Chemicals that are used to cause the disturbance, disease, or death of humans during WARFARE.
Tactical warfare using incendiary mixtures, smokes, or irritant, burning, or asphyxiating gases.
Severe irritant and vesicant of skin, eyes, and lungs. It may cause blindness and lethal lung edema and was formerly used as a war gas. The substance has been proposed as a cytostatic and for treatment of psoriasis. It has been listed as a known carcinogen in the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985) (Merck, 11th ed).
Warfare involving the use of living organisms or their products as disease etiologic agents against people, animals, or plants.
An organophosphorus compound that inhibits cholinesterase. It causes seizures and has been used as a chemical warfare agent.
An organophosphorus ester compound that produces potent and irreversible inhibition of cholinesterase. It is toxic to the nervous system and is a chemical warfare agent.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the three ester bonds in a phosphotriester-containing compound.
Compounds containing carbon-phosphorus bonds in which the phosphorus component is also bonded to one or more sulfur atoms. Many of these compounds function as CHOLINERGIC AGENTS and as INSECTICIDES.
The use of humans as investigational subjects.
The removal of contaminating material, such as radioactive materials, biological materials, or CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS, from a person or object.
The practice of medicine as applied to special circumstances associated with military operations.
An aspect of cholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.8).
Carbon-containing phosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have CARBON atoms bound to one or more OXYGEN atoms of the P(=O)(O)3 structure. Note that several specific classes of endogenous phosphorus-containing compounds such as NUCLEOTIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and PHOSPHOPROTEINS are listed elsewhere.
Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.
Former members of the armed services.
Injury to any part of the eye by extreme heat, chemical agents, or ultraviolet radiation.
The manipulation of psychological influences, primarily concerned with morale, to strengthen the ability of one's own country and weaken the enemy.
Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.
Hostile conflict between organized groups of people.
Unexplained symptoms reported by veterans of the Persian Gulf War with Iraq in 1991. The symptoms reported include fatigue, skin rash, muscle and joint pain, headaches, loss of memory, shortness of breath, gastrointestinal and respiratory symptoms, and extreme sensitivity to commonly occurring chemicals. (Nature 1994 May 5;369(6475):8)
Persons including soldiers involved with the armed forces.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Living organisms or their toxic products that are used to cause disease or death of humans during WARFARE.
Global conflict involving countries of Europe, Africa, Asia, and North America that occurred between 1939 and 1945.
An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.
Recording of information on magnetic or punched paper tape.
Respirators to protect individuals from breathing air contaminated with harmful dusts, fogs, fumes, mists, gases, smokes, sprays, or vapors.
Replacement for an elbow joint.
A religion founded by Mary Baker Eddy in 1866 that was organized under the official name of the Church of Christ, Scientist. It includes the practice of spiritual healing.
An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.
The branch of chemistry dealing with detection (qualitative) and determination (quantitative) of substances. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.
Aryl CYCLOPENTANES that are a reduced (protonated) form of INDENES.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC 3.1.1.7.
A benzazepine derived from norbelladine. It is found in GALANTHUS and other AMARYLLIDACEAE. It is a cholinesterase inhibitor that has been used to reverse the muscular effects of GALLAMINE TRIETHIODIDE and TUBOCURARINE and has been studied as a treatment for ALZHEIMER DISEASE and other central nervous system disorders.
A sulfur-containing analog of butyrylcholine which is hydrolyzed by butyrylcholinesterase to butyrate and thiocholine. It is used as a reagent in the determination of butyrylcholinesterase activity.

Health status of Persian Gulf War veterans: self-reported symptoms, environmental exposures and the effect of stress. (1/44)

BACKGROUND: Most US troops returned home from the Persian Gulf War (PGW) by Spring 1991 and many began reporting increased health symptoms and medical problems soon after. This investigation examines the relationships between several Gulf-service environmental exposures and health symptom reporting, and the role of traumatic psychological stress on the exposure-health symptom relationships. METHODS: Stratified, random samples of two cohorts of PGW veterans, from the New England area (n = 220) and from the New Orleans area (n = 71), were selected from larger cohorts being followed longitudinally since arrival home from the Gulf. A group of PGW-era veterans deployed to Germany (n = 50) served as a comparison group. The study protocol included questionnaires, a neuropsychological test battery, an environmental interview, and psychological diagnostic interviews. This report focuses on self-reported health symptoms and exposures of participants who completed a 52-item health symptom checklist and a checklist of environmental exposures. RESULTS: The prevalence of reported symptoms was greater in both Persian Gulf-deployed cohorts compared to the Germany cohort. Analyses of the body-system symptom scores (BSS), weighted to account for sampling design, and adjusted by age, sex, and education, indicated that Persian Gulf-deployed veterans were more likely to report neurological, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, cardiac, dermatological, musculoskeletal, psychological and neuropsychological system symptoms than Germany veterans. Using a priori hypotheses about the toxicant effects of exposure to specific toxicants, the relationships between self-reported exposures and body-system symptom groupings were examined through multiple regression analyses, controlling for war-zone exposure and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Self-reported exposures to pesticides, debris from Scuds, chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents, and smoke from tent heaters each were significantly related to increased reporting of specific predicted BSS groupings. CONCLUSIONS: Veterans deployed to the Persian Gulf have higher self-reported prevalence of health symptoms compared to PGW veterans who were deployed only as far as Germany. Several Gulf-service environmental exposures are associated with increased health symptom reporting involving predicted body-systems, after adjusting for war-zone stressor exposures and PTSD.  (+info)

