Chemical Warfare Agents: Chemicals that are used to cause the disturbance, disease, or death of humans during WARFARE.Chemical Warfare: Tactical warfare using incendiary mixtures, smokes, or irritant, burning, or asphyxiating gases.Mustard Gas: Severe irritant and vesicant of skin, eyes, and lungs. It may cause blindness and lethal lung edema and was formerly used as a war gas. The substance has been proposed as a cytostatic and for treatment of psoriasis. It has been listed as a known carcinogen in the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985) (Merck, 11th ed).Biological Warfare: Warfare involving the use of living organisms or their products as disease etiologic agents against people, animals, or plants.Sarin: An organophosphorus ester compound that produces potent and irreversible inhibition of cholinesterase. It is toxic to the nervous system and is a chemical warfare agent.Phosphoric Triester Hydrolases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the three ester bonds in a phosphotriester-containing compound.Soman: An organophosphorus compound that inhibits cholinesterase. It causes seizures and has been used as a chemical warfare agent.Military ScienceHuman Experimentation: The use of humans as investigational subjects.Organothiophosphorus Compounds: Compounds containing carbon-phosphorus bonds in which the phosphorus component is also bonded to one or more sulfur atoms. Many of these compounds function as CHOLINERGIC AGENTS and as INSECTICIDES.Decontamination: The removal of contaminating material, such as radioactive materials, biological materials, or CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS, from a person or object.Organophosphates: Carbon-containing phosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have CARBON atoms bound to one or more OXYGEN atoms of the P(=O)(O)3 structure. Note that several specific classes of endogenous phosphorus-containing compounds such as NUCLEOTIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and PHOSPHOPROTEINS are listed elsewhere.Organophosphorus Compounds: Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.Veterans: Former members of the armed services.Cholinesterase Inhibitors: Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.IraqSalivary Gland DiseasesBiological Warfare Agents: Living organisms or their toxic products that are used to cause disease or death of humans during WARFARE.Military Medicine: The practice of medicine as applied to special circumstances associated with military operations.Butyrylcholinesterase: An aspect of cholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.8).Persian Gulf Syndrome: Unexplained symptoms reported by veterans of the Persian Gulf War with Iraq in 1991. The symptoms reported include fatigue, skin rash, muscle and joint pain, headaches, loss of memory, shortness of breath, gastrointestinal and respiratory symptoms, and extreme sensitivity to commonly occurring chemicals. (Nature 1994 May 5;369(6475):8)Burns, ChemicalEye Burns: Injury to any part of the eye by extreme heat, chemical agents, or ultraviolet radiation.Psychological Warfare: The manipulation of psychological influences, primarily concerned with morale, to strengthen the ability of one's own country and weaken the enemy.Butyrylthiocholine: A sulfur-containing analog of butyrylcholine which is hydrolyzed by butyrylcholinesterase to butyrate and thiocholine. It is used as a reagent in the determination of butyrylcholinesterase activity.Acetylcholinesterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC 3.1.1.7.New MexicoMicrowaves: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from the UHF (ultrahigh frequency) radio waves and extending into the INFRARED RAYS frequencies.Air Movements: The motion of air currents.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Niobium: Niobium. A metal element atomic number 41, atomic weight 92.906, symbol Nb. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Barium Sulfate: A compound used as an x-ray contrast medium that occurs in nature as the mineral barite. It is also used in various manufacturing applications and mixed into heavy concrete to serve as a radiation shield.MinnesotaBarium: An element of the alkaline earth group of metals. It has an atomic symbol Ba, atomic number 56, and atomic weight 138. All of its acid-soluble salts are poisonous.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Pharyngitis: Inflammation of the throat (PHARYNX).Metals, Heavy: Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)2-Propanol: An isomer of 1-PROPANOL. It is a colorless liquid having disinfectant properties. It is used in the manufacture of acetone and its derivatives and as a solvent. Topically, it is used as an antiseptic.X-Ray Film: A film base coated with an emulsion designed for use with x-rays.Gloves, Surgical: Gloves, usually rubber, worn by surgeons, examining physicians, dentists, and other health personnel for the mutual protection of personnel and patient.Rubber: A high-molecular-weight polymeric elastomer derived from the milk juice (LATEX) of HEVEA brasiliensis and other trees and plants. It is a substance that can be stretched at room temperature to at least twice its original length and after releasing the stress, retract rapidly, and recover its original dimensions fully.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Radiology Information Systems: Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative activities associated with the provision and utilization of radiology services and facilities.Computer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Chlorine: A greenish-yellow, diatomic gas that is a member of the halogen family of elements. It has the atomic symbol Cl, atomic number 17, and atomic weight 70.906. It is a powerful irritant that can cause fatal pulmonary edema. Chlorine is used in manufacturing, as a reagent in synthetic chemistry, for water purification, and in the production of chlorinated lime, which is used in fabric bleaching.Chlorine Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain chlorine as an integral part of the molecule.Weapons of Mass Destruction: Weapons that are capable of a high order of destruction and/or of being used to destroy large numbers of people. It includes NUCLEAR WEAPONS, and biological, chemical, and radiation weapons.JordanTerrorism: The use or threatened use of force or violence against persons or property in violation of criminal laws for purposes of intimidation, coercion, or ransom, in support of political or social objectives.War: Hostile conflict between organized groups of people.

Determination of alkylmethylphosphonic acids, the main metabolites of organophosphorus nerve agents, in biofluids by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid-liquid-solid-phase-transfer-catalyzed pentafluorobenzylation. (1/269)

A simple gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) procedure has been developed for the main metabolites of organophosphorus nerve agents, alkylmethylphosphonic acids (AMPAs; alkyl = Et, i-Pr, and pinacolyl) in biofluids via extractive pentafluorobenzylation. The derivatization was carried out under liquid-liquid-solid-phase-transfer conditions using a polymer-bound tri-n-butylmethylphosphonium bromide as a catalyst. AMPAs in aqueous samples were semiquantitatively extracted into a small-volume organic layer as their pentafluorobenzyl derivatives at pH 4.5 (85 degrees C). Sample pretreatments for urine, serum, and saliva were each examined to minimize matrix interference. The detection limits of APMAs by electron-impact ionization GC-MS were around 50 ng/mL and 2.5-10 ng/mL in the full-scan and selected-ion monitoring modes, respectively. In order to detect trace-level AMPAs, negative-ion chemical ionization (NICI) was also employed to enhance sensitivity. The detection limits of AMPAs in biofluids were typically 60 pg/mL by GC-NICI-MS.  (+info)

Chemical and biological weapons: new questions, new answers. (2/269)

The words "chemical and biological weapons" (CBW) send a shiver down most spines these days. With the end of the Cold War, the possibility of a massive nuclear confrontation appears remote, so today many popular doomsday scenarios center on the aggressive use of chemical or biological warfare by rogue nations or terrorist groups. As exaggerated as some of the accounts are, with CBW cast as the latest unseen, unstoppable enemy, the threat posed by these weapons is all too real, and growing.  (+info)

The sources, fate, and toxicity of chemical warfare agent degradation products. (3/269)

We include in this review an assessment of the formation, environmental fate, and mammalian and ecotoxicity of CW agent degradation products relevant to environmental and occupational health. These parent CW agents include several vesicants: sulfur mustards [undistilled sulfur mustard (H), sulfur mustard (HD), and an HD/agent T mixture (HT)]; nitrogen mustards [ethylbis(2-chloroethyl)amine (HN1), methylbis(2-chloroethyl)amine (HN2), tris(2-chloroethyl)amine (HN3)], and Lewisite; four nerve agents (O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate (VX), tabun (GA), sarin (GB), and soman (GD)); and the blood agent cyanogen chloride. The degradation processes considered here include hydrolysis, microbial degradation, oxidation, and photolysis. We also briefly address decontamination but not combustion processes. Because CW agents are generally not considered very persistent, certain degradation products of significant persistence, even those that are not particularly toxic, may indicate previous CW agent presence or that degradation has occurred. Of those products for which there are data on both environmental fate and toxicity, only a few are both environmentally persistent and highly toxic. Major degradation products estimated to be of significant persistence (weeks to years) include thiodiglycol for HD; Lewisite oxide for Lewisite; and ethyl methyl phosphonic acid, methyl phosphonic acid, and possibly S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothioic acid (EA 2192) for VX. Methyl phosphonic acid is also the ultimate hydrolysis product of both GB and GD. The GB product, isopropyl methylphosphonic acid, and a closely related contaminant of GB, diisopropyl methylphosphonate, are also persistent. Of all of these compounds, only Lewisite oxide and EA 2192 possess high mammalian toxicity. Unlike other CW agents, sulfur mustard agents (e.g., HD) are somewhat persistent; therefore, sites or conditions involving potential HD contamination should include an evaluation of both the agent and thiodiglycol.  (+info)

Hazards of chemical weapons release during war: new perspectives. (4/269)

The two major threat classes of chemical weapons are mustard gas and the nerve agents, and this has not changed in over 50 years. Both types are commonly called gases, but they are actually liquids that are not remarkably volatile. These agents were designed specifically to harm people by any route of exposure and to be effective at low doses. Mustard gas was used in World War I, and the nerve agents were developed shortly before, during, and after World War II. Our perception of the potency of chemical weapons has changed, as well as our concern over potential effects of prolonged exposures to low doses and potential target populations that include women and children. Many of the toxicologic studies and human toxicity estimates for both mustard and nerve agents were designed for the purpose of quickly developing maximal casualties in the least sensitive male soldier. The "toxicity" of the chemical weapons has not changed, but our perception of "toxicity" has.  (+info)

Sequelae of sarin toxicity at one and three years after exposure in Matsumoto, Japan. (5/269)

In order to clarify the later sequelae of sarin poisoning that occurred in Matsumoto City, Japan, on June 27, 1994, a cohort study was conducted on all persons (2052 Japanese people) inhabiting an area 1050 meters from north to south and 850 meters from east to west with the sarin release site in the center. Respondents numbered 1237 and 836 people when surveys were conducted at one and three years after the sarin incident, respectively. Numbers of persons with symptoms of sarin toxicity were compared between sarin victims and non-victims. Of the respondents, 58 and 46 people had symptoms associated with sarin such as fatigue, asthenia, shoulder stiffness, asthenopia and blurred vision at both points of the survey, respectively. The prevalences were low; some complained of insomnia, had bad dreams, difficulty in smoking, husky voice, slight fever and palpitation. The victims who had symptoms one year after the incident had a lower erythrocyte cholinesterase activity than did those who did not have symptoms at the early stage; such persons lived in an area with a 500 meter long axis north east from the sarin release site. The three-year cohort study clearly showed that the odds ratios of almost all of the symptoms were high in the sarin-exposed group, suggesting a positive relationship between symptoms and grades of exposure to sarin. These results suggest that symptoms reported by many victims of the sarin incident are thought to be sequelae related to sarin exposure.  (+info)

Characterization of VX on concrete using ion trap secondary ionization mass spectrometry. (6/269)

The nerve agent VX (O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methyl phosphonothiolate) was analyzed on the surface of concrete samples using an ion trap secondary ion mass spectrometer (IT-SIMS). It was found that VX could be detected down to an absolute quantity of 5 ng on a concrete chip, or to a surface coverage of 0.0004 monolayers on crushed concrete. To achieve these levels of detection, the m/z 268-->128 ion fragmentation was measured using MS2, where m/z 268 corresponds to [VX + H]+, and 128 corresponds to a diisopropylvinylammonium isomer, that is formed by the elimination of the phosphonothiolate moiety. Detection at these levels was accomplished by analyzing samples that had been recently exposed to VX, i.e., within an hour. When the VX-exposed concrete samples were aged, the SIMS signature for intact VX had disappeared, which signaled the degradation of the compound on the concrete surface. The VX signature was replaced by ions which are interpreted in terms of VX degradation products, which appear to be somewhat long lived on the concrete surface. These compounds include ethylmethylphosphonic acid (EMPA), diisopropyl taurine (DIPT), diisopropylaminoethanethiol (DESH), bis(diisopropylaminoethane) disulfide [(DES)2], and a particularly tenacious compound that may correspond to diisopropylvinylamine (DIVA), or an isomer thereof. It was found that the thiolamine-derived degradation products DIPT, DESH, and (DES)2 were removed with isopropyl alcohol extraction. However, the DIVA-related degradation product was observed to strongly adhere to the concrete surface for longer than one week. Although quantitation was not possible in this set of experiments, the results clearly show the rapid degradation of VX on concrete, as well as the surface sensitivity of the IT-SIMS for intact VX and its adsorptive degradation products.  (+info)

The binding of substrate analogs to phosphotriesterase. (7/269)

Phosphotriesterase (PTE) from Pseudomonas diminuta catalyzes the detoxification of organophosphates such as the widely utilized insecticide paraoxon and the chemical warfare agent sarin. The three-dimensional structure of the enzyme is known from high resolution x-ray crystallographic analyses. Each subunit of the homodimer folds into a so-called TIM barrel, with eight strands of parallel beta-sheet. The two zinc ions required for activity are positioned at the C-terminal portion of the beta-barrel. Here, we describe the three-dimensional structure of PTE complexed with the inhibitor diisopropyl methyl phosphonate, which serves as a mimic for sarin. Additionally, the structure of the enzyme complexed with triethyl phosphate is also presented. In the case of the PTE-diisopropyl methyl phosphonate complex, the phosphoryl oxygen of the inhibitor coordinates to the more solvent-exposed zinc ion (2.5 A), thereby lending support to the presumed catalytic mechanism involving metal coordination of the substrate. In the PTE-triethyl phosphate complex, the phosphoryl oxygen of the inhibitor is positioned at 3.4 A from the more solvent-exposed zinc ion. The two structures described in this report provide additional molecular understanding for the ability of this remarkable enzyme to hydrolyze such a wide range of organophosphorus substrates.  (+info)

Acute sarin exposure causes differential regulation of choline acetyltransferase, acetylcholinesterase, and acetylcholine receptors in the central nervous system of the rat. (8/269)

Acute neurotoxic effects of sarin (O:-isopropylmethylphosphonoflouridate) in male Sprague-Dawley rats were studied. The animals were treated with intramuscular (im) injections of either 1 x LD(50) (100 microg/kg), and sacrificed at 0. 5, 1, 3, 6, 15, or 20 h after treatment, or with im injections of either 0.01, 0.1, 0.5, or 1 x LD(50) and sacrificed 15 h after treatment. Plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and brain regional acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were inhibited (45-55%) by 30 min after the LD(50) dose. BChE in the plasma and AChE in cortex, brainstem, midbrain, and cerebellum remained inhibited for up to 20 h following a single LD(50) treatment. No inhibition in plasma BChE activity was observed 20 h after treatment with doses lower than the LD(50) dose. Midbrain and brainstem seem to be most responsive to sarin treatment at lower doses, as these regions exhibited inhibition (approximately 49% and 10%, respectively) in AChE activity following 0.1 x LD(50) treatment, after 20 h. Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity was increased in cortex, brainstem, and midbrain 6 h after LD(50) treatment, and the elevated enzyme activity persisted up to 20 h after treatment. Cortex ChAT activity was significantly increased following a 0.1 x LD(50) dose, whereas brainstem and midbrain did not show any effect at lower doses. Treatment with an LD(50) dose caused a biphasic response in cortical nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (m2-mAChR) ligand binding, using [(3)H]cytisine and [(3)H]AFDX-384 as ligands for nAChR and mAChR, respectively. Decreases at 1 and 3 h and consistent increases at 6, 15, and 20 h in nAChR and m2-mAChR were observed following a single LD(50) dose. The increase in nAChR ligand binding densities was much more pronounced than in mAChR. These results suggest that a single exposure of sarin, ranging from 0.1 to 1 x LD(50), modulates the cholinergic pathways differently and thereby causes dysregulation in excitatory neurotransmission.  (+info)

*Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

Chemical warfare agent detection[edit]. As part of the post-September 11 drive towards increased capability in homeland ... Chemical ionization[edit]. Main article: Chemical ionization. In chemical ionization a reagent gas, typically methane or ... mass spectrometers have been modified for field portability and near real-time detection of chemical warfare agents (CWA) such ... Chromatographic retention index data and ion/molecule interactions for chemical warfare agent identification". International ...

