Chemical Warfare Agents: Chemicals that are used to cause the disturbance, disease, or death of humans during WARFARE.Chemical Warfare: Tactical warfare using incendiary mixtures, smokes, or irritant, burning, or asphyxiating gases.Mustard Gas: Severe irritant and vesicant of skin, eyes, and lungs. It may cause blindness and lethal lung edema and was formerly used as a war gas. The substance has been proposed as a cytostatic and for treatment of psoriasis. It has been listed as a known carcinogen in the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985) (Merck, 11th ed).Biological Warfare: Warfare involving the use of living organisms or their products as disease etiologic agents against people, animals, or plants.Military ScienceSoman: An organophosphorus compound that inhibits cholinesterase. It causes seizures and has been used as a chemical warfare agent.Sarin: An organophosphorus ester compound that produces potent and irreversible inhibition of cholinesterase. It is toxic to the nervous system and is a chemical warfare agent.Phosphoric Triester Hydrolases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the three ester bonds in a phosphotriester-containing compound.Organothiophosphorus Compounds: Compounds containing carbon-phosphorus bonds in which the phosphorus component is also bonded to one or more sulfur atoms. Many of these compounds function as CHOLINERGIC AGENTS and as INSECTICIDES.IraqSalivary Gland DiseasesHuman Experimentation: The use of humans as investigational subjects.Decontamination: The removal of contaminating material, such as radioactive materials, biological materials, or CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS, from a person or object.Military Medicine: The practice of medicine as applied to special circumstances associated with military operations.Butyrylcholinesterase: An aspect of cholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.8).Organophosphates: Carbon-containing phosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have CARBON atoms bound to one or more OXYGEN atoms of the P(=O)(O)3 structure. Note that several specific classes of endogenous phosphorus-containing compounds such as NUCLEOTIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and PHOSPHOPROTEINS are listed elsewhere.Burns, ChemicalOrganophosphorus Compounds: Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.Veterans: Former members of the armed services.Eye Burns: Injury to any part of the eye by extreme heat, chemical agents, or ultraviolet radiation.Psychological Warfare: The manipulation of psychological influences, primarily concerned with morale, to strengthen the ability of one's own country and weaken the enemy.Cholinesterase Inhibitors: Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.IranWar: Hostile conflict between organized groups of people.Literature, MedievalPersian Gulf Syndrome: Unexplained symptoms reported by veterans of the Persian Gulf War with Iraq in 1991. The symptoms reported include fatigue, skin rash, muscle and joint pain, headaches, loss of memory, shortness of breath, gastrointestinal and respiratory symptoms, and extreme sensitivity to commonly occurring chemicals. (Nature 1994 May 5;369(6475):8)Military Personnel: Persons including soldiers involved with the armed forces.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Biological Warfare Agents: Living organisms or their toxic products that are used to cause disease or death of humans during WARFARE.World War II: Global conflict involving countries of Europe, Africa, Asia, and North America that occurred between 1939 and 1945.Tetrodotoxin: An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.Tape Recording: Recording of information on magnetic or punched paper tape.Respiratory Protective Devices: Respirators to protect individuals from breathing air contaminated with harmful dusts, fogs, fumes, mists, gases, smokes, sprays, or vapors.Elbow Prosthesis: Replacement for an elbow joint.Christian Science: A religion founded by Mary Baker Eddy in 1866 that was organized under the official name of the Church of Christ, Scientist. It includes the practice of spiritual healing.AfghanistanVietnamSocial Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Chemistry, Analytic: The branch of chemistry dealing with detection (qualitative) and determination (quantitative) of substances. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Chemistry Techniques, Analytical: Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.Indans: Aryl CYCLOPENTANES that are a reduced (protonated) form of INDENES.CholinesterasesAcetylcholinesterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC 3.1.1.7.Galantamine: A benzazepine derived from norbelladine. It is found in GALANTHUS and other AMARYLLIDACEAE. It is a cholinesterase inhibitor that has been used to reverse the muscular effects of GALLAMINE TRIETHIODIDE and TUBOCURARINE and has been studied as a treatment for ALZHEIMER DISEASE and other central nervous system disorders.Butyrylthiocholine: A sulfur-containing analog of butyrylcholine which is hydrolyzed by butyrylcholinesterase to butyrate and thiocholine. It is used as a reagent in the determination of butyrylcholinesterase activity.New MexicoBooksPseudotsuga: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are coniferous evergreen trees with long, flat, spirally arranged needles that grow directly from the branch.SyriaSeaweed: Multicellular marine macroalgae including some members of red (RHODOPHYTA), green (CHLOROPHYTA), and brown (PHAEOPHYTA) algae. They are widely distributed in the ocean, occurring from the tide level to considerable depths, free-floating (planktonic) or anchored to the substratum (benthic). They lack a specialized vascular system but take up fluids, nutrients, and gases directly from the water. They contain CHLOROPHYLL and are photosynthetic, but some also contain other light-absorbing pigments. Many are of economic importance as FOOD, fertilizer, AGAR, potash, or source of IODINE.Coral Reefs: Marine ridges composed of living CORALS, coral skeletons, calcareous algae, and other organisms, mixed with minerals and organic matter. They are found most commonly in tropical waters and support other animal and plant life.Anthozoa: A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.United States Environmental Protection Agency: An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.

Health status of Persian Gulf War veterans: self-reported symptoms, environmental exposures and the effect of stress. (1/44)

BACKGROUND: Most US troops returned home from the Persian Gulf War (PGW) by Spring 1991 and many began reporting increased health symptoms and medical problems soon after. This investigation examines the relationships between several Gulf-service environmental exposures and health symptom reporting, and the role of traumatic psychological stress on the exposure-health symptom relationships. METHODS: Stratified, random samples of two cohorts of PGW veterans, from the New England area (n = 220) and from the New Orleans area (n = 71), were selected from larger cohorts being followed longitudinally since arrival home from the Gulf. A group of PGW-era veterans deployed to Germany (n = 50) served as a comparison group. The study protocol included questionnaires, a neuropsychological test battery, an environmental interview, and psychological diagnostic interviews. This report focuses on self-reported health symptoms and exposures of participants who completed a 52-item health symptom checklist and a checklist of environmental exposures. RESULTS: The prevalence of reported symptoms was greater in both Persian Gulf-deployed cohorts compared to the Germany cohort. Analyses of the body-system symptom scores (BSS), weighted to account for sampling design, and adjusted by age, sex, and education, indicated that Persian Gulf-deployed veterans were more likely to report neurological, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, cardiac, dermatological, musculoskeletal, psychological and neuropsychological system symptoms than Germany veterans. Using a priori hypotheses about the toxicant effects of exposure to specific toxicants, the relationships between self-reported exposures and body-system symptom groupings were examined through multiple regression analyses, controlling for war-zone exposure and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Self-reported exposures to pesticides, debris from Scuds, chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents, and smoke from tent heaters each were significantly related to increased reporting of specific predicted BSS groupings. CONCLUSIONS: Veterans deployed to the Persian Gulf have higher self-reported prevalence of health symptoms compared to PGW veterans who were deployed only as far as Germany. Several Gulf-service environmental exposures are associated with increased health symptom reporting involving predicted body-systems, after adjusting for war-zone stressor exposures and PTSD.  (+info)

The efforts of WHO and Pugwash to eliminate chemical and biological weapons--a memoir. (2/44)

The World Health Organization and the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs (Nobel Peace Prize 1995) have been involved in questions concerning chemical and biological arms since the early 1950s. This memoir reviews a number of milestones in the efforts of these organizations to achieve the elimination of these weapons through international treaties effectively monitored and enforced for adherence to their provisions. It also highlights a number of outstanding personalities who were involved in the efforts to establish and implement the two major treaties now in effect, the Biological Weapons Convention of 1972 and the Chemical Weapons Convention of 1993.  (+info)

The postwar hospitalization experience of Gulf War Veterans possibly exposed to chemical munitions destruction at Khamisiyah, Iraq. (3/44)

Using Department of Defense hospital data, the authors examined the postwar hospitalization experience from March 1991 through September 1995 of US Gulf War veterans who were near Khamisiyah, Iraq, during nerve agent munition destruction in March 1991. Multiple sources of meteorologic, munition, and toxicology data were used to circumscribe geographic areas of low level, vaporized nerve agent for 4 days after the destruction. Plume estimates were overlaid on military unit positions, and exposure was estimated for the 349,291 US Army Gulf War veterans. Exposure was classified as not exposed (n = 224,804), uncertain low dose exposure (n = 75,717), and specific estimated subclinical exposure (n = 48,770) categorized into three groups for dose-response evaluation. Using Cox proportional hazard modeling, the authors compared the postwar experiences of these exposure groups for hospitalization due to any cause, for diagnoses in 15 unique categories, and for specific diagnoses an expert panel proposed as most likely to reflect latent disease from such subclinical exposure. There was little evidence that veterans possibly exposed to the nerve agent plumes experienced unusual postwar morbidity. While there were several differences in hospitalization risk, none of the models suggested a dose-response relation or neurologic sequelae. These data, having a number of limitations, do not support the hypothesis that Gulf War veterans are suffering postwar morbidity from subclinical nerve agent exposure.  (+info)

Chemical and biological weapons: new questions, new answers. (4/44)

The words "chemical and biological weapons" (CBW) send a shiver down most spines these days. With the end of the Cold War, the possibility of a massive nuclear confrontation appears remote, so today many popular doomsday scenarios center on the aggressive use of chemical or biological warfare by rogue nations or terrorist groups. As exaggerated as some of the accounts are, with CBW cast as the latest unseen, unstoppable enemy, the threat posed by these weapons is all too real, and growing.  (+info)

Hazards of chemical weapons release during war: new perspectives. (5/44)

