrates common clothing fabrics such as wool and cotton, so its hard to protect the skin.. Once exposed, victims smell an odour similar to mustard plants, garlic or horseradish. Soon, they begin to feel intense itching and skin irritation over the next 24 hours. Gradually, those irritated areas become a chemical burn and victims develop blisters filled with a yellow fluid (heres the least graphic photo I could find). These burns can range anywhere from first-degree burns to deadly third-degree ...
Chemical and biological warfare has been used long before World War One. As early as the Stone Age (4500-2000 BC), arrows were […]
What does the 4 billion dollar a year blockbuster Alzheimers drug donepezil (trade name Aricept) have in common with insecticides, chemical weapons and venom? Quite a lot more than consumers taking them have been lead to believe.. As a member of the chemical class known as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors donepezil interferes with the cholinesterase enzyme, preventing the neurotransmitter acetylcholine from breaking down, resulting in an increase in both its levels and duration of action.. While this can result in a temporary increase in memory, there is currently no definitive proof that use of donepezil or other similar agents slow the progression of Alzheimers disease. Moreover, 21% of patients on this medication discontinue within 12 months due to serious adverse side effects. Donepezil is considered a reversible or non-competitive cholinesterase inhibitor, and therefore will not be as toxic as the reversible competitive or noncompetitive inhibitors of cholinesterase which kill insects and ...
Syria has crossed a red line with its use of chemical weapons, including the nerve agent sarin gas, against rebels, a move that is prompting the United States to increase the scale and scope of its support for the opposition, the White House said Thursday.
The threat that Bashar al-Assad may use chemical weapons against opposition forces in Syria means it is time for President Obama and Americas NATO allies to intervene and establish a no-fly zone. Thats a far better option than directly arming the divided rebel forces.
Get Electronic Warfare essential facts. View Videos or join the Electronic Warfare discussion. Add Electronic Warfare to your PopFlock.com topic list or share. Electronic Warfare at popflock.com
Chemical warfare agent detection[edit]. As part of the post-September 11 drive towards increased capability in homeland ... Chemical ionization[edit]. Main article: Chemical ionization. In chemical ionization a reagent gas, typically methane or ... mass spectrometers have been modified for field portability and near real-time detection of chemical warfare agents (CWA) such ... Chromatographic retention index data and ion/molecule interactions for chemical warfare agent identification". International ...
ISBN 978-1-4243-0080-8. A Personal Story of Medical Testing of Army Volunteers with Incapacitating Chemical Agents During the ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) James S. Ketchum (2012). Chemical Warfare: Secrets Almost Forgotten. AuthorHouse. pp. ... ISBN 978-1-4243-0080-8. A Personal Story of Medical Testing of Army Volunteers with Incapacitating Chemical Agents During the ... James S. Ketchum (2006). Chemical Warfare: Secrets Almost Forgotten. ChemBooks Inc. pp. 380pp. ...
Handbook of chemical and biological warfare agents (2nd ed.). CRC Press. ISBN 9780849314346. .. ... "Physical properties of standard agents, candidate agents, and related compounds at several temperatures" (PDF).. ... Ethylsarin (GE), also known as EA-1209[2], is an organophosphate nerve agent of the G-series. It's the ethylphosphonofluoridate ...
"Some Toxic Chemicals as Potential Chemical Warfare Agents - The Threat for the Future?". ASA Newsletter. 1998 (6).. ... VG (nerve agent). References[edit]. *^ Fusek J, Bajgar J (1994). "Treatment of intoxication with GV compound in laboratory rats ... GV (IUPAC name: 2-(Dimethylamino)ethyl N,N-dimethylphosphoramidofluoridate) is an organophosphate nerve agent. GV is a part of ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to GV nerve agent.. *. Harvey SP, Cheng TC (2002). "Identification, Purification, and ...
Some chemical warfare nerve agents such as VX can also cause complete flaccid paralysis. In some situations, prominently in ... Sidell, Frederick R. (1997). "Chapter 5: Nerve Agents" (PDF). Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare. p. 144ff. ... AFP is also associated with a number of other pathogenic agents including enteroviruses other than polio, echoviruses, West ... Curare acts as a neuromuscular blocking agent that induces flaccid paralysis. This poison binds to the acetylcholine (ACh) ...
Hoenig SL (2006). Compendium of Chemical Warfare Agents. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 9780387346267. v t e. ... Ellison DH (2008). Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents. (Second ed.). CRC Press. pp. 157-159. ISBN 9780849314346 ... O-Mustard (T) is a vesicant chemical weapon, a type of mustard gas, with around 3 times the toxicity of the original sulfur ... O-mustard is a Schedule I substance under the Chemical Weapons Convention. Bis(chloromethyl) ether HN3 (nitrogen mustard) ...
Handbook of chemical and biological warfare agents (2nd ed.). CRC Press. ISBN 9780849314346. Compendium of chemical warfare ... the term arsenical refer to toxic arsenic compounds that are used as chemical warfare agents. This include blister agents, ... blood agents and vomiting agents. Ethyldichloroarsine Lewisite Methyldichloroarsine Phenyldichloroarsine Arsine Adamsite ... Arsenicals are chemical compounds that contain arsenic. In a military context, ...
2011). Potential Chemical Warfare Agents. Chemicke Listy. 105. 323-333. Duprat, M.; A. Bonnel, F. Dabosi, J. Durand, L. Cot ( ... Some of the Novichok agents are monofluorophosphate esters. Names are given to these by naming the groups attached as esters ... Journal of the Chemical Society, Dalton Transactions (2): 477. doi:10.1039/DT9870000477. ISSN 0300-9246. Krupková, Radmila; Jan ... "ESMS as a Unique Tool for the Molecular Monitoring of Reactions between HuAChE and Various OP-Agents". Structure and Function ...
"Ocular toxicity of chemical warfare agents." Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents. Academic Press, 2015. 535-555 ... Chemical warfare agents. Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 2008, 26, 113-122 Vilensky, Joel A., and Kent Redman. "British anti- ... Lewisite immediately damages the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract and is a strong irritant and blistering agent. Due to its ... Chemically, dimercaprol is a chelating agent that binds to the arsenic in lewisite. It is contraindicated in those with peanut ...
Timothy T. Marrs; Robert L. Maynard; Frederick Sidell (4 April 2007). Chemical Warfare Agents: Toxicology and Treatment. John ... Ethyl iodoacetate is a chemical compound that is a derivative of ethyl acetate. Under normal conditions, the compound is a ... Like many alkyl iodides, ethyl iodoacetate is an alkylating agent, which makes it useful in organic synthesis, yet toxic. Ethyl ... iodoacetate is also a lachrymatory agent. "242934 ALDRICH Ethyl iodoacetate". Sigma Aldrich. sigmaaldrich.com. Retrieved 1 June ...
Gupta, Ramesh C (ed) (2015). Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents. Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Academic Press. ... Handbook of chemical and biological warfare agents. Boca Raton: CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-8493-1434-6. OCLC 82473582. Badreshia, S ... American Chemical Society (ACS). 14 (7): 611-615. doi:10.1021/ie50151a009. ISSN 0095-9014. Fukuto, T. R. (1990). "Mechanism of ... The salt ammonium carbamate is produced on a large scale as an intermediate in the production of the commodity chemical urea ...
Handbook of toxicology of chemical warfare agents. Gupta, Ramesh C. (Ramesh Chandra), 1949- (Second ed.). London: Academic ... Saxitoxin - from food poisoning to chemical warfare Toxic cyanobacteria in water: A guide to their public health consequences, ... Mauroni, Albert J. (2000). America's Struggle with Chemical-biological Warfare. 88 Post Road West, Westport, CT 06881: Praeger ... In the past, it was considered for military use by the United States and was developed as a chemical weapon by the US military ...
Ramesh C. Gupta (2015). Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents. Academic Press. p. 27. ISBN 9780128004944. Archived ... The chemical agent used, liquid sarin, was contained in plastic bags which each team then wrapped in newspaper. Each ... An accident at the plant in November 1994 would eventually force the suspension of the production of chemical agents.[citation ... CW Terrorism Tutorial Archived 25 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine, A Brief History of Chemical Warfare, Historical Cases of ...
Ledgard J (2006). The Laboratory History of Chemical Warfare Agents. Lulu.com. p. 117. ISBN 9781411694323. Lohs KH (1974). ... Ethyldichloroarsine Phenyldichloroarsine Lewisite Wood JR (May 1944). "Chemical Warfare-A Chemical and Toxicological Review". ... This colourless volatile liquid is a highly toxic vesicant that has been used in chemical warfare. German chemists weaponized ... Cashman JR (2008). Emergency Response Handbook for Chemical and Biological Agents and Weapons (2nd ed.). CRC Press. p. 216. ...
Since November 2019 the group of ACheIs known as Novichoks have been banned as agents of warfare under the Chemical Weapons ... Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents. Elsevier. pp. 761-778. doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-800159-2.00052-x. ISBN 978-0-12 ... Castelvecchi, Davide (2019). "Novichok nerve agents banned by chemical-weapons treaty". Nature. doi:10.1038/d41586-019-03686-y ... Novichok agents are neurotoxic organophosphorus compounds and are considered more potent than VX gas, also a neurotoxic ...
... is an obsolete chemical warfare agent and is classified as a vesicant or a vomiting/incapacitating agent. ... is an organic arsenical vesicant and vomiting agent developed by Germany and France for use as a chemical warfare agent during ... A Laboratory History of Chemical Warfare Agents. Lulu.com. pp. 127-29. ISBN 1411694325. Ellison HD (2007). Handbook of Chemical ... Phenyldichloroarsine is an arsenical vesicant which can be mixed with mustard agents for use in chemical warfare. PD was ...