*Carbamate

Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents (2nd). CRC Press, 2008. pp 105-139. ISBN 9780849314346 Badreshia, S. (2002 ... Gupta, Ramesh C (ed) (2015). Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents. Cambridge, MA, USA: Academic Press. pp. 338-339 ... Carbamate nerve agents While the carbamate acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are commonly referred to as "carbamate insecticides ... Urethane (ethyl carbamate) was once produced commercially in the United States as a chemotherapy agent and for other medicinal ...

*Methyldichloroarsine

Ledgard, J. (2006). The Laboratory History of Chemical Warfare Agents. Lulu.com. p. 117. ISBN 9781411694323. Lohs, K. H. (1974 ... This colourless volatile liquid is a highly toxic vesicant that has been used in chemical warfare. German chemists weaponized ... Cashman, J. R. (2008). Emergency Response Handbook for Chemical and Biological Agents and Weapons (2nd ed.). CRC Press. p. 216 ... Among the agents useful for decontamination of MD are bleach and caustic soda. Ethyldichloroarsine Phenyldichloroarsine ...

*Pontiac's War

D. Hank Ellison (August 24, 2007). Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents. CRC Press. pp. 123-140. ISBN 0-8493-1434 ... Warfare on the North American frontier was brutal, and the killing of prisoners, the targeting of civilians, and other ... For an overview of the evidence and historical interpretations, see Elizabeth A. Fenn, "Biological Warfare in Eighteenth- ...

*Henry Bouquet

D. Hank Ellison (24 August 2007). Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents. CRC Press. pp. 123-140. ISBN 0-8493-1434- ... The incident at Fort Pitt was one of the first known cases of deliberate biological warfare in North America.[not in citation ...

*Point State Park

D. Hank Ellison (August 24, 2007). Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents. CRC Press. pp. 123-140. ISBN 0-8493-1434 ...

*Ricin

Given ricin's extreme toxicity and utility as an agent of chemical/biological warfare, it is noteworthy that the production of ... Gupta R (2009). Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents. Boston: Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-374484-5. [page needed ... ISBN 978-0-9626523-8-7. "HHS and USDA Select Agents and Toxins 7 CFR Part 331, 9 CFR Part 121, and 42 CFR Part 73" (PDF). cdc. ... In the U.S., ricin appears on the select agents list of the Department of Health and Human Services, and scientists must ...

*Cyanogen

Ledgard, Jared (2006). A Laboratory History of Chemical Warfare Agents. Lulu.com. ISBN 0615136451. p. 82. Thomas, N.; Gaydon, A ... Cyanogen is the chemical compound with the formula (CN)2. It is a colorless, toxic gas with a pungent odor. The molecule is a ... ISBN 0-08-037941-9. Brotherton, T. K.; Lynn, J. W. (1959). "The Synthesis And Chemistry Of Cyanogen". Chemical Reviews. 59 (5 ... "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards #0161". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Ringer, A. L.; ...

*Lewisite

Chemical warfare agents. Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 2008, 26, 113-122 Doi, M.; Hattori, N.; Yokoyama, A.; Onari, Y.; Kanehara ... Blue Cross (chemical warfare) Lewisite I - Compound Summary, PubChem. A drop in the ocean: the sea-dumping of chemical weapons ... Disposal of Chemical Agent Identification Sets. National Academies Press. p. 16. ISBN 0-309-06879-7. "CDC - The Emergency ... www.sltrib.com/sltrib/news/53326399-78/chemical-depot-army-weapons.html.csp Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical ...

*Stink bomb

"Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents, Second Edition". CRC Press - via Google Books. Trivedi, Bijal P. (January 7 ... They range in effectiveness from simple pranks to military grade malodorants or riot control chemical agents. The Guinness Book ... Chemical warfare Malodorant Practical joke List of practical joke topics Thioacetone "Guinness World Records". Ellison, D. Hank ... Some chemicals (typically thiols) have a certain concentration threshold over which the smell is not perceived significantly ...

*Organosulfur compounds

Sulfur mustard, a chemical warfare agent. These compounds are characterized by C−S−C bonds Relative to C−C bonds, C−S bond are ... While sulfur-containing antibiotics save many lives, sulfur mustard is a deadly chemical warfare agent. Fossil fuels, coal, ... Odours occur as well in chemical processing of coal or crude oil into precursor chemicals (feedstocks) for downstream ... American Chemical Society. doi:10.1021/bk-2011-1068. ISBN 978-0-8412-2616-6. Duan, X.; Block, E.; Li, Z.; Connelly, T.; Zhang, ...

*Black Hills Ordnance Depot

"Intelligence Update: Chemical Warfare Agent Issues". CIA. Retrieved 2011-03-14. "Kansas Department of Health and Environment ... Over the years, BHOD was used for storage and testing of chemical weapons, including sarin and mustard gas. Additionally, ...

*Riffian people

ISBN 978-1-4422-8182-0. James A. Romano Jr.; Harry Salem; Brian J. Lukey (2007). Chemical Warfare Agents: Chemistry, ... The Rif War witnessed the use of chemical weapons in the 1920s by the Spanish army. In 1958, some Riffian communities launched ... In May it called the protesters separatists, though most are not, and suggested that they were foreign agents. (...) The unrest ...

*Spiez Laboratory

Evaluation of detection and detoxification agents of chemical warfare agents. Production of chemical warfare agents as ... Biology Analysis and diagnosis of biological agents and toxins. Chemistry Analysis of samples of Chemical warfare agents and ... Chemical analysis won't tell you who released the agent'". Swissinfo. 23 August 2013. "Spiez Laboratory aces chemical weapons ... biological and chemical threats and dangers. It is part of the Federal Department of Defence, Civil Protection and Sports (DDPS ...

*CS gas

Medical Aspects of Chemical Warfare, Chapter 13 Riot Control Agents, US Army Medical Institute, Borden Institute, pp. 441-484 ( ... Compendium of Chemical Warfare Agents. Springer. p. 138. ISBN 0-387-34626-0. "o-Chlorobenzylidene malononitrile". Immediately ... Pharmacy and Pharmacology portal List of parties to the Chemical Weapons Convention CR gas CN gas Pepper spray Chemical Weapons ... Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons. "States that nave neither signed nor acceded to the Chemical Weapons ...

*Emergent BioSolutions

The RSDL lotion protects people's skin from various chemical warfare agents. The product contains a sponge that is filled with ... One of Emergent's medical countermeasure products is RSDL, a lotion that clears and neutralizes chemical warfare agents. The ... "RSDL is used as a medical device for the decontamination of skin exposed to chemical warfare agents such as sulfur mustard, VX ... Murtha, Alex (2017-09-25). "Emergent BioSolutions awards renewed five-year contract to supply chemical agent-neutralizing ...

*EA-3148

Ellison, D. H. (2008). Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents (2nd ed.). p. 28. ISBN 0-8493-1434-8. Commission on ... The chemical structure of EA-3148 falls within the scope of compounds designated "Toxic chemicals" under Schedule 1 of the ... Possible Long-Term Health Effects of Short-Term Exposure to Chemical Agents. 1. The National Academies Press. pp. 7, 22, 29, E3 ... EA-3148 (Substance 100A) is a "V-series" nerve agent related to the better-known compounds VX and VR. It was studied by both ...

*Magnaporthe grisea

at Factsheets on Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents Agrios, George N. (2005). Plant Pathology. Amsterdam: Elsevier Academic ... Chemical controls such as Carpropamid have been shown to prevent penetration of the appressoria into rice epidermal cells, ... The fungus has been able to establish resistance to both chemical treatments and genetic resistance in some types of rice ... Rice Blast at University of California Integrated Pest Management Rice Blast at the Online Information Service for Non-Chemical ...

*Dry decontamination

RSDL removes or neutralizes chemical warfare agents, T-2 toxins, and pesticides. Fuller's earth is any clay material that has ... without chemical treatment. It is also used for filtering, clarifying, decoloring, and as a filler in paint. It is used by the ... mitt is a polyvalent device which incorporates superabsorbent material with active agents for the destruction of chemical and ... Dry decontamination is a method of decontaminating (or removing contaminants like chemicals, biological particles, or other ...

*Cyclosarin

A laboratory history of chemical warfare agents (2006) edition 2 Jared Ledgard.. ... The major nerve gases are the G agents, sarin (GB), soman (GD), tabun (GA), and the V agents such as VX. The original agent, ... It is a member of the G-series family of nerve agents, a group of chemical weapons discovered and synthesized by a German team ... This was likely done to obtain a more persistent chemical agent as well as in response to an existing embargo placed on alcohol ...

*Diphenylamine

The chemical warfare agent adamsite is derived from diphenylamine. In animal experiments diphenylamine was rapidly and ... International Chemical Safety Card 0466 "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards #0240". National Institute for Occupational ... ISBN 978-0-85404-182-4. "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards #0240". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ( ... "Diphenylamine". NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. CDC NIOSH. 4 April 2011. Retrieved 29 April 2014. fao (2007). "2007 ...

*Benzyl chloride

Thus, benzyl chloride is a lachrymator and has been used in chemical warfare. It is also very irritating to the skin. It is ... Benzyl chloride is an alkylating agent. Indicative of its high reactivity (relative to alkyl chlorides), benzyl chloride reacts ... International Chemical Safety Card 0016 SIDS Initial Assessment Report for benzyl chloride from the Organisation for Economic ... This colourless liquid is a reactive organochlorine compound that is a widely used chemical building block. Benzyl chloride is ...

*Acute inhalation injury

51:98-107 Lazarus AA, Devereaux A. (2002) Potential agents of chemical warfare. Worst-case scenario protection and ... Mustards, vesicating agents, have been primarily used in warfare. They damage the upper airway mucosa. Pulmonary edema rarely ... 143:74-9. [1] "Chemical Warfare in World War I". webharvest.gov. Archived from the original on 2004-10-17. Retrieved 2016-06-13 ... followed by death allowing for evaluation of novel cytoprotective agents. Potential tissue reparative agents can be evaluated ...

*Micromotor

... and chemical warfare agents, such as organaphosphate nerve agents- a class of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Therefore, ... They also have been shown to be effective in degrading certain chemical and biological warfare agents. Janus sphere micromotors ... "Water-Driven Micromotors for Rapid Photocatalytic Degradation of Biological and Chemical Warfare Agents". ACS Nano. 8 (11): ... core are currently being examined and studied for their degradation efficacy against chemical and biological warfare agents ( ...

*African-American book publishers in the United States, 1960-80

An Agent of Chemical Warfare (1972); Yusef Kman, ed., The Young Black Poets of Brooklyn (1973). Free Lance Press (Cleveland, ...

*Dean Smith (engineer)

He is an engineer specializing in chemical warfare agent detection. The University of Maine has renamed its top scholar-athlete ...

*Cyanogen

Ledgard, Jared (2006). A Laboratory History of Chemical Warfare Agents. Lulu.com. ISBN 978-0615136455. .. p. 82. ... Cyanogen is the chemical compound with the formula (CN)2. It is a colorless, toxic gas with a pungent odor. The molecule is a ... "Chemical Entities of Biological Interest. UK: European Bioinformatics Institute. 27 October 2006. Main. Retrieved 6 June 2012. ... Brotherton, T. K.; Lynn, J. W. (1959). "The Synthesis And Chemistry Of Cyanogen". Chemical Reviews. 59 (5): 841-883. doi: ...