The two major threat classes of chemical weapons are mustard gas and the nerve agents, and this has not changed in over 50 years. Both types are commonly called gases, but they are actually liquids that are not remarkably volatile. These agents were designed specifically to harm people by any route of exposure and to be effective at low doses. Mustard gas was used in World War I, and the nerve agents were developed shortly before, during, and after World War II. Our perception of the potency of chemical weapons has changed, as well as our concern over potential effects of prolonged exposures to low doses and potential target populations that include women and children. Many of the toxicologic studies and human toxicity estimates for both mustard and nerve agents were designed for the purpose of quickly developing maximal casualties in the least sensitive male soldier. The "toxicity" of the chemical weapons has not changed, but our perception of "toxicity" has.  (+info)

Biological and chemical terrorism: strategic plan for preparedness and response. Recommendations of the CDC Strategic Planning Workgroup. (6/44)

The U.S. national civilian vulnerability to the deliberate use of biological and chemical agents has been highlighted by recognition of substantial biological weapons development programs and arsenals in foreign countries, attempts to acquire or possess biological agents by militants, and high-profile terrorist attacks. Evaluation of this vulnerability has focused on the role public health will have detecting and managing the probable covert biological terrorist incident with the realization that the U.S. local, state, and federal infrastructure is already strained as a result of other important public health problems. In partnership with representatives for local and state health departments, other federal agencies, and medical and public health professional associations, CDC has developed a strategic plan to address the deliberate dissemination of biological or chemical agents. The plan contains recommendations to reduce U.S. vulnerability to biological and chemical terrorism--preparedness planning, detection and surveillance, laboratory analysis, emergency response, and communication systems. Training and research are integral components for achieving these recommendations. Success of the plan hinges on strengthening the relationships between medical and public health professionals and on building new partnerships with emergency management, the military, and law enforcement professionals.  (+info)

Hospital preparedness for victims of chemical or biological terrorism. (7/44)

OBJECTIVES: This study examined hospital preparedness for incidents involving chemical or biological weapons. METHODS: By using a questionnaire survey of 224 hospital emergency departments in 4 northwestern states, we examined administrative plans, training, physical resources, and representative medication inventories. RESULTS: Responses were received from 186 emergency departments (83%). Fewer than 20% of respondent hospitals had plans for biological or chemical weapons incidents. About half (45%) had an indoor or outdoor decontamination unit with isolated ventilation, shower, and water containment systems, but only 12% had 1 or more self-contained breathing apparatuses or supplied air-line respirators. Only 6% had the minimum recommended physical resources for a hypothetical sarin incident. Of the hospitals providing quantitative answers about medication inventories, 64% reported sufficient ciprofloxacin or doxycycline for 50 hypothetical anthrax victims, and only 29% reported sufficient atropine for 50 hypothetical sarin victims (none had enough pralidoxime). CONCLUSIONS: Hospital emergency departments generally are not prepared in an organized fashion to treat victims of chemical or biological terrorism. The planned federal efforts to improve domestic preparedness will require substantial additional resources at the local level to be truly effective.  (+info)

Mortality among US veterans of the Persian Gulf War: 7-year follow-up. (8/44)

To assess the long-term health consequences of the 1991 Persian Gulf War, the authors compared cause-specific mortality rates of 621,902 Gulf War veterans with those of 746,248 non-Gulf veterans, by gender, with adjustment for age, race, marital status, branch of service, and type of unit. Vital status follow-up began with the date of exit from the Persian Gulf theater (Gulf veterans) or May 1, 1991 (control veterans). Follow-up for both groups ended on the date of death or December 31, 1997, whichever came first. Cox proportional hazards models were used for the multivariate analysis. For Gulf veterans, mortality risk was also assessed relative to the likelihood of exposure to nerve gas at Khamisiyah, Iraq. Among Gulf veterans, the significant excess of deaths due to motor vehicle accidents that was observed during the earlier postwar years had decreased steadily to levels found in non-Gulf veterans. The risk of death from natural causes remained lower among Gulf veterans compared with non-Gulf veterans. This was mainly accounted for by the relatively higher number of deaths related to human immunodeficiency virus infection among non-Gulf veterans. There was no statistically significant difference in cause-specific mortality among Gulf veterans relative to potential nerve gas exposure. The risk of death for both Gulf veterans and non-Gulf veterans stayed less than half of that expected in their civilian counterparts. The authors conclude that the excess risk of mortality from motor vehicle accidents that was associated with Gulf War service has dissipated after 7 years of follow-up.  (+info)