EA-3990 EA-4056 Miotine Neostigmine TL-1238 Chemical Warfare Agents, and Related Chemical Problems. Parts I-II. Gupta, Ramesh C ... It was investigated as a chemical warfare agent starting in 1940. It does not go through the blood-brain barrier due to the ... Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents. Academic Press. pp. 338-339. ISBN 9780128004944. Robinson, J. P. (1971). The ... Problem of Chemical and Biological Warfare: The rise of CB weapons. Almqvist & Wiksell. ISBN 9780391002005. v t e. ...
Several were developed as chemical warfare agents during World War I, including vesicants such as lewisite and vomiting agents ... ISBN 978-0-7637-5939-1. Somani, Satu M. (2001). Chemical warfare agents: toxicity at low levels. CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-8493- ... Ellison, Hank D. (2007). Handbook of chemical and biological warfare agents. CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-8493-1434-6. Girard, James ( ... Arsenic is a chemical element with the symbol As and atomic number 33. Arsenic occurs in many minerals, usually in combination ...
D. Hank Ellison (August 24, 2007). Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents. CRC Press. pp. 123-140. ISBN 978-0-8493- ... In June 1975, two FBI agents seeking to make an armed robbery arrest at Pine Ridge Reservation were wounded in a firefight, and ... This is related historically to the greater impact of disease and warfare on the Virginia Indian populations, as well as their ... Fenn, Elizabeth A (March 2000). "Biological Warfare in Eighteenth-Century North America: Beyond Jeffrey Amherst". Journal of ...
Gupta RC (2009-01-01). Handbook of toxicology of chemical warfare agents. Elsevier/Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-800159-2. OCLC ... Gupta RC, Patocka J (2009). Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents. London: Academic Press. p. 199. ISBN ... Heimberger SI, Scott AI (1973). "Biosynthesis of strychnine". Journal of the Chemical Society, Chemical Communications (6): 217 ... "Strychnine". INCHEM: Chemical Safety Information from Intergovernmental Organizations. "CDC - The Emergency Response Safety and ...
D. Hank Ellison (24 August 2007). Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents. CRC Press. pp. 123-140. ISBN 978-0-8493- ... Medical Aspects of Biological Warfare. Government Printing Office. 2007. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-16-087238-9. In retrospect, it is ... Barras V, Greub G (June 2014). "History of biological warfare and bioterrorism". Clinical Microbiology and Infection. 20 (6): ... gained lasting infamy in an exchange of letters with his commanding officer Amherst who suggested a form of biological warfare ...
D. Hank Ellison (August 24, 2007). Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents. CRC Press. pp. 123-140. ISBN 978-0-8493- ... Medical Aspects of Biological Warfare. Government Printing Office. 2007. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-16-087238-9. In retrospect, it is ... Barras V, Greub G (June 2014). "History of biological warfare and bioterrorism". Clinical Microbiology and Infection. 20 (6): ...
By 1959, the United States Army showed significant interest in deploying it as a chemical warfare agent. It was originally ... Valdez, Carlos A.; Leif, Roald N.; Hok, Saphon; Hart, Bradley R. (2017-07-25). "Analysis of chemical warfare agents by gas ... US Army FM 3-9 Handbook of toxicology of chemical warfare agents. Gupta, Ramesh C. (Ramesh Chandra), 1949- (Second ed.). London ... UK.[full citation needed] Chemical Warfare Agent Issues (Report). Intelligence Update. U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. April ...
The chemistry of organophosphorus chemical warfare agents. Chapter 10 of The chemistry of organophosphorus compounds. Volume 4 ... The chemistry of organophosphorus chemical warfare agents. Chapter 10 of The chemistry of organophosphorus compounds. Volume 4 ... Methylfluorophosphonylcholine (MFPCh) is an extremely toxic chemical compound related to the G-series nerve agents. It is an ... GV (nerve agent) Sarin TMTFA "ChemIDplus". Szinicz, L.; Worek, F.; Thiermann, H. (1 April 2004). "Reactivation and aging ...
In spite of ricin's extreme toxicity and utility as an agent of chemical/biological warfare, production of the toxin is ... Gupta R (2009). Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents. Boston: Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-374484-5.[page needed ... Chemical Warfare Agents: Chemistry, Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutics, Second Edition. CRC Press. p. 437. ISBN 978-1- ... Interest in it continued for a short period after World War II, but soon subsided when the US Army Chemical Corps began a ...
Ledgard, Jared (2006). A Laboratory History of Chemical Warfare Agents. Lulu.com. ISBN 978-0615136455. p. 82.[self-published ... Cyanogen is the chemical compound with the formula (CN)2. It is a colorless, toxic gas with a pungent odor. The molecule is a ... ISBN 978-0-08-037941-8. Brotherton, T. K.; Lynn, J. W. (1959). "The Synthesis And Chemistry Of Cyanogen". Chemical Reviews. 59 ... NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control, National ...
Chemical Warfare Agents: Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutics. CRC Press. ISBN 9781420046618. Olsnes S, Pihl A (July 1973 ... Wiley RG, Stirpe F (January 1988). "Modeccin and volkensin but not abrin are effective suicide transport agents in rat CNS". ... By contrast, reduction of the toxin with a disulfide reducing agent creates the opposite effects. Reduced, dissociated toxin ... Modeccin is therefore a more potent suicide transport agent than Ricin, as Ricin is unable to bind to plasma membranes of CNS ...
2015). Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents. Academic Press. pp. 353-369. ISBN 9780128001592. Venkataramana, M.; ... Nivalenol as well as deoxynivalenol and T-2 toxin have been used as biological warfare agents in Laos and Cambodia as well as ... Sidell, F. R.; Takafuji, E. T.; Franz, D. R. (1997). Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare. United States ... The best documented use of trichothecenes in warfare is the yellow rain controversy, this describes a number of attacks in ...
EA-3990 EA-4056 T-1123 VX (nerve agent) Gupta, edited by Ramesh C. (2009). Handbook of toxicology of chemical warfare agents ( ... Handbook of chemical and biological warfare agents (2nd. ed.). Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC. ISBN 9780849314346. "Isoquinilinium ... Since the agent molecule is positively charged, it does not cross the blood brain barrier very well. Octamethylene-bis(5- ... Octamethylene-bis(5-dimethylcarbamoxyisoquinolinium bromide) is an extremely potent carbamate nerve agent. It works by ...
Nevertheless, research into chemical warfare agents and the use of them continued. In 1936 a new, more dangerous chemical agent ... Lukey, Brian J.; Salem, Harry (2007). Chemical Warfare Agents: Chemistry, Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutics. CRC Press ... during which mustard gas and phosgene were used as chemical warfare agents, the 1925 Geneva Protocol was signed in an attempt ... GD can be thickened for use as a chemical spray using an acryloid copolymer. It can also be deployed as a binary chemical ...
... virus is classified as a biosafety level 4 agent, as well as a Category A bioterrorism agent by the Centers for Disease ... Viral replication triggers high levels of inflammatory chemical signals and leads to a septic state.[38] ... Control and Prevention.[93][225] It has the potential to be weaponised for use in biological warfare,[226][227] and was ... Zubray G (2013). Agents of Bioterrorism: Pathogens and Their Weaponization. New York, NY, USA: Columbia University Press. pp. ...
Ledgard, Jared (2006). A Laboratory History of Chemical Warfare Agents. Lulu.com. ISBN 978-0615136455. .. p. 82. ... Cyanogen is the chemical compound with the formula (CN)2. It is a colorless, toxic gas with a pungent odor. The molecule is a ... "Chemical Entities of Biological Interest. UK: European Bioinformatics Institute. 27 October 2006. Main. Retrieved 6 June 2012. ... Brotherton, T. K.; Lynn, J. W. (1959). "The Synthesis And Chemistry Of Cyanogen". Chemical Reviews. 59 (5): 841-883. doi: ...
Chemical Warfare Secrets Almost Forgotton. A Personal Story of Medical Testing of Army Volunteers with Incapacitating Chemical ... Possible Long-Term Health Effects of Short-Term Exposure to Chemical Agents, Volume 1 (1982). Commission on Life Sciences. The ... Agents During the Cold War. ChemBooks Inc 2006. ISBN 978-1-4243-0080-8 ...
a b Tuncer Oren (2001). "Advances in Computer and Information Sciences: From Abacus to Holonic Agents", Turk J Elec Engin 9 (1 ... Chemical depilatory untuk pemindahan rambut: Pada abad ke-9, Ziryab mengajar para wanita di Al-Andalus "pembentukan bulu mata ... memakai pakaian who fireproof untuk melindungi diri mereka dari api-api gunpowder dan juga kimia-kimia dalam gunpowder warfare ... Ahmad Y Hassan (1987), "Chemical Technology in Arabic Military Treatises", Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, New York ...
Chemical activation: The carbon material is impregnated with certain chemicals. The chemical is typically an acid, strong base, ... Pradhan B.K.; Sandle N.K. (1999). "Effect of different oxidizing agent treatments on the surface properties of activated ... Chemical purification[edit]. Activated carbon is commonly used on the laboratory scale to purify solutions of organic molecules ... Some of the chemical properties of activated carbon have been attributed to presence of the surface active carbon double bond.[ ...
Endicott, S. L.; Hageman, E. (1998). The United States and Biological Warfare: Secrets from the Early Cold War and Korea. ... A local doctor concluded that some unspecified infectious agent had arrived in a package from New Orleans.[74][75] 650 ... Pyriproxyfen is recommended as a chemical larvicide, mainly because it is safe for humans and effective even in small doses.[4] ... The mosquito hypothetically considered as an agent in the transmission of yellow fever) Anales de la Real Academia de Ciencias ...
... where mustard gas and other chemical weapons were used. People were afraid that chemical and biological warfare could have ... Nerve gas or nerve agent is the name of a family of chemical poisons. Usually people call them nerve agents (they are not ... It permanently bans the use of all forms of chemical and biological warfare.[11] The agreement was signed after World War I, ... Nerve agents are organic chemicals that have phosphorus in them (organophosphates). Many organophosphates are pesticides, and ...