*Dimethyl sulfate

It was used in chemical warfare in WWI. Dimethyl sulfate can be synthesized in the laboratory by many different syntheses, the ... Compared to other methylating agents, dimethyl sulfate is preferred by the industry because of its low cost and high reactivity ... ICSC WebBook page for C2H6SO4 International Chemical Safety Card 0148 CDC - NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. ... "Poison Facts: Low Chemicals: Dimethyl Sulfate". The University of Kansas Hospital. Shirley, D. A. (1966). Organic Chemistry. ...
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To determine cancer morbidity in members of the armed forces who took part in tests of chemical warfare agents from 1941 to 1989. Historical cohort study, with cohort members followed up to December 2004. Archive of UK government research facility at Porton Down, UK military personnel records, and national death and cancer records. All veterans included in the cohort study of mortality, excluding those known to have died or been lost to follow-up before 1 January 1971 when the UK cancer registration system commenced: 17,013 male members of the UK armed forces who took part in tests (Porton Down veterans) and a similar group of 16,520 men who did not (non-Porton Down veterans). Cancer morbidity in each group of veterans; rate ratios, with 95% confidence intervals, adjusted for age group and calendar period. 3457 cancers were reported in the Porton Down veterans compared with 3380 cancers in the non-Porton Down veterans. While overall cancer morbidity was the same in both groups (rate ratio 1.00, 95%
Preface. 1 Historical Milieu.. 1.1 Organophosphorus Nerve Agents.. 1.2 Blister Agents.. 1.3 Sternutator Agents.. 1.4 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC).. 1.4.1 Schedule of Chemicals.. 1.4.2 Destruction of Chemical Weapons.. References.. 2 Toxicity of Chemical Warfare Agents and their Degradation Products.. 2.1 Organophosphorus Nerve Agent Toxicity.. 2.1.1 Toxicity Mechanism - Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition.. 2.1.2 Exposure.. 2.1.3 Response, Treatment and Prevention.. 2.2 Toxicity of Nerve Agent Degradation Products.. 2.2.1 Toxicity of GA (Tabun) Degradation Products.. 2.2.2 Toxicity of GB (Sarin) Degradation Products.. 2.2.3 Toxicity of GD (Soman) Degradation Products.. 2.2.4 Toxicity of GF (Cyclosarin) Degradation Products.. 2.2.5 Toxicity of VX Degradation Products.. 2.3 Toxicity of Blister Agents.. 2.4 Toxicity of Sternutator Agents.. 2.4.1 Toxicity of Degradation Products of Sternutator Agents.. References.. 3 Analysis of Chemical Warfare Agents.. 3.1 Introduction.. 3.2 Minimally Invasive ...
Chlorine chemical liquid form will burn the skin, Chlorine has been used as a chemical warfare agent. Fatal if breathed at a concentration of 1000 ppm..
Because of the ongoing risk of chemical attack, emergency physicians must be able to care for victims of chemical weapon agents (CWAs). This article reviews the physical properties and general clinical effects of CWAs.
Commonly referred to as tabun, sarin, soman, and VX, nerve agents have famously been implicated in attacks by the Syrian government against rebel forces and civilians, and by North Korea in the assassination of Kim Jong Nam.1,2 They were also, on a less serious note, popularized in the movie The Rock. Considered the most toxic of chemical weapons, these agents are extremely potent organophosphates, achieving toxicity through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase at muscarinic and nicotinic receptors. Patients thus present with the familiar constellation of "SLUDGE" symptoms: salivation, lacrimation, urination, diarrhea, gastrointestinal distress, and emesis. Severe toxicity may progress to seizures, copious pulmonary secretions, bronchospasm, and ultimately respiratory arrest. Miosis is a notably useful exam finding as it should be present in nearly all patients with significant toxicity.3. Treatment consists first and foremost of decontamination. The removal of all clothing and irrigation with ...
Quinn also considered the existence of a fourth domain in AChE, which binds to cationic substrates. This domain is located near the ridge of the gorge, more than 20 Å away from the active site, and is denominated peripheral anionic site. The binding of ligands to this peripheral site frequently causes conformational changes in the active site. These four domains act in a concerted way, resulting in the complex reaction dynamics that characterize AChE.28,53. As mentioned before, the enzymatic hydrolysis of ACh involves nucleophilic additions and acid-base reactions, and is based mainly on the action of the triad catalytic residues. The proposed mechanism most consistent with available experimental data consists of two nucleophilic attacks and two proton-transfers, with a covalent acyl-enzyme intermediate. In TcAChE, His-440 abstracts a proton from Ser-200, forming a nucleophile Ser-O- that attacks the ACh molecule, generating a tetrahedral adduct as intermediate. The protonated His-440 is ...
Chemical and Biolgical Warfare (CBW) we now know was a huge danger during the Cold War. Frigtingly deadly agents and strains were developed. Biological warfare (BW), commonly called germ warfare is the use of biological toxins or infectious agents (bacteria, viruses, and fungi) to ill or incapacitate people directky or the animals and plants on which people depend. Chemical Warfare (CW) uses chemicals, commonly called poison gas, to kill. CW was developed by the Germans and first used in World War I. The World War I chemical agents, however, rather primitive. The Germans in the inter-War period begn developing much more deasly nerve agents. The Japanese also had an active program and actually used both biological and chemical agents in china, primarily in China. BW was not used. Thus CBW terrified the public before Wotld War II, but were not given much attention in the public mind during the Cold War. CBW was not new to warfare These weapons had been used such ancient times. Rotten or
Exposure to NM also caused long-term changes in iris appearance and structure. In the early postinjury period, dilation of iris vessels, iris stromal hemorrhages, and an inflammatory anterior chamber reaction were present. It was difficult, however, to quantify these findings accurately behind the edematous and opaque cornea. As corneal condition stabilized (usually within 7 to 14 days), it was possible to observe areas of iris pigmentation as well as atrophy in NM-exposed eyes (Fig. 3A) that were not present in noninjured fellow eyes (Fig. 3B) . These changes were much less severe in NM-exposed eyes treated with Zn/DFO (Fig. 3C) . The iris pigmentation score at 4 weeks after injury was significantly reduced (by ,60%) in Zn/DFO-treated eyes compared with saline-treated eyes (Fig. 3D) . Again, treatment with each component of the complex separately (i.e., ZnCl2 and DFO) showed a trend for reduction in severity that did not reach statistical significance (Fig. 3D ; exemplified also in Fig. 4 ). To ...
Ventilation systems are extremely venerable to incidental and malicious attacks by terrorists and saboteurs. During attacks by chemical and biological weapons, personnel in temporary and permanent shelters are dependent on a constant supply of clean air. Consequently, the main objective of the proposed work is to develop a microwave low-temperature catalytic oxidation system that will effectively decontaminate air containing aerosolized or gaseous chemical agents (CWAs). In order to protect personnel in shelters, the catalytic oxidation systems should (1) destroy CWAs in air at low temperatures to avoid NOx formation, (2) remove sulfur dioxide produced from the oxidation of CWAs containing sulfur atoms, (3) operate for an indefinite period of time, and (4) destroy biological agents at low temperatures. The experimental results obtained during the Phase I work will clearly demonstrate that the microwave decontamination process is capable of destroying greater than 90% of organics containing 3% or ...
Briefly describing the main issues in chemical agent storage and disposal, and summarising the role that Markes thermal desorption technologies can play.
These molecules could be used in the detection of chemical warfare agents.. A family of fluorescent dye molecules has been developed for use in "on-off" fluorescence detection of specific chemicals. By themselves, these molecules do not fluoresce. However, when exposed to certain chemical analytes in liquid or vapor forms, they do fluoresce (see figure). These compounds are amenable to fixation on or in a variety of substrates for use in fluorescence-based detection devices: they can be chemically modified to anchor them to porous or non-porous solid supports or can be incorporated into polymer films. Potential applications for these compounds include detection of chemical warfare agents, sensing of acidity or alkalinity, and fluorescent tagging of proteins in pharmaceutical research and development. These molecules could also be exploited for use as two-photon materials for photodynamic therapy in the treatment of certain cancers and other diseases. Read more: ...
The AquaFlex® Open-Cell foam technology has been adapted for use as a high surface area, disinfectant-infused foam Sponge and mitt to help mitigate the risk of human infection from COVID-19 and other pathogens from surfaces.. For more information go to https://aquaflexbiosolutions.com. The concept of infusing the AquaFlex Sponge to mitigate or neutralize exposure to dangerous chemicals and pathogens is not new.. In 2002, the FDA initially cleared a device consisting of a lotion-impregnated AquaFlex® Sponge. The AquaFlex® Sponge serves as the backbone for this Class II medical device that removes or neutralizes chemical warfare agents and T-2 toxin from the skin. Decontamination occurs by physical removal of the chemical warfare agent from the skin or by chemical neutralization. The lotion-impregnated Sponge removes toxins from the skin to allow for neutralization to occur within the Sponge.. In 2003, the FDA stated in a press release:. ...
A plasma decon chamber has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Albuquerque, NM, to study the decontamination of chemical and biologi
In an advance that could be used in masks to protect against nerve gas, scientists are reporting development of proteins that are up to 15,000 times more effective than their natural
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The era of cancer chemotherapy began in the 1940s with the first use of nitrogen mustards and folic acid antagonist drugs. Cancer drug development has exploded since then into a multibillion-dollar industry. The targeted therapy revolution had arrived, but many of the principles and limitations of chemotherapy discovered by the early researchers still apply. The beginnings of the modern era of cancer chemotherapy can be traced directly to the German introduction of chemical warfare during World War I. Among the chemical agents used, mustard gas was particularly devastating. Although banned by the Geneva Protocol in 1925, the advent of World War II caused concerns over the possible re-introduction of chemical warfare. These concerns led to the discovery of nitrogen mustard, a chemical warfare agent, as an effective treatment for cancer. Two pharmacologists from the Yale School of Medicine, Louis S. Goodman and Alfred Gilman, were recruited by the United States Department of Defense to investigate ...
Abstract Chemical warfare agents such as organophosphorus nerve agents, mustard agents, and psychotomimetic agent like 3quinuclidinylbenzilate degrade in the environment and form acidic degradation products, the analysis of which is difficult under normal analytical conditions. In the present work, a simultaneous extraction and derivatization...
This 1451 word essay is about Organochlorides, Blister agents, Chemical weapons, Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, Nerve agents, Chemical warfare. Read the full essay now!
As a weapon of fear and terror, nerve agents are quickly becoming a staple in the plots of television, cinema, and video games. In most implementations of this plot, a shadowy terrorist organization obtains a quantity of nerve agent and threatens to release it in a population center. A fictional nerve agent, ZV, is an integral part of the story line for John Langes (a pseudonym of Michael Crichton) 1972 novel Binary. The effects of this agent were the same as the V-series agents and the book mentions these other agents although it does not mention other existing binary nerve agents such as the G-series or VX. In Mobile Suit Zeta Gundam, a fictional nerve agent called G3 is used against space colonists by the Earth Federations Titans organization, setting off a chain of events culminating in the destruction of said group. Nerve agents are among the armaments of the future Colonial Marines in the 1986 film Aliens, in which the character Vasquez suggests the use of fictional "CN-20" against an ...
Researchers have developed a prototype of electronic nose for the detection of chemical warfare gases, fundamentally nerve gases (Sarin, Soman and Tabun).
The 35-minute film, "Haber: The Father of Chemical Warfare," is a docudrama written and directed by Daniel Ragussis. It captures a snapshot of the chemists life when he was pressed into service by the German government to help win WWI. Although Haber voiced his reservations about using chemicals on the battlefield, his sense of duty to his country led him to see the project through and supervise the first use of chlorine in the trenches near Ypres, Belgium, in April 1915. Youll have to watch the film to see what happened. ...
Buy Analysis of Chemical Warfare Degradation Products by Douglas D. Richardson From WHSmith today! FREE delivery to store or FREE UK delivery on all ord...
Nerve agents are a class of phosphorus-containing organic chemicals (organophosphates) that disrupt the mechanisms by which nerves transfer messages to organs. The disruption is caused by blocking acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter. Poisoning by a nerve agent leads to contraction of pupils, profuse salivation, convulsions, involuntary urination and defecation, and death by asphyxiation due to a loss of control of the respiratory muscles. Some nerve agents are readily vaporized or aerosolized, and the primary portal of entry into the body is the respiratory system. Nerve agents can also be absorbed through the skin, requiring that those likely to be subjected to such agents wear a full body suit in addition to a respirator. As their name suggests, nerve agents attack the nervous system of the human body. All such agents function the same way: by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which is responsible for the breakdown of ...
At the turn of the 20th century, following the Tokyo Sarin Subway Attack, the threat of chemical warfare agents has migrated from the battlefield to become a major concern for homeland security in the 21th century. While current fielded antidotes are able to mitigate acute high mortality arising from exposure to nerve agents, achieving effective neuroprotection in subjects with nerve agent induced prolonged seizures or status epilepticus is currently lacking. To overcome this challenge, establishing an improved understanding on the mechanism linking seizure onset during chemical (including nerve agents) poisoning to the subsequent cascade of biochemical, neurotoxicological, pathophysiological, genomic and behavioral changes post exposure is vital. Due to ethical, safety and chemical surety related issues, looking for surrogate chemicals also become important for chemical defense research. In this eBook, internationally well-known clinicians and basic research scientists with expertise on ...
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The exposure to toxic organophosphate (OP) insecticides and chemical warfare agents continues to endanger many of the worlds population. One potentially dire consequence of such exposure is the prolonged impairment of cognitive function. Mechanistic studies of OPs to date have focused primarily the effects of overtly toxic doses, however, little is known about the cellular and behavioral consequences of repeated exposure to doses of these agents that produce no overt signs of acute toxicity (i.e., subthreshold doses). This issue is very important since detectible levels of OPs can remain in the environment for extended periods. Accordingly, our long-term goal is further elucidate OP mechanisms such that more effective therapeutic strategies can be developed for patients suffering from exposure. The objective of this application is to identify specific relationships between cellular and biochemical manifestations of repeated, subthreshold exposures to OPs and ...
INTRODUCTION In October 1992, the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, which has Senate oversight responsibility for the Export Administration Act (EAA), held an inquiry into the U.S. export policy to Iraq prior to the Persian Gulf War. During that hearing it was learned that U.N. inspectors identified many U.S.- manufactured items exported pursuant to licenses issued by the U.S. Department of Commerce that were used to further Iraqs chemical and nuclear weapons development and missile delivery system development programs. On June 30, 1993, several veterans testified at a hearing of the Senate Committee on Armed Services. There, they related details of unexplained events that took place during the Persian Gulf War which they believed to be chemical warfare agent attacks. After these unexplained events, many of the veterans present reported symptoms consistent with exposure to a mixed agent attack. Then, on July 29, 1993, the Czech Minister of Defense announced that a Czechoslovak ...
