Chemicals that are used to cause the disturbance, disease, or death of humans during WARFARE.
Tactical warfare using incendiary mixtures, smokes, or irritant, burning, or asphyxiating gases.
Severe irritant and vesicant of skin, eyes, and lungs. It may cause blindness and lethal lung edema and was formerly used as a war gas. The substance has been proposed as a cytostatic and for treatment of psoriasis. It has been listed as a known carcinogen in the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985) (Merck, 11th ed).
Warfare involving the use of living organisms or their products as disease etiologic agents against people, animals, or plants.
Military Science in the medical field refers to the application of medical knowledge and techniques in the context of military operations and combat situations.
An organophosphorus compound that inhibits cholinesterase. It causes seizures and has been used as a chemical warfare agent.
An organophosphorus ester compound that produces potent and irreversible inhibition of cholinesterase. It is toxic to the nervous system and is a chemical warfare agent.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the three ester bonds in a phosphotriester-containing compound.
Compounds containing carbon-phosphorus bonds in which the phosphorus component is also bonded to one or more sulfur atoms. Many of these compounds function as CHOLINERGIC AGENTS and as INSECTICIDES.
There is no medical field definition of 'Iraq' as it is a geopolitical entity and not a medical term.
Salivary gland diseases refer to disorders that affect the salivary glands, which are responsible for producing saliva, and can include infections, inflammation, tumors, and other conditions.
The use of humans as investigational subjects.
The removal of contaminating material, such as radioactive materials, biological materials, or CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS, from a person or object.
The practice of medicine as applied to special circumstances associated with military operations.
An aspect of cholinesterase (EC
Carbon-containing phosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have CARBON atoms bound to one or more OXYGEN atoms of the P(=O)(O)3 structure. Note that several specific classes of endogenous phosphorus-containing compounds such as NUCLEOTIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and PHOSPHOPROTEINS are listed elsewhere.
Chemical burns are injuries to the skin and other tissues caused by exposure to harmful chemicals.
Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.
Former members of the armed services.
Injury to any part of the eye by extreme heat, chemical agents, or ultraviolet radiation.
The manipulation of psychological influences, primarily concerned with morale, to strengthen the ability of one's own country and weaken the enemy.
Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.
Iran is a country in the Middle East known for its rich cultural heritage, historical sites, and political tensions, as well as its contributions to the medical field, including traditional medicine and modern research.
Hostile conflict between organized groups of people.
Medieval literature refers to written works produced during the Middle Ages, which spanned from the 5th to the 15th century, and can include various forms of literature such as epic poetry, religious texts, and historical chronicles, that may have relevance to the medical field.
Unexplained symptoms reported by veterans of the Persian Gulf War with Iraq in 1991. The symptoms reported include fatigue, skin rash, muscle and joint pain, headaches, loss of memory, shortness of breath, gastrointestinal and respiratory symptoms, and extreme sensitivity to commonly occurring chemicals. (Nature 1994 May 5;369(6475):8)
Persons including soldiers involved with the armed forces.
Events that overwhelm the resources of local HOSPITALS and health care providers. They are likely to impose a sustained demand for HEALTH SERVICES rather than the short, intense peak customary with smaller scale disasters.

Health status of Persian Gulf War veterans: self-reported symptoms, environmental exposures and the effect of stress. (1/44)

BACKGROUND: Most US troops returned home from the Persian Gulf War (PGW) by Spring 1991 and many began reporting increased health symptoms and medical problems soon after. This investigation examines the relationships between several Gulf-service environmental exposures and health symptom reporting, and the role of traumatic psychological stress on the exposure-health symptom relationships. METHODS: Stratified, random samples of two cohorts of PGW veterans, from the New England area (n = 220) and from the New Orleans area (n = 71), were selected from larger cohorts being followed longitudinally since arrival home from the Gulf. A group of PGW-era veterans deployed to Germany (n = 50) served as a comparison group. The study protocol included questionnaires, a neuropsychological test battery, an environmental interview, and psychological diagnostic interviews. This report focuses on self-reported health symptoms and exposures of participants who completed a 52-item health symptom checklist and a checklist of environmental exposures. RESULTS: The prevalence of reported symptoms was greater in both Persian Gulf-deployed cohorts compared to the Germany cohort. Analyses of the body-system symptom scores (BSS), weighted to account for sampling design, and adjusted by age, sex, and education, indicated that Persian Gulf-deployed veterans were more likely to report neurological, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, cardiac, dermatological, musculoskeletal, psychological and neuropsychological system symptoms than Germany veterans. Using a priori hypotheses about the toxicant effects of exposure to specific toxicants, the relationships between self-reported exposures and body-system symptom groupings were examined through multiple regression analyses, controlling for war-zone exposure and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Self-reported exposures to pesticides, debris from Scuds, chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents, and smoke from tent heaters each were significantly related to increased reporting of specific predicted BSS groupings. CONCLUSIONS: Veterans deployed to the Persian Gulf have higher self-reported prevalence of health symptoms compared to PGW veterans who were deployed only as far as Germany. Several Gulf-service environmental exposures are associated with increased health symptom reporting involving predicted body-systems, after adjusting for war-zone stressor exposures and PTSD.  (+info)

The efforts of WHO and Pugwash to eliminate chemical and biological weapons--a memoir. (2/44)

The World Health Organization and the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs (Nobel Peace Prize 1995) have been involved in questions concerning chemical and biological arms since the early 1950s. This memoir reviews a number of milestones in the efforts of these organizations to achieve the elimination of these weapons through international treaties effectively monitored and enforced for adherence to their provisions. It also highlights a number of outstanding personalities who were involved in the efforts to establish and implement the two major treaties now in effect, the Biological Weapons Convention of 1972 and the Chemical Weapons Convention of 1993.  (+info)

The postwar hospitalization experience of Gulf War Veterans possibly exposed to chemical munitions destruction at Khamisiyah, Iraq. (3/44)

Using Department of Defense hospital data, the authors examined the postwar hospitalization experience from March 1991 through September 1995 of US Gulf War veterans who were near Khamisiyah, Iraq, during nerve agent munition destruction in March 1991. Multiple sources of meteorologic, munition, and toxicology data were used to circumscribe geographic areas of low level, vaporized nerve agent for 4 days after the destruction. Plume estimates were overlaid on military unit positions, and exposure was estimated for the 349,291 US Army Gulf War veterans. Exposure was classified as not exposed (n = 224,804), uncertain low dose exposure (n = 75,717), and specific estimated subclinical exposure (n = 48,770) categorized into three groups for dose-response evaluation. Using Cox proportional hazard modeling, the authors compared the postwar experiences of these exposure groups for hospitalization due to any cause, for diagnoses in 15 unique categories, and for specific diagnoses an expert panel proposed as most likely to reflect latent disease from such subclinical exposure. There was little evidence that veterans possibly exposed to the nerve agent plumes experienced unusual postwar morbidity. While there were several differences in hospitalization risk, none of the models suggested a dose-response relation or neurologic sequelae. These data, having a number of limitations, do not support the hypothesis that Gulf War veterans are suffering postwar morbidity from subclinical nerve agent exposure.  (+info)