51:98-107 Lazarus AA, Devereaux A. (2002) Potential agents of chemical warfare. Worst-case scenario protection and ... Mustards, vesicating agents, have been primarily used in warfare. They damage the upper airway mucosa. Pulmonary edema rarely ... 143:74-9. [1] "Chemical Warfare in World War I". webharvest.gov. Archived from the original on 2004-10-17. Retrieved 2016-06-13 ... followed by death allowing for evaluation of novel cytoprotective agents. Potential tissue reparative agents can be evaluated ...
Harvest of Death: Chemical Warfare in Vietnam and Cambodia. New York: Free Press; 1972. ... Agent Orange, a defoliant used by the British in the Malayan Emergency and the U.S. in the Vietnam War, was equal parts 2,4,5-T ... Agent Orange and the Vietnamese: the persistence of elevated dioxin levels in human tissues. Am J Public Health. 1995;85:516- ... Kahn PC, Gochfeld M, Nyugen M, Hansson M, Rappe C, Velez H. Dioxins and dibenzofurans in blood and adipose tissue of Agent ...
... (also known as capsicum spray) is a lachrymatory agent (a chemical compound that irritates the eyes to cause tears ... which bans the use of all riot control agents in warfare whether lethal or less-than-lethal.[22] In the US, when pepper spray ... "Riot Control Agents". Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons. Retrieved 20 November 2011.. ... Widely used as a self-defense chemical agent spray in Russia.. *Its effectiveness compared to natural pepper spray is unclear. ...
"Chemical research at the Institut Pasteur," Journal of Chemical Education, (1926) 3#11, p 1217+ DOI: 10.1021/ed003p1217 ... Alphonse Laveran got the 1907 Nobel Prize for his research on the role of protozoans as disease agents (notably, his discovery ... The First World War involved science in warfare: a movement of active participation arose among researchers who felt the need ... Duclaux work in the chemical biology departmentEdit. The work done in the new pavilion by Duclaux clarified how the human body ...
Croddy, Eric (2002). Chemical and biological warfare: a comprehensive survey for the concerned citizen. Springer. p. 128. ISBN ... It is known as a food additive to the FAO as an acidity regulator, a flour treatment agent and as a leavener.[11] It has E ... Merck Index of Chemicals and Drugs, 9th edition monograph 1650 *^ Miller, M. Michael (2007). "Lime". Minerals Yearbook (PDF). U ... Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound. It is a white, caustic, ...
Considering that you are the South american early 20th century naval warfare guru, I thought that you would be able to spice ... So you can see that the volatile anesthetic agents of today are really a spin-off of the technology developed during the ... The field of halogen and organofluorine chemistry was poorly understood until around 1942, when the chemists, chemical ... All of the currently used volatile anesthetic agents, including methoxyflurane, are fluorinated haloalkanes. With the exception ...
Targeting can be due to the chemical properties of the isotope such as radioiodine which is specifically absorbed by the ... of the radioactive agents being infused.[15] Methods, techniques and devices are available to lower the occurrence of this type ... These medications were the first agents of what is known as radioimmunotherapy, and they were approved for the treatment of ...
Martin's Press (2003) argues that recurring famines have been the major cause of warfare since paleolithic times. ISBN 0-312- ... Baring Brothers & Co initially acted as purchasing agents for the Prime Minister. The government hoped that they would not " ... stating that these new high-yielding crops require more chemical fertilizers and pesticides, which can harm the environment.[ ... with intensive agriculture such as groundwater overdrafting and overuse of pesticides and other agricultural chemicals. ...
2018-11-08: Chemical Physics (journal). *2018-11-05: Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics ... 2019-02-21: Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry. *2019-02-20: Psychology & Marketing ...
Trypanosoma agents. Distribution. Glossina vectors. Sleeping sickness - chronic form. humans. T. brucei gambiense. Western ... The use of chemicals as attractants to lure tsetse to the traps has been studied extensively in the late 20th century, but this ... Anti-Submarine Warfare: An Illustrated History, 2007, by David Owen. Page 170. Seaforth Publishing. ... Synthetic versions of these chemicals can create artificial odor plumes. A cheaper approach is to place cattle urine in a half ...
Chemical warfare. *Cyberattack *Cyberwarfare. *Cyberterrorism. *Cybergeddon. *Doomsday Clock. *Gray goo. *Kinetic bombardment * ...
Agents Chemother. 23 (2): 267-72. doi:10.1128/aac.23.2.267. PMC 186035 . PMID 6340603. Gattas MV, Forteza R, Fragoso MA, ... Rada B, Leto TL (2009). "Redox warfare between airway epithelial cells and Pseudomonas: Dual oxidase versus pyocyanin". Immunol ... Kussendrager KD, van Hooijdonk AC (November 2000). "Lactoperoxidase: physico-chemical properties, occurrence, mechanism of ... OSCN− has also been identified as an antimicrobial agent in milk, saliva, tears, and mucus. OSCN− is considered as safe product ...
Using chemical explosive lenses, a sub-critical sphere of fissile material could be squeezed into a smaller and denser form. ... Project Vista looked at improving U.S. tactical warfare capabilities.[161] Oppenheimer was a late addition to the project in ... He was followed by Army security agents during a trip to California in June 1943 to visit his former girlfriend, Jean Tatlock, ... and they planned to mount a joint attack on the nature of the chemical bond, a field in which Pauling was a pioneer, with ...
... and this purified chemical warfare agent was designated HD. When it was mixed with a thickener (Agent VV), it was given the ... Chemical, biological (CB) - and sometimes radiological - warfare agents were assigned what is termed a military symbol by the U ... Hoenig, Steven L. (2007), Compendium of Chemical Warfare Agents, Springer, pp 106-109, ISBN 978-0-387-34626-7 ... With biological agents a 1 signifies a wet-type agent (e.g., UL1), and a 2 signifies a dry-type agent (e.g., UL2). Binary ...
Including Insecticides and Chemical Warfare Nerve Agents U.S. Department of Health and Human Services ...
See also: Ski warfare. Snow affects warfare conducted in winter, alpine environments or at high latitudes. The main factors are ... Scientists study snow at a wide variety of scales that include the physics of chemical bonds and clouds; the distribution, ... The first group may be cold hardy owing to the ability to produce antifreeze agents in their body fluids that allows survival ... Snow can also provide cover and fortification against small-arms fire.[91] Noted winter warfare campaigns where snow and other ...
Shawkey, Matthew D.; Pillai, Shreekumar R.; Hill, Geoffrey E. (2003). "Chemical warfare? Effects of uropygial oil on feather- ... Those species that seek pest insects are considered beneficial 'biological control agents' and their presence encouraged in ... A few species are able to use chemical defences against predators; some Procellariiformes can eject an unpleasant stomach oil ... Revis, Hannah C.; Waller, Deborah A. (2004). "Bactericidal and fungicidal activity of ant chemicals on feather parasites: an ...
Army's chemical warfare group while researching many potentially weaponizable drugs probably as part of the Edgewood Arsenal ... Shulgin, Alexander; Ann Shulgin (September 1991). PiHKAL: A Chemical Love Story. Berkeley, California: Transform Press. ISBN 0- ...
Mustard gas was used as a chemical warfare agent during World War I and was discovered to be a potent suppressor of ... Available agents[edit]. Main article: List of antineoplastic agents. There is an extensive list of antineoplastic agents. ... Alkylating agents[edit]. Main article: Alkylating antineoplastic agent. Alkylating agents are the oldest group of ... Anti-microtubule agents are plant-derived chemicals that block cell division by preventing microtubule function. Microtubules ...
... also called a bio-agent, biological threat agent, or biological warfare agent). This is the pathogen that is meant to make ... "Frequently asked questions regarding the deliberate use of biological agents and chemicals as weapons". WHO.int. World Health ... "Select Agents and Toxins List". Federal Select Agent Program. United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. ... Examples of biological agentsEdit. Examples of some biological agents and toxins are listed below. Experts have said that these ...
Only natural forces on the cell are considered to be atrophic factors, whereas, for example, agents of mechanical or chemical ... it is not uncommon for the chemical warfare waged by prokaryotes to succeed, with the consequence known as infection by its ... "Chemical inhibitor of nonapoptotic cell death with therapeutic potential for ischemic brain injury". Nature Chemical Biology. 1 ...
National Biological Warfare. Defense Analysis Center. Defense. Science & Technology Directorate Plum Island Animal Disease ... U.S. CBP Office of Field Operations agent checking the authenticity of a travel document at an international airport using a ... garnered widespread public attention to this campaign was one by Tom Ridge in which he stated that in the case of a chemical ...
MeSH list of agents 82001067 *^ "Evekeo Prescribing Information" (PDF). Arbor Pharmaceuticals LLC. April 2014. pp. 1-2. ... The German and Finnish[2] militaries issued amphetamines to soldiers commonly to enhance warfare during the Second World War.[3 ... The following drugs listed as "centrally-acting antiobesity preparations" in the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification ... 2012). "Anorexiants as Pharmacologic Agents in the Management of Obesity". Foye's Medicinal Chemistry. pp. 1451-6. ISBN 978-1- ...
Blister agents[edit]. Main article: Blister agent. A blister agent is a chemical compound that irritates and causes injury to ... Nerve agents[edit]. Main article: Nerve agent. Nerve agents are substances that disrupt the chemical communications through the ... About 70 different chemicals have been used or stockpiled as chemical weapon agents during the 20th century. These agents may ... A chemical weapon agent (CWA) is a chemical substance whose toxic properties are used to kill, injure or incapacitate human ...