The efforts of WHO and Pugwash to eliminate chemical and biological weapons--a memoir. (2/44)

The World Health Organization and the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs (Nobel Peace Prize 1995) have been involved in questions concerning chemical and biological arms since the early 1950s. This memoir reviews a number of milestones in the efforts of these organizations to achieve the elimination of these weapons through international treaties effectively monitored and enforced for adherence to their provisions. It also highlights a number of outstanding personalities who were involved in the efforts to establish and implement the two major treaties now in effect, the Biological Weapons Convention of 1972 and the Chemical Weapons Convention of 1993.  (+info)

The postwar hospitalization experience of Gulf War Veterans possibly exposed to chemical munitions destruction at Khamisiyah, Iraq. (3/44)

Using Department of Defense hospital data, the authors examined the postwar hospitalization experience from March 1991 through September 1995 of US Gulf War veterans who were near Khamisiyah, Iraq, during nerve agent munition destruction in March 1991. Multiple sources of meteorologic, munition, and toxicology data were used to circumscribe geographic areas of low level, vaporized nerve agent for 4 days after the destruction. Plume estimates were overlaid on military unit positions, and exposure was estimated for the 349,291 US Army Gulf War veterans. Exposure was classified as not exposed (n = 224,804), uncertain low dose exposure (n = 75,717), and specific estimated subclinical exposure (n = 48,770) categorized into three groups for dose-response evaluation. Using Cox proportional hazard modeling, the authors compared the postwar experiences of these exposure groups for hospitalization due to any cause, for diagnoses in 15 unique categories, and for specific diagnoses an expert panel proposed as most likely to reflect latent disease from such subclinical exposure. There was little evidence that veterans possibly exposed to the nerve agent plumes experienced unusual postwar morbidity. While there were several differences in hospitalization risk, none of the models suggested a dose-response relation or neurologic sequelae. These data, having a number of limitations, do not support the hypothesis that Gulf War veterans are suffering postwar morbidity from subclinical nerve agent exposure.  (+info)

Chemical and biological weapons: new questions, new answers. (4/44)

The words "chemical and biological weapons" (CBW) send a shiver down most spines these days. With the end of the Cold War, the possibility of a massive nuclear confrontation appears remote, so today many popular doomsday scenarios center on the aggressive use of chemical or biological warfare by rogue nations or terrorist groups. As exaggerated as some of the accounts are, with CBW cast as the latest unseen, unstoppable enemy, the threat posed by these weapons is all too real, and growing.  (+info)

Hazards of chemical weapons release during war: new perspectives. (5/44)

The two major threat classes of chemical weapons are mustard gas and the nerve agents, and this has not changed in over 50 years. Both types are commonly called gases, but they are actually liquids that are not remarkably volatile. These agents were designed specifically to harm people by any route of exposure and to be effective at low doses. Mustard gas was used in World War I, and the nerve agents were developed shortly before, during, and after World War II. Our perception of the potency of chemical weapons has changed, as well as our concern over potential effects of prolonged exposures to low doses and potential target populations that include women and children. Many of the toxicologic studies and human toxicity estimates for both mustard and nerve agents were designed for the purpose of quickly developing maximal casualties in the least sensitive male soldier. The "toxicity" of the chemical weapons has not changed, but our perception of "toxicity" has.  (+info)

Biological and chemical terrorism: strategic plan for preparedness and response. Recommendations of the CDC Strategic Planning Workgroup. (6/44)