Chemical and biological weapons: new questions, new answers. (4/44)

The words "chemical and biological weapons" (CBW) send a shiver down most spines these days. With the end of the Cold War, the possibility of a massive nuclear confrontation appears remote, so today many popular doomsday scenarios center on the aggressive use of chemical or biological warfare by rogue nations or terrorist groups. As exaggerated as some of the accounts are, with CBW cast as the latest unseen, unstoppable enemy, the threat posed by these weapons is all too real, and growing.  (+info)

Hazards of chemical weapons release during war: new perspectives. (5/44)

The two major threat classes of chemical weapons are mustard gas and the nerve agents, and this has not changed in over 50 years. Both types are commonly called gases, but they are actually liquids that are not remarkably volatile. These agents were designed specifically to harm people by any route of exposure and to be effective at low doses. Mustard gas was used in World War I, and the nerve agents were developed shortly before, during, and after World War II. Our perception of the potency of chemical weapons has changed, as well as our concern over potential effects of prolonged exposures to low doses and potential target populations that include women and children. Many of the toxicologic studies and human toxicity estimates for both mustard and nerve agents were designed for the purpose of quickly developing maximal casualties in the least sensitive male soldier. The "toxicity" of the chemical weapons has not changed, but our perception of "toxicity" has.  (+info)

Biological and chemical terrorism: strategic plan for preparedness and response. Recommendations of the CDC Strategic Planning Workgroup. (6/44)

The U.S. national civilian vulnerability to the deliberate use of biological and chemical agents has been highlighted by recognition of substantial biological weapons development programs and arsenals in foreign countries, attempts to acquire or possess biological agents by militants, and high-profile terrorist attacks. Evaluation of this vulnerability has focused on the role public health will have detecting and managing the probable covert biological terrorist incident with the realization that the U.S. local, state, and federal infrastructure is already strained as a result of other important public health problems. In partnership with representatives for local and state health departments, other federal agencies, and medical and public health professional associations, CDC has developed a strategic plan to address the deliberate dissemination of biological or chemical agents. The plan contains recommendations to reduce U.S. vulnerability to biological and chemical terrorism--preparedness planning, detection and surveillance, laboratory analysis, emergency response, and communication systems. Training and research are integral components for achieving these recommendations. Success of the plan hinges on strengthening the relationships between medical and public health professionals and on building new partnerships with emergency management, the military, and law enforcement professionals.  (+info)

Hospital preparedness for victims of chemical or biological terrorism. (7/44)

OBJECTIVES: This study examined hospital preparedness for incidents involving chemical or biological weapons. METHODS: By using a questionnaire survey of 224 hospital emergency departments in 4 northwestern states, we examined administrative plans, training, physical resources, and representative medication inventories. RESULTS: Responses were received from 186 emergency departments (83%). Fewer than 20% of respondent hospitals had plans for biological or chemical weapons incidents. About half (45%) had an indoor or outdoor decontamination unit with isolated ventilation, shower, and water containment systems, but only 12% had 1 or more self-contained breathing apparatuses or supplied air-line respirators. Only 6% had the minimum recommended physical resources for a hypothetical sarin incident. Of the hospitals providing quantitative answers about medication inventories, 64% reported sufficient ciprofloxacin or doxycycline for 50 hypothetical anthrax victims, and only 29% reported sufficient atropine for 50 hypothetical sarin victims (none had enough pralidoxime). CONCLUSIONS: Hospital emergency departments generally are not prepared in an organized fashion to treat victims of chemical or biological terrorism. The planned federal efforts to improve domestic preparedness will require substantial additional resources at the local level to be truly effective.  (+info)

Mortality among US veterans of the Persian Gulf War: 7-year follow-up. (8/44)

To assess the long-term health consequences of the 1991 Persian Gulf War, the authors compared cause-specific mortality rates of 621,902 Gulf War veterans with those of 746,248 non-Gulf veterans, by gender, with adjustment for age, race, marital status, branch of service, and type of unit. Vital status follow-up began with the date of exit from the Persian Gulf theater (Gulf veterans) or May 1, 1991 (control veterans). Follow-up for both groups ended on the date of death or December 31, 1997, whichever came first. Cox proportional hazards models were used for the multivariate analysis. For Gulf veterans, mortality risk was also assessed relative to the likelihood of exposure to nerve gas at Khamisiyah, Iraq. Among Gulf veterans, the significant excess of deaths due to motor vehicle accidents that was observed during the earlier postwar years had decreased steadily to levels found in non-Gulf veterans. The risk of death from natural causes remained lower among Gulf veterans compared with non-Gulf veterans. This was mainly accounted for by the relatively higher number of deaths related to human immunodeficiency virus infection among non-Gulf veterans. There was no statistically significant difference in cause-specific mortality among Gulf veterans relative to potential nerve gas exposure. The risk of death for both Gulf veterans and non-Gulf veterans stayed less than half of that expected in their civilian counterparts. The authors conclude that the excess risk of mortality from motor vehicle accidents that was associated with Gulf War service has dissipated after 7 years of follow-up.  (+info)

Chemical warfare agents, also known as CW agents, are toxic chemicals or their precursors that are intentionally used to harm or kill people, animals, or plants. These agents can be dispersed through the air, water, or soil, and can cause a range of symptoms, including respiratory problems, skin irritation, nausea, vomiting, convulsions, and death. In the medical field, chemical warfare agents are considered a type of chemical hazard, and medical personnel are trained to recognize and respond to exposure to these agents. Treatment for chemical warfare agent exposure typically involves decontamination, supportive care, and specific medical interventions, depending on the type and severity of exposure. Prevention of chemical warfare agent exposure is also an important aspect of medical preparedness, and includes measures such as wearing protective clothing and equipment, avoiding areas where chemical warfare agents may be present, and following proper procedures for handling and disposing of hazardous materials.

Chemical warfare refers to the use of chemical substances as weapons to harm or kill people, animals, or plants. In the medical field, chemical warfare can have serious consequences for both military personnel and civilians who are exposed to these substances. The effects of chemical warfare can vary depending on the type of substance used and the level of exposure. Some common effects include respiratory problems, skin irritation, nausea, vomiting, and even death. In addition, chemical warfare can also have long-term health effects, such as cancer and birth defects. Medical personnel who are involved in responding to chemical warfare incidents must be trained to recognize the symptoms of exposure and provide appropriate medical treatment. This may include decontamination procedures, administration of antidotes, and supportive care to manage symptoms. Overall, chemical warfare is a serious threat to public health and safety, and medical professionals play a critical role in responding to and mitigating its effects.