... chemical weapons elimination program. This page links to chemical warfare agent exposure limits for GA, GB, VX, H, HD, and ... Closing U.S. Chemical Warfare Agent Disposal Facilities. *CDC Participation in the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness ... History of U.S. Chemical Weapons Elimination. * Methods Used to Destroy Chemical Warfare Agents ... CDC recommends exposure limits for chemical warfare agents. These exposure limits protect workers and the general population. ...
The two methods used to destroy chemical warfare agents are incineration technology and neutralization followed by chemical ... chemical warfare agents have been destroyed.. U.S. chemical warfare agents are destroyed using incineration technology (five ... In 2002, DoD chose the neutralization method to destroy chemical warfare agents stored at chemical agent disposal facilities in ... millions of pounds of chemical warfare agents have been destroyed safely using the incineration technology at chemical agent ...
Chemical Warfare Agents There are several classes of chemical warfare agents, based on their effects: * compounds that cause ... The latter constitute biological warfare. History of Chemical Warfare The use of chemicals in warfare began centuries ago, when ... Chemical warfare involves the aggressive use of bulk chemicals that cause death or grave injury. These chemicals are different ... Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 1999. ...
A new technique based on the same technology used to detect chemical warfare agents and explosives is being employed by ... Chemical warfare agent detection technology used to treat lung disease. 24.01.2006 ... Dr Paul Thomas from the Universitys School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, who is leading the research, said ...
4.3 OPCs as chemical warfare agents. The so-called neurotoxic chemical warfare agents, also known as nerve gases or nerve ... 6 Chemical warfare agents (CWAs) distinguish themselves from biological warfare agents, since the latter consist of ... 2. History and Classification of the Chemical War Agents. The expression "chemical warfare", first used in 1917, refers to all ... Chemical warfare agents constitute one of the greatest threats in the modern world. Among them, the neurotoxic agents are of ...
Superwipe That Decontaminates Spills of Chemical Warfare Agents Developed. Scientists have developed a super-wipe that can ... New Substances a Lot More Powerful in Destroying Chemical Warfare Agents. by Savitha C Muppala on August 10, 2012 at 8:38 PM ... Natural PTE, however, works against only one of the two molecular forms of these chemical warfare agents, and it happens to be ... which is an enzyme that detoxifies some pesticides and chemical warfare agents like sarin and tabun. PTE thus has potential ...
Today, chemical warfare agents (CWAs) may pose a greater hazard to civilians than soldiers.. The threat of chemical warfare is ... historical use and properties of chemical warfare agents. In Worek F, Jenner J, Thiermann H, ed. Chemical Warfare Toxicology: ... Chemical Warfare Agents. 10/3/2017 Navneet Cheema, MD , Natalie Neumann, MD ... Warfare agents -- chemical. In Olson KR. Poisoning and Drug Overdose. 6th ed. New York, NY: McGraw Hill Medical, 2012. 403-409. ...
Warfare and Terrorism Agents (used in acts of war or terror). Warfare or terrorism agents are a class that includes chemicals, ... For information on other warfare and terrorism agents, please view the the CDC Chemical Agents page. ... Blister Agents: Lewisite (L), Mustard-Lewisite Mixture (HL). *Blister Agents: Sulfur Mustard Agent H/HD, Sulfur Mustard Agent ... Chemical Classifications *Warfare and Terrorism Agents (used in acts of war or terror) ...
Sarin is a chemical warfare agent belonging to class of compounds called organophosphates -- the basis for insecticides, ... Sarin is a chemical warfare agent belonging to class of compounds called organophosphates -- the basis for insecticides, ... Low-dose exposure to chemical warfare agent may result in long-term heart damage. American Heart Association ... Low-dose exposure to chemical warfare agent may result in long-term heart damage Abstract P125 ...
Researchers have created a fabric material containing nanoscale fibers that are capable of degrading chemical warfare agents. ... Nano-kebab fabric breaks down chemical warfare agents. (Nanowerk News) Researchers have created a fabric material containing ... Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Ultra-Fast Degradation of Chemical Warfare Agents Using MOF Nanofiber Kebabs). Our ... nanoscale fibers that are capable of degrading chemical warfare agents (CWAs). Uniform coatings of metal-organic frameworks ( ...
Trammell GL (1992) Toxicodynamics of organoarsenic chemical warfare agents. In: Somani SM (ed) Chemical Warfare Agents. ... Fedoroff BT, Sheffield OS (1962) Chemical agents or chemical warfare agents (CWA). In: Encyclopedia of Explosives and Related ... Nerve Agent Sulfur Mustard Chemical Warfare Agent Neuropathy Target Esterase Methyl Phosphonic Acid These keywords were added ... NDRC (1946a) Chemical warfare agents and related chemical problems, vol 1. National Defense Research Committee, Office of ...
Review of Acute Human-Toxicity Estimates for Selected Chemical-Warfare Agents (1997) Chapter: Summary. ... Review of Acute Human-Toxicity Estimates for Selected Chemical-Warfare Agents Get This Book × ... Review of Acute Human-Toxicity Estimates for Selected Chemical-Warfare Agents. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. ... Review of Acute Human-Toxicity Estimates for Selected Chemical-Warfare Agents. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. ...
... a chemical warfare agent, in eastern Mosul alongside a cache of surface-to-surf ... An Iraqi officer said that Iraqi forces recently discovered sulfur mustard, a chemical warfare agent, in eastern Mosul ... Video: Iraqi forces discover stockpile of chemical warfare agent, missiles in Mosul. By ...
Chemical Warfare Agents: Verification of Compounds Containing the Phosphorus-Methyl Linkage in Waste Water ... Chemical Warfare Agents: Verification of Compounds Containing the Phosphorus-Methyl Linkage in Waste Water ... Chemical Warfare Agents: Verification of Compounds Containing the Phosphorus-Methyl Linkage in Waste Water ... Chemical Warfare Agents: Verification of Compounds Containing the Phosphorus-Methyl Linkage in Waste Water ...
... with reference to the sorption of chemical warfare agents. J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 47: 653-665. doi: 10.1002/app.1993.070470409 ... with reference to the sorption of chemical warfare agents. ...
Review of Acute Human-Toxicity Estimates for Selected Chemical-Warfare Agents (1997) Chapter: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS. ... Review of Acute Human-Toxicity Estimates for Selected Chemical-Warfare Agents Get This Book × ... Review of Acute Human-Toxicity Estimates for Selected Chemical-Warfare Agents. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. ... Review of Acute Human-Toxicity Estimates for Selected Chemical-Warfare Agents. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. ...
... a series of halogenated UiO-66 derivatives was synthesized and analyzed for the breakdown of the chemical warfare agent ... Halogen bonding in UiO-66 frameworks promotes superior chemical warfare agent simulant degradation M. Kalaj, M. R. Momeni, K. C ... Herein, a series of halogenated UiO-66 derivatives was synthesized and analyzed for the breakdown of the chemical warfare agent ... Halogen bonding in UiO-66 frameworks promotes superior chemical warfare agent simulant degradation† ...
Nerve Chemical-Warfare Agents - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the Merck Manuals - ... Nerve Chemical-Warfare Agents By James M. Madsen , MD, MPH, U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense (USAMRICD) ... Nerve agents are chemical-warfare agents that act directly at nerve synapses, typically increasing the activity of ... Other chemical agents were used in combat before World War II and are sometimes called first-generation chemical agents. ...
E3002-15 Standard Practice for Assessing the Comparative Efficacy of Products Used for the Decontamination of Chemical Warfare ... For example, measuring the presence of a radiolabelled chemical warfare agent after chemical neutralization, may give a false ... Standard Practice for Assessing the Comparative Efficacy of Products Used for the Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agents ( ... In-vivo studies have demonstrated that simple chemical monitoring for disappearance of the chemical agent may not be sufficient ...
... in solution and their application in the detection of the chemical warfare agent mimic diethyl chlorophosphate H. Liu, Y. Fu, A ... in solution and their application in the detection of the chemical warfare agent mimic diethyl chlorophosphate ... DBPFA-I could be used for detection of the nerve agent sarin mimic diethyl chlorophosphate (DCP) via nucleophilic attack of ...
Systemic Asphyxiant Chemical-Warfare Agents - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the Merck ... Hydrogen sulfide can be produced by mixing sulfur-containing household chemicals with acids; this combination has been used for ... Systemic asphyxiants have also been called blood agents because they are systemically distributed via the blood. However, their ... See also Overview of Chemical-Warfare Agents.). Pearls & Pitfalls. * Hydrogen sulfide in high concentrations damages olfactory ...
Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) are substances that can be used to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy in warfare, but also ... Toxicity induced by chemical warfare agents: Insights on the protective role of melatonin. ... Many chemical agents are able to generate free radicals and derived reactants, excitotoxicity process, or inflammation, and as ... and its marked potential for improving human health against the most widely used chemical weapons. ...
2.2 Overview of Chemical Warfare Agents. 2.3 Overview of Biological Warfare Agents. 2.4 Conclusions. References. Chapter 3 US ... Chemical and biological warfare agents are threats to the military and civilians alike in both terrorist and conventional ... Chapter 5 Hydrolysis of Chemical Warfare Agents George O. Bizzigotti. 5.1 Introduction. 5.2 Sulfur Mustard. 5.3 Lewisite. 5.4 G ... Chapter 6 Oxidation of Chemical Warfare Agents in Solution George O. Bizzigotti and Robert G. Nickol. 6.1 Introduction. 6.2 ...
Nerve agent control Nerve agents are banned under the Chemical Weapons Convention but that does not mean that we have seen the ... Conquering the nerve gases: High-resolution mass spectrometry of chemical warfare agents. Skip to Navigation ... Nerve agents are banned under the Chemical Weapons Convention but that does not mean that we have seen the back of them. There ... In the MS/MS analysis of 72 urine samples from people with no known exposure to nerve agents that had been spiked with internal ...