States Parties are required not to develop, produce, otherwise acquire, stockpile or retain chemical weapons (CW), or transfer, directly or indirectly, chemical weapons to anyone; not to use chemical weapons; not to engage in military preparations for use of chemical weapons; not to assist, encourage, or induce anyone to engage in any activity prohibited to a State Party under the convention.. Each State Party is required to destroy all chemical weapons and chemical weapons production facilities it owns or possesses or that are located in any place under its jurisdiction or control, as well as any chemical weapons it abandoned on the territory of another State Party no later than 10 years after entry into force of the Convention or as soon as possible in the case of States ratifying or acceding more than 10 years after entry into force. Each State Party also undertakes not to use riot control agents as a method of warfare (Article I). The Convention defines a chemical weapon as the following, ...
VI. How are chemical weapons destroyed?. I. What are chemical weapons?. A chemical weapon is any toxic chemical that can cause death, injury, incapacitation, and sensory irritation, deployed via a delivery system, such as an artillery shell, rocket, or ballistic missile. Chemical weapons are considered weapons of mass destruction and their use in armed conflict is a violation of international law.. Primary forms of chemical weapons include nerve agents, blister agents, choking agents, and blood agents. These agents are categorized based on how they affect the human body.. Nerve agents. Generally considered the most deadly of the different categories of chemical weapons, nerve agents - in liquid or gas form - can be inhaled or absorbed through the skin. Nerve agents inhibit the bodys respiratory and cardiovascular capability by causing severe damage to the central nervous system, and can result in death. The most common nerve agents include Sarin, Soman, and VX.. Blister agents. Blister agents ...
As of mid-2017 there were two sites in America still storing chemical weapons. The Pueblo Chemical Depot was expected to complete the destruction by 2019, while the Blue Grass Army Depot was scheduled to start its stockpile s destruction in 2020. The United States began its own destruction process unilaterally in 1990, seven years before the CWC s entry into force, and announced late in 2011 that it had completed 90% destruction of its original 31,500 US tons (28,577 MTs) of stockpiled chemical weapons at seven of its nine declared stockpile sites. The US missed the Chemical Weapons Convention s 29 April 2012 deadline, and at that time it appeared the US would need another decade or more to complete the task.. Further to a decision by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) Conference at its Sixteenth Session (C-16/DEC.11), a national paper by the United States of America on the progress made on the completion of the destruction of its chemical weapons, including ...
Synonyms for Chemical weapons in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Chemical weapons. 1 synonym for chemical warfare: chemical operations. What are synonyms for Chemical weapons?
On April 29, 2007, the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC)[1] marks the tenth anniversary of its entry into force. Along with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC), the CWC forms an important part of the international law supporting disarmament and non-proliferation concerning weapons of mass destruction. The CWC "is the only international treaty that requires complete and verifiable elimination of an entire category of weapons of mass destruction."[2] This Insight looks at the CWC as its tenth anniversary approaches and identifies challenges the CWC faces in its second decade.. Basic Information on the CWC. Negotiations on the CWC finished in September 1992, and the United Nations (UN) General Assembly opened the treaty for signature in January 1993. The CWC entered into force on April 29, 1997. The CWC States Parties seek, "for the sake of all mankind, to exclude completely the possibility of the use of chemical weapons" ...
The problem is, I dont like it, first of all Im rather dovish, I dont like what Im going to say but its true. If you basically put down a red line and say dont use chemical weapons, and its been enforced in the Western community, around the world - international community for decades - dont use chemical weapons. We didnt use them in World War II, Hitler didnt use them, we dont use chemical weapons, thats no deal. Although we do know that Assads father did. And then he goes ahead and does it. It makes you wonder what the mullahs will do if they have a couple of nuclear weapons, just a couple. Are they capable of not using them? And that, of course, you know, I think that everybody talking this morning is projecting toward that, which is if you cant use deterrents the normal way - mutually assured destruction - you cant say, if you do this, were blowing you up. If that doesnt work, what does work? And thats the problem. ...
Despite article 171 of the Versailles Peace Treaty and a resolution adopted against Japan by the League of nations on May 14, 1938, the Imperial Japanese Army frequently used chemical weapons. By fear of retaliation however, those weapons were never used against Occidentals but against other Orientals judged "inferior" by the imperial propaganda. According to historians Yoshiaki Yoshimi and Seiya Matsuno, the chemical weapons were authorized by specific orders given by Emperor Showa himself, transmitted by the chief of staff of the army. For example, the Emperor authorized the use of toxic gas on 375 separate occasions during the battle of Wuhan from August to October 1938. They were also heavily used during the invasion of Changde.. The Imperial Japanese Army used mustard gas and the blister agent Lewisite against Chinese troops and guerrillas during the Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945). During these attacks, the Japanese also employed biological warfare by intentionally spreading cholera, ...
What is chemical weapon? A device that uses chemicals formulated to inflict death or harm on human beings Can be widely dispersed in gas, liquid and solid forms About 70 different chemicals have been used or stockpiled as chemical weapon agents during the 20th century
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Public Release: 7-Jun-2017 American Chemical Society IMAGE: A new fabric coating could neutralize chemical weapons and help save countless lives. Credit: Credit: American Chemical Society Click here to download the image. Chemical weapons are nightmarish. In a millisecond, they can kill hundreds, if not thousands. But, in a study published in the ACS…
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FBI Chemical Weapons Awareness Campaign - Pool, spa and hot tub professionals work with chemicals on a regular basis. Some of these chemicals may be of interest to people intent on creating destructive weapons.
Animals have an easy life. They can run, hide, or bite back when predators are on the prowl. Plants cannot. Instead they have evolved to deploy a range of defence mechanisms including chemical warfare and insect armies.
A U.S. State Department cable indicated the Syrian military likely used chemical weapons last month in a deadly attack in Homs, The Cable magazine reported.
Broadcast: August 15, 2003 This is the VOA Special English Environment Report. In the United States, the Army has started to destroy old chemical weapons at a base in the southern state of Alab...
WASHINGTON (AP) - The Obama administration has concluded that Syrian President Bashar Assads regime has used chemical weapons against the opposition seeking to overthrow him, U.S. officials said Thursday, crossing what President Barack Obama has called a red line that would trigger greater
The Conference on Disarmament (CD) was created in 1979 as the worlds sole multilateral disarmament treaty negotiating body. The permanent agenda addresses ten issues, including nuclear weapons in all aspects, chemical weapons (removed after the CD completed the Chemical Weapons Convention in 1992), other weapons of mass destruction and conventional weapons. The CD has made an important contribution to international peace and security through development of the Biological and Chemical Weapons Conventions, the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) and the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT).. The CD has failed however, to agree on a program of work for the last 17 years, leaving no negotiations finalised since 1992. Australia has been looking for ways to break the impasse in the CD through our participation in the open-ended working group on taking forward multilateral disarmament negotiations.. ...
Now available online:. Friedrich, Bretislav [Ed.]. Hoffmann, Dieter [Ed.]. Renn, Juergen [Ed.]. Schmaltz, Florian [Ed.]. Wolf, Martin [Ed.]: One hundred years of chemical warfare : research, deployment, consequences. Springer : Cham, 2017. ISBN: 978-3-319-51664-6 [Open Access]. This book has emerged from a conference commemorating the centenary of the events at Ypres (the first use of chemical weapons as weapons of mass destruction), held at the Fritz Haber Institute in 2015.. ...
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Since 1979 Iranians have experienced a variety of events that reasonably will have lasting effects on their mental health. In 1979 the Islamic Revolution took place and in 1980 eight years of Iraq-Iran war started. In recent years there has developed conflicts between Iran and the International society because of the Iranian activities in developing nuclear energy. To these can be added the social and religious limitations on the behavior of people. These limitations are experienced especially strong in the life of adolescents and young people. This thesis covers four different aspects of the mental health of Iranians. General health questionnaire (GHQ-12) was utilized to investigate the mental health of 4599 Iranian 3rd grade high school students (aged 17-18 years). The GHQ cut off was taken 7 or more. A considerable proportion of the students were at risk of suffering from mental health problems (29.5 %), girls more than boys. Periodic mental health surveys in high schools are proposed to ...
Bio-terrorism, weapons of mass destruction, chemical warfare, bacteriological weapons, atomic bombs, are just some of the most common phrases used to describe journalistically and in films the risk of using biological, chemical, radiological and nuclear substances in a conventional context and not . To respond to this possible insult little known by the citizens, Italy boasts a highly respected organization that also plays its part in the international operating scenarios.
With the rapid spread of the Coronavirus, its important for medical facilities to prepare every way they can for future patients. Learn more now.
For a few thousand dollars, Chinese companies offer to export a powerful chemical that has been killing unsuspecting drug users and is so lethal that it presents a potential terrorism threat, an Associated Press investigation has found. The AP identified 12 Chinese businesses that said they would export the chemical - a synthetic opioid known as carfentanil - to the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Belgium and Australia for as little as $2,750 a kilogram (2.2 pounds), no questions asked. Carfentanil burst into view this summer, the latest scourge in an epidemic of opioid abuse that has killed tens of thousands of people in the United States alone. Dealers have been cutting carfentanil and its weaker cousin, fentanyl, into heroin and other illicit drugs to boost profit margins. Despite the dangers, carfentanil is not a controlled substance in China, where it is manufactured legally and sold openly online. The U.S. government is pressing China to blacklist carfentanil, ...
If a nerve agent like Novichok was used here, there are antitodes on hand to save a few of victims. A larger attack would test Canadas readiness.
i) The main production train, including any reactor or equipment for product synthesis, separation or purification, any equipment used directly for heat transfer in the final technological stage, such as in reactors or in product separation, as well as any other equipment which has been in contact with any chemical specified in Article II, paragraph 8 (a) (i), or would be in contact with such a chemical if the facility were operated; (ii) Any chemical weapon filling machines; (iii) Any other equipment specially designed, built or installed for the operation of the facility as a chemical weapons production facility, as distinct from a facility constructed according to prevailing commercial industry standards for facilities not producing any chemical specified in Article II, paragraph 8 (a) (i), or corrosive chemicals, such as: equipment made of high nickel alloys or other special corrosion resistant material; special equipment for waste control, waste treatment, air filtering, or solvent ...