Mustard gas is a chemical warfare agent that was first developed in the early 20th century. It is a highly toxic and blistering agent that causes severe skin and respiratory damage. Mustard gas is a yellowish-brown liquid at room temperature and is typically delivered as a vapor. When mustard gas comes into contact with the skin, it causes a painful burning sensation and blistering. The blisters can be severe and may take weeks or even months to heal. Inhaling mustard gas can cause severe respiratory problems, including difficulty breathing, coughing, and chest pain. It can also cause damage to the eyes and lungs. Mustard gas is classified as a vesicant, which means that it causes blistering of the skin and mucous membranes. It is also a strong irritant and can cause severe inflammation of the respiratory tract. Exposure to mustard gas can be fatal, especially if it is inhaled in large quantities. In the medical field, mustard gas is considered a chemical warfare agent and is not used for medical purposes. Treatment for mustard gas exposure typically involves decontamination, wound care, and supportive care to manage symptoms. In severe cases, hospitalization and intensive care may be necessary.

Biological warfare, also known as germ warfare, is the use of biological agents such as bacteria, viruses, or toxins to harm or kill people, animals, or plants. It is considered a form of terrorism and is illegal under international law. In the medical field, biological warfare is studied as a potential threat to public health and safety. Medical professionals are trained to recognize and respond to biological agents, including developing vaccines and treatments, and implementing infection control measures to prevent the spread of disease. The medical field also plays a role in monitoring and detecting biological agents in the environment, such as through air or water samples, and in identifying and tracking outbreaks of infectious diseases that may be related to biological warfare. Overall, the medical field plays a critical role in preventing and responding to biological warfare, and in protecting public health and safety in the event of an attack.

Soman is a nerve agent that was first synthesized in 1944 by German chemists. It is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless liquid that is highly toxic and can be absorbed through the skin, eyes, and respiratory system. Soman is classified as a Schedule 1 controlled substance under the United States Controlled Substances Act and is illegal to possess, manufacture, or distribute without a valid prescription. In the medical field, soman is primarily used for research purposes to study the effects of nerve agents on the human body. It is also used in some military and law enforcement training exercises to simulate the effects of nerve agents and to test the effectiveness of protective gear and antidotes. However, the use of soman in these contexts is highly regulated and requires strict safety protocols to prevent accidental exposure.

Sarin is a highly toxic nerve agent that is classified as a chemical weapon. It is a clear, colorless liquid that is odorless and tasteless, and it can be easily absorbed through the skin, eyes, and respiratory system. In the medical field, sarin is considered a chemical poison that can cause severe respiratory and neurological symptoms, including difficulty breathing, convulsions, and paralysis. Exposure to sarin can be fatal, and there is no known antidote for its effects. Treatment for sarin poisoning typically involves supportive care, such as oxygen therapy and respiratory support, as well as medications to manage symptoms and prevent further exposure.

Phosphoric triester hydrolases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoric triesters, which are esters of phosphoric acid. These enzymes are important in many biological processes, including metabolism, signal transduction, and gene expression. In the medical field, phosphoric triester hydrolases are often studied in the context of diseases such as cancer, where they may play a role in the regulation of cell growth and division. For example, some phosphoric triester hydrolases have been shown to be overexpressed in certain types of cancer, and their inhibition may be a potential therapeutic strategy. Phosphoric triester hydrolases are also important in the treatment of certain metabolic disorders, such as hypophosphatasia, which is a rare genetic disorder characterized by low levels of alkaline phosphatase, an enzyme that is a member of the phosphoric triester hydrolase family. In this disorder, the lack of alkaline phosphatase leads to the accumulation of toxic levels of inorganic phosphate in the body, which can cause a range of symptoms including bone pain, muscle weakness, and respiratory distress. Treatment for hypophosphatasia often involves the administration of enzyme replacement therapy, which involves the injection of alkaline phosphatase to help break down the accumulated inorganic phosphate.

In the medical field, organothiophosphorus compounds are a class of chemical compounds that contain a sulfur-phosphorus bond (P-S) attached to an organic group. These compounds are commonly used as pesticides, herbicides, and nerve agents. Organothiophosphorus compounds can cause a range of toxic effects on the body, including respiratory distress, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and seizures. In severe cases, exposure to these compounds can lead to death. In the medical setting, organothiophosphorus compounds are often encountered in cases of accidental or intentional exposure. Treatment typically involves the use of atropine, pralidoxime, and other medications to reverse the toxic effects of the compounds and support vital organ function.

Salivary gland diseases refer to any medical conditions that affect the salivary glands, which are responsible for producing saliva. Saliva is a clear fluid that helps to moisten the mouth, break down food, and protect the teeth and gums from decay. There are three major types of salivary glands: the parotid glands, the submandibular glands, and the sublingual glands. Salivary gland diseases can be classified into two main categories: inflammatory and non-inflammatory. Inflammatory salivary gland diseases are caused by infections, autoimmune disorders, or other inflammatory conditions, and can result in swelling, pain, and difficulty swallowing. Non-inflammatory salivary gland diseases, on the other hand, are not caused by inflammation and can include conditions such as salivary gland tumors, cysts, or stones. Some common salivary gland diseases include: 1. Sialadenitis: Inflammation of the salivary glands, which can be caused by infections, autoimmune disorders, or other factors. 2. Sialolithiasis: Formation of stones in the salivary glands, which can cause blockages and pain. 3. Sjogren's syndrome: An autoimmune disorder that affects the salivary glands and other glands in the body, causing dryness and inflammation. 4. Mucoceles: Cysts that form in the salivary glands, which can cause swelling and discomfort. 5. Salivary gland tumors: Benign or malignant tumors that can form in the salivary glands, which can cause swelling, pain, and difficulty swallowing. Treatment for salivary gland diseases depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, medications or lifestyle changes may be sufficient to manage symptoms. In more severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove blockages, tumors, or other abnormalities.

In the medical field, decontamination refers to the process of removing or neutralizing harmful substances, such as bacteria, viruses, chemicals, or radioactive materials, from a person, object, or environment. The goal of decontamination is to prevent the spread of infection or disease and to protect individuals from harm. Decontamination can be performed using various methods, depending on the type and severity of the contamination. For example, in the case of chemical or biological contamination, decontamination may involve washing with soap and water, using disinfectants or antiseptics, or wearing protective clothing and equipment. In the case of radioactive contamination, decontamination may involve removing contaminated clothing and washing with special detergents or using radiation-absorbing materials. Decontamination is an important part of infection control and is often used in healthcare settings, emergency response situations, and industrial settings where hazardous materials are present. It is essential to follow proper decontamination procedures to ensure the safety of individuals and the environment.

Butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the breakdown of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that is involved in many important bodily functions. BuChE is primarily found in the blood and in the liver, but it is also present in other tissues throughout the body. In the medical field, BuChE is often measured as a way to assess liver function, as the enzyme is produced by liver cells. Abnormal levels of BuChE can be an indication of liver disease or other conditions that affect liver function. BuChE is also used as a biomarker for exposure to certain toxins, such as pesticides and heavy metals. In addition, researchers are studying BuChE as a potential target for the development of new drugs for the treatment of neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease.

Organophosphates are a class of chemical compounds that contain a phosphorus atom bonded to an organic group. They are commonly used as pesticides, herbicides, and insecticides, as well as in industrial and military applications. In the medical field, organophosphates are often used as nerve agents, which can cause a range of symptoms including muscle weakness, difficulty breathing, and even death. They can also be used as medications to treat certain medical conditions, such as glaucoma and myasthenia gravis. However, exposure to organophosphates can be dangerous and can cause a range of adverse health effects, including respiratory problems, neurological damage, and even death.