... has been developed and shown to be effective for the clean-up of soil contaminated by the breakdown products of the chemical ... CWA phytoremediation yperite breakdown chemical warfare agents (CWA) sulphur-containing substances contaminated soils ... Soil phytoremediation from the breakdown products of the chemical warfare agent, yperite. ... and shown to be effective for the clean-up of soil contaminated by the breakdown products of the chemical warfare agent (CWA), ...
Practical advice, tutorials, and peer-reviewed research on liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC), mass spectrometry (MS) and related techniques.
... to testify about experiments involving simulated biological and chemical warfare agents. These agents, which the army calls ... My research interests include biological and chemical warfare policies, and I have written in particular about testing done in ... are intended to mimic more lethal bacteria and chemicals that might be used in actual warfare. ... During the next 20 years, the army released simulant agents over hundreds of populated areas around the country. Targets ...
  • 6 Chemical warfare agents (CWAs) distinguish themselves from biological warfare agents, since the latter consist of microorganisms which cause diseases in humans, animals or plants, or which deteriorate different materials. (scielo.br)
  • Today, chemical warfare agents (CWAs) may pose a greater hazard to civilians than soldiers. (emra.org)
  • Traditionally used by armies to break a stalemate against relatively defenseless targets (those lacking masks, antidotes, and easy mobility), today, chemical warfare agents (CWAs) may pose a greater hazard to civilians than soldiers. (emra.org)
  • Nanowerk News ) Researchers have created a fabric material containing nanoscale fibers that are capable of degrading chemical warfare agents (CWAs). (nanowerk.com)
  • Current technologies for addressing CWAs rely on carbon-based materials but these carbon materials can only adsorb hazardous compounds, they can t degrade them, says Junjie Zhao, a former Ph.D. student at North Carolina State University and lead author of a paper on the work ( Angewandte Chemie International Edition , 'Ultra-Fast Degradation of Chemical Warfare Agents Using MOF Nanofiber Kebabs' ). (nanowerk.com)
  • Consequently, the main objective of the proposed work is to develop a microwave low-temperature catalytic oxidation system that will effectively decontaminate air containing aerosolized or gaseous chemical agents (CWAs). (sbir.gov)
  • In order to protect personnel in shelters, the catalytic oxidation systems should (1) destroy CWAs in air at low temperatures to avoid NOx formation, (2) remove sulfur dioxide produced from the oxidation of CWAs containing sulfur atoms, (3) operate for an indefinite period of time, and (4) destroy biological agents at low temperatures. (sbir.gov)
  • 1.1 This practice establishes an in-vivo method for assessing the comparative efficacy of products used for the decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) on the skin. (astm.org)
  • Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) are substances that can be used to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy in warfare, but also against civilian population in terrorist attacks. (csic.es)
  • Rapid sample preparation using the CUSTODIONâ„¢ solid phase microextraction (SPME) syringe was applied to chemical warfare agents (CWAs), CWA simulants, by-products, and precursors. (chromatographyonline.com)
  • Rapid and accurate detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs), CWA precursors, and CWA by-products is imperative for human protection in warfare and security domains. (chromatographyonline.com)
  • There has long been a need to monitor military facilities for storing and disposing of the historic stockpiles of chemical warfare agents (CWAs). (markes.com)
  • AIRSENSE Analytics has designed in cooperation with first response teams a portable hazardous Gas Detector Array (GDA2) for the detection and the identification of CWAs like nerve, blister, blood and choking agents and a broad range of TICs (ETW, AEGL, ERPG, ITF-25 list, etc. (army-technology.com)
  • Chemicals used in CWAs are widely available, and recipes for CWA production may be found on the Internet. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • During the 1930s and 1940s, agents such as Tabun, Sarin, and Soman were created. (faqs.org)
  • Frank Raushel, David Barondeau and colleagues explain that a soil bacterium makes a protein called phosphotriesterase (PTE), which is an enzyme that detoxifies some pesticides and chemical warfare agents like sarin and tabun. (medindia.net)
  • A test to trace hard-to-detect residues of sarin, a nerve agent used by terrorists, back to its source, has been developed by scientists. (medindia.net)
  • Commonly referred to as tabun, sarin, soman, and VX, nerve agents have famously been implicated in attacks by the Syrian government against rebel forces and civilians, and by North Korea in the assassination of Kim Jong Nam. (emra.org)
  • Sarin is a chemical warfare agent belonging to class of compounds called organophosphates -- the basis for insecticides, herbicides and nerve agents. (eurekalert.org)
  • The two-month period was used to simulate the late onset effect of sarin/nerve agents in gulf war veterans," said Mariana Morris, director of the research program. (eurekalert.org)
  • The enzyme DFPase from the squid Loligo vulgaris , is able to rapidly and efficiently detoxify chemical warfare agents such as Sarin, which was used in the Tokyo subway attacks in 1995. (bio-medicine.org)
  • G-series agents, or G agents, include GA (tabun), GB (sarin), GD (soman), and GF (cyclosarin), which were developed by Nazi Germany before and during World War II. (merckmanuals.com)
  • DBPFA-I could be used for detection of the nerve agent sarin mimic diethyl chlorophosphate (DCP) via nucleophilic attack of phenolic anion to DCP. (rsc.org)
  • The recent massive destruction of Syrian civilians by nerve gas sarin, has again renewed the research attention of global science fraternity towards nerve agents, their mode of action and most prominently their therapeutic treatment. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Tabun is the first of the so-called G-series nerve agents along with GB (sarin), GD (soman) and GF (cyclosarin). (scribd.com)
  • It is a volatile chemical, although less so than either sarin or soman. (scribd.com)
  • Schedule 1 includes chemical warfare agents - including sarin (GB), soman (GD), tabun (GA), VX, mustards (HD and HN), and the Lewisites. (markes.com)
  • The most well-known agents are as follows: choking agents - chlorine (Cl 2 ) and phosgene (COCl 2 ), blister agents (or vesicants)-mustard (C 4 H 8 Cl 2 S) and lewisite (C 2 H 2 AsCl 3 ), blood agents - hydrogen cyanide (HCN), nerve agents - Sarin (C 4 H 10 FO 2 P), Soman (C 7 H 16 FO 2 P) and VX (C 11 H 26 NO 2 PS). (elsevier.com)
  • U.S. intelligence officials conveyed the location of the Iranian troops to Iraq, fully aware that Hussein's military would attack with chemical weapons, including Sarin, a lethal nerve agent. (elsevier.com)
  • The two examples of the use of chemical weapons by terrorists were the Sarin poisoning incident in Matsumoto, a Japanese residential community, in 1994, and the sarin attack on the Tokyo subway in 1995, both perpetrated by the Aum Shinrikyu doomsday cult. (elsevier.com)
  • The organophosphate nerve agents tabun (GA), sarin (GB), soman (GD), and cyclosarin (GF) are among the most toxic chemical warfare agents known. (medscape.com)
  • By following the gas-surface reaction pathway of the nerve agent Sarin on the Lindqvist polyoxoniobate Cs8Nb6O19, we determined that the rate-limiting step is the transfer of a proton from an adsorbed water molecule to the niobate surface, concomitant with the nucleophilic addition of the nascent hydroxide to the phosphorus atom in Sarin. (vt.edu)
  • Sarin (o-isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate), one of the several highly toxic chemical warfare agents, can be readily neutralized in sodium hydroxide solution forming large quantities of brine solution containing IMPA (o-isopropyl methylphosphonic acid) and sodium fluoride that must be further processed and disposed. (osti.gov)
  • But I don't understand how VX differs from Sarin (another nerve-agent used for Chemical Warfare but possibly in Syria and Iraq)? (stackexchange.com)
  • The researchers then tested the MOF-functionalized fabric against both a CWA simulant and the nerve agent soman. (nanowerk.com)
  • Most nerve agents, like organophosphate insecticides, take hours to age fully, but GD (soman) can age essentially completely within 10 minutes of binding. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Soman is a chemical warfare nerve agent that is categorized as a weapon of mass destruction. (ismrm.org)
  • Figure 5: Catalytic hydrolysis of the nerve agent soman (known as GD) by NU-1000. (nature.com)
  • Frequently termed blistering agents for their propensity to induce dermal injury resembling that caused by burns, sulfur mustard agents are historically the most significant of these compounds, given their extensive use during WWI . (emra.org)
  • Azizi F, Keshavarz A, Roshanzamir F, Nafarabadi M (1995) Reproductive function in men following exposure to chemical warfare with sulfur mustard. (springer.com)
  • Sulfur mustard [bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide] is the most prevalent chemical warfare agent present at Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel (NSCM) Sites. (munirem.com)
  • MuniRem® offers a safer and easy to apply rapid neutralization approach for sulfur mustard (HD) and similar chemical warfare agents in bulk or as contaminants in soil and surfaces. (munirem.com)
  • The most dangerous of these are nerve agents (GA, GB, GD, and VX) and vesicant (blister) agents, which include formulations of sulfur mustard such as H, HT, and HD. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sulfur mustard was the major cause of chemical casualties in World War I. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Chemical warfare agent simulants in Gamble's fluid: Is the fluid toxic? (k-state.edu)
  • The reactions of chemical warfare agent simulants, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (2-CEES) and di-i-propyl fluoro phosphate (DFP), in fluids have been investigated. (k-state.edu)
  • Schedule 2 lists simulants and precursors to chemicals in Schedule 1. (markes.com)
  • Chih-Cong Chou and S. Randolph Long, "Chemical ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry of chemical warfare agent simulants using laser-produced metal ions," Appl. (osapublishing.org)
  • A Polyoxoniobate-Polyoxovanadate Double-Anion Catalyst for Simultaneous Oxidative and Hydrolytic Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agent Simulants[J].Acta Phys. (pku.edu.cn)
  • These are compounds with a very strong and unpleasant smell, which produce powerfully aversive effects without the toxic effects of tear agents or vomiting agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • These chemicals are different from the lethal chemical compounds that are part of infectious bacteria or viruses. (faqs.org)
  • One of these compounds, Agent Orange, has become infamous as the alleged cause of a variety of physical ailments in veterans of the conflict. (faqs.org)
  • Neurotoxic agents are organophosphorus compounds that act by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which is fundamental for the control of transmission of nervous impulses. (scielo.br)
  • There are several ways of treating intoxication by organophosphorus compounds, but none of them is efficient against all the known neurotoxic agents or against all of their effects. (scielo.br)