The U.S. national civilian vulnerability to the deliberate use of biological and chemical agents has been highlighted by recognition of substantial biological weapons development programs and arsenals in foreign countries, attempts to acquire or possess biological agents by militants, and high-profile terrorist attacks. Evaluation of this vulnerability has focused on the role public health will have detecting and managing the probable covert biological terrorist incident with the realization that the U.S. local, state, and federal infrastructure is already strained as a result of other important public health problems. In partnership with representatives for local and state health departments, other federal agencies, and medical and public health professional associations, CDC has developed a strategic plan to address the deliberate dissemination of biological or chemical agents. The plan contains recommendations to reduce U.S. vulnerability to biological and chemical terrorism--preparedness planning, detection and surveillance, laboratory analysis, emergency response, and communication systems. Training and research are integral components for achieving these recommendations. Success of the plan hinges on strengthening the relationships between medical and public health professionals and on building new partnerships with emergency management, the military, and law enforcement professionals.  (+info)

Hospital preparedness for victims of chemical or biological terrorism. (7/44)

OBJECTIVES: This study examined hospital preparedness for incidents involving chemical or biological weapons. METHODS: By using a questionnaire survey of 224 hospital emergency departments in 4 northwestern states, we examined administrative plans, training, physical resources, and representative medication inventories. RESULTS: Responses were received from 186 emergency departments (83%). Fewer than 20% of respondent hospitals had plans for biological or chemical weapons incidents. About half (45%) had an indoor or outdoor decontamination unit with isolated ventilation, shower, and water containment systems, but only 12% had 1 or more self-contained breathing apparatuses or supplied air-line respirators. Only 6% had the minimum recommended physical resources for a hypothetical sarin incident. Of the hospitals providing quantitative answers about medication inventories, 64% reported sufficient ciprofloxacin or doxycycline for 50 hypothetical anthrax victims, and only 29% reported sufficient atropine for 50 hypothetical sarin victims (none had enough pralidoxime). CONCLUSIONS: Hospital emergency departments generally are not prepared in an organized fashion to treat victims of chemical or biological terrorism. The planned federal efforts to improve domestic preparedness will require substantial additional resources at the local level to be truly effective.  (+info)

Mortality among US veterans of the Persian Gulf War: 7-year follow-up. (8/44)

To assess the long-term health consequences of the 1991 Persian Gulf War, the authors compared cause-specific mortality rates of 621,902 Gulf War veterans with those of 746,248 non-Gulf veterans, by gender, with adjustment for age, race, marital status, branch of service, and type of unit. Vital status follow-up began with the date of exit from the Persian Gulf theater (Gulf veterans) or May 1, 1991 (control veterans). Follow-up for both groups ended on the date of death or December 31, 1997, whichever came first. Cox proportional hazards models were used for the multivariate analysis. For Gulf veterans, mortality risk was also assessed relative to the likelihood of exposure to nerve gas at Khamisiyah, Iraq. Among Gulf veterans, the significant excess of deaths due to motor vehicle accidents that was observed during the earlier postwar years had decreased steadily to levels found in non-Gulf veterans. The risk of death from natural causes remained lower among Gulf veterans compared with non-Gulf veterans. This was mainly accounted for by the relatively higher number of deaths related to human immunodeficiency virus infection among non-Gulf veterans. There was no statistically significant difference in cause-specific mortality among Gulf veterans relative to potential nerve gas exposure. The risk of death for both Gulf veterans and non-Gulf veterans stayed less than half of that expected in their civilian counterparts. The authors conclude that the excess risk of mortality from motor vehicle accidents that was associated with Gulf War service has dissipated after 7 years of follow-up.  (+info)