The OPCW Laboratory (LAB) is the OPCWs centre of chemical analysis. Its work is key to ensuring correct implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). It works to ensure excellent technical and scientific support to the inspectorate, calibrating and testing analytical equipment and ensuring that inspections are carried out in accordance with the convention. It maintains the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) Central Analytical Database (OCAD). Core functions of LAB:. ...
NOTE: The current information system only became operational in September 2008; all archive material from January 1995 to August 2008 can only be accessed through the Search function ...
There are a few drawbacks to online home evaluations like Zillow's Zestimate. Like, for instance, they can't tell you whether a bomb is buried in a backyard. Sure, it's unlikely an
Printed from: http://www.jewishpress.com/news/breaking-news/obama-welcomes-russias-proposal-on-syria/2013/09/10/. Scan this QR code to visit this page online ...
What D Bunker is NOT: D Bunker is Not African American. D Bunker is Not Hispanic American. D Bunker is Not a Jewish American. D Bunker is Not a Gay American. D Bunker is an American, Period. And this POd American has had 10 times more than twice too much of enough of Anyone claiming special rights for themselves over Anyone else. Far too many good men and women of all races, creeds and colors have given Everything and more to establish that None of Us are better than the Next of Us, AS LAW, to allow Any Ideology, especially one which is Wholly Smoke and Mirrors, to rule and ruin the lives of Any of us ...
Preventing Chemical Weapons: Arms Control and Disarmament as the Sciences Conver... Preventing Chemical Weapons: Arms Control and Disarmament as the Sciences Conver... ...
Engineering a protein, research shows, may prevent brain damage in civilians and soldiers exposed to poisonous chemicals - particularly those in pesticides and chemical weapons.
A: Well, it points out the nature of the threat. It turned out to be a false threat under the circumstances. But as weve learned in the intelligence community, we had something called -- and we have James Woolsey here to perhaps even address this question about phantom moles. The mere fear that there is a mole within an agency can set off a chain reaction and a hunt for that particular mole which can paralyze the agency for weeks and months and years even, in a search. The same thing is true about just the false scare of a threat of using some kind of a chemical weapon or a biological one. There are some reports, for example, that some countries have been trying to construct something like an Ebola Virus, and that would be a very dangerous phenomenon, to say the least. Alvin Toeffler has written about this in terms of some scientists in their laboratories trying to devise certain types of pathogens that would be ethnic specific so that they could just eliminate certain ethnic groups and races; ...
Drug cartels, as a result of the increase in the narcotics trade, have been increasingly able to acquire biological and chemical weapons and radioactive material for the purpose of WMD creation, the U.S. State Department has warned.
The Kitchener stitch used in seamless knitting was designed by Lord Kitchener, a British military hero of the Boer War and WWI, to keep the toes of socks from irritating his soldiers feet. I found this information on page 91 in the book The Knitters Companion by Vicki Square.
A probe of a British military contractor is but one in a bounty of investigations recently started under a once-obscure anticorruption law.
To determine cancer morbidity in members of the armed forces who took part in tests of chemical warfare agents from 1941 to 1989. Historical cohort study, with cohort members followed up to December 2004. Archive of UK government research facility at Porton Down, UK military personnel records, and national death and cancer records. All veterans included in the cohort study of mortality, excluding those known to have died or been lost to follow-up before 1 January 1971 when the UK cancer registration system commenced: 17,013 male members of the UK armed forces who took part in tests (Porton Down veterans) and a similar group of 16,520 men who did not (non-Porton Down veterans). Cancer morbidity in each group of veterans; rate ratios, with 95% confidence intervals, adjusted for age group and calendar period. 3457 cancers were reported in the Porton Down veterans compared with 3380 cancers in the non-Porton Down veterans. While overall cancer morbidity was the same in both groups (rate ratio 1.00, 95%
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Syrias chemical weapons program began in the 1970s with weapons and training from Egypt and the Soviet Union, with production of chemical weapons in Syria beginning in the mid-1980s. Prior to September 2013 Syria had not publicly admitted to possessing chemical weapons, although Western intelligence services believed it to hold one of the worlds largest stockpiles. In September 2013, French intelligence put the Syrian stockpile at 1,000 tonnes, including Yperite, VX and "several hundred tonnes of sarin". At the time, Syria was one of a handful of states which had not ratified the Chemical Weapons Convention. In September 2013, Syria joined the CWC (formally acceding on 14 October), and agreed to the destruction of its weapons, to be supervised by the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), as required by the Convention. A joint OPCW-United Nations mission was established to oversee the destruction process. Syria joined OPCW after international condemnation of the August ...
Chlorine chemical liquid form will burn the skin, Chlorine has been used as a chemical warfare agent. Fatal if breathed at a concentration of 1000 ppm..
This 1451 word essay is about Organochlorides, Blister agents, Chemical weapons, Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, Nerve agents, Chemical warfare. Read the full essay now!
Researchers have developed a prototype of electronic nose for the detection of chemical warfare gases, fundamentally nerve gases (Sarin, Soman and Tabun).
The 35-minute film, "Haber: The Father of Chemical Warfare," is a docudrama written and directed by Daniel Ragussis. It captures a snapshot of the chemists life when he was pressed into service by the German government to help win WWI. Although Haber voiced his reservations about using chemicals on the battlefield, his sense of duty to his country led him to see the project through and supervise the first use of chlorine in the trenches near Ypres, Belgium, in April 1915. Youll have to watch the film to see what happened. ...
Buy Analysis of Chemical Warfare Degradation Products by Douglas D. Richardson From WHSmith today! FREE delivery to store or FREE UK delivery on all ord...
In 1990 and during the 1991 Gulf War, WMD was resurrected and used prolifically by politicians and the media, despite having a fairly antique aura. This time, it was a reference to the stockpiles of an adversarial country, specifically, the chemical weapons that were in Iraq under Husseins regime (ironically, sold to him by many of the same countries now arrayed against him[citation needed]). At the dawn of the War against Terrorism, the dysphemistic quality of the term served the function for which it was intended, namely, motivating the US populace to war. Weapons of mass destruction replaced strategic weapons in the common American lexicon. After 9/11, it would be the anthrax attacks, and the multitude of hypothetical smallpox terrorist attack scenarios in the media that would shape the prevalent image of a weapon of mass destruction into a device of bioterrorism. This usage reached a crescendo with the 2002 Iraq disarmament crisis and the alleged existence of weapons of mass destruction in ...
States, territories, and large metropolitan areas will receive grants totaling $390.5 million to help hospitals and other health care organizations strengthen the medical surge capability across the nation. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response will provide the funds through the Hospital Preparedness Program. The grants enhance community resilience by increasing the ability of hospitals and healthcare facilities to respond to the public health and medical impacts of any emergency, such as natural disasters, disease outbreaks, or acts of terrorism. All states, territories and the metro areas of New York City, Chicago, Los Angeles County and Washington, D.C., will receive the 2010 Hospital Preparedness grants. The funds will be used by state and local governments to boost the readiness of hospitals and other healthcare facilities in their jurisdictions by finalizing development or improving ...
Washington, DC- Rep. Eliot Engel (D-NY), Ranking Member of the House Committee on Foreign Affairs, today condemned Syrias use of chemical weapons against his own people. "The Administrations assessment that Syrian President Assad has used chemical weapons is, if confirmed, no surprise to those of us who know what President Assad and his terrorist government are capable of doing," Engel declared. "Assad has repeatedly demonstrated that he will do whatever is necessary to stay in power, including using both conventional, and weapons of mass destruction, to murder his own people. The use of these weapons of terror is an obscenity to civilization and a crime against humanity.". "Assad must go and it is time for the U.S. and our allies to immediately arm vetted elements of the Syrian opposition to bring an end to his government. When I spoke with the White House today, I told them that we must act now to stop Assad before he uses these weapons again." "My bipartisan bill, the Free Syria Act of 2013 ...
Because of the ongoing risk of chemical attack, emergency physicians must be able to care for victims of chemical weapon agents (CWAs). This article reviews the physical properties and general clinical effects of CWAs.
Commonly referred to as tabun, sarin, soman, and VX, nerve agents have famously been implicated in attacks by the Syrian government against rebel forces and civilians, and by North Korea in the assassination of Kim Jong Nam.1,2 They were also, on a less serious note, popularized in the movie The Rock. Considered the most toxic of chemical weapons, these agents are extremely potent organophosphates, achieving toxicity through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase at muscarinic and nicotinic receptors. Patients thus present with the familiar constellation of "SLUDGE" symptoms: salivation, lacrimation, urination, diarrhea, gastrointestinal distress, and emesis. Severe toxicity may progress to seizures, copious pulmonary secretions, bronchospasm, and ultimately respiratory arrest. Miosis is a notably useful exam finding as it should be present in nearly all patients with significant toxicity.3. Treatment consists first and foremost of decontamination. The removal of all clothing and irrigation with ...
CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WARFARECHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WARFARE. While limited use of chemicals and disease in warfare dates from ancient times, the origins of modern chemical and biological weapons systems date from the era of the two world wars.
TONY JONES, PRESENTER: Britain and France have called for the international community to consider reacting with force if yesterdays claims of a chemical weapons attack by the Assad regime in Syria are proven.. More than 35 countries have called for UN inspectors in Syria to be given immediate access to the site of the incident in Damascus.. Syrias rebels say more than 1,300 people have been killed, many of them women and children, although theres been no independent verification of the death toll.. The Syrian Government has strongly denied it was to blame.. Shaun Hassett reports, and a warning: this story does contain disturbing images.. SHAUN HASSETT, REPORTER: While the world focuses on the possible use of chemical weapons in Damascus, the Syrian capital is still dealing with the daily struggles of conventional warfare.. Rebel activists say yesterdays alleged chemical attack was followed up by an aerial bombardment.. The Assad regime has confirmed its carrying out an offensive in ...
... (BW), also known as germ warfare, is the deliberate use of disease-causing biological agents such as protozoa, fungi, bacteria, protists, or viruses, to kill or incapacitate humans, other animals or plants. Biological weapons (often referred to as bioweapons) are living organisms or replicating entities (virus) that reproduce or replicate within their host victims.. Biological weapons may be employed in various ways to gain a strategic or tactical advantage over an adversary, either by threat or by actual deployment. Like some of the chemical weapons, biological weapons may also be useful as area denial weapons. These agents may be lethal or non-lethal, and may be targeted against a single individual, a group of people, or even an entire population. They may be developed, acquired, stockpiled or deployed by nation states or by non-national groups. In the latter case, or if a nation-state uses it clandestinely, it may also be considered bioterrorism.[1]. There is an overlap ...