  • This review focus on the use of organophosphorus compounds as neurotoxic chemical warfare agents. (scielo.br)
  • After a brief historical introduction, it will be done a discussion about the structural and biological characteristics of acetylcholinesterase, followed by a review of the properties of organophosphorus compounds and their application as chemical warfare agents. (scielo.br)
  • One way of treating victims of nerve agents consists on the administration of certain pyridinic oximes, which possess the capacity to regenerate the catalytic activity of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the target of these compounds. (scielo.br)
  • 5 For the Brazilian Army, chemical war is the one that utilizes substances designated as "chemical agents", which are defined as all the compounds that, due to their chemical activity, generate a toxic, smoking or incendiary effect, when used for military purposes. (scielo.br)
  • They are also called Novichok agents, and representative compounds are A-230, A-232, and A-234, which are liquids that are even more persistent than V-series agents and are just as potent. (merckmanuals.com)
  • We'll cover three World War I compounds, saving the latter-day nerve agents for a separate posting. (sciencemag.org)
  • Fortunately, however, many nerve agents and other hazardous compounds are amenable to pre-concentration by thermal desorption, and Markes' systems are compatible with even the most challenging trace-level compounds within the schedules of the CWC (such as free-VX). (markes.com)
  • When an accident has caused chemical compounds to be released, fire brigade and rescue services have to be able to assess the hazardous liquids and gases instantly. (army-technology.com)
  • We can offer varied libraries, including mixes of compounds - if it is a chemical company, for example, then we can tune the library to their needs. (army-technology.com)
  • Consumers are justifiably wary of foods bombarded with nuclear waste or powerful x-rays or gamma rays, since irradiation destroys essential vitamins and nutrients, creates unique radiolytic chemical compounds never before consumed by humans, and generates carcinogenic by-products such as formaldehyde and benzene. (shirleys-wellness-cafe.com)
  • Beginning with an overview of milestones in the use of toxic chemicals and chemical warfare agents, the formulae and toxicities of compounds are given, along with tables outlining animal toxicities. (elsevier.com)
  • Placke also warns that the US would be implementing licensing requirements on five chemical compounds for both Iraq and Iran. (historycommons.org)
  • It continues with a look at types of hazards presented by chemical compounds and mixtures, organisms, and radiation sources. (routledge.com)
  • A good short history of Tabun and other nerve agents, largely based on this book, can be found here. (sciencemag.org)
  • To summarize, in 1937 a report on Tabun made its way to the chemical warfare branch of the German military, and its value was recognized quickly. (sciencemag.org)
  • Tabun or GA is an extremely toxic chemical substance. (scribd.com)
  • One mechanism of disruption, utilized by the G, GV, and V series of chemicals is caused by blocking the acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme that normally destroys and stops the activity of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, the ways of treatment against intoxication with these agents will be discussed, with emphasis on the oximes used for reactivating the inhibited acetylcholinesterase. (scielo.br)
  • Considered the most toxic of chemical weapons, these agents are extremely potent organophosphates, achieving toxicity through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase at muscarinic and nicotinic receptors. (emra.org)
  • Nerve agents inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which hydrolyzes the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) once ACh has finished activating receptors in neurons, muscles, and glands. (merckmanuals.com)
  • The acute toxicity of nerve agents leads to progressive inhibition of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by phosphylation of serine residue at the active site of gorge. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Nerve agents are potent irreversible inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase and exposure can be extremely lethal. (ismrm.org)
  • Nerve agents act by first binding and then irreversibly inactivating acetylcholinesterase (AChE), producing a toxic accumulation of acetylcholine (ACh) at muscarinic, nicotinic, and CNS synapses. (medscape.com)
  • This book provides an in-depth examination of the effects of organophosphates and nerve agents and offers therapeutic and prophylactic countermeasures. (elsevier.com)
  • Along with data on organophosphates and nerve agents, possible first aid and medical responses are compared among potential responses in the United States and other countries in the east and west. (elsevier.com)
  • Using clear schematics and tables, this book provides a detailed account of the most common organophosphates and nerve agents, ideas of how to countermeasure their effects, and offers detailed suggestions for where research needs to proceed in the future. (elsevier.com)
  • VX is part of a group of nerve-agents (organophosphates) that have been created and used as chemical warfare as "weapons of mass deconstruction. (stackexchange.com)
  • These substances are for producing chemical casualties without regard to long-term consequences or loss of life. (wikipedia.org)
  • The names and number of categories varies slightly from source to source, but in general, types of chemical warfare agents are as follows: These are substances that are not intended to kill or injure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyanogen chloride (CK) Hydrogen cyanide (AC) Arsine (SA) These substances are sometime referred to as pulmonary agent or lung irritants and cause injury to the lung-blood barrier resulting in Asphyxia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorine (CL) Chloropicrin (PS) Diphosgene (DP) Phosgene (CG) Nerve agents are substances that disrupt the chemical communications through the nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Warfare or terrorism agents are a class that includes chemicals, biological substances, radioactive materials, nuclear materials, or explosives. (cdc.gov)
  • Auerbach C, Robson JM (1947a) The production of mutations by chemical substances. (springer.com)
  • Auerbach C, Robson JM (1947b) Tests of chemical substances for mutagenic action. (springer.com)
  • Chemical warfare involves using the toxic properties of chemical substances as weapons. (wikipedia.org)
  • The EU-SENSE chemical reconnaissance device, which is based on AI, has to identify and detect selected chemical substances from the group of chemical warfare agents (CWA) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). (eu-sense.eu)
  • Chemical weapon agents are hazardous substances. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • During this time, military chemists in the United Kingdom and then in the United States adapted insecticides to produce the most lethal chemical agent then known. (faqs.org)
  • In 1986, Congress passed PL 99-145 (50 USC 1521) that mandated destruction of the stockpile of lethal chemical warfare agents in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • The U.S. stockpile of these agents was stored at nine sites, either in large containers or as assembled weapons and munitions. (cdc.gov)
  • A chemical agent disposal facility was built at each site for use in destroying its individual stockpile. (cdc.gov)
  • In March 2005, the Aberdeen facility finished successfully destroying its stockpile of mustard agent. (cdc.gov)
  • Non-stockpile chemical materiel is defined in the Appropriations Report as "… lethal wastes from past disposal efforts, unserviceable munitions, chemically contaminated containers, chemical production facilities, subsequently located chemical munitions, sites known to contain significant concentrations of buried chemical weapons and waste, and binary weapons and components. (springer.com)
  • The dawn of modern chemical warfare occurred during World War I. On April 15, 1915, German forces released about 160 tons of chlorine gas into the wind near the Belgian village of Ypres. (faqs.org)
  • During the remainder of World War I, German and British forces used chlorine gas, and other chemicals (i.e., mustard gas and phosphene) with increasing tendency. (faqs.org)
  • Furthermore, industrial chemicals such as phosgene, ammonia, and chlorine are not only cheap, but also easy to manufacture. (emra.org)
  • So it's not the urine that is the problem… it's what happens when urine mixes with pool chemicals, including chlorine, that is catching researchers' attention. (mercola.com)
  • Chlorine chemical used as a chemical warfare agent. (gochemless.com)
  • Chlorine Chemical & Physical Properties. (gochemless.com)
  • Swimming Pool News and Tips Blog » Chlorine Chemical & Physical Properties. (gochemless.com)
  • Chlorine Chemical & Physical Properties - Chlorine liquid form will burn the skin , Chlorine has been used as a chemical warfare agent . (gochemless.com)
  • This however did not prevent the extensive use of chemical weapons in World War I. The development of chlorine gas, among others, was used by both sides to try to break the stalemate of trench warfare. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemical weapons first were used in 1915, when the German military released 168 tons of chlorine gas at Ypres, Belgium, killing an estimated 5,000 Allied troops. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • A chemical weapon agent (CWA) is a chemical substance whose toxic properties are used to kill, injure or incapacitate human beings. (wikipedia.org)
  • About 70 different chemicals have been used or stockpiled as chemical weapon agents during the 20th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, chemical weapon agents are organized into several categories according to the physiological manner in which they affect the human body. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the Germans developed a new class of chemical weapon called nerve agents. (faqs.org)
  • Doctors and first responders base the diagnosis of exposure to a chemical weapon on the person's symptoms. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The term chemical weapon is applied to any toxic chemical or its precursor that can cause death, injury, temporary incapacitation or sensory irritation through its chemical action. (elsevier.com)
  • Introduction: Agent Orange was a chemical weapon that was used in the Vietnam War from 1961-1972. (majortests.com)
  • It was the most common type of chemical weapon dumped. (dailypress.com)
  • A cyanide-based chemical weapon also used during World War I, this is a rapid killer that's easily dispersed. (dailypress.com)
  • A chemical weapon (CW) is a specialized munition that uses chemicals formulated to inflict death or harm on humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), "the term chemical weapon may also be applied to any toxic chemical or its precursor that can cause death, injury, temporary incapacitation or sensory irritation through its chemical action. (wikipedia.org)
  • Civilians also have been exposed inadvertently to chemical weapons many years after weapon deployment during war. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Several characteristics of chemical weapon agents lend themselves to terrorist use. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • However, they deny using chemicals as a weapon of mass destruction, that is against civilians. (nybooks.com)