States Parties are required not to develop, produce, otherwise acquire, stockpile or retain chemical weapons (CW), or transfer, directly or indirectly, chemical weapons to anyone; not to use chemical weapons; not to engage in military preparations for use of chemical weapons; not to assist, encourage, or induce anyone to engage in any activity prohibited to a State Party under the convention.. Each State Party is required to destroy all chemical weapons and chemical weapons production facilities it owns or possesses or that are located in any place under its jurisdiction or control, as well as any chemical weapons it abandoned on the territory of another State Party no later than 10 years after entry into force of the Convention or as soon as possible in the case of States ratifying or acceding more than 10 years after entry into force. Each State Party also undertakes not to use riot control agents as a method of warfare (Article I). The Convention defines a chemical weapon as the following, ...
VI. How are chemical weapons destroyed?. I. What are chemical weapons?. A chemical weapon is any toxic chemical that can cause death, injury, incapacitation, and sensory irritation, deployed via a delivery system, such as an artillery shell, rocket, or ballistic missile. Chemical weapons are considered weapons of mass destruction and their use in armed conflict is a violation of international law.. Primary forms of chemical weapons include nerve agents, blister agents, choking agents, and blood agents. These agents are categorized based on how they affect the human body.. Nerve agents. Generally considered the most deadly of the different categories of chemical weapons, nerve agents - in liquid or gas form - can be inhaled or absorbed through the skin. Nerve agents inhibit the bodys respiratory and cardiovascular capability by causing severe damage to the central nervous system, and can result in death. The most common nerve agents include Sarin, Soman, and VX.. Blister agents. Blister agents ...
As of mid-2017 there were two sites in America still storing chemical weapons. The Pueblo Chemical Depot was expected to complete the destruction by 2019, while the Blue Grass Army Depot was scheduled to start its stockpile s destruction in 2020. The United States began its own destruction process unilaterally in 1990, seven years before the CWC s entry into force, and announced late in 2011 that it had completed 90% destruction of its original 31,500 US tons (28,577 MTs) of stockpiled chemical weapons at seven of its nine declared stockpile sites. The US missed the Chemical Weapons Convention s 29 April 2012 deadline, and at that time it appeared the US would need another decade or more to complete the task.. Further to a decision by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) Conference at its Sixteenth Session (C-16/DEC.11), a national paper by the United States of America on the progress made on the completion of the destruction of its chemical weapons, including ...
Synonyms for Chemical weapons in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Chemical weapons. 1 synonym for chemical warfare: chemical operations. What are synonyms for Chemical weapons?
On April 29, 2007, the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC)[1] marks the tenth anniversary of its entry into force. Along with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC), the CWC forms an important part of the international law supporting disarmament and non-proliferation concerning weapons of mass destruction. The CWC is the only international treaty that requires complete and verifiable elimination of an entire category of weapons of mass destruction.[2] This Insight looks at the CWC as its tenth anniversary approaches and identifies challenges the CWC faces in its second decade.. Basic Information on the CWC. Negotiations on the CWC finished in September 1992, and the United Nations (UN) General Assembly opened the treaty for signature in January 1993. The CWC entered into force on April 29, 1997. The CWC States Parties seek, for the sake of all mankind, to exclude completely the possibility of the use of chemical weapons ...
The problem is, I dont like it, first of all Im rather dovish, I dont like what Im going to say but its true. If you basically put down a red line and say dont use chemical weapons, and its been enforced in the Western community, around the world - international community for decades - dont use chemical weapons. We didnt use them in World War II, Hitler didnt use them, we dont use chemical weapons, thats no deal. Although we do know that Assads father did. And then he goes ahead and does it. It makes you wonder what the mullahs will do if they have a couple of nuclear weapons, just a couple. Are they capable of not using them? And that, of course, you know, I think that everybody talking this morning is projecting toward that, which is if you cant use deterrents the normal way - mutually assured destruction - you cant say, if you do this, were blowing you up. If that doesnt work, what does work? And thats the problem. ...
Despite article 171 of the Versailles Peace Treaty and a resolution adopted against Japan by the League of nations on May 14, 1938, the Imperial Japanese Army frequently used chemical weapons. By fear of retaliation however, those weapons were never used against Occidentals but against other Orientals judged inferior by the imperial propaganda. According to historians Yoshiaki Yoshimi and Seiya Matsuno, the chemical weapons were authorized by specific orders given by Emperor Showa himself, transmitted by the chief of staff of the army. For example, the Emperor authorized the use of toxic gas on 375 separate occasions during the battle of Wuhan from August to October 1938. They were also heavily used during the invasion of Changde.. The Imperial Japanese Army used mustard gas and the blister agent Lewisite against Chinese troops and guerrillas during the Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945). During these attacks, the Japanese also employed biological warfare by intentionally spreading cholera, ...