In the medical field, "Burns, Chemical" refers to a type of burn that occurs when a person comes into contact with a chemical substance that causes damage to the skin, eyes, or respiratory system. Chemical burns can be caused by a wide range of substances, including acids, alkalis, solvents, and other toxic chemicals. The severity of a chemical burn depends on several factors, including the type and concentration of the chemical, the duration of exposure, and the area of the body affected. Chemical burns can cause immediate pain, redness, swelling, and blistering of the skin, and may also lead to more serious complications if not treated promptly and appropriately. Treatment for chemical burns typically involves removing the chemical from the skin as quickly as possible, washing the affected area with copious amounts of water, and applying a neutralizing agent to neutralize any remaining chemical. In more severe cases, medical attention may be required to manage pain, prevent infection, and treat any systemic effects of the chemical exposure.

Organophosphorus compounds are a class of chemicals that contain a phosphorus atom bonded to one or more organic groups, such as alkyl, aryl, or alkoxy groups. These compounds are widely used in agriculture as pesticides, in the manufacturing of plastics, and as solvents. In the medical field, organophosphorus compounds are primarily used as nerve agents, which are toxic chemicals that interfere with the nervous system by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. This inhibition leads to an accumulation of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter, in the synapses, causing overstimulation of the nervous system and potentially leading to death. Organophosphorus compounds are also used as medications to treat certain medical conditions, such as myasthenia gravis, a disorder that causes muscle weakness. However, they can also have toxic effects on the body, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, and respiratory distress.

Eye burns refer to injuries or damage to the eye caused by exposure to a harmful substance or heat. These burns can range from mild to severe and can cause a variety of symptoms, including pain, redness, tearing, sensitivity to light, and vision loss. Eye burns can be caused by a variety of factors, including chemical burns from exposure to acids, bases, or other chemicals, thermal burns from exposure to heat or flames, and radiation burns from exposure to ultraviolet or infrared radiation. Treatment for eye burns depends on the severity of the injury and the specific cause of the burn. In some cases, simple measures such as washing the eye with cool water or applying a cold compress may be sufficient. In more severe cases, medical treatment may be necessary, including the use of prescription medications, surgery, or other interventions. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if you suspect that you or someone else has suffered an eye burn.

Cholinesterase inhibitors are a class of drugs that are used to treat certain neurological conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease and myasthenia gravis. These drugs work by inhibiting the enzyme cholinesterase, which breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the brain. By inhibiting this enzyme, cholinesterase inhibitors help to increase the levels of acetylcholine in the brain, which can improve cognitive function and muscle control in people with these conditions. There are several different types of cholinesterase inhibitors, including donepezil, rivastigmine, and galantamine. These drugs are usually taken orally and are generally well-tolerated, although they can cause side effects such as nausea, diarrhea, and headache.

Persian Gulf Syndrome, also known as Gulf War Syndrome, is a term used to describe a group of symptoms that were reported by military personnel who served in the Persian Gulf War of 1990-1991. The symptoms include fatigue, muscle and joint pain, memory problems, headaches, and respiratory problems. Some individuals also reported experiencing skin rashes, gastrointestinal problems, and depression. The exact cause of Persian Gulf Syndrome is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to exposure to a combination of environmental factors, including pesticides, nerve agents, and other chemicals, as well as stress and lack of sleep. Some researchers have also suggested that the syndrome may be related to the use of vaccines and medications given to military personnel before and during the war. Despite extensive research, there is still no definitive diagnosis or treatment for Persian Gulf Syndrome. However, many of the symptoms can be managed with medications and other therapies.