References / Notes : (ACLOS = A Closer Look on Syria, the site at which the author shares most of his research). [1] ACLOS, Chemical Weapons http://acloserlookonsyria.shoutwiki.com/wiki/Category:Chemical_Weapons [2] ACLOS, Alleged chemical attack, March 19 - Organized but incomplete main page: http://acloserlookonsyria.shoutwiki.com/wiki/Alleged_chemical_attack,_March_19,_2013 Detailed but sloppy talk page : http://acloserlookonsyria.shoutwiki.com/wiki/Talk:Alleged_chemical_attack,_March_19,_2013 [3] Swedish scientist to head U.N. Syria chemical weapons probe Michelle Nichols and Louis Charbonneau, Reuters, Tue Mar 26, 2013 8:00pm EDT. [4] Local Coordination Committees of Syria, Daily summary for March 19 : http://www.lccsyria.org/11106 This has two possible chemical attacks noted, Otaybah (Ateibah) and Homs, and a scud impact in Anadan just 13 km north of Khan Al-Assal, but nothin in Khan Al-Assal, and no chemical anything for the Aleppo area. On Homs : "Several cases of asphyxia were reported ...
Chemical weapons investigators have gone to Turkey to collect samples as part of an inquiry into an alleged chemical weapons attack in Syria last week.
Nerve agents are substances that disrupt the chemical communications through the nervous system. One mechanism of disruption, utilized by the G, GV, and V series of chemicals is caused by blocking the acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme that normally destroys and stops the activity of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter. Poisoning by these nerve agents leads to an accumulation of acetylcholine at the nerve axon, producing a perpetual excited state in the nerve (e.g. constant muscle contraction). The eventual exhaustion of muscles leads to respiratory failure and death. A separate class of nerve agents are related to Tetrodotoxin, frequently abbreviated as TTX, is a potent neurotoxin with no known antidote. Tetrodotoxin blocks action potentials in nerves by binding to the voltage-gated, fast sodium channels in nerve cell membranes, essentially preventing any affected nerve cells from firing by blocking the channels used in the process. ...
FSA chemical weapons threats made good in Khan al Asal. Syrias request for UN investigation was sabotaged by Member States France & UK The long history of FSA chemical weapons threats against the Syrian Arab Republic began in December 2012. This first was not covered by fake, war pimping msm that consistently engages in crimes…
Page 17 of 20 - Chemical weapon attack in Syria - posted in General Chat: QUOTE (GTAvanja @ Wednesday, Sep 4 2013, 14:45) This whole situation is ridiculous. So the international community doesnt care that Assad was killing thousands of his own people. No one did. But then Obama goes to say well, if he uses chemical weapons, thats a red flag. And lo and behold thats exactly what happened a week later. No one said a damn thing when Israel did it. Its like a scr...
A hundred years ago, on 22 April, poison gas was first used in warfare. Though about 95% of casualties in WW1 were caused by explosives, sickness and malnutrition, there is a peculiar horror associated with the use of chemical weapons. It is also true that, apart from isolated examples, WW1 was the only instance of…
A plasma decon chamber has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Albuquerque, NM, to study the decontamination of chemical and biologi
Close The Infona portal uses cookies, i.e. strings of text saved by a browser on the users device. The portal can access those files and use them to remember the users data, such as their chosen settings (screen view, interface language, etc.), or their login data. By using the Infona portal the user accepts automatic saving and using this information for portal operation purposes. More information on the subject can be found in the Privacy Policy and Terms of Service. By closing this window the user confirms that they have read the information on cookie usage, and they accept the privacy policy and the way cookies are used by the portal. You can change the cookie settings in your browser. ...
The AquaFlex® Open-Cell foam technology has been adapted for use as a high surface area, disinfectant-infused foam Sponge and mitt to help mitigate the risk of human infection from COVID-19 and other pathogens from surfaces.. For more information go to https://aquaflexbiosolutions.com. The concept of infusing the AquaFlex Sponge to mitigate or neutralize exposure to dangerous chemicals and pathogens is not new.. In 2002, the FDA initially cleared a device consisting of a lotion-impregnated AquaFlex® Sponge. The AquaFlex® Sponge serves as the backbone for this Class II medical device that removes or neutralizes chemical warfare agents and T-2 toxin from the skin. Decontamination occurs by physical removal of the chemical warfare agent from the skin or by chemical neutralization. The lotion-impregnated Sponge removes toxins from the skin to allow for neutralization to occur within the Sponge.. In 2003, the FDA stated in a press release:. ...
Exposure to NM also caused long-term changes in iris appearance and structure. In the early postinjury period, dilation of iris vessels, iris stromal hemorrhages, and an inflammatory anterior chamber reaction were present. It was difficult, however, to quantify these findings accurately behind the edematous and opaque cornea. As corneal condition stabilized (usually within 7 to 14 days), it was possible to observe areas of iris pigmentation as well as atrophy in NM-exposed eyes (Fig. 3A) that were not present in noninjured fellow eyes (Fig. 3B) . These changes were much less severe in NM-exposed eyes treated with Zn/DFO (Fig. 3C) . The iris pigmentation score at 4 weeks after injury was significantly reduced (by ,60%) in Zn/DFO-treated eyes compared with saline-treated eyes (Fig. 3D) . Again, treatment with each component of the complex separately (i.e., ZnCl2 and DFO) showed a trend for reduction in severity that did not reach statistical significance (Fig. 3D ; exemplified also in Fig. 4 ). To ...
These molecules could be used in the detection of chemical warfare agents.. A family of fluorescent dye molecules has been developed for use in "on-off" fluorescence detection of specific chemicals. By themselves, these molecules do not fluoresce. However, when exposed to certain chemical analytes in liquid or vapor forms, they do fluoresce (see figure). These compounds are amenable to fixation on or in a variety of substrates for use in fluorescence-based detection devices: they can be chemically modified to anchor them to porous or non-porous solid supports or can be incorporated into polymer films. Potential applications for these compounds include detection of chemical warfare agents, sensing of acidity or alkalinity, and fluorescent tagging of proteins in pharmaceutical research and development. These molecules could also be exploited for use as two-photon materials for photodynamic therapy in the treatment of certain cancers and other diseases. Read more: ...
Briefly describing the main issues in chemical agent storage and disposal, and summarising the role that Markes thermal desorption technologies can play.
Quinn also considered the existence of a fourth domain in AChE, which binds to cationic substrates. This domain is located near the ridge of the gorge, more than 20 Å away from the active site, and is denominated peripheral anionic site. The binding of ligands to this peripheral site frequently causes conformational changes in the active site. These four domains act in a concerted way, resulting in the complex reaction dynamics that characterize AChE.28,53. As mentioned before, the enzymatic hydrolysis of ACh involves nucleophilic additions and acid-base reactions, and is based mainly on the action of the triad catalytic residues. The proposed mechanism most consistent with available experimental data consists of two nucleophilic attacks and two proton-transfers, with a covalent acyl-enzyme intermediate. In TcAChE, His-440 abstracts a proton from Ser-200, forming a nucleophile Ser-O- that attacks the ACh molecule, generating a tetrahedral adduct as intermediate. The protonated His-440 is ...
In an advance that could be used in masks to protect against nerve gas, scientists are reporting development of proteins that are up to 15,000 times more effective than their natural
The White House Office of the Press Secretary ________________________________________________________________ For Immediate Release November 14, 1994 Executive Order #12938 - - - - - - - Proliferation Of Weapons Of Mass Destruction By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.), the National Emergencies Act (50 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.), the Arms Export Control Act, as amended (22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.), Executive Orders Nos. 12851 and 12924, and section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I, William J. Clinton, President of the United States of America, find that the proliferation of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons ("weapons of mass destruction") and of the means of delivering such weapons, constitutes an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States, and hereby declare a national ...
Abstract Chemical warfare agents such as organophosphorus nerve agents, mustard agents, and psychotomimetic agent like 3quinuclidinylbenzilate degrade in the environment and form acidic degradation products, the analysis of which is difficult under normal analytical conditions. In the present work, a simultaneous extraction and derivatization...
The United States has found 500 chemical weapons in Iraq since 2003, and more weapons of mass destruction are likely to be uncovered, two Republican
Allowability of Costs Claimed for Reimbursement Under Floridas Bioterrorism Hospital Preparedness Program for the Period September 1, 2004, Through August 31, 2006
A generation ago, biological weapons were called germ-warfare weapons. Biological weapons are very different from chemical weapons. A chemical weapon is a poison that kills upon contact with the skin. Bioweapons are microorganisms, bacteria or viruses, that invade the body, multiply inside it, and destroy it. Bioweapons can be used as strategic weapons. That is, they are incredibly powerful and dangerous. They can kill huge numbers of people if they are used properly, and their effects are not limited to one place or a small target. Chemical weapons, on the other hand, can be used only tactically. It is virtually impossible to put enough of a chemical in the air in a high enough concentration to wipe out a large number of people over a large territory. And chemicals are not alive and can not spread through an infectious process. There are two basic types of biological weapons, those that are contagious and those that are not. Anthrax is not contagious: people dont spread it among themselves; ...
JERUSALEM - Human Rights Watch said Sunday that Israels military has fired artillery shells with the Chemical Weapon White Phosphorus into Gaza and Medics in Gaza say the latest casualties include at least 60 people affected by suspected phosphorus shells fired ILLEGALLY near civilian areas with burn victims having skin peeling off their faces and bodies ...
Chemical weapons are still a threat, although banned All lethal chemical weapons were banned by the Chemical Weapons Convention of 1997, which has been signed by nearly every country in the world. However, the recent use of chemical weapons in Syria shows that they remain a threat. The use of such weapons by terrorist groups is also possible and...
Natural News) When we think of weapons of war, most of us typically think about machine guns, frag grenades or bulletproof tanks. But in 2017, manmade machines arent the only type of weapon that is being used by various nations to harm their enemies.. Just days ago, President Donald Trump left the United States for a 12-day tour of various nations in Asia. During his visit to Beijing, Trump plans on addressing Chinas production and distribution of the synthetic opioid known as Fentanyl, which is considered by the DEA to be one of the most dangerous types of narcotics due to its cheap price, widespread use, addictive quality and its devastating effects. Considering the fact that the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission has called the problem "Chinas deadly export to the United States," President Trump should be praised for speaking out about it on his tour of Asia. Indeed, forcing Chinas hand on the production and distribution of Fentanyl is the right thing to do.. Known as ...