What is chemical weapon? A device that uses chemicals formulated to inflict death or harm on human beings Can be widely dispersed in gas, liquid and solid forms About 70 different chemicals have been used or stockpiled as chemical weapon agents during the 20th century
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Public Release: 7-Jun-2017 American Chemical Society IMAGE: A new fabric coating could neutralize chemical weapons and help save countless lives. Credit: Credit: American Chemical Society Click here to download the image. Chemical weapons are nightmarish. In a millisecond, they can kill hundreds, if not thousands. But, in a study published in the ACS…
Healthcare facilities should be prepared for terrorist attacks with chemical weapons. The healthcare team’s ability to recognize and respond to chemical a
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FBI Chemical Weapons Awareness Campaign - Pool, spa and hot tub professionals work with chemicals on a regular basis. Some of these chemicals may be of interest to people intent on creating destructive weapons.
Animals have an easy life. They can run, hide, or bite back when predators are on the prowl. Plants cannot. Instead they have evolved to deploy a range of defence mechanisms including chemical warfare and insect armies.
A U.S. State Department cable indicated the Syrian military likely used chemical weapons last month in a deadly attack in Homs, The Cable magazine reported.
Broadcast: August 15, 2003 This is the VOA Special English Environment Report. In the United States, the Army has started to destroy old chemical weapons at a base in the southern state of Alab...
Researchers probing one of the mysteries of the insect world have identified a powerful chemical weapon used in the arms race between fungus-farming leafcutter…
WASHINGTON (AP) - The Obama administration has concluded that Syrian President Bashar Assads regime has used chemical weapons against the opposition seeking to overthrow him, U.S. officials said Thursday, crossing what President Barack Obama has called a red line that would trigger greater
The Conference on Disarmament (CD) was created in 1979 as the worlds sole multilateral disarmament treaty negotiating body. The permanent agenda addresses ten issues, including nuclear weapons in all aspects, chemical weapons (removed after the CD completed the Chemical Weapons Convention in 1992), other weapons of mass destruction and conventional weapons. The CD has made an important contribution to international peace and security through development of the Biological and Chemical Weapons Conventions, the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) and the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT).. The CD has failed however, to agree on a program of work for the last 17 years, leaving no negotiations finalised since 1992. Australia has been looking for ways to break the impasse in the CD through our participation in the open-ended working group on taking forward multilateral disarmament negotiations.. ...
Now available online:. Friedrich, Bretislav [Ed.]. Hoffmann, Dieter [Ed.]. Renn, Juergen [Ed.]. Schmaltz, Florian [Ed.]. Wolf, Martin [Ed.]: One hundred years of chemical warfare : research, deployment, consequences. Springer : Cham, 2017. ISBN: 978-3-319-51664-6 [Open Access]. This book has emerged from a conference commemorating the centenary of the events at Ypres (the first use of chemical weapons as weapons of mass destruction), held at the Fritz Haber Institute in 2015.. ...
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Since 1979 Iranians have experienced a variety of events that reasonably will have lasting effects on their mental health. In 1979 the Islamic Revolution took place and in 1980 eight years of Iraq-Iran war started. In recent years there has developed conflicts between Iran and the International society because of the Iranian activities in developing nuclear energy. To these can be added the social and religious limitations on the behavior of people. These limitations are experienced especially strong in the life of adolescents and young people. This thesis covers four different aspects of the mental health of Iranians. General health questionnaire (GHQ-12) was utilized to investigate the mental health of 4599 Iranian 3rd grade high school students (aged 17-18 years). The GHQ cut off was taken 7 or more. A considerable proportion of the students were at risk of suffering from mental health problems (29.5 %), girls more than boys. Periodic mental health surveys in high schools are proposed to ...
FBI chemical warfare expert Stanley Goodspeed (Nicolas Cage) is sent on an urgent mission with a former British spy, John Patrick Mason (Sean Connery), to stop Gen. Francis X. Hummel (Ed Harris) from launching chemical weapons on Alcatraz Island into San Francisco. Gen. Hummel demands $100 million in war reparations to be paid to the families of slain servicemen who died on covert operations. After their SEAL team is wiped out, Stanley and John deal with the soldiers on their own.
FBI chemical warfare expert Stanley Goodspeed (Nicolas Cage) is sent on an urgent mission with a former British spy, John Patrick Mason (Sean Connery), to stop Gen. Francis X. Hummel (Ed Harris) from launching chemical weapons on Alcatraz Island into San Francisco. Gen. Hummel demands $100 million in war reparations to be paid to the families of slain servicemen who died on covert operations. After their SEAL team is wiped out, Stanley and John deal with the soldiers on their own.
Bio-terrorism, weapons of mass destruction, chemical warfare, bacteriological weapons, atomic bombs, are just some of the most common phrases used to describe journalistically and in films the risk of using biological, chemical, radiological and nuclear substances in a conventional context and not . To respond to this possible insult little known by the citizens, Italy boasts a highly respected organization that also plays its part in the international operating scenarios.