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Green Cross (chemical warfare) Blue Cross (chemical warfare) White Cross (chemical warfare) Chemical Weapons in World War I ( ... Yellow Cross (Gelbkreuz) is a World War I chemical warfare agent usually based on sulfur mustard (mustard gas, HS, Yperite, ... Yellow Cross is also a generic World War I German marking for artillery shells with chemical payload affecting the skin. ... Blister agents, World War I chemical weapons). ...
The Chemical Warfare Service: From Laboratory to Field (1959); and B. E. Kleber and D. Birdsell, The Chemical Warfare Service ... Army's Chemical Warfare Service standardized improved chemical warfare rockets intended for the new M9 and M9A1 "Bazooka" ... Chemical Warfare in Australia (2nd Edn) 2013 (Army Military History Series) Geoff Plunkett, Chemical Warfare in Australia Geoff ... Chemical Warfare in Australia: Australia's Involvement In Chemical Warfare 1914 - Today, (2nd Edition), 2013.. Leech Cup Books ...
Blue Cross (chemical warfare) Green Cross (chemical warfare) Yellow Cross (chemical warfare) "Chemical Weapons in World War I ... White Cross (Weiẞkreuz) is a World War I chemical warfare agent consisting of one or more lachrymatory agents: bromoacetone (BA ... v t e (Lachrymatory agents, World War I chemical weapons, All stub articles, Weapon stubs). ... White Cross was also a generic code name used by the German Army for artillery shells with an irritant chemical payload ...
... chemical warfare) Yellow Cross (chemical warfare) White Cross (chemical warfare) "Chemical Weapons in World War I". Archived ... Green Cross (Grünkreuz) is a World War I chemical warfare pulmonary agent consisting of chloropicrin (PS, Aquinite, Klop), ... v t e (Pulmonary agents, World War I chemical weapons, All stub articles, Weapon stubs). ... chemical payload affecting the lungs). The tip of the projectile with the fuse end painted green and a green cross at the ...
Green Cross (chemical warfare) Yellow Cross (chemical warfare) White Cross (chemical warfare) Lewisite "Chemical Weapons in ... Blue Cross (Blaukreuz) is a World War I chemical warfare agent consisting of diphenylchloroarsine (DA, Clark I), ... Blue Cross is also a generic World War I German marking for artillery shells with chemical payload affecting the upper ... v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Pulmonary agents, World War I chemical weapons, ...
A chemical weapon agent (CWA), or chemical warfare agent, is a chemical substance whose toxic properties are meant to kill, ... About 70 different chemicals have been used or stockpiled as chemical weapon agents during the 20th century. These agents may ... the different types of chemical warfare agents are listed below. These are substances that are not intended to kill or injure. ... In general, chemical weapon agents are organized into several categories (according to the physiological manner in which they ...
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US Army Chemical Corps variously identified these tanks as POA-CWS-H1, (Pacific Ocean Area-Chemical Warfare Section-Hawaii) CWS ... The Chemical Warfare Service; Chemicals in Combat, Center of Military History United States Army, Washington DC, pp. 558-583, ... Chemical Warfare Service Chemical Officer. United States Army, Forces. Middle Pacific, Military Review, March 1946, Vol 25 No ... Chemical Warfare Service at Schofield Barracks, Territory of Hawaii. There the Army reached out to the United States Naval ...
... was acquired in March 1943 by the U.S. Army for use as a biological ... Horn Island Chemical Warfare Service Quarantine Station, also known as the Horn Island Testing Station, was a U.S. biological ... The 2,000-acre (8.1 km2) site on Horn Island was managed and built by the Chemical Warfare Service's (CWS) Special Projects ... The Biology of Doom: The History of America's Secret Germ Warfare Project, (Google Books), Macmillan, 2000, pp. 63-77, (ISBN ...
The Day of Remembrance for All Victims of Chemical Warfare is an annual event held November 30 as a "tribute to the victims of ... Media related to Day of Remembrance for all Victims of Chemical Warfare at Wikimedia Commons (Use mdy dates from April 2018, ... In addition, Pfirter's proposal to erect a monument at the Hague commemorating all victims of chemical warfare was approved. ... Ban, Ki-moon (April 29, 2013). "Message on the Day of Remembrance for All Victims of Chemical Warfare". United Nations ...
Chemical warfare, Bioethics, Non-lethal weapons, Incapacitating agents, Mind control, Psychological warfare). ... Psychochemical warfare - or "drug weapons" - involves the use of psychopharmacological agents (mind-altering drugs or chemicals ... Ketchum, James S. (October 2012). Chemical Warfare Secrets Almost Forgotten. WestBow Press. pp. 14-. ISBN 978-1-4772-7589-4. ... chemical warfare program and involved studies of several hundred volunteer test subjects. Britain was also investigating the ...
Until the end of World War II, Japan operated a covert biological and chemical warfare research and development unit called ... 1, 1949, through July 27, 1953, the United States Army had a capability to wage both chemical and biological warfare ... Eitzen, Edward M.; Takafuji, Ernest T. (1997). Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare (PDF). United States ... New Weapon: Germ Warfare (London, 1952) Stephen L. Endicott, "Germ Warfare and "Plausible Denial": The Korean War, 1952-1953", ...
... and new chemical warfare agents and mixtures of chemical weapons and biowarfare agents are being developed . . . Countries are ... "Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare, Chapter 34 TRICHOTHECENE MYCOTOXINS p.659" (PDF). Archived from the ... During the closing stages of the Rhodesian Bush War, the Rhodesian government resorted to use chemical and biological warfare ... D. Hank Ellison (August 24, 2007). Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents, Second Edition. CRC Press. pp. 87-100. ...
S2CID 144488159.(subscription required) Romano Jr., James A.; King, James M. (2002). "Chemical warfare and chemical terrorism: ... Psychological Warfare Division USSR Active measures Related: Asymmetric warfare Fourth generation warfare The Gospel of ... Information operations and warfare, Mind control, Propaganda techniques, Psychological warfare techniques, Warfare by type, ... Terrorism The threat of chemical weapons. Information warfare. Most of these techniques were developed during World War II or ...
Palazzo, A. (2000). Seeking Victory on the Western Front: The British Army and Chemical Warfare in World War I (Bison Books ... ISBN 978-0-8032-8774-7. Fries, A. A.; West, C. J. (1921). Chemical Warfare. New York: McGraw-Hill. OCLC 570125. Retrieved 23 ... Helmets impregnated with chemicals to neutralise chlorine had been issued in several variants, each more effective than the ... 1923). Medical Services: Diseases of the War: Including the Medical Aspects of Aviation and Gas Warfare and Gas Poisoning in ...
Chemical Warfare. Chapter 12. Sighting and Ranging. The Navy's Future Weapons. Laughlin, Charlotte; Daniel J. H. Levack (1983 ...
McCabe, Bob (1998). "Chemical Warfare". Sight and Sound. 8: 6-8 - via Sight and Sound digital archive. McCabe, Bob (December ...
Amos Alfred Fries; Clarence Jay West (1921). Chemical warfare. McGraw-Hill book company, inc. p. 144. "Vikane® gas fumigant - ... It was used as a poison gas in World War I. Its chemical structural formula is Cl3CNO2. Chloropicrin was discovered in 1848 by ... While not as lethal as other chemical weapons, it induced vomiting and forced Allied soldiers to remove their masks to vomit, ... Chloropicrin, also known as PS and nitrochloroform, is a chemical compound currently used as a broad-spectrum antimicrobial, ...
... and use of chemical weapons. Despite there being an international ban on chemical warfare, the CWC "allows domestic law ... Chemicals used in the production of chemical weapons also left residues in the soil where the weapons were used. The chemicals ... Chemical warfare by conflict, Environmental impact of war, French war crimes, Italian war crimes, World War I chemical weapons ... The Protocol required that all remaining stockpiles of chemical weapons be destroyed. Chemical warfare agents that contained ...
Shawkey, Matthew D.; Pillai, Shreekumar R.; Hill, Geoffrey E. (2003). "Chemical warfare? Effects of uropygial oil on feather- ... A few species are able to use chemical defences against predators; some Procellariiformes can eject an unpleasant stomach oil ... Revis, Hannah C.; Waller, Deborah A. (2004). "Bactericidal and fungicidal activity of ant chemicals on feather parasites: an ... chemical defense in birds?". Science. 258 (5083): 799-801. Bibcode:1992Sci...258..799D. doi:10.1126/science.1439786. PMID ...