  • This review is centered on the recent developments and structural modification of AChE reactivators against nerve agent toxicity. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Somani SM, Husain K. Low-level nerve agent toxicity under normal and stressful conditions. (cdc.gov)
  • Various: small, light weight unit for continuous and real-time detection of chemical warfare agents and toxic chemicals. (pki-electronic.com)
  • Real-time detection and identification of chemical warfare agents, toxic industrial gases and explosives with the hand-held, multi-sensor GDA2. (army-technology.com)
  • Unlike nerve agents, phosgene must be inhaled to cause harm. (dailypress.com)
  • Incineration is DoD's preferred method for destroying chemical warfare agents and munitions. (cdc.gov)
  • Some types of chemical munitions contain propellants or explosives in addition to chemical warfare agents. (cdc.gov)
  • The means of delivery of chemical agents has evolved over the twentieth century, increasing these weapons' already frightening capacity to kill and maim, through the development of chemical munitions in the form of artillery shells, mortar projectiles, aerial bombs, spray tanks and landmines. (elsevier.com)
  • Munitions or other delivery devices designed to deliver chemical weapons, whether filled or unfilled, are also considered weapons themselves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are extremely volatile and they constitute a class of hazardous chemical weapons that have been stockpiled by many nations. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the past, communities around the world used the ocean for waste disposal, including the disposal of chemical and industrial wastes, radioactive wastes, trash, munitions, sewage sludge, and contaminated dredged material. (epa.gov)
  • A well-known example of a blistering agent dating from World War I is mustard gas. (faqs.org)
  • Armstrong GC, Wells HB, Wilkes AE, Moulton CH (1928) Comparative test with mustard gas (HS) lewisite (M-1), methyldicloroarsine (MD) and methyldifluorarsine (MD2) in 75 mm shell fired statically in collaboration with chemical division. (springer.com)
  • Iraq also used mustard gas and nerve agents against Kurdish residents of the village of Halabja, in Northern Iraq, in 1988. (elsevier.com)
  • uses of Greek Fire to wide spread mustard gas use in World War I to nerve agents used in the modern day wars. (majortests.com)
  • Developed too late for use in World War I, Lewisite is a blister agent akin to mustard gas. (dailypress.com)
  • In 2002, DoD chose the neutralization method to destroy chemical warfare agents stored at chemical agent disposal facilities in Aberdeen, Maryland, and Newport, Indiana. (cdc.gov)
  • An A-series agent was used in a 2018 assassination attempt in the United Kingdom. (merckmanuals.com)
  • London/New York, Jumada II 27, 1439, March 15, 2018, SPA -- Russia accused Prime Minister Theresa May of creating a "hysterical atmosphere" after she expelled 23 of its diplomats from Britain in retaliation for a nerve agent attack that London believes was orchestrated by Moscow. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • During the destruction process (called chemical hydrolysis ), sodium hydroxide was added to the chemical warfare agents. (cdc.gov)
  • We then examined the fundamentals of the hydrolysis mechanism for nerve agents by a catalyst of interest in the development of filtration materials for chemical-warfare-agent defense. (vt.edu)
  • Główna Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry Mass Spectral Behavior of the Hydrolysis Products of Sesqui- and Oxy-Mustard Type Chemical Warfare Agents. (booksc.org)
  • An increasing number of engineers are using plasma methods for decontamination of chemical and biological agents. (environmental-expert.com)
  • DNA microarray technology, in combination with statistical and predictive modeling tools, could be used to evaluate thousands of genes against distinct gene expression patterns induced by chemical/biological agents to provide early identification and speed therapeutic intervention. (sbir.gov)
  • Guided by the success that high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) has had in matching the performance of tandem methods, Elizabeth Hamelin and colleagues from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, and Oak Ridge Institute for Scientific Education have optimised an HRMS procedure for five nerve agents in urine. (spectroscopynow.com)
  • In an initial investigation of the potential utility of chemical ionization (CI) mass spectrometry of selected of chemical warfare agents using metal ions, the reactions of manganese ions with chloroalkyl sulfides analogs organophosphonates have been followed in a Fourier transform mass spectrometer. (osapublishing.org)
  • Infrequently used in warfare given their high volatility and propensity for quick dispersal , cyanogen chloride and hydrogen cyanide nevertheless occupy a uniquely infamous place in history because of their use by Nazi Germany in WWII to kill up to 1 million civilians . (emra.org)
  • 5 A chemical asphyxiant, cyanide blocks the aerobic utilization of oxygen and causes within the exposed individual a progressive hypoxia. (emra.org)
  • The combustion of many household and industrial chemicals can produce cyanides, and people suffering from smoke inhalation from any kind of industrial or household fire may also have cyanide poisoning. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The Nazi Germans during World War II committed genocide (mainly against Jews but including other targeted populations) using a commercial hydrogen cyanide blood agent trade-named Zyklon B. Discharging it in large gas chambers was the preferred method to efficiently murder their victims in a continuing industrial fashion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) - a blood agent, a colorless gas or liquid. (eu-sense.eu)
  • Emergent is currently partnering with the U.S. government to develop new auto-injector and intranasal products to defend against emerging chemical threats such as nerve agents and cyanide. (domprep.com)
  • A new technique based on the same technology used to detect chemical warfare agents and explosives is being employed by scientists at The University of Manchester to treat hospital patients with lung disease. (innovations-report.com)
  • Incineration technology is used to treat the empty casings and destroy any residual chemical agents or their hazardous breakdown products. (cdc.gov)
  • AIRSENSE Analytics produces portable gas-detection systems, gas sensor systems and accessories for on-site sampling in order to protect personnel and the environment from chemical threats and hazardous agents. (army-technology.com)
  • Nerve agent vapors are denser than air, making them particularly hazardous for persons in low areas or underground shelters. (medscape.com)
  • Lavoie FW, Coomes T, Cisek JE, Fulkerson L. Emergency department external decontamination for hazardous chemical exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • These chemicals were manufactured in large quantities by the turn of the century and were deployed as weapons during the protracted period of trench warfare. (elsevier.com)
  • DoD also chose its neutralization process followed by supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) to destroy 523 tons of nerve agent and blister agent in rockets and projectiles at Blue Grass Chemical Agent-Destruction Pilot Plant in Blue Grass, Kentucky. (cdc.gov)
  • Under these conditions, the organic chemical agent waste products are destroyed through an oxidation process. (cdc.gov)
  • It begins with a section on the background of decontamination, which includes a chronological history of military research, an overview of the US Department of Defense decontamination principles and requirements and a chapter that acts as a primer on chemical and biological warfare agents. (labmate-online.com)
  • 1.3 To minimize the number of animals used, this in-vivo practice should be performed only after rigorous in-vitro studies of the candidate decontaminant, which can show the implied claims including chemical neutralization, decontamination studies on surfaces and appropriate testing such as cytotoxicity. (astm.org)
  • In addition, some chemical neutralization methods may break down the original agent, but the breakdown product is highly toxic. (astm.org)
  • Measurement by impedance spectroscopy of the changes in intrazeolitic cation motion of pressed pellets of zeolite particles upon adsorption of dimethylmethylphosphonate (DMMP) provides a strategy for sensing DMMP, a commonly used simulant for highly toxic organophosphate nerve agents. (mdpi.com)
  • Mustard agents are highly toxic and abundant warfare chemicals, primarily affecting ocular tissues, with no specific treatment antidote. (arvojournals.org)
  • Agent Orange was created by mixing equal quantities of two agricultural herbicides commonly used to kill weeds: 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T. Present in the 2,4,5-T as an impurity was 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (usually abbreviated to TCDD), a dioxin contaminant that is highly toxic to some animals. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The combustion of many household and industrial chemicals can. (msdmanuals.com)
  • 1-4 Unfortunately, until now it has not been reported any oxime that acts efficiently against all the existing neurotoxic agents. (scielo.br)
  • The authors list and discuss therapies (in addition to the traditional atropine/oxime combination) for patients exposed to nerve agents. (hhs.gov)
  • The expression "chemical warfare", first used in 1917, refers to all tactical war assets which use incendiary mixtures, smokes and irritating, vesicant, poisonous or asphyxiating gases. (scielo.br)
  • The Timeline in the image above lists major uses of poisonous agents against humans in the last hundred years. (elsevier.com)
  • As the Timeline shows a number of conventions have banned the use of the poisonous agents in warfare. (elsevier.com)
  • It was not until the 19th century that the modern conception of chemical warfare emerged, as various scientists and nations proposed the use of asphyxiating or poisonous gasses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Poisoning by these nerve agents leads to an accumulation of acetylcholine at the nerve axon, producing a perpetual excited state in the nerve (e.g. constant muscle contraction). (wikipedia.org)
  • Albuquerque EX, Deshpande SS, Kawabuchi M, Aracava Y, Idriss M, Rickett DL, Boyne AF (1985) Multiple actions of anticholinesterase agents on chemosensitive synapses: molecular basis for prophylaxis and treatment of organophosphate poisoning. (springer.com)
  • US president Donald Trump, French president Emmanuel Macron and German chancellor Angela Merkel joined Theresa May to condemn the Kremlin over the Novichok nerve agent poisoning. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • the Trobigard® atropine sulfate/obidoxime chloride auto-injector, a drug-device combination product for emergency use in the event of nerve agent or organophosphate poisoning, and RSDL® (Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion Kit), which is intended to remove or neutralize chemical warfare agents and T-2 toxin from the skin. (domprep.com)
  • It has been designed as a pre-hospital medical intervention during nerve agent and organophosphate poisoning. (domprep.com)
  • U.S. chemical warfare agents are destroyed using incineration technology (five sites) or the Department of Defense's (DoD) neutralization process (four sites). (cdc.gov)