With the rapid spread of the Coronavirus, its important for medical facilities to prepare every way they can for future patients. Learn more now.
For a few thousand dollars, Chinese companies offer to export a powerful chemical that has been killing unsuspecting drug users and is so lethal that it presents a potential terrorism threat, an Associated Press investigation has found. The AP identified 12 Chinese businesses that said they would export the chemical - a synthetic opioid known as carfentanil - to the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Belgium and Australia for as little as $2,750 a kilogram (2.2 pounds), no questions asked. Carfentanil burst into view this summer, the latest scourge in an epidemic of opioid abuse that has killed tens of thousands of people in the United States alone. Dealers have been cutting carfentanil and its weaker cousin, fentanyl, into heroin and other illicit drugs to boost profit margins. Despite the dangers, carfentanil is not a controlled substance in China, where it is manufactured legally and sold openly online. The U.S. government is pressing China to blacklist carfentanil, ...
If a nerve agent like Novichok was used here, there are antitodes on hand to save a few of victims. A larger attack would test Canadas readiness.
i) The main production train, including any reactor or equipment for product synthesis, separation or purification, any equipment used directly for heat transfer in the final technological stage, such as in reactors or in product separation, as well as any other equipment which has been in contact with any chemical specified in Article II, paragraph 8 (a) (i), or would be in contact with such a chemical if the facility were operated; (ii) Any chemical weapon filling machines; (iii) Any other equipment specially designed, built or installed for the operation of the facility as a chemical weapons production facility, as distinct from a facility constructed according to prevailing commercial industry standards for facilities not producing any chemical specified in Article II, paragraph 8 (a) (i), or corrosive chemicals, such as: equipment made of high nickel alloys or other special corrosion resistant material; special equipment for waste control, waste treatment, air filtering, or solvent ...
The OPCW Laboratory (LAB) is the OPCWs centre of chemical analysis. Its work is key to ensuring correct implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). It works to ensure excellent technical and scientific support to the inspectorate, calibrating and testing analytical equipment and ensuring that inspections are carried out in accordance with the convention. It maintains the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) Central Analytical Database (OCAD). Core functions of LAB:. ...
NOTE: The current information system only became operational in September 2008; all archive material from January 1995 to August 2008 can only be accessed through the Search function ...
There are a few drawbacks to online home evaluations like Zillow's Zestimate. Like, for instance, they can't tell you whether a bomb is buried in a backyard. Sure, it's unlikely an
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What D Bunker is NOT: D Bunker is Not African American. D Bunker is Not Hispanic American. D Bunker is Not a Jewish American. D Bunker is Not a Gay American. D Bunker is an American, Period. And this POd American has had 10 times more than twice too much of enough of Anyone claiming special rights for themselves over Anyone else. Far too many good men and women of all races, creeds and colors have given Everything and more to establish that None of Us are better than the Next of Us, AS LAW, to allow Any Ideology, especially one which is Wholly Smoke and Mirrors, to rule and ruin the lives of Any of us ...
Printed from: http://www.jewishpress.com/news/breaking-news/obama-welcomes-russias-proposal-on-syria/2013/09/10/. Scan this QR code to visit this page online ...
Apr 30 Posted by OFF THE WALL Dear Friends I know I have not been writing for a while. This is very important and it is from Yasin Haj Saleh, please spread it. It is important to note that Yassin Haj Saleh is an MD. After his lengthy incarceration by the Assad regime, he went…
18 days later Porton drove Scarlett to hospital claiming the infant was unwell but emergency services subsequently discovered the infant had been dead for some time. Portons behavior clearly suggested that she killed the girls because they were a hindrance to her promiscuous sexual behavior. When Lexi was ill in hospital, just over a week before she died, Porton took topless photos in the toilets and was arranging to perform sex acts for money with a man she had met through a website, reports Sky News. Porton accepted 41 friend requests on a dating app just a day after the first child died and was also heard laughing at a funeral parlour by a funeral arranger who told the court he saw her using FaceTime to to speak to a man. One way or another you squeezed the life out of each of your daughters, only calling the emergency services when you knew they were dead, the judge in the case told Porton. The father of the children said he tried to warn social services about Portons behavior but was ...
Engineering a protein, research shows, may prevent brain damage in civilians and soldiers exposed to poisonous chemicals - particularly those in pesticides and chemical weapons.
A: Well, it points out the nature of the threat. It turned out to be a false threat under the circumstances. But as weve learned in the intelligence community, we had something called -- and we have James Woolsey here to perhaps even address this question about phantom moles. The mere fear that there is a mole within an agency can set off a chain reaction and a hunt for that particular mole which can paralyze the agency for weeks and months and years even, in a search. The same thing is true about just the false scare of a threat of using some kind of a chemical weapon or a biological one. There are some reports, for example, that some countries have been trying to construct something like an Ebola Virus, and that would be a very dangerous phenomenon, to say the least. Alvin Toeffler has written about this in terms of some scientists in their laboratories trying to devise certain types of pathogens that would be ethnic specific so that they could just eliminate certain ethnic groups and races; ...