Fries, Amos A. (2008). Chemical Warfare. Read. pp. 148-49, 407. ISBN 978-1-4437-3840-8.. Wikimedia Commons has media related to ... Chemical articles with multiple compound IDs, Multiple chemicals in an infobox that need indexing, Chemical articles with ... Stannic chloride was used as a chemical weapon in World War I, as it formed an irritating (but non-deadly) dense smoke on ... International Chemical Safety Card 0953 (industrial uses) at the Wayback Machine (archived 2005-02-28 ...
Fries, A. A.; West, C. J. (1921). Chemical Warfare. New York: McGraw-Hill. OCLC 570125 - via Archive Foundation. Haber, L. F. ( ... Some ammunition was made unusable and some rifles jammed, due to chemical deposits forming on the bolts. The troops most ... Hook, R.; Jones, S. (2002). World War I Gas Warfare Tactics and Equipment. Osprey. ISBN 978-1-84603-151-9. MacPherson, W. G.; ... In early 1916, the Germans had more and better equipment for trench warfare, with good quality hand grenades, rifle grenades ...
... became increasingly conscious of its vulnerability to chemical attack ... undertook a program of chemical warfare preparations ... At least four chemical warfare production facilities have been identified in Serbia: Prva Iskra in Baric; Miloje Blagojevic in ... "Chemical warfare". World War II. Hongmei Deng; Peter O'Meara Evans (1997). "Social and Environmental Aspects of ... The use of chemical weapons was renounced in 1991 and the U.S. signed the Chemical Weapons Convention in 1993. 89.75% of the ...
"Chemical Warfare". AllMusic. Retrieved May 15, 2010. "Before I Self Destruct". AllMusic. Retrieved May 15, 2010. "40 Glocc - I ...
Shawkey, Matthew D.; Pillai, Shreekumar R.; Hill, Geoffrey E. (2003). "Chemical warfare? Effects of uropygial oil on feather- ... Insects used for anting secrete chemical liquids such as formic acid, which can act as insecticides, miticides, fungicides and ...
CWS Barker (1926). "Gas mask development". Chemical Warfare. 12 (7): 11-15. Archived from the original on 2 May 2007. Retrieved ... "Apparatus Of Gas Warfare". The Western Front Association. Archived from the original on 27 July 2009. Retrieved 17 October 2011 ... The Riddle of the Rhine: Chemical Strategy in Peace and War, Victor LeFebure, at Project Gutenberg "History of the U.S. Army's ... Rather than having a separate filter for removing the toxic chemicals, they consisted of a gas-permeable hood worn over the ...
The chemical used in warfare is called a chemical warfare agent (CWA). About 70 different chemicals have been used or ... Although crude chemical warfare has been employed in many parts of the world for thousands of years, "modern" chemical warfare ... Chemical Warfare from World War I to Al-Qaeda (2006) Wikimedia Commons has media related to Chemical warfare. Official website ... Chemical warfare (CW) involves using the toxic properties of chemical substances as weapons. This type of warfare is distinct ...
... chemical weapons elimination program. This page links to chemical warfare agent exposure limits for GA, GB, VX, H, HD, and ... Recovered Chemical Weapons and Other Chemical Agent Materials. *CDCs Role in Protecting Public Health in During Chemical ... Closing U.S. Chemical Warfare Agent Disposal Facilitiesplus icon *Blue Grass Facility, Madison County, Kentucky ... CDC recommends exposure limits for chemical warfare agents to protect workers and the public. CDC periodically reviews these ...
... emergency physicians must be able to care for victims of chemical weapon agents (CWAs). This article reviews the physical ... Because of the ongoing risk of chemical attack, ... Chemical Warfare Agents) and CBRNE - Chemical Warfare Agents ... CBRNE - Chemical Warfare Agents. Updated: May 11, 2023 * Author: Gregory R Ciottone, MD, FACEP; Chief Editor: Duane C Caneva, ... Chemical warfare agents (CWAs) comprise a diverse group of extremely hazardous materials. [1] As potential weapons of mass ...
Aftereffects of chemical warfare. Postcard mailer. 15 x 15, acrylic and acetate on board. ... Aftereffects of chemical warfare. Postcard mailer. 15 x 15, acrylic and acetate on board. ...
Warfare and Terrorism Agents (used in acts of war or terror). Warfare or terrorism agents are a class that includes chemicals, ... Chemical Classifications *Warfare and Terrorism Agents (used in acts of war or terror) ... For information on other warfare and terrorism agents, please view the the CDC Chemical Agents page. ...
No Impunity for Chemical Warfare. What Are the Options for Ending the Use of Chemical Weapons?. Kurzbeschreibung. Not too long ... Becker-Jakob, Una (2018): No Impunity for Chemical Warfare. What Are the Options for Ending the Use of Chemical Weapons?, PRIF ... This situation must be over-come if chemical warfare is to be consigned to history for good. ... it seemed that che-mical war-fare was a thing of the past. In re-cent years, how-ever, the world has been troubled by news of ...
Tag: Chemical Warfare. Posted inAT Finance, Cambodia, Laos, Middle East, South Asia, Vietnam, World Vietnam seeks US ... As US loses patience, North Korea holds a chemical card. by Bertil Lintner March 20, 2017. February 18, 2020. ... Hanoi is demanding compensation from US manufacturers of the chemical defoliant Agent Orange, as a last resort to help families ... reparations for the chemical Agent Orange. by Christina Lin August 31, 2018. August 31, 2018. ...
... to be investigated because of its proximity to Coalition forces and the ambiguities surrounding the disposition of chemical ... Modeling the Chemical Warfare Agent Release at the Khamisiyah Pit, Sept. 4, 1997 As part of CIAs and DODs continued work to ... The PAC and NSC staff directed CIA to have one of its contractors model multiple chemical warfare agent releases. Modeling is ... Modeling the Transport and Diffusion of Chemical Warfare Agent. All transport and diffusion models used in this effort (SCIPUFF ...
Chemical Warfare Depot. (Crosby Park, Brisbane). Chemical Office. (Perry House, Brisbane). Chemical Warfare Physiology School ... Australian Chemical Warfare Research and Experimental Section. Bowen Chemical Research Unit (RAAF). Chemical Warfare Physiology ... Chemical Warfare Physiology School Melbourne. RAAF Chemical Research Unit. US Chemical Warfare Service (US Army). ... Chemical Warfare Board - later the Chemical Defence Board. Munitions Laboratory (Chemical Defence Laboratories), Chemical ...
Chemical Warfare in the Middle East: A Brief History. By Alex Joffe. Thursday, December 13, 2012. At this time of Hanukkahs ... In fact, chemical warfare has a particularly long history in the Middle East. Why have the legal and cultural prohibitions on ... Though the site was excavated during the 1930s, the evidence of chemical warfare was recognized only in 2009. When the reports ... The epitome of modern chemical warfare occurred during the 1980-88 Iran-Iraq War. Iraq initiated the war in September, 1980 and ...
Brief history and use of chemical warfare agents in warfare and terrorism. Chemical Warfare Agents, Chemistry, Pharmacology, ... On-site detection of chemical warfare agents. In Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents (pp. 983-1003). Academic ... The chemical weapons convention: a commentary. OUP Oxford.. Kuča, K. and Pohanka, M., 2010. Chemical warfare agents. In ... The use of chemical weapons in Syria: Implications and consequences. In One Hundred Years of Chemical Warfare: Research, ...
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Pulmonary Chemical-Warfare Agents - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the MSD Manuals - ... See also Overview of Chemical-Warfare Agents Overview of Chemical-Warfare Agents Chemical-warfare (CW) agents are chemical mass ... Pathophysiology of Pulmonary Chemical-Warfare Injuries Toxic chemical-warfare agents that affect the respiratory tract are ... and chloropicrin and some vesicants Vesicant Chemical-Warfare Agents Vesicants are chemical-warfare agents that cause ...
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Medical aspects of chemical and biological warfare. Washington: Office of the Surgeon General; 1997. p. 415-23. ... SIPRI Chemical & Biological Warfare Studies. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1999. p. 8-34. ... SIPRI chemical & biological warfare studies. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1999. p. 127-52. ... Japanese biological warfare research on humans: a case study of microbiology and ethics. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1992;666:21-52. DOI ...
... ... Recovery of sea-disposed chemical warfare material : learn what to do when you encounter chemical munitions on your vessel ... Title : Recovery of sea-disposed chemical warfare material : learn what to do when you encounter chemical munitions on your ... "Recovery of sea-disposed chemical warfare material : learn what to do when you encounter chemical munitions on your vessel" ( ...