Government agencies across the globe continuously evaluate security equipment, which is employed in Drugs and Explosives detection applications. Security equipment can be broadly divided into two categories: bulk detectors such as metal detectors or X-Ray scanners, which rely on the presence of a significant amount of a material; and trace detectors, such as sniffer systems, which detect the presence of minute quantities of a threat material which may remain after handling illicit materials.. Trace detectors are used for explosives detection at locations such as airports, stadia or public buildings, and for drugs detection at ports of entry or in nightclubs. Whether the need be for the detection of drugs, explosives or even chemical warfare agents, the authorities must determine the efficacy of the various solutions proposed to address terrorist or criminal threats. To do this, governments must undertake tests to determine the limit of detection of the equipment proposed to a range of ...
Government agencies across the globe continuously evaluate security equipment, which is employed in Drugs and Explosives detection applications. Security equipment can be broadly divided into two categories: bulk detectors such as metal detectors or X-Ray scanners, which rely on the presence of a significant amount of a material; and trace detectors, such as sniffer systems, which detect the presence of minute quantities of a threat material which may remain after handling illicit materials.. Trace detectors are used for explosives detection at locations such as airports, stadia or public buildings, and for drugs detection at ports of entry or in nightclubs. Whether the need be for the detection of drugs, explosives or even chemical warfare agents, the authorities must determine the efficacy of the various solutions proposed to address terrorist or criminal threats. To do this, governments must undertake tests to determine the limit of detection of the equipment proposed to a range of ...
ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND, Md. - Scientists at the U.S. Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center are combining wearable chemical samplers and multi-dimensional chromatography to enhance Soldier protection.. These tools accurately identify which and how much chemical warfare agent if a Soldier was exposed. Read more.. ...
An improved ion mobility spectrometer for detecting chemical warfare agents and hazardous vapors. The ion mobility spectrometer has an improved sensor cell that includes a heated air flow assembly, an
W. L. Gores breathable GORE® CHEMPAK® Selectively Permeable Fabric has been selected as the chemical barrier for the NFPA certified WZ9435 XRT Response Suit made by Blauer Manufacturing Company. This easily donned, single-piece coverall, which does not require taping, allows law enforcement professionals to respond more quickly and remain deployed for up to eight hours. As the first and only breathable CBRN barrier that is component-recognized to the NFPA 1994 [2007 Edition] Class 3 standard, Gores fabric provides protection against NFPA-identified hazards plus additional toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) and chemical warfare agents (CWAs). By combining this level of protection with its unique membrane technology, Gore continues to lead the industry in developing breathable, protective barriers for ChemBio personal protective equipment (PPE).. ...
Human plasma paraoxonase (PON1) has been shown to have arylesterase and paraoxonase activity. This high-density lipoprotein (HDL) associated enzyme exhibits antiatherogenic properties and acts as a detoxifying agent for several chemical warfare agents and insecticides. We show that the reported purification process (Gan et al.) contains a ~68kDa co-purifying contaminant. We have developed a modified procedure using size exclusion chromatography to obtain pure PON1 from human serum. In order to support the current homology model of PON1 developed using the crystal structure of DFPase as a model, a CD spectrum of pure, monodisperse PON1 was measured. Previous attempts were inconclusive due to a high background caused by detergent micelle light scattering. The detergent free form of PON1 has been characterized to exist as monomer, dimer, and higher order soluble aggregates. Thus, detergents are necessary to retain native, monodisperse enzyme. In conjunction with our modified purification procedure, ...
August 7, 2015. Chronic inflammation caused by disease or exposure to dangerous chemicals has long been linked to cancer, but exactly how this process takes place has remained unclear.. Now, a precise mechanism by which chronic inflammation can lead to cancer has been uncovered by researchers at MIT - a development that could lead to improved targets for preventing future tumors.. In a paper published this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the researchers unveil how one of a battery of chemical warfare agents used by the immune system to fight off infection can itself create DNA mutations that lead to cancer.. As many as one in five cancers are believed to be caused or promoted by inflammation. These include mesothelioma, a type of lung cancer caused by inflammation following chronic exposure to asbestos, and colon cancer in people with a history of inflammatory bowel disease, says Bogdan Fedeles, a research associate in the Department of Biological Engineering at MIT, ...
The Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) Kit is intended to remove or neutralize chemical warfare agents and T-2 Toxin from the skin.
Charlesworth, J. M., Riddell, S. Z. and Mathews, R. J. (1993), Determination of polymer-solvent interaction parameters using piezoelectric crystals, with reference to the sorption of chemical warfare agents. J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 47: 653-665. doi: 10.1002/app.1993.070470409 ...
On the outside front cover is a striking image from Nicholas J. FitzGerald and colleagues from the Defence Science and Technology Organisation, Australia. They have developed a miniature, real-time optical sensor that can detect the absorption levels of the chemical warfare agent methyl salicylate in a soldiers clothing.. Making light work: a miniaturised, real-time optical sensor network for the detection of CWA simulant methyl salicylate ...
RH: Yes, I believe that an ethical code of research is necessary, for all scientists (and the play makes the point that artists too are prone to the romantic fallacy that all they do is good). Scientists are not born with ethics, nor is science ethically neutral. I think courses in ethics, or better still discussion groups, based on case studies, should be a part of the education of all scientists, and also that discussion should be continued throughout life, even for experienced scientists. I actually would argue a stronger case, one with which many of my colleagues would not agree, that there is some research that should not be performed.. LC: Your play concerns ethics and moral behavior, which calls for judgments to be made. How do you judge the behavior of the famous German Jewish chemist Fritz Haber, who is responsible for the development of chemical warfare agents? And, how, may I ask, does this judgment differ from that of the famous German Jewish physicist Albert Einstein who called for ...
chromosomal (chromatin) regulation and epigenetics of Agent Ecoli, a novel chemical warfare agent probably fused in lipid-coated O/W nanoemulsions, and perhaps dilluted into TX100 or Tris-HCl lysis buffer reagents for drug/gene delivery, mind control, and domestic bioterrorism ...
A hundred years ago, on 22 April, poison gas was first used in warfare. Though about 95% of casualties in WW1 were caused by explosives, sickness and malnutrition, there is a peculiar horror associated with the use of chemical weapons. It is also true that, apart from isolated examples, WW1 was the only instance of…
Chemical warfare is ongoing every day in the U.S. and many other countries. Waging this chemical warfare keeps our foods, medicines and homes safe.
To fight our insane wars, were wrecking our soldiers ability to live with themselves and function in society, then regulating whats left of them with chemicals, which often make things immeasurably worse.
Natural News) When we think of weapons of war, most of us typically think about machine guns, frag grenades or bulletproof tanks. But in 2017, manmade machines arent the only type of weapon that is being used by various nations to harm their enemies.. Just days ago, President Donald Trump left the United States for a 12-day tour of various nations in Asia. During his visit to Beijing, Trump plans on addressing Chinas production and distribution of the synthetic opioid known as Fentanyl, which is considered by the DEA to be one of the most dangerous types of narcotics due to its cheap price, widespread use, addictive quality and its devastating effects. Considering the fact that the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission has called the problem "Chinas deadly export to the United States," President Trump should be praised for speaking out about it on his tour of Asia. Indeed, forcing Chinas hand on the production and distribution of Fentanyl is the right thing to do.. Known as ...
At the sound of a siren and the boom of a tape recording of artillery fire, hundreds of Israeli schoolchildren pulled tight the straps of their gas masks Tuesday in a simulation of a chemical
Truthout sparks action by revealing systemic injustice and providing a platform for transformative ideas through investigative reporting and analysis.
One night of passion and youre filled with a lifetime full of sperm with no need to ever mate again. As sex lives go, it doesnt sound very appealing, but its what many ants, bees, wasps and termites experience. The queens of these social insects mate in a single "nuptial flight" that lasts for a few hours or days. They store the sperm from their suitors and use it to slowly fertilise their eggs over the rest of their lives. Males have this one and only shot at joining the Mile High Club and they compete fiercely for their chance to inseminate the queen. But even for the victors, the war isnt over. Inside the queens body, their sperm continue the battle. ...
will have been completely disrupted,with small- and medium-sized 導歫丶題纄纏白啉 - 台丫市潪孑匿慥連壘球姗哚有潪仜墠聭贃壘球聭盡 . 末聭盡掜公吇綐燣3利甯偋旨扙球3揓借歫畽伔閛派勐 仧球有叏3屑顮偬庴3派劘 ...
A report from the Arizona Sky Watch shows dramatic increases in heavy metals in Arizona´s air in 2010. These figures show how many times they are over the permissible toxic limit: Aluminum: 15.8 Antimony: 63.3 Arsenic: 418 Barium: 5.3 Cadmium: 6.0 chrome: 6.4 Copper: 9.0 Irons : 43.5 Lead: 15.7 Manganese: 513.8 Nickel: 10.7 Zinc: 7.5. Their values should be = zero Chemtrail effects: We have 20% less sunshine, and mostly a blanket of artificial "clouds" filled with toxins.. But now a new aspect is added. The earliest "Chemtrail" experiments took place in Dorset, England, between 1963 and 1975: With political permission, naval ships sprayed bacterial suspensions including an Escherichia Coli species into the air - and the wind brought the bacteria ashore over an unsuspecting population. A public hearing was not allowed by the government - but it ordered an "independent" investigation by a professor from - of all places - the Royal Society. He believed that only the weakest with immune diseases ...
While cotton may be the fabric of our lives, Texas Tech University researchers may have discovered a polyurethane nanofiber technique that can save lives.
via Tampa Bay Online In March of this year, a large Southern California water system tested the effectiveness of its cyber defenses by hiring a cybersecurity team to try to hack its network, something called penetration testing. To official dismay, the team was able to seize control of the computers.... ...
Dr. Direct is a pro when it comes to wedding cakes, but the project to bake my Dads wasnt running smoothly even before the Devil Dog ate it. Two layers collapsed the day before, in my dads hands. A retired organic chemist and a superb baker, this came as a surprise. This morning Barnacle Boy and I tried to exorcise the kitchen. He whipped up a batch of Barnacle Boyss Blessed Biscuits (his own wonderful recipe for chocolate chip cookies), I said the morning office standing at the counter while they baked. So far things seem on a better track ...
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I wrote in the early days of this blog about chemical warfare, including a two-part post on nerve agents specifically, here and here. The recent use of Sarin in… Read More ...
Nerve agents are compounds that have the capacity to inactivate the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The first compounds to be synthesized were known as the G-series agents (
Guelph RDC has a lead role in food safety research with emphasis on the control of bacterial pathogens, antimicrobial resistance, mycotoxins, and chemical threats in food production systems. The focus is on developing and validating novel or current food processing technologies for enhanced food safety (biological and chemical threats) in a biosecure pilot plant infrastructure. Scientists are also investigating the microbiological and chemical safety in food production and manufacturing processes and adapting current processes to comply with anticipated regulatory constraints, such as antibiotics and sodium reduction.. Research is conducted to characterize and investigate the functionality of special attributes of current or novel food raw materials and ingredients from Canadian agricultural origin that are of interest in food production systems. This research includes:. ...
The Nerve Agents were an American hardcore punk band formed by Andy Outbreak and Eric Ozenne (ex-Redemption 87). Their angry brand of music juxtaposed yelled, sometimes ranting vocals with distorted and often chorus laden chords, complex bass lines and fast-paced percussion. Their darkened style is reminiscent of Black Flag & The Damned. The Nerve Agents were noted for their frenzied, chaotic, often violent live performances. It was not unusual for a fan or band member to require medical attention. Often on such occasions Eric Ozenne would halt performances, sometimes escorting the injured fan to the hospital. Other theatrical elements, such as costumes and the trademark eyeliner, were commonplace. On rare occasions a guest performer known only as the White Owl, (taking its name from the theme of the first full length), would run across the stage in a white mummy-like robe. There are many rumors surrounding the bands demise. Andy Outbreaks involvement in The Distillers became a source of ...
Other Countries World War One Chemical Warfare ..Uploaded on May 26, 2011 History Channel Modern Marvel: WWI Chemical Warfar.. Comments: fritz haber was indeed a jew , ironicly enough he invented zyklone A the later renewed to zyklone B wich was used to murder in the gaschambers .. Fritz Haber, chemheritage.org ...Haber was from a…
Here are just a few of the dangers that may exist in your home:. Air Fresheners interfere with your ability to smell by releasing nerve-deadening agents or coating nasal passages with a film, usually methoxychlor, a pesticide that accumulates in fat cells. Known toxic chemicals found in an air freshener are formaldehyde, a highly toxic, known carcinogen, and phenol. When phenol touches your skin, it can cause it to swell, burn, peel, and break out in hives.. Ammonia is a very volatile chemical frequently found in cleaning products and is very damaging to your eyes, respiratory tract and skin. Cleaning products like ammonia have serious health consequences.. Antibacterial Cleaners may contain triclosan, which is absorbed through the skin and can be tied to liver damage.. Chlorine: The first agent of chemical warfare was chlorine. WWII ended with an abundance of this cheap chemical. In the name of huge profits, it was added to our water supply and many other products.. Chlorine is the number one ...
Toxic chemicals, poisons and irritants have been discussed at apartheid-era chemical warfare specialist Wouter Bassons ethical conduct hearing.
Many living things produce their own toxic brew. Snakes, spiders, cyanobacteria, plants to name a few. Sometimes they collude, working together a host may provide food and shelter, while its guest provides the poison. Sometimes predators co-evolve in ongoing chemical warfare. One of the best examples are the CYP enzymes several of which appear to…
Swiss Zulus: Ruththeunstoppablycurious and Fred point out the Boxer rising in China with their bullet proof amulets. Thanks Ruth and Fred!. Magonia 7: Prof Mayor writes (in response to an email) I havent heard of this incident. There are some plants that are toxic to some animals but not others. But I would assume the powder was sprinkled on the cattles food or water source and was thought to specifically kill cows. The Count writes: Your story of very early alleged chemical warfare is interesting. Agobard is correct in saying that the amount of any poison he would have known about that youd have to distribute to kill all the cattle over a wide area would be ridiculously large - people would have noticed! And of course every creature that ate grass would die, not just cattle. But lets suppose that Duke Grimaldus (what a great name for a bad guy!) did in fact send his agents to carry out this dastardly but not really very useful plan. Why would they freely admit that theyd done it, and ...
Aeolus Pharmaceuticals, a biotechnology company, announced on Monday that the National Institutes of Health CounterACT program has awarded a $736,951 contract to a University of Colorado scientist to develop medical countermeasures against nerve agents.