Drug cartels, as a result of the increase in the narcotics trade, have been increasingly able to acquire biological and chemical weapons and radioactive material for the purpose of WMD creation, the U.S. State Department has warned.
The Kitchener stitch used in seamless knitting was designed by Lord Kitchener, a British military hero of the Boer War and WWI, to keep the toes of socks from irritating his soldiers feet. I found this information on page 91 in the book The Knitters Companion by Vicki Square.
The British military held a competition to find the newest batch of robotic surveillance drones. The article mentions that they compete in a mockup village, but sadly we dont get to see any of the action. We strongly recommend watching the video so you can see some of the robots. There is an interesting helicopter concept that has angled props for better stability and lateral motion, but more importantly you get to see the little guy pictured above. He very well could be Wall-Es great grandfather. Though his constant buzzing around during the interviews is slightly annoying, his little camera mount looking all around is instantly endearing. If he doesnt win this contest, he may have a shot at the [crabfu] challenge.. [via Engadget]. ...
A probe of a British military contractor is but one in a bounty of investigations recently started under a once-obscure anticorruption law.
To determine cancer morbidity in members of the armed forces who took part in tests of chemical warfare agents from 1941 to 1989. Historical cohort study, with cohort members followed up to December 2004. Archive of UK government research facility at Porton Down, UK military personnel records, and national death and cancer records. All veterans included in the cohort study of mortality, excluding those known to have died or been lost to follow-up before 1 January 1971 when the UK cancer registration system commenced: 17,013 male members of the UK armed forces who took part in tests (Porton Down veterans) and a similar group of 16,520 men who did not (non-Porton Down veterans). Cancer morbidity in each group of veterans; rate ratios, with 95% confidence intervals, adjusted for age group and calendar period. 3457 cancers were reported in the Porton Down veterans compared with 3380 cancers in the non-Porton Down veterans. While overall cancer morbidity was the same in both groups (rate ratio 1.00, 95%
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Syrias chemical weapons program began in the 1970s with weapons and training from Egypt and the Soviet Union, with production of chemical weapons in Syria beginning in the mid-1980s. Prior to September 2013 Syria had not publicly admitted to possessing chemical weapons, although Western intelligence services believed it to hold one of the worlds largest stockpiles. In September 2013, French intelligence put the Syrian stockpile at 1,000 tonnes, including Yperite, VX and several hundred tonnes of sarin. At the time, Syria was one of a handful of states which had not ratified the Chemical Weapons Convention. In September 2013, Syria joined the CWC (formally acceding on 14 October), and agreed to the destruction of its weapons, to be supervised by the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), as required by the Convention. A joint OPCW-United Nations mission was established to oversee the destruction process. Syria joined OPCW after international condemnation of the August ...
Chlorine chemical liquid form will burn the skin, Chlorine has been used as a chemical warfare agent. Fatal if breathed at a concentration of 1000 ppm..
This 1451 word essay is about Organochlorides, Blister agents, Chemical weapons, Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, Nerve agents, Chemical warfare. Read the full essay now!
Researchers have developed a prototype of electronic nose for the detection of chemical warfare gases, fundamentally nerve gases (Sarin, Soman and Tabun).
The 35-minute film, Haber: The Father of Chemical Warfare, is a docudrama written and directed by Daniel Ragussis. It captures a snapshot of the chemists life when he was pressed into service by the German government to help win WWI. Although Haber voiced his reservations about using chemicals on the battlefield, his sense of duty to his country led him to see the project through and supervise the first use of chlorine in the trenches near Ypres, Belgium, in April 1915. Youll have to watch the film to see what happened. ...
Buy Analysis of Chemical Warfare Degradation Products by Douglas D. Richardson From WHSmith today! FREE delivery to store or FREE UK delivery on all ord...
Chemical Warfare presents NitroPump. Intense physical exercise causes oxidative stress leading to production of damaging free radicals. We require increased amounts of nutrients and oxygen during the workout phase. If inadequate free radical production increases significantly, waste accumulates which limits duration, i
In 1990 and during the 1991 Gulf War, WMD was resurrected and used prolifically by politicians and the media, despite having a fairly antique aura. This time, it was a reference to the stockpiles of an adversarial country, specifically, the chemical weapons that were in Iraq under Husseins regime (ironically, sold to him by many of the same countries now arrayed against him[citation needed]). At the dawn of the War against Terrorism, the dysphemistic quality of the term served the function for which it was intended, namely, motivating the US populace to war. Weapons of mass destruction replaced strategic weapons in the common American lexicon. After 9/11, it would be the anthrax attacks, and the multitude of hypothetical smallpox terrorist attack scenarios in the media that would shape the prevalent image of a weapon of mass destruction into a device of bioterrorism. This usage reached a crescendo with the 2002 Iraq disarmament crisis and the alleged existence of weapons of mass destruction in ...