but jon, you forget that war is good for the economy, dont you want to be a rich american slob? i sure do. and i did try to read everthing but you used up my atention span. one point i would like to argue, you said it yourself, we know iraq has weapons of mass destruction because we sold them during that iraq-iran war mostly because we didnt like rusia or something. and, we know that sadam doesnt like us. so i got a nice little analogy-lets say some guy has a gun and doesnt like you. what are you going to do? option A- do nothing and have a small risk of being shot, or option B-BLOW UP HIS HOUSE. personally id go with option b. then you can go over to his house and steel his oil. well not reall but you get the idea ...
Chemical warfare is ongoing every day in the U.S. and many other countries. Waging this chemical warfare keeps our foods, medicines and homes safe.
By Samuel Burke, CNN Evidence of chemical weapons use gets harder to find with each passing day in Syria. The Assad regime is blocking U.N. special investigators from entering the country as the Obama administration continues to seek concrete proof.
To fight our insane wars, were wrecking our soldiers ability to live with themselves and function in society, then regulating whats left of them with chemicals, which often make things immeasurably worse.
It may not be something we want to think about, but with recent chemical attacks around the globe, it may help set the mind at ease by becoming informed.
Truthout sparks action by revealing systemic injustice and providing a platform for transformative ideas through investigative reporting and analysis.
One night of passion and youre filled with a lifetime full of sperm with no need to ever mate again. As sex lives go, it doesnt sound very appealing, but its what many ants, bees, wasps and termites experience. The queens of these social insects mate in a single "nuptial flight" that lasts for a few hours or days. They store the sperm from their suitors and use it to slowly fertilise their eggs over the rest of their lives. Males have this one and only shot at joining the Mile High Club and they compete fiercely for their chance to inseminate the queen. But even for the victors, the war isnt over. Inside the queens body, their sperm continue the battle. ...
via Tampa Bay Online In March of this year, a large Southern California water system tested the effectiveness of its cyber defenses by hiring a cybersecurity team to try to hack its network, something called penetration testing. To official dismay, the team was able to seize control of the computers.... ...
A report from the Arizona Sky Watch shows dramatic increases in heavy metals in Arizona´s air in 2010. These figures show how many times they are over the permissible toxic limit: Aluminum: 15.8 Antimony: 63.3 Arsenic: 418 Barium: 5.3 Cadmium: 6.0 chrome: 6.4 Copper: 9.0 Irons : 43.5 Lead: 15.7 Manganese: 513.8 Nickel: 10.7 Zinc: 7.5. Their values should be = zero Chemtrail effects: We have 20% less sunshine, and mostly a blanket of artificial "clouds" filled with toxins.. But now a new aspect is added. The earliest "Chemtrail" experiments took place in Dorset, England, between 1963 and 1975: With political permission, naval ships sprayed bacterial suspensions including an Escherichia Coli species into the air - and the wind brought the bacteria ashore over an unsuspecting population. A public hearing was not allowed by the government - but it ordered an "independent" investigation by a professor from - of all places - the Royal Society. He believed that only the weakest with immune diseases ...
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While cotton may be the fabric of our lives, Texas Tech University researchers may have discovered a polyurethane nanofiber technique that can save lives.
Dr. Direct is a pro when it comes to wedding cakes, but the project to bake my Dads wasnt running smoothly even before the Devil Dog ate it. Two layers collapsed the day before, in my dads hands. A retired organic chemist and a superb baker, this came as a surprise. This morning Barnacle Boy and I tried to exorcise the kitchen. He whipped up a batch of Barnacle Boyss Blessed Biscuits (his own wonderful recipe for chocolate chip cookies), I said the morning office standing at the counter while they baked. So far things seem on a better track ...
will have been completely disrupted,with small- and medium-sized 導歫丶題纄纏白啉 - 台丫市潪孑匿慥連壘球姗哚有潪仜墠聭贃壘球聭盡 . 末聭盡掜公吇綐燣3利甯偋旨扙球3揓借歫畽伔閛派勐 仧球有叏3屑顮偬庴3派劘 ...
Prague, 29 April 1997 (RFE/RL) -- A new international treaty banning chemical weapons went into force today but without the participation Russia, one of its major signatories. The Chemical Weap...
He also blamed Western members of the UNSC for unwillingness to investigate previous cases of alleged use of chemical weapons in Syria, where rebel groups were accused of using toxin agents. Nikki Haley, the US ambassador to the UN, delivered an emotional speech that included images of children to argue in favor of swift action. The pictures were used in reporting of the alleged chemical weapons attack. She claimed the incident carried "all hallmarks" of an attack by Damascus, adding that the toxin used in the alleged assault was "more deadly" than in previous cases attributed to the Syrian military by Washington. US envoy to UN also accused Russia of failing to ensure that there were no chemical weapons in the possession of the Syrian government. "The truth is that Russia, Iran and [Syrian President] Assad have no interest in peace," Haley claimed. The US has hinted at taking its own action in Syria unless the UN Security Council moves to prevent the use of chemical weapons in the war-torn ...
The specter of chemical weapons attacks in the Syrian civil war emerged on Tuesday, with the government and rebels each blaming the other side for using them.
The plan to dispose of Syrias chemical weapons is swiftly moving ahead. But the plan to get the materials out to sea to dispose of them is easier said than done, when it means transporting them through a war zone. Arun Rath talks to Amy Smithson of the James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies about what lies ahead.
U.S. intelligence has concluded with some degree of varying confidence that the Syrian government has twice used chemical weapons in its fierce civil war.
President Obama discusses with reporters the recent evidence of Syrias use of chemical weapons in that countrys ongoing civil war.
WASHINGTON - The White House said for the first time that there was evidence Syria had used chemical weapons in its civil war, but administration officials called for a broader United Nations
David Cameron and other Western leaders are on the brink of ordering military action against Col Muammar Gaddafi amid fears that the Libyan dictator could use chemical weapons against his own people.
By Elise Labott The Syrian government did not use chemical weapons against residents of Homs in a December attack, a U.S. State Department investigation shows, but did apparently misuse a riot-control gas in the incident, according to senior U.S. officials.
On Thursday, United States officials said the Syrian dictator Bashar al-Assad has likely used chemical weapons to attack Syrian citizens. In a letter sent to Congressional leaders, the White House said intelligence agencies believe, with
Buy or Rent Biological, Nuclear, and Chemical Weapons as an eTextbook and get instant access. With VitalSource, you can save up to 80% compared to print.
In a rapid and remarkable chain of events, Syria welcomed a Russian proposal to turn over all of its chemical weapons to international inspectors for destruction on Monday.
Sudans government has carried out at least 30 likely chemical weapons attacks in the Jebel Marra area of Darfur since January using what two experts concluded was a probable blister agent, Amnesty International said on Thursday.
Chemical warfare agent detection[edit]. As part of the post-September 11 drive towards increased capability in homeland ... Chemical ionization[edit]. Main article: Chemical ionization. In chemical ionization a reagent gas, typically methane or ... "Chemical Heritage Magazine. 29 (1). Retrieved 22 March 2018.. *^ Webb-Halpern, Leah (2008). "Detecting Success". Chemical ... mass spectrometers have been modified for field portability and near real-time detection of chemical warfare agents (CWA) such ...
Fries, A. A.; West, C. J. (1921). Chemical Warfare. New York: McGraw-Hill. OCLC 570125. Retrieved 10 September 2013.. ... 1923). Medical Services: Diseases of the War: Including the Medical Aspects of Aviation and Gas Warfare and Gas Poisoning in ... Hook, R.; Jones, S. (2002). World War I Gas Warfare Tactics and Equipment. Osprey. ISBN 978-1-84603-151-9. .. ... Some ammunition was made unusable and some rifles jammed, due to chemical deposits forming on the bolts. The troops most ...
Chemical & Biological Warfare Defence Research & Development Laboratory (DRDL) Hyderabad Missile & Strategic Systems ... Chemical Kit for Detection of Explosives (CKDE)[edit]. A compact, low-cost and handy explosive detection kit has been designed ... Electronic warfare[edit]. ECM stations for both communication and non-com (radar etc.) systems. The Indian Army has ordered its ... The chemical wash system is capable of mixing two powders and two liquids with variable feed rates and has a five-litre per ...
"Chemical Warfare" Hanneman, King. 5:50. 11.. "South of Heaven" Hanneman, Araya. 4:30. ...
Chemical Warfare Secrets Almost Forgotton. A Personal Story of Medical Testing of Army Volunteers with Incapacitating Chemical ... EA-3443 is a potent and long lasting anticholinergic deliriant drug, related to the chemical warfare agent 3-Quinuclidinyl ... Possible Long-Term Health Effects of Short-Term Exposure to Chemical Agents, Volume 1 (1982). Commission on Life Sciences. The ... and research into EA-3443 was discontinued along with the rest of the US chemical weapons program in the mid-1970s.[1][2] ...
"Some Toxic Chemicals as Potential Chemical Warfare Agents - The Threat for the Future?". ASA Newsletter. 1998 (6).. ...
In this sense, any of the chemical warfare agents may incapacitate a victim; however, by the military definition of this type ... The U.S. Army Chemical Warfare Laboratories were isolating shellfish toxin and trying to obtain its structure. A Central ... James S Ketchum M D; James S. Ketchum (October 2012). Chemical Warfare Secrets Almost Forgotten. WestBow Press. pp. 14-. ISBN ... Ketchum, James S. (2006, 2nd edition 2007), Chemical Warfare Secrets Almost Forgotten: A Personal Story of Medical Testing of ...
Handbook of chemical and biological warfare agents (2nd ed.). CRC Press. ISBN 9780849314346. .. ...
"Woman Not Guilty of Chemical Warfare; Constitution Saved". The Atlantic Magazine. Retrieved 24 May 2015.. ... Haynes suffered a chemical burn on her thumb.[1][2] Bond was indicted for stealing mail and for violation of the Chemical ... Her appeal argued that applying the chemical weapons treaty to her violated the Tenth Amendment.[3] The Court of Appeals found ... The issue arose in the prosecution of an individual under the federal Chemical Weapons Convention Implementation Act for a ...
Palazzo, A. (2000). Seeking Victory on the Western Front: The British Army and Chemical Warfare in World War I (Bison Books ... ISBN 978-0-8032-8774-7. Fries, A. A.; West, C. J. (1921). Chemical Warfare. New York: McGraw-Hill. OCLC 570125. Retrieved 23 ... Helmets impregnated with chemicals to neutralise chlorine had been issued in several variants, each more effective than the ... 1923). Medical Services: Diseases of the War: Including the Medical Aspects of Aviation and Gas Warfare and Gas Poisoning in ...
Chemical Warfare. Chapter 12. Sighting and Ranging. The Navy's Future Weapons. Laughlin, Charlotte; Daniel J. H. Levack (1983 ...
Amos Alfred Fries; Clarence Jay West (1921). Chemical warfare. McGraw-Hill book company, inc. p. 144. http://termitetenting.com ... more toxic chemical gases used as weapons during the war. "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards #0132". National Institute ... Its chemical structural formula is Cl3CNO2. Chloropicrin was discovered in 1848 by Scottish chemist John Stenhouse. He prepared ... While not as lethal as other chemical weapons, it caused vomiting and forced Allied soldiers to remove their masks to vomit, ...
Shawkey, Matthew D.; Pillai, Shreekumar R.; Hill, Geoffrey E. (2003). "Chemical warfare? Effects of uropygial oil on feather- ... A few species are able to use chemical defences against predators; some Procellariiformes can eject an unpleasant stomach oil ... Revis, Hannah C.; Waller, Deborah A. (2004). "Bactericidal and fungicidal activity of ant chemicals on feather parasites: an ... chemical defense in birds?". Science. 258 (5083): 799-801. doi:10.1126/science.1439786. PMID 1439786. Longrich, N. R.; Olson, S ...