ALTERNATIVE TERMChemical warfare and defence Source: GCL Use Chemical warfare. Term Group. ...
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Linke deputy Gokay Akbulut said she wrote a letter to the OPCW to demand that the allegations over Turkeys usage of chemical ... A German member of parliament applied to an international body demanding an investigation into the chemical warfare accusations ... German Die Linke deputy Gokay Akbulut, said she wrote a letter to the OPCW (Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical ... After videos posted on social media showing PKK militants who allegedly suffered from attacks with chemical weapons, many ...
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... of using chemical weapons, after President Biden said his administration would respond in kind if Russia uses such a weapon ... Concerns grow over Russia using chemical warfare in Ukraine. Fox News Steve Harrigan discusses his experience covering Ukraine ... Biden, on Thursday, said the U.S. "would respond" if Russia uses chemical weapons. When asked whether Russias use of chemical ... "And I wont go beyond that other than to say the United States has no intention of using chemical weapons, period, under any ...
The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights on Friday released a report accusing Turkish forces of a chemical weapons attack in ... Home US/World News Turkish forces accused of chemical warfare in Syrian attack ... Turkish government officials denied the use of chemical weapons.. "What a reliable source you have? Stop lying," Foreign ... 18 (UPI) - The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights on Friday released a report accusing Turkish forces of a chemical weapons ...
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  • Both have been used as chemical weapons but phosgene is an important precursor in the manufacture of plastics, and chloropicrin is used as a fumigant. (
  • Chemicals such as phosgene, cyanide, anhydrous ammonia, and chlorine are important precursors for manufacturing many products including plastics and agricultural products, and are widely and frequently transported. (
  • Some chemicals (such as chlorine, phosgene, and cyanide compounds) have both industrial and chemical warfare uses. (
  • Vesicant Chemical-Warfare Agents Vesicants are chemical-warfare agents that cause blistering (vesicles) and include Mustards, including sulfur mustard and nitrogen mustards Lewisite Phosgene oxime (technically an urticant and. (
  • such as sulfur mustard, Lewisite, and phosgene oxime (which also affect the skin) as well as military smokes, products of combustion, and many toxic industrial chemicals. (
  • Though it is a state secret, Israel's development of chemical and biological weapons has been known and analyzed for decades. (
  • Health aspects of chemical and biological weapons : report of a WHO group of consultants. (
  • In Nazi Germany, much research went into developing new chemical weapons, such as potent nerve agents. (
  • Chemical warfare: nerve agent poisoning. (
  • Overview of Chemical-Warfare Agents Chemical-warfare (CW) agents are chemical mass-casualty weapons (MCWs) developed by governments for wartime use and include Toxic agents (intended to cause serious injury or death) Incapacitating. (
  • About 70 different chemicals have been used or were stockpiled as chemical warfare agents during the 20th century. (
  • The entire class, known as Lethal Unitary Chemical Agents and Munitions, has been scheduled for elimination by the CWC. (
  • Chemical warfare agents are ideal weapons for terrorists and for use in military operations against both civilian populations and troops. (
  • Cite this: Chemical Warfare Agents: Their Past and Continuing Threat and Evolving Therapies - Medscape - Sep 01, 2003. (
  • For years, rumors persisted that Israel was using or testing unknown chemical agents on Palestinian civilians. (
  • Chemical warfare agents (CWAs) comprise a diverse group of extremely hazardous materials. (
  • Accidents involving toxic industrial chemicals continue to be a significant potential source of exposure to those agents that were also used as chemical warfare agents. (
  • Although the Chemical Weapons Convention and a number of international treaties have banned the development, production, and stockpiling of those CWAs with only a warfare use, these agents reportedly still are being produced or stockpiled in several countries. (
  • The Emergency Preparedness and Biodefense Interest Group is pleased to announce that Colonel James M. Madsen will give a lecture entitled Chemical Warfare Agents: An Overview. (
  • The author of many paper on chemical agents and other topics, his deployment experience includes serving as a battalion surgeon for the 101st Airborne Division in Saudi Arabia and Iraq and as the team physician for the first challenge inspection of the Russian chemical-agent storage facilities. (
  • Dr. Madsen is a highly entertaining speaker, whose portrayal from the podium of clinical syndromes related to chemical agents is guaranteed to stay in the memory. (
  • Chemical warfare agents : an overview / James M. Madsen. (
  • Warfare or terrorism agents are a class that includes chemicals, biological substances, radioactive materials, nuclear materials, or explosives. (
  • For information on other warfare and terrorism agents, please view the the CDC Chemical Agents page . (
  • In addition to their chemical names and common names, most chemical warfare agents also have a one- to three-letter North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) code. (
  • Type 1 agents usually are those with inhaled particles (eg, smoke), which tend to settle out before reaching the alveoli, or highly water-soluble and/or highly reactive chemicals, which dissolve into respiratory mucosa before reaching the alveoli. (
  • Type 2 agents usually are lower-solubility and/or less-reactive chemicals, which travel to the alveoli before dissolving. (
  • Mixed-effect agents include most inhaled chemicals with local effects on the respiratory tract. (
  • Mixed-effect agents lie in the middle of the spectrum of aqueous solubility and chemical reactivity and have both type 1 and type 2 effects. (
  • In particular, the Rigaku Progeny® ResQ® FLX provides rapid, onsite identification of narcotics, explosives and chemical warfare agents. (
  • The Progeny ResQ FLX includes an 800+ library specific to narcotics, explosives and chemical warfare agents and additionally has an optional 12,000+ library of common excipients, cutting agents and pharmaceutical materials. (
  • Medical manual of defence against chemical agents / by command of the Defence Council. (
  • Prevention and treatment of injury from chemical warfare agents. (
  • In: Chemical warfare agents and related chemical problems. (
  • The man-in-simulant test (MIST) is the primary procedure used by the military to evaluate clothing ensembles for protection against chemical and biological warfare agents. (
  • This however did not prevent the extensive use of chemical weapons in World War I. The development of chlorine gas, among others, was used by both sides to try to break the stalemate of trench warfare. (
  • In the modern warfare era, CWAs were first used in World War I in 1915 when the German military released 168 tons of chlorine gas at Ypres, Belgium, killing an estimated 5000 Allied troops. (
  • These munitions often contain warfare chemicals, and they can be encountered anywhere at sea, not just charted hazardous areas. (
  • Sea-disposal operations included the disposal of conventional munitions of every type and chemical munitions with various chemical agent fills. (
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, along with other partners, developed tools for commercial fishermen encountering chemical munitions that will help identify personal protective equipment that be used to help prevent exposure, how to safely handle the munition, how to report the incident, and includes a resource card that can be taken with them to seek medical attention and is useful in the identification of signs and symptoms of exposure. (
  • Scientists and engineers have determined that the Army missed a number of pits containing buried munitions and toxic chemicals. (
  • The Army has found high levels of arsenic in a part of Spring Valley once called 'Arsenic Valley' because of its proximity to a lab that used arsenic in making chemical munitions. (
  • Archaeologists here examined the visible, physical comportment/arrangement of the skeletons alongside a more microscopic analysis of chemical compounds found within the space. (
  • Sulfur mustard was the major cause of chemical casualties in World War I. CWAs have been used in at least 12 conflicts since, including the first Persian Gulf War (Iraq-Iran War). (