Photoelectrical Chemical Sensors (PECS) are a technology capable of sensing a variety of analytes, widely varying from warfare agents, heavy metals, to volatile organics, and solutions of ultra low concentrations. The photoexcitation of the sensing material or the analyte recognition compound (ARC), coincides with (energetically matches) the excitation of the analyte, which leads to sensing properties. The sensors signal is in the form of modified photovoltages (PVs). This technology can be easily miniaturized to fit in shirt pockets, and can be used for continuous or remote sensing. Our group has been working on the development of customized ARCs, since specificity of analyte and ARC pairs is of vital importance. Molecular chemistry allowed us to change the ARCs in many different ways, which in turn changes the surface chemistry of the material; the latter could potentially lead to an ARC made specific for a certain analyte ...
Photoelectrical Chemical Sensors (PECS) are a technology capable of sensing a variety of analytes, widely varying from warfare agents, heavy metals, to volatile organics, and solutions of ultra low concentrations. The photoexcitation of the sensing material or the analyte recognition compound (ARC), coincides with (energetically matches) the excitation of the analyte, which leads to sensing properties. The sensors signal is in the form of modified photovoltages (PVs). This technology can be easily miniaturized to fit in shirt pockets, and can be used for continuous or remote sensing. Our group has been working on the development of customized ARCs, since specificity of analyte and ARC pairs is of vital importance. Molecular chemistry allowed us to change the ARCs in many different ways, which in turn changes the surface chemistry of the material; the latter could potentially lead to an ARC made specific for a certain analyte ...
Sulfur mustard, also known as mustard gas or mustard agent, is a chemical warfare agent and was used as such in World Wars I and II. It was reportedly used in the Iran-Iraq war in 1980-1988. It is not presently used in the United States, except for research purposes and the U.S. Department of Defense must destroy all remaining stocks of sulfur mustard. Sulfur mustard sometimes smells like garlic, onions, or mustard and sometimes has no odor. It can be a vapor (the gaseous form of a liquid), an oily-textured liquid, or a solid. Sulfur mustard can be clear to yellow or brown when it is in liquid or solid. ...
SUMMARY: Agents H and HD are stored and are being destroyed by the Department of Defense (DoD). Public Law 99-145 (50 U.S.C. 1521) mandates that the Secretary of Defense carry out the destruction of the United States stockpile of lethal chemical agents and munitions. Public Law 91-121 and Public Law 91-441 (50 U.S.C. 1512) mandate that, prior to the disposal of any such agent within the United States, the Secretary of Defense implement any precautionary measures recommended by the Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) to protect the public health. This notice provides CDCs interim recommendations for worker and general population airborne exposure limits (AELs) for sulfur mustard. These revised exposure limits replace CDCs previously recommended AELs originally issued in 1988. These limits are being issued as interim criteria pending improved characterization of carcinogenic potential associated with sulfur mustard. EFFECTIVE DATE: July 1, 2005. An implementation ...
States Parties are required not to develop, produce, otherwise acquire, stockpile or retain chemical weapons (CW), or transfer, directly or indirectly, chemical weapons to anyone; not to use chemical weapons; not to engage in military preparations for use of chemical weapons; not to assist, encourage, or induce anyone to engage in any activity prohibited to a State Party under the convention.. Each State Party is required to destroy all chemical weapons and chemical weapons production facilities it owns or possesses or that are located in any place under its jurisdiction or control, as well as any chemical weapons it abandoned on the territory of another State Party no later than 10 years after entry into force of the Convention or as soon as possible in the case of States ratifying or acceding more than 10 years after entry into force. Each State Party also undertakes not to use riot control agents as a method of warfare (Article I). The Convention defines a chemical weapon as the following, ...
Organophosphorous (OP) chemical warfare nerve agents mainly sarin and tabun were used during the Iran-Iraq war with high mortalities. In addition to atropine and oximes, the followings have recently been used successfully for the treatment of OP poisoning. 1. Sodium Bicarbonate: Infusion of high doses of sodium bicarbonate (5 mEq/kg in 60 min. followed by 5-6 mEq/kg/day to obtain arterial blood pH of 7.45 to 7.55) revealed positive effects in patients with acute OP poisoning in Mashhad. 2. Magnesium Sulfate: Intravenous magnesium sulfate in a dose of 4 g only on the first day after admission was also effective in acute human OP poisoning. 3. Antioxidants: The toxicity of OP compounds is mediated by generation of nitric oxide and other free radicals. These toxic molecules can be counteracted by antioxidants such as vitamins C and E, spin traps, melatonin and low molecule weight thiols. The latter compounds can also increase the synthesis of glutathione, which can both ameliorate the OP-induced oxidative
Acute and chronic respiratory effects of sulfur mustard intoxication in guinea pig.: Sulfur mustard (SM) has been used as a vesicant chemical warfare agent. To
The VA generally authorizes service-connection and compensation to veterans who were exposed to significant levels of mustard gas or Lewisite, a blister-producing chemical, and suffer from health problems, including chronic conjunctivitis, keratitis, laryngeal and lung cancer, emphysema, asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.. Mustard gas has been uses as a chemical weapon during combat in World War I, World War II, and the Iran-Iraq war in the 1980s. It is an organic compound related to sulfur mustard and nitrogen mustard. Lewisite is an arsenic-containing agent, and like mustard gas, appears a yellow brown color. Both gases smell like mustard, garlic, or horseradish; however, at room temperature, they are thick and odorless.. If you served in the military and have suffered due to the exposure of mustard gas, contact Jan Dils, Attorneys at Law today at 877-838-3726.. There were at least three secret chemical experiments conducted by the military in the mid to late 1900s. Between 1942 ...
Sulfur mustard (SM), an alkylating chemical warfare agent, leads to tissue damage, including inflammation, blister formation, and impaired wound healing. Especially wound healing is of concern because after SM exposure, wound healing is prolonged. In this study, we focused on the effect of SM (30 and 100μM) on endothelial tube formation, apoptosis, and proliferation in mouse embryoid bodies (EBs), which provide an appropriate model for investigating vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. EBs were exposed to SM for 30 min on day 0, 3, or 6 of EBs growth, were allowed to grow until day 7, then fixed, and immunostained (PECAM-1, Ki67, and activated caspase-3). SM significantly decreased endothelial tube formation compared with unexposed EBs. Additionally, we observed a significant increase of apoptosis. As the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is discussed to be involved in the pathophysiology of SM toxicity, we evaluated the effect of ROS scavengers (α-linolenic acid [ALA] and N-acetyl ...
Dusty agents"/ Powder: Theres no way that I know of to dispense Sarin as a solid or powder, although I cant completely rule out the possibility that someone has developed a "dusty agent" form of Sarin. There is some literature out there on the possibility of "dusty" chemical warfare agents. As far as I know, this was only ever a possibility with really low vapour pressure agents, not fast evaporating agents like Sarin. The only benefit I can think of for making a "dusty sarin" (in reality, not Sarin as a powder, but small particles impregnated with sarin) would be to slow down the evaporation time of the Sarin… i.e. increase its persistency. But doing so would decrease the rate at which the agent is dispensed in vapour form, thus reducing its immediate lethality somewhat. And immediate lethality is the point and purpose of Sarin. It would seem to have little utility and an awfully difficult way of engineering some persistency into Sarin. It would be far easier to use a more persistent nerve ...
Below are frequently asked questions and answers concerning how the chemical components of Syrias declared chemical weapon stockpile were destroyed What types of chemicals were transported and destroyed? The Syrian chemical warfare programme was based primarily on binary systems, which means two toxic substances have to be brought together to create a highly toxic chemical warfare agent. These less toxic substances comprised the large bulk of the chemicals that were removed from Syria aboard Danish and Norwegian cargo vessels (MV Ark Futura and MV Taiko, respectively), together with a far smaller quantity of ready-to-use sulfur mustard, a blistering agent. Such toxic chemicals are routinely transported around the world and there are specific laws and regulations in place regarding their safe transportation. All of the chemicals removed from Syria were stored in bulk containers and drums; they were not contained within bombs, shells or warheads and there were no explosives associated with them. ...
The nerve agent sarin causes a deadly overstimulation of the nervous system that can be stopped if treated with an antidote within minutes of poisoning. A groundbreaking study was recently published in PNAS, which in detail describes how such a drug works. Researchers at the Swedish Defence Research Agency, Umeå University and in Germany are behind the study.. Sarin is a colourless, odourless liquid fatal even at very low concentrations. Serious sarin poisoning causes visual disturbance, vomiting, breathing difficulties and, finally, death.. "Nerve agents are dreadful weapons, and our hope is for these results to lead to improved drugs against them," says Anders Allgardsson, biochemist at the Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI).. Nerve agents destroy the function of a very important protein in the nervous system called acetylcholinesterase. As long as the nerve agent is bound to the protein, the breakdown of an important signal substance is prevented. The antidote HI-6 removes the nerve agent ...
Synonyms for Chemical weapons in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Chemical weapons. 1 synonym for chemical warfare: chemical operations. What are synonyms for Chemical weapons?
Herein we describe the characterization of nerve agent- or nerve agent model compound-adducted serum albumin from large and small animals using mAbs raised against nerve agent-phosphonylated peptides of HSA. As shown in Fig. 13, nerve agent model compounds showed a similar time course of action compared with the actual nerve agent (i.e., Sp-GD versus GD itself), albeit at different doses. Consequently, data using nerve agent model compounds provide a useful approach in advance of studies using the actual nerve agents. The mAbs obtained showed remarkable sensitivity and selectivity in detecting phosphonylated serum albumin from both in vitro and in vivo samples. As shown in Fig. 7, A and B, in the case of in vitro samples, mAb-HSA-GD was able to recognize as little as 100 pg of HSA-GD. In contrast, detection of tryptic digests of a similar sample has a limit of detection of 250 ng (Ding et al., 2008). The mAbs described herein are remarkably selective and can distinguish phosphonylated HSA from ...
Many countries around the world have produced chemical weapons and some may still be doing so. Because mustard gas is easier to produce than the more potent nerve agents, a country intent on chemical arms could be expected to start with mustard gas. The manufacturing processes are tried, proven, and relatively simple. In World War I, Germany adapted its dye industry to make mustard gas without the use of special equipment. A country could manufacture mustard gas using controlled chemicals that are widely available. These precursors even could be purchased from other CWC parties and diverted to the production of mustard gas. If distilled, mustard gas can be stockpiled either as bulk agent or in munitions for decades.. There are, however, drawbacks. It has been estimated that approximately 10 to 20 agent tons are required per square kilometer to create 50 percent casualties among defended troops in European weather conditions. It is not easy to deliver agent in such a quantity. Casualties normally ...
As of mid-2017 there were two sites in America still storing chemical weapons. The Pueblo Chemical Depot was expected to complete the destruction by 2019, while the Blue Grass Army Depot was scheduled to start its stockpile s destruction in 2020. The United States began its own destruction process unilaterally in 1990, seven years before the CWC s entry into force, and announced late in 2011 that it had completed 90% destruction of its original 31,500 US tons (28,577 MTs) of stockpiled chemical weapons at seven of its nine declared stockpile sites. The US missed the Chemical Weapons Convention s 29 April 2012 deadline, and at that time it appeared the US would need another decade or more to complete the task.. Further to a decision by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) Conference at its Sixteenth Session (C-16/DEC.11), a national paper by the United States of America on the progress made on the completion of the destruction of its chemical weapons, including ...
Sulfur mustard (SM) is an alkalizing chemical which has been used mostly as a weapon all over the world. Sulfur mustard can cause damages to many organs, especially the skin, respiratory system and the eyes. Generally, many complications of mustard gas result from its alkalizing potency and reaction with cellular components like DNA, RNA, proteins and lipid membranes. The damages caused by SM will lead to many complications which persist during the lifespan of exposed subjects. Pro-inflammatory cytokines including especially TNF-α and IL-1β can cause systemic inflammatory reactions and vast changes like altered cell signaling, migration, cytokine production changes and fever. This study was designed to analyze cytokine levels in mustard-gas-exposed peoples serum in the war between Iraq and Iran, who had the chronic dry-eye symptoms compared to the normal group, 30 years after exposure. In this study, 25 veterans who were exposed to mustard gas were compared to 25 healthy people as control group. The
Despite article 171 of the Versailles Peace Treaty and a resolution adopted against Japan by the League of nations on May 14, 1938, the Imperial Japanese Army frequently used chemical weapons. By fear of retaliation however, those weapons were never used against Occidentals but against other Orientals judged "inferior" by the imperial propaganda. According to historians Yoshiaki Yoshimi and Seiya Matsuno, the chemical weapons were authorized by specific orders given by Emperor Showa himself, transmitted by the chief of staff of the army. For example, the Emperor authorized the use of toxic gas on 375 separate occasions during the battle of Wuhan from August to October 1938. They were also heavily used during the invasion of Changde.. The Imperial Japanese Army used mustard gas and the blister agent Lewisite against Chinese troops and guerrillas during the Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945). During these attacks, the Japanese also employed biological warfare by intentionally spreading cholera, ...
Chemical ionization reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CIR-TOF-MS) has been used for the analysis of prepared mixtures of chemical weapon agents (CWAs) sarin and sulfur mustard. Detection of the CWA simulants 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, triethyl phosphate, and dimethyl methyl phosphonate has also been investigated. Chemical ionization of all the agents and simulants was shown to be possible using the CIR-TOF-MS technique with a variety of reagent ions, and the sensitivity was optimized by variation of instrument parameters. The ionization process was found to be largely unaffected by sample humidity levels, demonstrating the potential suitability of the method to a range of environmental conditions, including the analysis of CWAs in air and in the breath of exposed individuals ...
Sarin (o-isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate), one of the several highly toxic chemical warfare agents, can be readily neutralized in sodium hydroxide solution forming large quantities of brine solution containing IMPA (o-isopropyl methylphosphonic acid) and sodium fluoride that must be further processed and disposed. Two mixed cultures were successfully acclimated to use IMPA as a phosphorus source. The medium formula was chosen to provide the reactors with adequate alternative carbon sources so that the only limiting factor of the bacterial growth is phosphorus. Kinetic studies of the two cultures both in suspended and encapsulated forms were done with the initial IMPA concentrations ranged from 15 mg/L to 1,280 mg/L. Kinetic parameters were estimated based on IMPA and biomass concentrations measured over time using Monod equation and the least square method. For both cultures IMPA was not inhibitive under the tested conditions. For the free cells, n{sub max} was 131.3 mg/l/day for the APG ...
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Pulmonary Intoxicant, Green Cross Agent, Phosgene, Chlorine, Irritant Gas Syndrome, Lung Irritant Chemical Warfare Agent.