Chemical Warfare. Read. pp. 148-49, 407. ISBN 1-4437-3840-9. . International Chemical Safety Card 0953 Use in glass industry ( ... Stannic chloride was used as a chemical weapon in World War I, as it formed an irritating (but non-deadly) dense smoke on ... Stannic chloride is used in chemical reactions with fuming (90%) nitric acid for the selective nitration of activated aromatic ...
Fries, A. A.; West, C. J. (1921). Chemical Warfare. New York: McGraw-Hill. OCLC 570125. Retrieved 10 September 2013. Haber, L. ... Some ammunition was made unusable and some rifles jammed, due to chemical deposits forming on the bolts. The troops most ... Hook, R.; Jones, S. (2002). World War I Gas Warfare Tactics and Equipment. Osprey. ISBN 978-1-84603-151-9. MacPherson, W. G.; ... In early 1916, the Germans had more and better equipment for trench warfare, with good quality hand grenades, rifle grenades ...
Shawkey, Matthew D.; Pillai, Shreekumar R.; Hill, Geoffrey E. (2003). "Chemical warfare? Effects of uropygial oil on feather- ... The insects secrete liquids containing chemicals such as formic acid, which can act as an insecticide, miticide, fungicide or ...
Shawkey, M. D.; Pillai, S. R.; Hill, G. E. (2003). "Chemical warfare? Effects of uropygial oil on feather-degrading bacteria" ( ... Polly want a pigment? Cracking the chemical code to red coloration in parrots. Australian Birdkeeper Magazine 18:608-611. DeMeo ... Revis, Hannah C.; Deborah A. Waller (2004). "Bactericidal and fungicidal activity of ant chemicals on feather parasites: an ...
However, methods of modern warfare cause far greater devastation on the environment. The progression of warfare from chemical ... The result of innovations in chemical warfare led to a broad range of different chemicals for war and domestic use, but also ... Albert J. Mauroni (July 2003). Chemical and Biological Warfare: A Reference Handbook. pp. 178-180.. ... The impacts of conflict, chemical contaminations, and aerial warfare all contribute to reduction in the population of global ...
Palazzo, A. (2003) [2000]. Seeking Victory on the Western Front: The British Army and Chemical Warfare in World War I (Bison ... ISBN 978-0-89839-185-5. Fries, A. A.; West, C. J. (1921). Chemical Warfare (PDF). New York: McGraw-Hill. OCLC 570125. Retrieved ... 1923). Medical Services: Diseases of the War: Including the Medical Aspects of Aviation and Gas Warfare and Gas Poisoning in ... The Vermoral Sprayer (defensive apparatus) The Ayrton Fan (defensive apparatus) Gas Warfare Gas-Poisoning, by Arthur Hurst, M.A ...
... comic-book core and battier than My Chemical Romance's make-up." ... "Chemical Warfare" Side two. No.. Title. Length. 1.. "California ...
"Cholinesterase Inhibitors: Including Insecticides and Chemical Warfare Nerve Agents, Part 4 - Section 11, Management Strategy 3 ... VX is a type of chemical weapon called a nerve agent. It is a very toxic chemical. Because it is so toxic, it cannot be used as ... The Chemical Weapons Convention of 1993, an international law, made it illegal for countries to use chemical weapons like VX. ... Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare. Washington, D.C.: Office of the Surgeon General at TMM Publications. pp. ...
Journal of Chemical Ecology. 5 (3): 459-480. Sobotnik, Jan; Jirosova, Anna; Hanus, Robert (September 2010). "Chemical warfare ... It operates by a chemical reaction triggered when the termite contracts its mandibular muscles. The termite is "able to eject ... Prestwich, Glenn D. (May 1979). "Chemical Defense by Termite Soldiers". ... Its Chemical Composition, and Use in Defense". Psyche. Hindawi Publishing Corporation. 81 (1): 167-177. doi:10.1155/1974/13854 ...
Chemical warfare platoon 1. District detachment of Guardia di Finanza Footnotes An Italian Infantry Division normally consisted ...
As a response to a possible Japanese chemical warfare threat the RAAF imported hundreds of thousands of chemical weapons into ... "Chemical Warfare in Australia". Geoff Plunkett. Retrieved 24 July 2009. Dennis et al 2008, p. 81. Taylor and Taylor 1978, p. 48 ... air lift and aerial refuelling capability Air Warfare Centre - information warfare, intelligence and capability development ... The Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF), formed March 1921, is the aerial warfare branch of the Australian Defence Force. It ...
Šobotník, J.; Jirošová, A.; Hanus, R. (2010). "Chemical warfare in termites". Journal of Insect Physiology. 56 (9): 1012-1021. ... Cylindricus Complex)". Journal of Chemical Ecology. 30 (8): 1479-1492. doi:10.1023/b:joec.0000042063.01424.28. PMID 15537154. ...
Of those going on active duty, most enter the Navy as Naval Aviators, Naval Flight Officers, Surface Warfare Officers, ... former Deputy Director Expeditionary Warfare; Commander, Joint Task Force, Guantanamo; Commanding Officer USS Carney (DDG-64) ...
... of using chemical warfare". CNN. Retrieved 14 April 2013. Oliver Holmes; Erika Solomon (19 March 2013). "Alleged chemical ... Activists claim videos show chemical warfare". Edition.cnn.com. 22 August 2013. Retrieved 26 August 2013. "Chemical weapons ... "Chemical warfare in Syria". Lemonde.fr. Retrieved 29 May 2013. Martin Chulov in Beirut & Julian Borger (28 May 2013). "Syria ... Staff (2009-01-08). "A Short History of Chemical Warfare During World War I". Noblis, Inc. Retrieved 2009-01-25. [dead link] ...
While limited use of chemicals and disease in warfare dates from ancient times, the origins of modern chemical and biological ... CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WARFARE. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WARFARE. While limited use of chemicals and disease in warfare dates ... The term chemical warfare came into use with the gas warfare of World War I, and modern biological warfare dates from the ... In 1932, chemical warfare preparedness became U.S. military policy.. The use of gas warfare in the 1930s by Italy in Ethiopia, ...
A chemical weapon agent (CWA) is a chemical substance whose toxic properties are used to kill, injure or incapacitate human ... The names and number of categories varies slightly from source to source, but in general, types of chemical warfare agents are ... About 70 different chemicals have been used or stockpiled as chemical weapon agents during the 20th century. These agents may ... A blister agent is a chemical compound that irritates and causes injury to the skin. These substances also attack the eyes, or ...
... including chemical warfare agents) at sea was common. Commercial fishing, clamming, and dredging operations can stir up these ... Chemical protective suit that provide protection against chemical warfare agents (such as a suit made out of Tychem® F, Tychem ... Closing U.S. Chemical Warfare Agent Disposal Facilities. *CDC Participation in the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness ... Chemical-resistant outer gloves that provide protection against chemical warfare agents (such as butyl rubber, Viton® HPS/Butyl ...
... military has been accused of exposing service members and the public to chemical and biological warfare agents and simulants. ... New Site Details Chemical Warfare, LSD Tests. For decades, the U.S. military has been accused of exposing service members and ... the public to chemical and biological warfare agents and simulants. Fears have been stoked by the Cold Wars Shipboard Hazard ... And even today, theres nothing quite as good as the traditional CB warfare agents developed during the Cold War. It could save ...
... hundreds of Israeli schoolchildren pulled tight the straps of their gas masks Tuesday in a simulation of a chemical ... The army has become more concerned that Arab countries will wage chemical warfare against Israel since such weapons have been ... "There is a growing threat of chemical warfare, mainly from Syria," Lt. Col. Mordechai, civil defense coordinator for Israeli ... an Israeli school and part of a recent series of measures taken by the army to prepare civilians for possible chemical warfare. ...
This soldier claims to have been taught chemical warfare in Kabul. He also says a Soviet helicopter pilot once ordered him to ... Amid charges and countercharges about the use of chemical warfare in Afghanistan, new evidence points an accusing finger at ... Both Western and neutral analysts still lack the necessary tangible proof to put the clincher on the chemical warfare ... Earlier this year the US State Department maintained that more than 3,000 Afghans had suffered from chemical warfare attacks. ...
... chemical weapons elimination program. This page links to chemical warfare agent exposure limits for GA, GB, VX, H, HD, and ... Closing U.S. Chemical Warfare Agent Disposal Facilities. *CDC Participation in the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness ... History of U.S. Chemical Weapons Elimination. * Methods Used to Destroy Chemical Warfare Agents ... CDC recommends exposure limits for chemical warfare agents. These exposure limits protect workers and the general population. ...
... suggesting the toxic chemicals in the butts may deter the parasites ... Is this a cigarette habit with some benefits? A species of urban bird seems to harness the toxic chemicals in cigarette butts ... Initial evidence hinted that nicotine and other chemicals in the butts might help deter insect pests from moving into the nests ...
The two methods used to destroy chemical warfare agents are incineration technology and neutralization followed by chemical ... Some types of chemical munitions contain propellants or explosives in addition to chemical warfare agents. After the contents ... Closing U.S. Chemical Warfare Agent Disposal Facilities. *CDC Participation in the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness ... DoDs Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives (ACWA) is responsible for the safe destruction of all stockpiled chemical warfare ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Science.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
Chemical Warfare is the second studio album by American hip hop producer and recording artist The Alchemist. The album was ... "Alchemist: Mixing Dangerous Chemicals". BallerStatus.com. Retrieved 8 March 2015. Hip Hop Galaxy - The Alchemist[permanent dead ...
Chemical warfare may refer to: The use of chemical substances in warfare A song by the hardcore punk band Dead Kennedys, from ...
The Chemical Warfare Brigade, as he and Amos jokingly called the three of them in a drunken stupor one night, actually did ... Chemical Warfare Brigade is a rock opera created by Marc Brownstein of the trance fusion band The Disco Biscuits. It was ... The Chemical Warfare Brigade Opera has been performed ten times in its entirety. The first performances were by Electron on ... The Chemical Warfare Brigade, he called the three of them. She finally had some insider information into Albert Lais dealings ...
The latter constitute biological warfare. History of Chemical Warfare The use of chemicals in warfare began centuries ago, when ... Chemical Warfare Agents There are several classes of chemical warfare agents, based on their effects: * compounds that cause ... Chemical warfare involves the aggressive use of bulk chemicals that cause death or grave injury. These chemicals are different ... Modern Day Chemical Warfare In 2003, the use of chemical weapons remains a threat from rogue states and terrorists. Current ...
... Wednesday, August 10, 2011 By Marjorie Cohn, Truthout , News Analysis ... Compensate Victims of US Chemical Warfare in Vietnam Wednesday, August 10, 2011 By Marjorie Cohn, Truthout , News Analysis ... Today marks the 50th anniversary of the start of the chemical warfare program in Vietnam without sufficient remedial action by ... Today marks the 50th anniversary of the start of the chemical warfare program in Vietnam without sufficient remedial action by ...
The most deadly of chemical warfare agents, one drop of nerve gas can kill a person within a minute. Death comes through ... A cyanide-based chemical weapon also used during World War I, this is a rapid killer thats easily dispersed. Its known as a ... After an antidote was found during World War II, the Army decided that it wasnt as useful as other chemical weapons.. PHOSGENE ... It was the most common type of chemical weapon dumped. It was dumped in 1-ton canisters and artillery shells for decades. ...
Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Centers Test Laboratory to conduct the Chemical Warfare Agent testing portion of Chemical, ... Test Laboratory to conduct the Chemical Warfare Agent (CWA) testing portion of Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear ... Subject: Chemical Warfare Agent (CWA) Testing for NIOSH CBRN Respirator Approvals. BACKGROUND: The National Institute for ... Chemical Warfare Agent (CWA) Testing for NIOSH CBRN Respirator Approvals pdf icon[PDF - 36 KB] ...
CDC information about air monitoring related to chemical weapons disposal facilities. ... Closing U.S. Chemical Warfare Agent Disposal Facilities. *CDC Participation in the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness ... History of U.S. Chemical Weapons Elimination. * Methods Used to Destroy Chemical Warfare Agents ... Other monitors collect samples of air over longer periods of time to find out if very low levels of chemical agents are present ...