  • It is intended to provide credible source material on how to accomplish numerous concurrent tasks required during a chemical event involving a large number of casualties. (
  • A case in which a potentially exposed person is being evaluated by health-care workers or public health officials for poisoning by a particular chemical agent, but no specific credible threat exists. (
  • Sulfur mustard remains the most significant chemical warfare agent that produces cutaneous injuries. (
  • For patient education information, also see the First Aid and Injuries Center , as well as Chemical Warfare and Personal Protective Equipment . (
  • Colonel Madsen is a scientific adviser to the Chemical Casualty Care Division and the course director of the Hospital Management of Chemical, Biological, Radiologic, Nuclear and Explosive course of the US Armed Forces. (
  • Any production over 100 grams (3.5 oz) must be reported to the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) and a country can have a stockpile of no more than one tonne of these chemicals. (
  • The Chemical Hazards Emergency Medical Management (CHEMM) portal sponsored by the US Department of Health & Human Services provides comprehensive information on chemical incident management, including specific information for first responders, hospital providers, and incident preparedness, as well as the general public . (
  • The 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention prohibits signatories from acquiring, stockpiling, developing, and using chemical weapons in all circumstances except for very limited purposes (research, medical, pharmaceutical or protective). (
  • Chemical warfare was well established by the time the Persians besieged Dura, said Adrienne Mayor, a historian at Stanford University and author of "Greek Fire, Poison Arrows & Scorpion Bombs: Biological and Chemical Warfare in the Ancient World" (Overlook Press, 2003). (
  • it also was a site for testing bombs and chemical weapons. (
  • Officers told worried residents that the bombs had been left by soldiers who had used the area to produce and test chemical weapons in 1918. (
  • As the two different tunnels connected, the Persians had put together a form of chemical warfare, which to my surprise has been around for a significant period of time. (
  • With how the Roman soldiers were found, and the position in which they were in, archaeologists determined that the Persians successfully pulled off the chemical combat. (
  • Signs of a pneumonitic process with fever, leukocytosis, and ± signs of an infiltrate on chest x-ray within the first 2 days, is almost always a chemical pneumonitis, and antibiotics should be withheld. (
  • Chemical pneumonitis and secondary bacterial pneumonitis may occur as a consequence of type 1 local damage. (
  • Results of search for 'su:{Chemical warfare. (
  • In addition, pre-and post-exposure therapies now being studied offer hope for moderating the mortality and morbidity that can result from chemical exposure. (
  • With the advent of portable field instruments many of these issues of time, cost and hazardous exposure to chemicals are significantly decreased. (
  • Under this convention, any toxic chemical, regardless of its origin, is considered a chemical weapon unless it is used for purposes that are not prohibited (an important legal definition known as the General Purpose Criterion). (
  • On Friday, the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights released a report accusing Turkish forces of a chemical weapon attack in Afrin. (
  • Jiwan Mohammad, the general director of the Afrin hospital, confirmed to the Syrian state-owned news outlet that the hospital had treated six men for "difficulty breathing, coughing, and burning all over the body," adding the symptoms were indicative of a chemical weapon attack . (
  • Multiple international treaties were passed banning chemical weapons based upon the alarm of nations and scientists. (
  • His award-winning film, Gaza Strip, documents the naked reality of Israel's chemical weaponry-the canisters, the doctors, the eyewitnesses, and the hideous suffering of the victims, many of whom remained hospitalized for days or weeks. (
  • With gas masks on their hips, they determined that the canisters were World War I-era chemical mortar rounds and 75-millimeter shells. (
  • however, the use of nonliving toxic products produced by living organisms (e.g. toxins such as botulinum toxin, ricin, and saxitoxin) is considered chemical warfare under the provisions of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). (
  • The sources, fate, and toxicity of chemical warfare agent degradation products. (
  • An 11 March 2005 article in Thanh Nien Daily about a U.S. court's dismissal of an Agent Orange-related lawsuit against chemical companies. (
  • The case can be confirmed if laboratory testing was not performed because either a predominant amount of clinical and nonspecific laboratory evidence of a particular chemical was present or the etiology of the agent is known with 100% certainty. (
  • Chemical weapons are divided into three categories: Category 1 - based on Schedule 1 substances Category 2 - based on non-Schedule 1 substances Category 3 - devices and equipment designed to use chemical weapons, without the substances themselves Simple chemical weapons were used sporadically throughout antiquity and into the Industrial Age. (
  • Examples include dimethyl methylphosphonate, a precursor to sarin also used as a flame retardant, and thiodiglycol, a precursor chemical used in the manufacture of mustard gas but also widely used as a solvent in inks. (
  • were live and might contain mustard gas, a lethal chemical that caused blindness, skin blisters, and internal and external bleeding in 400,000 World War I soldiers. (
  • Additionally laboratory analysis requires the use of trained personnel, costly analytical instruments and expensive consumables and chemicals. (
  • Selected analytical methods: chemical methods query [online]. (
  • [ 2 ] inadvertent contact with chemical-laden shells from an unknown military dump site, military stockpiling, war, or terrorist attack. (
  • Archeologist Uncovers Evidence Of Ancient Chemical Warfare. (
  • These 20 men, who died in A.D. 256, may be the first victims of chemical warfare to leave any archeological evidence of their passing, according to a new investigation. (
  • Evidence of more toxic chemicals is mounting. (
  • This type of warfare is distinct from nuclear warfare, biological warfare and radiological warfare, which together make up CBRN, the military acronym for chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (warfare or weapons), all of which are considered "weapons of mass destruction" (WMDs), a term that contrasts with conventional weapons. (
  • Within the last several decades, terrorists have deployed chemical weapons against civilian populations. (
  • Chemical warfare is different from the use of conventional weapons or nuclear weapons because the destructive effects of chemical weapons are not primarily due to any explosive force. (
  • Civilians have also been exposed inadvertently to chemical weapons many years after weapons deployment during war. (
  • These may only be produced or used for research, medical, pharmaceutical or protective purposes (i.e. testing of chemical weapons sensors and protective clothing). (
  • The paper reportedly found "strong links" with several US CBW and medical research centers, "close cooperation between IIBR and the British-American biological warfare programme", and "extensive collaboration on BW research with Germany and Holland. (
  • How does this research affect the way we approach and understand chemical warfare today? (
  • Dive into the research topics of 'Chemical warfare in freshwater. (
  • Textbook of military medicine: medical aspects of chemical and biological warfare. (
  • Raman spectroscopy is a well-established technique widely used in the pharmaceutical, chemical and safety & security areas. (
  • The Iraqi military also used chemical weapons against the Iraqi Kurds during the second Persian Gulf War. (
  • Under the convention, chemicals that are toxic enough to be used as chemical weapons, or that may be used to manufacture such chemicals, are divided into three groups according to their purpose and treatment: Schedule 1 - Have few, if any, legitimate uses. (
  • These recommended actions will be most useful in planning the early response phase of a chemical event but also have relevance for other public health events. (
  • These committees would provide an excellent forum to begin or continue planning to protect public health, safety, and the environment from chemical hazards. (
  • The advent of on-site chemical kits attempted to address the backlog and slow time of analysis by taking some of the chemical testing to the field. (