  • The DoD's neutralization process breaks down chemical agent with hot water and a caustic compound. (cdc.gov)
  • In 2002, DoD chose neutralization followed by biotreatment as its method to destroy 2,611 tons of mustard agent in projectiles and cartridges at Pueblo Chemical Agent-Destruction Pilot Plant in Pueblo, Colorado. (cdc.gov)
  • 4.2 CWA skin decontaminants will have different modes of action including absorption, adsorption, removal, chemical neutralization or some combination of the above. (astm.org)
  • For example, measuring the presence of a radiolabelled chemical warfare agent after chemical neutralization, may give a false positive results. (astm.org)
  • In-vivo studies have demonstrated that simple chemical monitoring for disappearance of the chemical agent may not be sufficient to measure decontamination and neutralization effectiveness. (astm.org)
  • A standard practice is needed for determining actual decontamination and neutralization by measuring the decrease in mortality or lesion size caused by the agent. (astm.org)
  • These characteristics make enzymes prominent catalysts for neutralization of warfare chemicals applicable in: (i) detoxification of sensitive surfaces, (ii) treatment of human victims and (iii) applications as prophylaxis for personnel with a high risk of exposure. (muni.cz)
  • Agent neutralization and use of dilute bleach are no longer recommended for decontamination. (medscape.com)
  • All nerve agents are organophosphorus esters, as are organophosphate pesticides . (merckmanuals.com)
  • VX, short for "venomous agent X", is a toxic synthetic chemical compound in the organophosphorus class, specifically, a thiophosphonate. (eu-sense.eu)
  • Destruction of chemical warfare agent stockpiles at Pueblo and Blue Grass is set to begin by 2017 at Pueblo and 2020 at Blue Grass. (cdc.gov)
  • We look forward to successfully completing deliveries of our Trobigard auto-injector under our 2017 contract and to our continued partnership with the State Department as we expand our portfolio of solutions to address existing and emerging chemical warfare agents for the long-term. (domprep.com)
  • Herein, a series of halogenated UiO-66 derivatives was synthesized and analyzed for the breakdown of the chemical warfare agent simulant dimethyl-4-nitrophenyl phosphate (DMNP) to analyze ligand effects. (rsc.org)
  • Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents, Second Edition covers every aspect of deadly toxic chemicals used in conflicts, warfare and terrorism. (vanstockum.nl)
  • Study interests include the effects of CWA, development of new antidotes against nerve agents including clinical testing and teaching pharmacology and toxicology. (elsevier.com)
  • 176] directed the U.S. Department of the Army (DA) 1 to examine the scale of effort and consider plans needed to safely dispose of nonstockpile chemical materiel (NSCM), previously identified as an area of national concern in House Appropriations Report 101-822 from the FY 1991 Defense Appropriations Act. (springer.com)
  • We summarize state of the art in the development of detoxification technologies with a focus on enzymatic methods and highlight areas of future advancements in the field of isolation, engineering, and application of enzymes in defense against chemical weapons. (muni.cz)
  • US State Department official Jonathan T. Howe sends Secretary of Defense Lawrence Eagleburger a memo reporting that US intelligence has determined that "Iraq has acquired a CW [chemical weapons] production capability, primarily from Western firms, including possibly a US foreign subsidiary" and that Iraq has used chemical weapons against Iranian forces and Kurdish insurgents. (historycommons.org)
  • A Defense Intelligence Agency report concludes that Iraq will probably "continue to develop its formidable conventional and chemical capability, and probably pursue nuclear weapons. (historycommons.org)
  • These drug-device combination products are designed to support chemical defense programs by governments around the world to protect military and civilian populations. (domprep.com)
  • These include nerve agents and blister agents (vesicants). (cdc.gov)
  • During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union both maintained enormous stockpiles of chemical weapons, amounting to tens of thousands of tons. (elsevier.com)
  • Notwithstanding, large stockpiles of chemical weapons continue to exist, usually justified as a precaution against putative use by an aggressor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The very low concentrations at which many chemical agents are toxic presents a challenge for many analytical systems, exacerbated by the need for rapid detection in order to minimise harm when an incident occurs. (markes.com)
  • This device takes advantage of the modern technique of the Ion Mobility Spectrometry for detection and identification of low concentrations of chemical warfare agents or toxic chemicals. (pki-electronic.com)
  • Exposure to low concentrations of nerve agent vapor produces immediate ocular symptoms, rhinorrhea, and in some patients, dyspnea. (medscape.com)
  • Victims usually are exposed to agents via 1 or more of 3 routes: skin (liquid and high vapor concentrations), eyes (liquid or vapor), and respiratory tract (vapor inhalation). (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Britain has said the toxin, which also poisoned a British police officer who attended the scene, was Novichok, a lethal nerve agent first developed by the Soviet military. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) is responsible for implementing the CWC, which to date has been ratified by 189 states worldwide. (markes.com)
  • The CWA degradation research was conducted by researchers in Gregory Parsons group at NC State, and co-workers at RTI International and the Edgewood Chemical Biological Center. (nanowerk.com)
  • In contrast to structure determination using X-rays, neutrons are able to locate the positions of hydrogen atoms, which make up half of all atoms in proteins, and are crucial for chemical reactions. (bio-medicine.org)
  • For information on other warfare and terrorism agents, please view the the CDC Chemical Agents page . (cdc.gov)
  • Nerve agents are banned under the Chemical Weapons Convention but that does not mean that we have seen the back of them. (spectroscopynow.com)
  • The horrific pictures of Halabja victims shocked the world at the time of the negotiations in Geneva on the Chemical Weapons Convention. (elsevier.com)
  • Under the Chemical Weapons Convention (1993), there is a legally binding, worldwide ban on the production, stockpiling, and use of chemical weapons and their precursors. (wikipedia.org)
  • It expressed profound concern over reports about the supposed use of a nerve agent in the United Kingdom and called on all parties concerned to cooperate in the investigation of this incident in conformity with their liabilities under the Chemical Weapons Convention. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • They are often referred to as Riot Control Agents (RCAs) and may be used by civilian police forces against criminals and rioters, or in the military for training purposes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chemical structure of most nerve gases is related to that of methylphosphonic acid, whereas most organo-phosphorus pesticides have the phosphoric acid structure. (sciencemag.org)
  • Organophosphate (OP) pesticides and nerve agents are responsible for suicidal and accidental poisonings. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Therefore, oximes that are efficient for the treatment of intoxication with one specific nerve agent can be completely ineffective with another. (scielo.br)
  • 1-4 Also, even the fast identification of a neurotoxic agent in order to choose the treatment for the intoxication is usually not rapid enough to either save the life of the patient or to avoid serious permanent damages. (scielo.br)
  • This review is principally focused on nerve agent intoxication. (eurekaselect.com)
  • An in vivo investigation on the effect of gene-delivered human serine hydrolase KIAA1363 on chemical warfare nerve agent intoxication is not formatted in HTML just yet , but will be available very soon! (gtmb.org)
  • Decontamination is not usually necessary for people exposed to vapor or gas, and there are no specific antidotes for these agents. (msdmanuals.com)
  • At room temperature, the G-series nerve agents are volatile liquids, making them a serious risk for exposure from dermal contact with liquid nerve agent or inhalation of nerve agent vapor. (medscape.com)
  • Vapor agents penetrate the eyes first, producing localized effects, then pass into the respiratory tract, with more generalized effects when the exposure is greater. (medscape.com)
  • The effect of inhalational exposure to nerve agent vapor in turn depends on the vapor concentration and the time of exposure. (medscape.com)
  • Even a slight breeze can blow a nerve agent vapor away from its intended target. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • It is a fully encapsulated, chemical-resistant, vapor-protective suit that provides vapor protection to the respiratory and mucous membranes and skin. (medscape.com)
  • They are also much more potent than the G-series agents. (merckmanuals.com)
  • The overall objective of this proposal is to demonstrated that imidazenil is a more potent and safer protective agent than diazepam against chemical warfare nerve agent (CWNA)-induced seizure/status epilepticus, neuropathology, and neurobehavioral deficits. (sbir.gov)
  • In Nazi Germany, much research went into developing new chemical weapons, such as potent nerve agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • The potentiality of attacks employing these agents gives a strong reason for continuous research on the development of more effective antidotes against them. (scielo.br)
  • During attacks by chemical and biological weapons, personnel in temporary and permanent shelters are dependent on a constant supply of clean air. (sbir.gov)
  • These two attacks re-focused international attention on the potential use of chemical weapons by terrorists, and on the dangers posed by chemical weapons. (elsevier.com)
  • RSDL kit was initially developed by Defence Research and Development Canada, an agency of the Canadian Department of National Defence (DND), to prepare the Canadian forces for chemical warfare attacks. (domprep.com)
  • At the same time, throughout the study we cited instances of Iraqi-instigated chemical attacks against Iranian military units. (nybooks.com)
  • Lewisite 1 (L), an organoarsenic compound, acts as a blister agent and lung irritant. (eu-sense.eu)
  • A lethal agent is designed to injure, incapacitate, or kill an opposing force, or deny unhindered use of a particular area of terrain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemical agents often are difficult to protect against and quickly incapacitate the intended targets. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Chemical warfare agents constitute one of the greatest threats in the modern world. (scielo.br)
  • One of the greatest threats in modern world is the possibility of use of chemical weapons by regular forces or by terrorist groups. (scielo.br)
  • Chemical and biological warfare agents are threats to the military and civilians alike in both terrorist and conventional warfare scenarios. (labmate-online.com)
  • Here we present a historical context for the use of enzymes for chemical warfare detoxification and we also outline the current threats associated with the use of chemical warfare agents. (muni.cz)
  • Blister agents. (faqs.org)
  • As their name implies, blister agents cause the formation of large and painful blisters on the skin. (faqs.org)