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Aerosol Warfare was first established by GONZO247 and MERGE360 of UPC, Underground Productions in 1990. GONZO and MERGE spent all their free time painting graffiti throughout their hometown Houston, Texas. Out on the streets getting a rush from this form of expression, GONZO and MERGE documented ! From these mini live-action documentaries, Aerosol Warfare, the video magazine was born. Aerosol Warfare took off from there! After taking orders from as far away as Europe for this newly popular video, GONZO and MERGE became "Those Aerosol Warfare Guys". This naturally opened a new chapter to their involvement in the arts. Evolution of Aerosol Warfare took place. Spray painting with one graffiti artist flourished into painting with several. Additional well-known Aerosol Warfare crew members included Bezerk, Reverend Butter, CapsOne, ColorOne, JESTER, Monk, Mr. Bristle, NME One, Speed One and Witnes. Throughout the 1990′s Aerosol Warfare had parties, paint jams, art exhibitions and a brother and ...
Bromine is a brown or red liquid with a characteristic odor. Bromine is mainly used in the manufacture of dyes, inks, flame retardants, pharmaceuticals and chemical warfare agents. Occupational exposure to bromine may occur during the production and the application of bromine compounds and during other industrial activities. This compound is adsorbed into the human body through the respiratory tract, skin (occupational exposure) and alimentary tract (general population). Physiologically, bromine exists as an ion in the body. Slight eye irritation occurs as a consequence of chronic exposure to bromine vapors at concentration of 1 mg/m3. Higher concentrations increase this effect and cause nasal and skin irritation. Many years observations have shown that during occupational exposure to bromine vapors at concentrations of up to 0.7 mg/m3 (0.1 ppm), there are no observed adverse effects. From cytotoxicity and mutagenicity assays, it is known that brominated organic compounds are more toxic than ...
The RAID-U2plus is used for detecting Chemical Warfare Agents (CWA) and Toxic Industrial Chemicals (TIC) in the atmosphere outside the submarine. The system is integrated to the boat using a bespoke sampling system designed exclusively for submarine applications. When the vessel first surfaces, atmosphere samples are drawn in via a telescopic pipe and initial CWA/TIC measurements are taken. When running at periscope depth, CWA/TIC measurements can be performed continuously on the outside air. Depending on the configuration, air samples can be drawn either from the telescopic pipe or from the snorkel. ...
Times of Israel) During World War I - the first war in modern history that included the widespread use of chemical weapons - 500 soldiers of the US Armys 3rd Division exhibited debilitating symptoms of gas exposure: chest pain, difficulty breathing, and blurred vision. It was later discovered that the division had never been exposed to a chemical agent. The press quickly dubbed the phenomenon "gas mania." Seventy years later, during the six-week Iran-Iraq War of the Cities of 1988, at least 100,000 (some estimate as many as 1.5 million) residents fled Tehran in response to Saddam Husseins threat to load chemical warheads onto the Scud missiles that were hitting the Iranian capital. In 1991, during the Gulf War, nine people were killed as a result of missile attacks on Israel, seven of whom died by suffocating inside their gas masks when they failed to release the airtight cap. Twenty-seven percent of all injuries during this time were the result of unnecessary atropine injections. "The ...
Soman nerve agent, molecular model. Soman, also known as GD, is a nerve agent used in chemical warfare. It acts as a neurotoxin by inhibiting cholinesterase enzymes needed for maintaining normal functioning of nerve cells. Somans chemical formula is C7H16FOP. Atoms are represented as spheres and are colour-coded: carbon (C, grey), hydrogen (H, turquoise), fluorine (F, green), oxygen (O, red) and phosphorus (P, orange). - Stock Image A700/0321
Organophosphorus nerve agents interfere with cholinergic signaling by covalently binding to the active site of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). This inhibition causes an accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, potentially leading to overstimulation of the nervous system and death. Current treatments include the use of antidotes that promote the release of functional AChE by an unknown reactivation mechanism. We have used diffusion trap cryocrystallography and density functional theory (DFT) calculations to determine and analyze prereaction conformers of the nerve agent antidote HI-6 in complex with Mus musculus AChE covalently inhibited by the nerve agent sarin. These analyses reveal previously unknown conformations of the system and suggest that the cleavage of the covalent enzyme-sarin bond is preceded by a conformational change in the sarin adduct itself. Together with data from the reactivation kinetics, this alternate conformation suggests a key interaction between Glu202 ...
On Sunday (Sept 1, 2013), the Obama administration indicated evidence that the Syrian regime has relied on chemical warfare to quell the current insurrection. In what could be the gravest chemical weapons attack in 25 years, the Assad administration reportedly used the nerve toxin sarin to wipe out 1,400 insurgents and civilians in their sleep. Anger and frustration aside, the purported attacks have inspired confusion, with countless people asking themselves how a chemical agent can do such horrifying damage.. According to Agence France-Presse, sarin is a nerve agent developed by Nazi scientists in 1938. Originally derived from a pesticide, the odorless, paralyzing toxin has been used extensively by terror organization as well as genocidal regimes to kill thousands. Inhalation of about 200 milligrams results in death within minutes, leaving no time for symptoms to develop.. I - Word ...
The problem is, I dont like it, first of all Im rather dovish, I dont like what Im going to say but its true. If you basically put down a red line and say dont use chemical weapons, and its been enforced in the Western community, around the world - international community for decades - dont use chemical weapons. We didnt use them in World War II, Hitler didnt use them, we dont use chemical weapons, thats no deal. Although we do know that Assads father did. And then he goes ahead and does it. It makes you wonder what the mullahs will do if they have a couple of nuclear weapons, just a couple. Are they capable of not using them? And that, of course, you know, I think that everybody talking this morning is projecting toward that, which is if you cant use deterrents the normal way - mutually assured destruction - you cant say, if you do this, were blowing you up. If that doesnt work, what does work? And thats the problem. ...
What does the 4 billion dollar a year blockbuster Alzheimers drug donepezil (trade name Aricept) have in common with insecticides, chemical weapons and venom? Quite a lot more than consumers taking them have been lead to believe.. As a member of the chemical class known as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors donepezil interferes with the cholinesterase enzyme, preventing the neurotransmitter acetylcholine from breaking down, resulting in an increase in both its levels and duration of action.. While this can result in a temporary increase in memory, there is currently no definitive proof that use of donepezil or other similar agents slow the progression of Alzheimers disease. Moreover, 21% of patients on this medication discontinue within 12 months due to serious adverse side effects. Donepezil is considered a reversible or non-competitive cholinesterase inhibitor, and therefore will not be as toxic as the reversible competitive or noncompetitive inhibitors of cholinesterase which kill insects and ...
Syria has crossed a red line with its use of chemical weapons, including the nerve agent sarin gas, against rebels, a move that is prompting the United States to increase the scale and scope of its support for the opposition, the White House said Thursday.
The threat that Bashar al-Assad may use chemical weapons against opposition forces in Syria means it is time for President Obama and Americas NATO allies to intervene and establish a no-fly zone. Thats a far better option than directly arming the divided rebel forces.
1984.4 Toward the end of that war, the Iraqi military reportedly Nerve agents are a class of chemicals grouped together based on deployed a cocktail of chemical weapons-possibly including their common mechanism of action, which is interruption of GB, GA, and VX-against its own Kurdish population living vital nerve transmissions to various organs.1,2 Nerve agents are usually organophosphates (OP)-esters of phosphoric acid- Aum Shinrikyo, the Japanese cult/terrorist organization is also which, as a group, can range in toxicity from relatively harmless known for use of nerve agents. In 1994, the group released to lethal at certain dosages.2 Indeed, many commonly used sarin gas in a failed attempt to assassinate local judges in insecticides in the United States contain organophosphates.2 Matsumoto, Japan; that action resulted in 8 civilian deaths.8 Military nerve agents can be extremely lethal even at small The following year, Aum released sarin gas into the Tokyo doses.3 The most well-known of ...
Central to the movie is a German superweapon, a new chemical weapon that its developers believe will allow Germany to triumph. This Wunderwaffe is seen as an ominous orange gas destroying gas masks and breaking glass, killing all it touches. And just what is this Wunderwaffe called?. Hydrogen-based mustard gas.. This is utter nonsense. Mustard gas isnt a gas; it is a liquid. It is deployed as a fine mist of clear droplets, not a thick billowing colored cloud. Further, mustard gas is composed of sulfur, chloride and, in a couple of formulae, oxygen. Hydrogen-based mustard gas would yield, among other things, hydrogen sulfide (which was actually used by the British as a chemical weapon and later discarded) or hydrochloric acid. The only reason hydrogen comes up would be to justify the final major explosion, which is ridiculous. Having hydrogen atoms does not automatically make something explosive: water, among other things, will not ignite.. This is the third lesson: if you must use ...
Mustard Gas: Severe irritant and vesicant of skin, eyes, and lungs. It may cause blindness and lethal lung edema and was formerly used as a war gas. The substance has been proposed as a cytostatic and for treatment of psoriasis. It has been listed as a known carcinogen in the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985) (Merck, 11th ed).
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World Press Freedom Day is celebrated every year on 3 May worldwide. It is an opportunity to celebrate the fundamental principles of press freedom; to evaluate press freedom, to defend the media from attacks on their independence and to pay tribute to journalists who have lost their lives in the line of duty. "21st Century Media: New Frontiers, New Barriers" is the theme of World Press Freedom Day 2011.. By decision 48/432 of 20 December 1993, the UN General Assembly proclaimed 3 May as World Press Freedom Day. Since then, it has been celebrated each year on 3 May, the anniversary of the Declaration of Windhoek. The document calls for free, independent, pluralistic media worldwide characterizing free press as essential to democracy and a fundamental human right.. The Declaration of Windhoek is a statement of free press principles as put together by newspaper journalists in Africa during a UNESCO seminar on "Promoting an Independent and Pluralistic African Press" in Windhoek, Namibia, from 29 ...
Via the Associated Press: UNITED NATIONS (AP) - The Islamic State extremist group has taken control of a vast former chemical weapons facility northwest of Baghdad, where remnants of 2,500 degraded chemical rockets filled decades ago with the deadly nerve agent sarin are stored along with other chemical warfare agents, Iraq said in a letter…
A multi-functional system for use on walls and ceilings is to be developed. The system employs shortened, end-modified single-wall carbon nanotubes as vesicles for potent fullerene-based biocides that incorporate a colored dye, pigment or fluorescent indicator function. The system is to be applied to wall surfaces, and remain dormant until a biological threat comes in contact with the surface. For purposes of the Phase I endeavor, models that mimic common biological warfare agents (BWA) will be used to test the system. Monoclonal antibodies, quaternary amine groups or other moieties on the modified nanotube vesicles will under specific interactions with the BWA mimics, opening the nanotube and exposing the biocide and color agent inside. Upon completion of the decontamination phase of operation, the color agent is designed to decompose, indicating the end of the threat. It is also planned that different colors will be generated in response to different classes of BWA. Incorporation of the system ...
Denmark, Norway offer to transport chemical weapons out of Syria - Reuters News: COPENHAGEN (Reuters) - Denmark and Norway .12/16/2017 20:19:48PM EST.
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most frequently detected mycotoxin in cereal and cereal-based products, and a continuous monitoring of this toxin in foodstuffs is highly desirable. In this sense,a QuEChERS based extraction and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detection is proposed to determine DON in an appetizer largely consumed, the wheat-based snacks. In this study, a total of 40 samples were analyzed. The samples were divided into two groups based on the composition. Extraction was carried out with acetonitrile followed by a dispersive solid phase extraction and analyzed for DON content by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-QqQ-MS/MS) method. The overall occurrence of samples with DON was 67.5%, with maximum content of 61μg/kg. In spite of its high incidence, DON concentrations found in samples were much lower than the maximum limit established in the current European legislation (500 μg/kg) for the foodstuff evaluated. Data obtained indicated a low exposure to DON ...
Chemical warfare has been around since archers clad in animal skins stroked arrowheads against the backs of poisonous amphibians. Ancient Chinese manuals on war describe recipes for "soul-hunting fog" made of arsenic. Writing in the fifteenth century, Leonardo da Vinci suggested loading small catapults called mangonels with asphyxiating powders of arsenic sulphide and verdigris. But it was in the nightmarish trenches of the First World War where chemical weapons were adopted as a full-scale tactic. Amongst the mud and shrapnel,. German, French, Russian and British troops unleashed poison gas attacks on one another with rapidly-evolving efficiency. Starting out with huge tanks of chlorine whose contents were carried by favourable winds toward enemy positions, commanders soon recognised that, as Leonardo had suggested, bombardment by artillery was the most effective form of delivery. They filled shells with chlorine, and other agents soon followed: phosgene, lewisite, mustard agent and tear gas, ...
1961: Dr. Yi Sung-ki oversees construction of the February 8 Vinalon Factory in Hamhung, South Hamgyong Province. Dr. Yi also assumes the position of director of the Chemistry Institute at the Academy of Sciences Hamhung Branch. He is later referred to by Japanese and South Korean sources as the "godfather" of weapons of mass destruction (WMD), including chemical and nuclear weapons.. 1980: North Korea succeeds with experiments in bacteria and virus cultivation for biological weapons and by the late 1980s completes live experiments with such weapons, according to a 1999 white paper by South Koreas Ministry of National Defense.. March 1987: North Korea accedes to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC).. 1990-1995: North Koreas chemical warfare effort is "intensified and expanded," according to the U.S. Department of Defense. By the late 1980s, North Korea was already "able to produce large quantities of chemical agents and munitions independently.". November 1991: South Korean ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Serum testosterone level and semen indices in sulfur mustard exposed men. T2 - Comment on "sperm chromatin structure assay analysis of iranian mustard gas casualties: A long-term outlook". AU - Ghabili, Kamyar. AU - Mohajel Shoja, Mohammadali. AU - Golzari, Samad E J. AU - Ansarin, Khalil. PY - 2012/9/1. Y1 - 2012/9/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84867222501&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84867222501&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1159/000343522. DO - 10.1159/000343522. M3 - Letter. AN - SCOPUS:84867222501. VL - 6. JO - Current Urology. JF - Current Urology. SN - 1661-7649. IS - 2. ER - ...
As reported by the Department of Defense in 1992,(6) by the time Iraq invaded Kuwait, Iraq had developed the most extensive biological warfare program in the Arab world (despite having been a signatory to the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention outlawing such endeavors). After the Persian Gulf War (1990-1991), Iraqi authorities admitted the program included anthrax bacteria and botulinum toxin.(2) Then in August 1995, Iraq revealed to United Nations inspectors that it had had a far more extensive and aggressive biological warfare program prior to the Persian Gulf War than had previously been admitted. The Iraqi authorities claimed production of thousands of liters of botulinum toxin and of Bacillus anthracis. Additionally, they stated that unspecified amounts of both agents were loaded on Scud missile warheads and aerial bombs. In this same revelation to United Nations inspectors, the Iraqis claimed to have destroyed the agents during the January-February 1991 time frame, but they have yet to ...