... chemical weapons elimination program. This page provides information on the closure process and land use after facility closure ... Status of Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities. Chemical warfare agents at seven of the nine disposal facility sites have been ... Closing U.S. Chemical Warfare Agent Disposal Facilities. *CDC Participation in the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness ... History of U.S. Chemical Weapons Elimination. * Methods Used to Destroy Chemical Warfare Agents ...
Green Cross (chemical warfare) Blue Cross (chemical warfare) White Cross (chemical warfare) Chemical Weapons in World War I. ... Yellow Cross (Gelbkreuz) is a World War I chemical warfare agent usually based on sulfur mustard (HS, Yperite, Lost). The ... Yellow Cross is also a generic World War I German marking for artillery shells with chemical payload affecting exposed surfaces ...
Blue Cross (chemical warfare) Green Cross (chemical warfare) Yellow Cross (chemical warfare) "Chemical Weapons in World War I ... White Cross (Weisskreuz) is a World War I chemical warfare agent consisting of one or more lachrymatory agents: bromoacetone ( ... White Cross was also a generic code name used by the German Army for artillery shells with an irritant chemical payload ...
Chemical warfare is "the use of toxic chemicals in battle." The precise date of the first instances of chemical warfare is ... Croddy, Chemical Warfare, p. 85 Croddy, Chemical Warfare, p. 86 Coleman, p. 6 Coleman, p. 7 COleman, p. 7-8 Coleman, p. 9 ... The first records of chemical warfare come from accounts of India in the fourth century BC, when Indian archers dipped their ... In the Middle Ages and the early modern period, chemical warfare advanced along with the development of chemistry. In 1456, ...
... chemical warfare) Yellow Cross (chemical warfare) White Cross (chemical warfare) "Archived copy". Archived from the original on ... Green Cross (Grünkreuz) is a World War I chemical warfare pulmonary agent consisting of chloropicrin (PS, Aquinite, Klop), ... chemical payload affecting the lungs). The tip of the projectile with the fuse end painted green and a green cross at the ...
Green Cross (chemical warfare) Yellow Cross (chemical warfare) White Cross (chemical warfare) Lewisite "Archived copy". ... Blue Cross (Blaukreuz) is a World War I chemical warfare agent consisting of diphenylchloroarsine (DA, Clark I), ... Blue Cross is also a generic World War I German marking for artillery shells with chemical payload affecting the upper ...
  • However, the exact composition of its declared chemical arsenal will not be disclosed to the public, due to OPCW rules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rebel groups have used chemical weapons in the past, but Moscow's claim that they possess sarin is highly unlikely, says Dr. Dany Shoham. (haaretz.com)
  • Only chemical analysis can categorically identify the chemical, he says, but "the pictures are highly reminiscent of the event in 2013, when Assad's army definitely used sarin and about 1,400 people, including children, died because of it. (haaretz.com)
  • Nanowerk News ) Researchers of the Universitat Polit cnica de Val ncia have developed a prototype of electronic "nose" for the detection of chemical warfare gases, fundamentally nerve gases Sarin, Soman and Tabun ( 'An electronic nose for the detection of Sarin, Soman and Tabun mimics and interfering agents' ). (nanowerk.com)
  • Newly declassified Australian Defence Department and Prime Minister's office files show that the United States was strongly pushing the Government for tests on Australian soil of two of the most deadly chemical weapons ever developed, VX and GB - Sarin - nerve gas. (nautilus.org)
  • Phase 1 of this test was conducted in April - May 1967 on the island of Hawai'i and in the Panama Canal Zone, testing the M55 rocket warhead and the dissemination of Sarin from an M121A1 chemical projectile in the upper Waiakea Forest Reserve on the island of Hawai'i, southwest of Hilo. (nautilus.org)
  • Chemical weapons expert Jean Pascal Zanders expressed doubt that the events described in Jobar could have involved sarin, saying that sarin victims would not have survived the lengthy journey to the hospital described by the newspaper. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the August 21st Ghouta chemical attack, French intelligence released a report that said samples from those attacks had confirmed the use of sarin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The UNHRC commission also found that the sarin used in the Khan al-Asal attack bore "the same unique hallmarks" as the sarin used in the Ghouta attack and indicated that the perpetrators likely had access to chemicals from the Syrian Army's stockpile. (wikipedia.org)
  • Egypt has not signed the Chemical Weapons Convention and has long appeared on various lists as having an offensive chemical weapons capability, and is thought to possess production facilities for sarin, VX, mustard gas, and phosgene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over the years, BHOD was used for storage and testing of chemical weapons, including sarin and mustard gas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Green Cross (Grünkreuz) is a World War I chemical warfare pulmonary agent consisting of chloropicrin (PS, Aquinite, Klop), phosgene (CG, Collongite) and/or trichloromethyl chloroformate (Surpalite, Perstoff). (wikipedia.org)
  • During an interview with Plunkett in 2005, chemical warfare armourer, Geoff Burn mentioned he had been involved in the burial of 250 pounds (110 kg) phosgene bombs near the entrance to the headquarters in 1943. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Phosgene, notably used as a chemical weapon during World War I, is also used as an industrial reagent and building block in synthesis of pharmaceuticals and other organic compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemical warfare is "the use of toxic chemicals in battle. (wikipedia.org)
  • A species of urban bird seems to harness the toxic chemicals in cigarette butts in its fight against nest parasites - although there is a downside to the practice. (newscientist.com)
  • The nanofabric, created by exposing polyurethane to high voltage, can not only trap toxic chemicals, but also be used in a hazardous material suit. (phys.org)
  • This may not only provide increased surfaces area, but also can trap toxic chemicals more efficiently. (phys.org)
  • This can be a very efficient filter against toxic chemicals, as well as a membrane for protecting people," he said. (phys.org)
  • By the end of the war, poison gas use had become widespread on both sides and by 1918 a quarter of artillery shells were filled with gas and Britain had produced around 25,400 tons of toxic chemicals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Much of it was contaminated with dioxin, a deadly chemical. (truth-out.org)
  • The use of chemicals led to more deadly weaponry being available to the infantry soldier - the most famous being the phosphorous grenade/bomb and the use of napalm. (historylearningsite.co.uk)
  • It should be mentioned, that many other deadly chemicals reside in our nation's chemical industries, and sabotage of these plants is a distinct possibility. (4dtraveler.net)
  • Stannic chloride was used as a chemical weapon in World War I, as it formed an irritating (but non-deadly) dense smoke on contact with air: it was substituted for by a mixture of silicon tetrachloride and titanium tetrachloride near the end of the War due to shortages of tin. (wikipedia.org)
  • To summarize, in 1937 a report on Tabun made its way to the chemical warfare branch of the German military, and its value was recognized quickly. (sciencemag.org)
  • It is occasionally suggested that cyanide was also included among these chemical weapons, though this assertion has been cast into doubt, as cyanide is a natural byproduct of impure Tabun. (wikipedia.org)
  • These chemicals are different from the lethal chemical compounds that are part of infectious bacteria or viruses. (faqs.org)
  • During this time, military chemists in the United Kingdom and then in the United States adapted insecticides to produce the most lethal chemical agent then known. (faqs.org)
  • The Abortion Supervisory Committee reported to Parliament in 2015 revealed that 1627 pre-born children were killed in their mother's womb in 2014, with the lethal chemical Mifegyne RU 486. (righttolife.org.nz)
  • Following World War I, the United States signed but the Senate failed to ratify the 1925 Geneva Protocol prohibiting chemical weapons, again arguing that they were as humane as other weapons and that the United States needed to be prepared. (encyclopedia.com)
  • At the University of Cincinnati her research focused on the identification and cytotoxicity of chemical warfare agent degradation products and protein phosphorylation studies on cerebral spinal fluid, a study that may help in the development of drugs for patients diseased with a hemorrhagic stroke. (wiley.com)
  • The use of chemicals in warfare began centuries ago, when early combatants learned that smoke from burning sulfur caused discomfort when it drifted into enemy fortifications. (faqs.org)
  • Hydrogen sulfide can be produced by mixing sulfur-containing household chemicals with acids. (msdmanuals.com)
  • is a mixture of five sulfur-containing chemicals and smells like rotting food and carcasses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The plan called for 200 mainly Australian combat troops to be aerially bombed and sprayed with the chemical weapons - with all but a handful of the soldiers to be kept in the dark about the full details of the tests. (nautilus.org)
  • While not as lethal as other chemical weapons, it caused vomiting and forced Allied soldiers to remove their masks to vomit, exposing them to other, more toxic chemical gases used as weapons during the war. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of nonlethal chemicals to render an enemy force incapable of fighting dates back to at least 600 B.C. when Solon's soldiers threw hellebore roots into streams supplying water to enemy troops, who then developed diarrhea. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been incorporated in chemical weapons since the early months of World War I. Some commentators say the first use was in August 1914, when the French attacked German soldiers with tear gas grenades, but the agent used in that incident was more likely to be ethyl bromoacetate, which the French had tested before the war. (wikipedia.org)
  • The threat of chemical warfare is hardly novel. (emra.org)
  • The threat of chemical weapons worsens the situation and strengthens the case for a no-fly zone. (csmonitor.com)
  • A no-fly zone will provide protection to Syrian civilians from the regime's warplanes and artillery barrage and help remove the threat of chemical weapons being used against the Syrian populace in an aerial attack. (csmonitor.com)
  • ECBC's science and technology expertise has protected the United States from the threat of chemical weapons since 1917 when President Woodrow Wilson issued a proclamation that designated Gunpowder Neck, Maryland, as the site for the first chemical shell filling plant in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was the first such exercise in an Israeli school and part of a recent series of measures taken by the army to prepare civilians for possible chemical warfare. (latimes.com)
  • Civilians also have been exposed inadvertently to chemical weapons many years after weapon deployment during war. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • 1. State Department officials said on September 8, 1988, that US intelligence agencies had confirmed Iraq's use of chemicals in its recent drive against Kurdish civilians in Northern Iraq. (nybooks.com)
  • Infrequently used in warfare given their high volatility and propensity for quick dispersal , cyanogen chloride and hydrogen cyanide nevertheless occupy a uniquely infamous place in history because of their use by Nazi Germany in WWII to kill up to 1 million civilians . (emra.org)
  • On August 21, 2013 reports of a large chemical attack in the suburbs of Damascus began to surface, along with online video clips showing grim photographs of wounded civilians. (tolerance.ca)
  • In December 2012 it was reported that seven civilians were killed by chemical weapons in the al-Bayada neighborhood of Homs. (tolerance.ca)
  • In the year 1920 alone, over 40,000 civilians and 20,000 military personnel died from the chemical weapons effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Warfare on the North American frontier was brutal, and the killing of prisoners, the targeting of civilians, and other atrocities were widespread. (wikipedia.org)