List of chemical warfare agents - WikipediaList of chemical warfare agents - Wikipedia

About 70 different chemicals have been used or stockpiled as chemical weapon agents during the 20th century. These agents may ... The names and number of categories varies slightly from source to source, but in general, types of chemical warfare agents are ... A chemical weapon agent (CWA) is a chemical substance whose toxic properties are used to kill, injure or incapacitate human ... Novichok agents GV (nerve agent) These agents have low volatility and are typically used for a persistent effect or liquid ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_chemical_warfare_agents

CDC - Chemical Weapons Elimination - Chemical Warfare Agent Exposure Limits Fact SheetCDC - Chemical Weapons Elimination - Chemical Warfare Agent Exposure Limits Fact Sheet

... chemical weapons elimination program. This page links to chemical warfare agent exposure limits for GA, GB, VX, H, HD, and ... Closing U.S. Chemical Warfare Agent Disposal Facilities. *CDC Participation in the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness ... History of U.S. Chemical Weapons Elimination. * Methods Used to Destroy Chemical Warfare Agents ... CDC recommends exposure limits for chemical warfare agents. These exposure limits protect workers and the general population. ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/nceh/demil/cwaelfs.htm

CDC - Chemical Weapons Elimination - Methods Used to Destroy Chemical Warfare AgentsCDC - Chemical Weapons Elimination - Methods Used to Destroy Chemical Warfare Agents

The two methods used to destroy chemical warfare agents are incineration technology and neutralization followed by chemical ... chemical warfare agents have been destroyed.. U.S. chemical warfare agents are destroyed using incineration technology (five ... In 2002, DoD chose the neutralization method to destroy chemical warfare agents stored at chemical agent disposal facilities in ... millions of pounds of chemical warfare agents have been destroyed safely using the incineration technology at chemical agent ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/nceh/demil/methods.htm

Chemical Warfare - Choking and irritant agents, Blister agents, Blood agentsChemical Warfare - Choking and irritant agents, Blister agents, Blood agents

Chemical Warfare Agents There are several classes of chemical warfare agents, based on their effects: * compounds that cause ... The latter constitute biological warfare. History of Chemical Warfare The use of chemicals in warfare began centuries ago, when ... Chemical warfare involves the aggressive use of bulk chemicals that cause death or grave injury. These chemicals are different ... Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 1999. ...
more infohttp://www.faqs.org/espionage/Ch-Co/Chemical-Warfare.html

Chemical warfare agent detection technology used to treat lung diseaseChemical warfare agent detection technology used to treat lung disease

A new technique based on the same technology used to detect chemical warfare agents and explosives is being employed by ... Chemical warfare agent detection technology used to treat lung disease. 24.01.2006 ... Dr Paul Thomas from the Universitys School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, who is leading the research, said ...
more infohttps://www.innovations-report.com/html/reports/medicine-health/report-54232.html

Organophosphorus compounds as chemical warfare agents: a reviewOrganophosphorus compounds as chemical warfare agents: a review

4.3 OPCs as chemical warfare agents. The so-called neurotoxic chemical warfare agents, also known as nerve gases or nerve ... 6 Chemical warfare agents (CWAs) distinguish themselves from biological warfare agents, since the latter consist of ... 2. History and Classification of the Chemical War Agents. The expression "chemical warfare", first used in 1917, refers to all ... Chemical warfare agents constitute one of the greatest threats in the modern world. Among them, the neurotoxic agents are of ...
more infohttp://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-50532009000300003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en

New Substances a Lot More Powerful in Destroying Chemical Warfare AgentsNew Substances a Lot More Powerful in Destroying Chemical Warfare Agents

Superwipe That Decontaminates Spills of Chemical Warfare Agents Developed. Scientists have developed a super-wipe that can ... New Substances a Lot More Powerful in Destroying Chemical Warfare Agents. by Savitha C Muppala on August 10, 2012 at 8:38 PM ... Natural PTE, however, works against only one of the two molecular forms of these chemical warfare agents, and it happens to be ... which is an enzyme that detoxifies some pesticides and chemical warfare agents like sarin and tabun. PTE thus has potential ...
more infohttp://www.medindia.net/news/new-substances-a-lot-more-powerful-in-destroying-chemical-warfare-agents-105355-1.htm

Chemical Warfare Agents EMRAChemical Warfare Agents EMRA

Today, chemical warfare agents (CWAs) may pose a greater hazard to civilians than soldiers.. The threat of chemical warfare is ... historical use and properties of chemical warfare agents. In Worek F, Jenner J, Thiermann H, ed. Chemical Warfare Toxicology: ... Chemical Warfare Agents. 10/3/2017 Navneet Cheema, MD , Natalie Neumann, MD ... Warfare agents -- chemical. In Olson KR. Poisoning and Drug Overdose. 6th ed. New York, NY: McGraw Hill Medical, 2012. 403-409. ...
more infohttps://www.emra.org/emresident/article/chemical-warfare-agents/

ATSDR - Chemical Class - Warfare and Terrorism Agents (used in acts of war or terror)ATSDR - Chemical Class - Warfare and Terrorism Agents (used in acts of war or terror)

Warfare and Terrorism Agents (used in acts of war or terror). Warfare or terrorism agents are a class that includes chemicals, ... For information on other warfare and terrorism agents, please view the the CDC Chemical Agents page. ... Blister Agents: Lewisite (L), Mustard-Lewisite Mixture (HL). *Blister Agents: Sulfur Mustard Agent H/HD, Sulfur Mustard Agent ... These agents can be used in war against enemies or to frighten groups of individuals. ...
more infohttps://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/substances/toxchemicallisting.asp?sysid=34

Low-dose exposure to chemical warfare agent may result in long-term heart damage | EurekAlert! Science NewsLow-dose exposure to chemical warfare agent may result in long-term heart damage | EurekAlert! Science News

Sarin is a chemical warfare agent belonging to class of compounds called organophosphates -- the basis for insecticides, ... Sarin is a chemical warfare agent belonging to class of compounds called organophosphates -- the basis for insecticides, ... Low-dose exposure to chemical warfare agent may result in long-term heart damage. American Heart Association ... Low-dose exposure to chemical warfare agent may result in long-term heart damage Abstract P125 ...
more infohttps://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2010-10/aha-let100810.php

Structure of enzyme against chemical warfare agents ... (   This release is available in  Loligo ...)Structure of enzyme against chemical warfare agents ... ( This release is available in Loligo ...)

... chemical,warfare,agents,determined,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news ... The enzyme DFPase from the squid Loligo vulgaris, is able to rapidly and efficiently detoxify chemical warfare agents such as ... Structure of enzyme against chemical warfare agents determined. This release is available in Loligo vulgaris is able to ra... ... A detailed understanding of the mechanism by which enzymes catalyze chemical reactions is necessary for efforts aiming to ...
more infohttp://www.bio-medicine.org/biology-news-1/Structure-of-enzyme-against-chemical-warfare-agents-determined-6833-1/

Summary | Review of Acute Human-Toxicity Estimates for Selected Chemical-Warfare Agents | The National Academies PressSummary | Review of Acute Human-Toxicity Estimates for Selected Chemical-Warfare Agents | The National Academies Press

Review of Acute Human-Toxicity Estimates for Selected Chemical-Warfare Agents (1997) Chapter: Summary. ... Review of Acute Human-Toxicity Estimates for Selected Chemical-Warfare Agents Get This Book × ... Review of Acute Human-Toxicity Estimates for Selected Chemical-Warfare Agents. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. ... Review of Acute Human-Toxicity Estimates for Selected Chemical-Warfare Agents. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. ...
more infohttps://www.nap.edu/read/5825/chapter/2

Low-Temperature Microwave Catalyisis to Destroy Chemical Warfare Agents from Air Streams | SBIR.govLow-Temperature Microwave Catalyisis to Destroy Chemical Warfare Agents from Air Streams | SBIR.gov

Low-Temperature Microwave Catalyisis to Destroy Chemical Warfare Agents from Air Streams. Printer-friendly version ... During attacks by chemical and biological weapons, personnel in temporary and permanent shelters are dependent on a constant ... catalytic oxidation system that will effectively decontaminate air containing aerosolized or gaseous chemical agents (CWAs). In ... destroy biological agents at low temperatures. The experimental results obtained during the Phase I work will clearly ...
more infohttps://www.sbir.gov/sbirsearch/detail/122431

Video: Iraqi forces discover stockpile of chemical warfare agent, missiles in MosulVideo: Iraqi forces discover stockpile of chemical warfare agent, missiles in Mosul

... a chemical warfare agent, in eastern Mosul alongside a cache of surface-to-surf ... An Iraqi officer said that Iraqi forces recently discovered sulfur mustard, a chemical warfare agent, in eastern Mosul ... Video: Iraqi forces discover stockpile of chemical warfare agent, missiles in Mosul. By ...
more infohttp://rinf.com/alt-news/multimedia/video-iraqi-forces-discover-stockpile-of-chemical-warfare-agent-missiles-in-mosul/

Chemical Warfare Agents: Verification of Compounds Containing the Phosphorus-Methyl Linkage in Waste Water | ScienceChemical Warfare Agents: Verification of Compounds Containing the Phosphorus-Methyl Linkage in Waste Water | Science

Chemical Warfare Agents: Verification of Compounds Containing the Phosphorus-Methyl Linkage in Waste Water ... Chemical Warfare Agents: Verification of Compounds Containing the Phosphorus-Methyl Linkage in Waste Water ... Chemical Warfare Agents: Verification of Compounds Containing the Phosphorus-Methyl Linkage in Waste Water ... Chemical Warfare Agents: Verification of Compounds Containing the Phosphorus-Methyl Linkage in Waste Water ...
more infohttp://science.sciencemag.org/content/204/4393/616

Determination of polymer-solvent interaction parameters using piezoelectric crystals, with reference to the sorption of...Determination of polymer-solvent interaction parameters using piezoelectric crystals, with reference to the sorption of...

... with reference to the sorption of chemical warfare agents. J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 47: 653-665. doi: 10.1002/app.1993.070470409 ... with reference to the sorption of chemical warfare agents. ...
more infohttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/app.1993.070470409/references

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS | Review of Acute Human-Toxicity Estimates for Selected Chemical-Warfare Agents | The National...CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS | Review of Acute Human-Toxicity Estimates for Selected Chemical-Warfare Agents | The National...

Review of Acute Human-Toxicity Estimates for Selected Chemical-Warfare Agents (1997) Chapter: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS. ... Review of Acute Human-Toxicity Estimates for Selected Chemical-Warfare Agents Get This Book × ... Review of Acute Human-Toxicity Estimates for Selected Chemical-Warfare Agents. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. ... Review of Acute Human-Toxicity Estimates for Selected Chemical-Warfare Agents. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. ...
more infohttps://www.nap.edu/read/5825/chapter/20

ASTM E3002 - 15 Standard Practice for Assessing the Comparative Efficacy of Products Used for the  Decontamination of Chemical...ASTM E3002 - 15 Standard Practice for Assessing the Comparative Efficacy of Products Used for the Decontamination of Chemical...

E3002-15 Standard Practice for Assessing the Comparative Efficacy of Products Used for the Decontamination of Chemical Warfare ... For example, measuring the presence of a radiolabelled chemical warfare agent after chemical neutralization, may give a false ... Standard Practice for Assessing the Comparative Efficacy of Products Used for the Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agents ( ... In-vivo studies have demonstrated that simple chemical monitoring for disappearance of the chemical agent may not be sufficient ...
more infohttps://www.astm.org/Standards/E3002.htm

Highly emissive salicylidene Schiff bases (SASBs) in solution and their application in the detection of the chemical warfare...Highly emissive salicylidene Schiff bases (SASBs) in solution and their application in the detection of the chemical warfare...

... in solution and their application in the detection of the chemical warfare agent mimic diethyl chlorophosphate H. Liu, Y. Fu, A ... in solution and their application in the detection of the chemical warfare agent mimic diethyl chlorophosphate ... DBPFA-I could be used for detection of the nerve agent sarin mimic diethyl chlorophosphate (DCP) via nucleophilic attack of ...
more infohttp://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2018/ay/c8ay00050f

DIGITAL.CSIC: Toxicity induced by chemical warfare agents: Insights on the protective role of melatoninDIGITAL.CSIC: Toxicity induced by chemical warfare agents: Insights on the protective role of melatonin

Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) are substances that can be used to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy in warfare, but also ... Toxicity induced by chemical warfare agents: Insights on the protective role of melatonin. ... Many chemical agents are able to generate free radicals and derived reactants, excitotoxicity process, or inflammation, and as ... and its marked potential for improving human health against the most widely used chemical weapons. ...
more infohttps://digital.csic.es/handle/10261/103277

Books - Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agent Decontamination -  Labmate OnlineBooks - Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agent Decontamination - Labmate Online

2.2 Overview of Chemical Warfare Agents. 2.3 Overview of Biological Warfare Agents. 2.4 Conclusions. References. Chapter 3 US ... Chemical and biological warfare agents are threats to the military and civilians alike in both terrorist and conventional ... Chapter 5 Hydrolysis of Chemical Warfare Agents George O. Bizzigotti. 5.1 Introduction. 5.2 Sulfur Mustard. 5.3 Lewisite. 5.4 G ... Chapter 6 Oxidation of Chemical Warfare Agents in Solution George O. Bizzigotti and Robert G. Nickol. 6.1 Introduction. 6.2 ...
more infohttps://www.labmate-online.com/book/georgeo-bizzigotti/handbook-of-chemical-and-biological-warfare-agent-decontamination/13

Conquering the nerve gases: High-resolution mass spectrometry of chemical warfare agents - Ezine - spectroscopyNOW.comConquering the nerve gases: High-resolution mass spectrometry of chemical warfare agents - Ezine - spectroscopyNOW.com

Nerve agent control Nerve agents are banned under the Chemical Weapons Convention but that does not mean that we have seen the ... Conquering the nerve gases: High-resolution mass spectrometry of chemical warfare agents. Skip to Navigation ... Nerve agents are banned under the Chemical Weapons Convention but that does not mean that we have seen the back of them. There ... In the MS/MS analysis of 72 urine samples from people with no known exposure to nerve agents that had been spiked with internal ...
more infohttp://www.spectroscopynow.com/ms/details/ezine/13fe38f7616/Conquering-the-nerve-gases-High-resolution-mass-spectrometry-of-chemical-warfare.html

Soil phytoremediation from the breakdown products of the chemical warfare agent, yperite | Springer for Research & DevelopmentSoil phytoremediation from the breakdown products of the chemical warfare agent, yperite | Springer for Research & Development

... has been developed and shown to be effective for the clean-up of soil contaminated by the breakdown products of the chemical ... CWA phytoremediation yperite breakdown chemical warfare agents (CWA) sulphur-containing substances contaminated soils ... Soil phytoremediation from the breakdown products of the chemical warfare agent, yperite. ... and shown to be effective for the clean-up of soil contaminated by the breakdown products of the chemical warfare agent (CWA), ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF02987346

Chemtrails Duluth Minnesota, Space Preservation Act, Clouds of Secrecy, 
Open Air Testing with Simulated Biological and...Chemtrails Duluth Minnesota, Space Preservation Act, Clouds of Secrecy, Open Air Testing with Simulated Biological and...

... to testify about experiments involving simulated biological and chemical warfare agents. These agents, which the army calls ... My research interests include biological and chemical warfare policies, and I have written in particular about testing done in ... are intended to mimic more lethal bacteria and chemicals that might be used in actual warfare. ... During the next 20 years, the army released simulant agents over hundreds of populated areas around the country. Targets ...
more infohttp://www.bariumblues.com/chemtrails_over_duluth.htm
  • 6 Chemical warfare agents (CWAs) distinguish themselves from biological warfare agents, since the latter consist of microorganisms which cause diseases in humans, animals or plants, or which deteriorate different materials. (scielo.br)
  • Today, chemical warfare agents (CWAs) may pose a greater hazard to civilians than soldiers. (emra.org)
  • Traditionally used by armies to break a stalemate against relatively defenseless targets (those lacking masks, antidotes, and easy mobility), today, chemical warfare agents (CWAs) may pose a greater hazard to civilians than soldiers. (emra.org)
  • Consequently, the main objective of the proposed work is to develop a microwave low-temperature catalytic oxidation system that will effectively decontaminate air containing aerosolized or gaseous chemical agents (CWAs). (sbir.gov)
  • In order to protect personnel in shelters, the catalytic oxidation systems should (1) destroy CWAs in air at low temperatures to avoid NOx formation, (2) remove sulfur dioxide produced from the oxidation of CWAs containing sulfur atoms, (3) operate for an indefinite period of time, and (4) destroy biological agents at low temperatures. (sbir.gov)
  • 1.1 This practice establishes an in-vivo method for assessing the comparative efficacy of products used for the decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) on the skin. (astm.org)
  • Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) are substances that can be used to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy in warfare, but also against civilian population in terrorist attacks. (csic.es)
  • There has long been a need to monitor military facilities for storing and disposing of the historic stockpiles of chemical warfare agents (CWAs). (markes.com)
  • Chemicals used in CWAs are widely available, and recipes for CWA production may be found on the Internet. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • AIRSENSE Analytics has designed in cooperation with first response teams a portable hazardous Gas Detector Array (GDA2) for the detection and the identification of CWAs like nerve, blister, blood and choking agents and a broad range of TICs (ETW, AEGL, ERPG, ITF-25 list, etc. (army-technology.com)
  • Guided by the success that high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) has had in matching the performance of tandem methods, Elizabeth Hamelin and colleagues from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, and Oak Ridge Institute for Scientific Education have optimised an HRMS procedure for five nerve agents in urine. (spectroscopynow.com)
  • In an initial investigation of the potential utility of chemical ionization (CI) mass spectrometry of selected of chemical warfare agents using metal ions, the reactions of manganese ions with chloroalkyl sulfides analogs organophosphonates have been followed in a Fourier transform mass spectrometer. (osapublishing.org)
  • 1.3 To minimize the number of animals used, this in-vivo practice should be performed only after rigorous in-vitro studies of the candidate decontaminant, which can show the implied claims including chemical neutralization, decontamination studies on surfaces and appropriate testing such as cytotoxicity. (astm.org)
  • During the destruction process (called chemical hydrolysis ), sodium hydroxide was added to the chemical warfare agents. (cdc.gov)
  • Incineration is DoD's preferred method for destroying chemical warfare agents and munitions. (cdc.gov)
  • the Trobigard® atropine sulfate/obidoxime chloride auto-injector, a drug-device combination product for emergency use in the event of nerve agent or organophosphate poisoning, and RSDL® (Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion Kit), which is intended to remove or neutralize chemical warfare agents and T-2 toxin from the skin. (domprep.com)
  • It has been designed as a pre-hospital medical intervention during nerve agent and organophosphate poisoning. (domprep.com)
  • A clinically compatible case in which a high index of suspicion (credible threat or patient history regarding location and time) exists for nerve agent or organophosphate pesticide exposure, or an epidemiologic link exists between this case and a laboratory-confirmed case. (cdc.gov)
  • Last month in Salisbury, UK, former Russian intelligence officer Sergei Skripal, his daughter Yulia and a police officer were exposed to an organophosphate called novichok, one of a family of nerve agents said to be the deadliest known 1 . (nature.com)
  • We look forward to successfully completing deliveries of our Trobigard auto-injector under our 2017 contract and to our continued partnership with the State Department as we expand our portfolio of solutions to address existing and emerging chemical warfare agents for the long-term. (domprep.com)
  • And Kim Jong-nam, the eldest son of former North Korean leader Kim Jong-il, was assassinated in 2017 through exposure to another nerve agent, VX, at Kuala Lumpur international airport in Malaysia. (nature.com)
  • Phosgene oxime (CX) is an urticant or nettle agent that causes a corrosive type of skin and tissue injury. (medscape.com)
  • The chemical structure of most nerve gases is related to that of methylphosphonic acid, whereas most organo-phosphorus pesticides have the phosphoric acid structure. (sciencemag.org)
  • The potentiality of attacks employing these agents gives a strong reason for continuous research on the development of more effective antidotes against them. (scielo.br)
  • During attacks by chemical and biological weapons, personnel in temporary and permanent shelters are dependent on a constant supply of clean air. (sbir.gov)
  • At the same time, throughout the study we cited instances of Iraqi-instigated chemical attacks against Iranian military units. (nybooks.com)
  • RSDL kit was initially developed by Defence Research and Development Canada, an agency of the Canadian Department of National Defence (DND), to prepare the Canadian forces for chemical warfare attacks. (domprep.com)
  • And neither the United Kingdom nor Malaysia called in experts from the organization right away to deal with their recent nerve-agent attacks, even though immediate assistance is available under the convention. (nature.com)
  • The expression "chemical warfare", first used in 1917, refers to all tactical war assets which use incendiary mixtures, smokes and irritating, vesicant, poisonous or asphyxiating gases. (scielo.br)
  • During the Vietnam War of the 1970s, the U.S. use of defoliants-chemicals that killed vegetation, permitting a clearer detection of the enemy-was extensive. (faqs.org)
  • For more background to chemical warfare agents and the analytical challenge they pose, see: T. Murphy, G. Roberts and G. Davies, Chemical warfare agents and use of thermal desorption-GC-MS to achieve improved trace-level detection , Spectroscopy , April 2009. (markes.com)
  • For information on the detection of trace-level chemical agents in air, see Application Note 063 . (markes.com)
  • AIRSENSE Analytics produces portable gas-detection systems, gas sensor systems and accessories for on-site sampling in order to protect personnel and the environment from chemical threats and hazardous agents. (army-technology.com)
  • Researchers are designing a ventilation system that could protect schools, hospitals, and other public buildings from chemical warfare and bioterrorist attack. (medindia.net)
  • Researchers have created a fabric material containing nanoscale fibers that are capable of degrading chemical warfare agents. (nanowerk.com)
  • A detailed understanding of the mechanism by which enzymes catalyze chemical reactions is necessary for efforts aiming to improve their properties. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In contrast to structure determination using X-rays, neutrons are able to locate the positions of hydrogen atoms, which make up half of all atoms in proteins, and are crucial for chemical reactions. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Before there were cells on Earth, simple, tiny catalysts most likely evolved the ability to speed up and synchronize the chemical reactions necessary for life to rise from the primordial soup. (phys.org)
  • PhysOrg.com) -- UCLA physicists have taken a significant step in controlling chemical reactions mechanically, an important advance in nanotechnology, UCLA physics professor Giovanni Zocchi and colleagues report. (phys.org)
  • Several herbicides were used with Agent Orange being the most familiar. (blogspot.com)
  • In all, U.S. troops sprayed approximately 19 million gallons (72 million liters) of Agent Orange and other herbicides over 4 million acres (1.6 million hectares). (encyclopedia.com)
  • London/New York, Jumada II 27, 1439, March 15, 2018, SPA -- Russia accused Prime Minister Theresa May of creating a "hysterical atmosphere" after she expelled 23 of its diplomats from Britain in retaliation for a nerve agent attack that London believes was orchestrated by Moscow. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Figure 1: The chemical (acid-base) stability of some representative metal-organic frameworks based on literature data. (nature.com)
  • Integration of Metal-Organic Frameworks on Protective Layers for Destruction of Nerve Agents under Relevant Conditions. (nih.gov)
  • The presence of trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) in municipal biosolids in the U.S. has received considerable attention by the public and scientific community over the last several years. (environmental-expert.com)
  • During a meeting in Jordan, Iraqi diplomat Kizam Hamdoon and US diplomat James Placke discuss a proposed draft resolution that Iran presented to the UN Security Council (see Mid-March 1984 ) calling on the international body to condemn Iraq's use of chemical weapons. (historycommons.org)
  • Infrequently used in warfare given their high volatility and propensity for quick dispersal , cyanogen chloride and hydrogen cyanide nevertheless occupy a uniquely infamous place in history because of their use by Nazi Germany in WWII to kill up to 1 million civilians . (emra.org)
  • 5 A chemical asphyxiant, cyanide blocks the aerobic utilization of oxygen and causes within the exposed individual a progressive hypoxia. (emra.org)
  • Hydrogen cyanide is a chemical compound with the formula HCN. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • DoD also chose its neutralization process followed by supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) to destroy 523 tons of nerve agent and blister agent in rockets and projectiles at Blue Grass Chemical Agent-Destruction Pilot Plant in Blue Grass, Kentucky. (cdc.gov)
  • Under these conditions, the organic chemical agent waste products are destroyed through an oxidation process. (cdc.gov)
  • Incineration technology is used to treat the empty casings and destroy any residual chemical agents or their hazardous breakdown products. (cdc.gov)
  • Released 28 February 2019) Gaithersburg, MD - Emergent BioSolutions Inc. (NYSE: EBS) today announced that it has signed an indefinite-delivery, indefinite-quantity (IDIQ) contract with the U.S. Department of State to establish a long-term, reliable, and stable supply chain for medical countermeasures that address chemical warfare agents. (domprep.com)
  • In 2002, DoD chose neutralization followed by biotreatment as its method to destroy 2,611 tons of mustard agent in projectiles and cartridges at Pueblo Chemical Agent-Destruction Pilot Plant in Pueblo, Colorado. (cdc.gov)
  • it funded and coordinated 137 institutions in the US that conducted research - including chemical warfare agents and prevention of infectious diseases tested on prisoners and children. (ahrp.org)
  • Biotreatment is the processing of organic waste, in this case chemical agent breakdown products, using living organisms such as bacteria, fungi or protozoa. (cdc.gov)
  • A plant-based bioremediation (phytoremediation) strategy has been developed and shown to be effective for the clean-up of soil contaminated by the breakdown products of the chemical warfare agent (CWA), yperite. (springer.com)
  • High-Throughput Screening of MOFs for Breakdown of V-Series Nerve Agents. (nih.gov)
  • A case in which nerve agents in urine are detected, as determined by CDC or a LRN laboratory that has this capacity. (cdc.gov)
  • The Iraqi military also used chemical weapons against the Iraqi Kurds during the second Persian Gulf War. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • In our book Iraqi Power and U.S. Security in the Middle East we questioned whether Iraq had used chemicals against its Kurdish population, as widely believed. (nybooks.com)
  • I accept that in the specific case of Halabja the possibility that the chemical attack came from Iran (which might not have realized that Iraqi troops had already evacuated the town), or indeed from both sides consecutively, cannot be ruled out. (nybooks.com)
  • The introductory paragraph states, "This paper reflects the results of our multifaceted investigation into the Chemical Warfare (CW) issue, examining information on CW agent releases, Gulf war Iraqi CW deployments, and Iraqi chemical agents and weapons. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Therefore, oximes that are efficient for the treatment of intoxication with one specific nerve agent can be completely ineffective with another. (scielo.br)
  • 1-4 Also, even the fast identification of a neurotoxic agent in order to choose the treatment for the intoxication is usually not rapid enough to either save the life of the patient or to avoid serious permanent damages. (scielo.br)
  • An in vivo investigation on the effect of gene-delivered human serine hydrolase KIAA1363 on chemical warfare nerve agent intoxication is not formatted in HTML just yet , but will be available very soon! (gtmb.org)
  • Britain has said the toxin, which also poisoned a British police officer who attended the scene, was Novichok, a lethal nerve agent first developed by the Soviet military. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • US president Donald Trump, French president Emmanuel Macron and German chancellor Angela Merkel joined Theresa May to condemn the Kremlin over the Novichok nerve agent poisoning. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • She had given Moscow until midnight on Tuesday to explain how the Soviet-made Novichok nerve agent came to be deployed on the streets of Salisbury, saying either the Russian state was responsible or had lost control of a stock of the substance. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • However, they deny using chemicals as a weapon of mass destruction, that is against civilians. (nybooks.com)
  • They are often referred to as Riot Control Agents (RCAs) and may be used by civilian police forces against criminals and rioters, or in the military for training purposes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some military forces such as those of Israel and the USA have developed malodorant weapons in the belief that they fall outside the accepted definition of riot control agents, and therefore represent a loophole in the Chemical Weapons Convention. (wikipedia.org)