States, territories, and large metropolitan areas will receive grants totaling $390.5 million to help hospitals and other health care organizations strengthen the medical surge capability across the nation. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response will provide the funds through the Hospital Preparedness Program. The grants enhance community resilience by increasing the ability of hospitals and healthcare facilities to respond to the public health and medical impacts of any emergency, such as natural disasters, disease outbreaks, or acts of terrorism. All states, territories and the metro areas of New York City, Chicago, Los Angeles County and Washington, D.C., will receive the 2010 Hospital Preparedness grants. The funds will be used by state and local governments to boost the readiness of hospitals and other healthcare facilities in their jurisdictions by finalizing development or improving ...
Washington, DC- Rep. Eliot Engel (D-NY), Ranking Member of the House Committee on Foreign Affairs, today condemned Syrias use of chemical weapons against his own people. The Administrations assessment that Syrian President Assad has used chemical weapons is, if confirmed, no surprise to those of us who know what President Assad and his terrorist government are capable of doing, Engel declared. Assad has repeatedly demonstrated that he will do whatever is necessary to stay in power, including using both conventional, and weapons of mass destruction, to murder his own people. The use of these weapons of terror is an obscenity to civilization and a crime against humanity.. Assad must go and it is time for the U.S. and our allies to immediately arm vetted elements of the Syrian opposition to bring an end to his government. When I spoke with the White House today, I told them that we must act now to stop Assad before he uses these weapons again. My bipartisan bill, the Free Syria Act of 2013 ...
Because of the ongoing risk of chemical attack, emergency physicians must be able to care for victims of chemical weapon agents (CWAs). This article reviews the physical properties and general clinical effects of CWAs.
Commonly referred to as tabun, sarin, soman, and VX, nerve agents have famously been implicated in attacks by the Syrian government against rebel forces and civilians, and by North Korea in the assassination of Kim Jong Nam.1,2 They were also, on a less serious note, popularized in the movie The Rock. Considered the most toxic of chemical weapons, these agents are extremely potent organophosphates, achieving toxicity through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase at muscarinic and nicotinic receptors. Patients thus present with the familiar constellation of SLUDGE symptoms: salivation, lacrimation, urination, diarrhea, gastrointestinal distress, and emesis. Severe toxicity may progress to seizures, copious pulmonary secretions, bronchospasm, and ultimately respiratory arrest. Miosis is a notably useful exam finding as it should be present in nearly all patients with significant toxicity.3. Treatment consists first and foremost of decontamination. The removal of all clothing and irrigation with ...
CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WARFARECHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WARFARE. While limited use of chemicals and disease in warfare dates from ancient times, the origins of modern chemical and biological weapons systems date from the era of the two world wars.
TONY JONES, PRESENTER: Britain and France have called for the international community to consider reacting with force if yesterdays claims of a chemical weapons attack by the Assad regime in Syria are proven.. More than 35 countries have called for UN inspectors in Syria to be given immediate access to the site of the incident in Damascus.. Syrias rebels say more than 1,300 people have been killed, many of them women and children, although theres been no independent verification of the death toll.. The Syrian Government has strongly denied it was to blame.. Shaun Hassett reports, and a warning: this story does contain disturbing images.. SHAUN HASSETT, REPORTER: While the world focuses on the possible use of chemical weapons in Damascus, the Syrian capital is still dealing with the daily struggles of conventional warfare.. Rebel activists say yesterdays alleged chemical attack was followed up by an aerial bombardment.. The Assad regime has confirmed its carrying out an offensive in ...
Biological warfare (BW), also known as germ warfare, is the deliberate use of disease-causing biological agents such as protozoa, fungi, bacteria, protists, or viruses, to kill or incapacitate humans, other animals or plants. Biological weapons (often referred to as bioweapons) are living organisms or replicating entities (virus) that reproduce or replicate within their host victims.. Biological weapons may be employed in various ways to gain a strategic or tactical advantage over an adversary, either by threat or by actual deployment. Like some of the chemical weapons, biological weapons may also be useful as area denial weapons. These agents may be lethal or non-lethal, and may be targeted against a single individual, a group of people, or even an entire population. They may be developed, acquired, stockpiled or deployed by nation states or by non-national groups. In the latter case, or if a nation-state uses it clandestinely, it may also be considered bioterrorism.[1]. There is an overlap ...
References / Notes : (ACLOS = A Closer Look on Syria, the site at which the author shares most of his research). [1] ACLOS, Chemical Weapons http://acloserlookonsyria.shoutwiki.com/wiki/Category:Chemical_Weapons [2] ACLOS, Alleged chemical attack, March 19 - Organized but incomplete main page: http://acloserlookonsyria.shoutwiki.com/wiki/Alleged_chemical_attack,_March_19,_2013 Detailed but sloppy talk page : http://acloserlookonsyria.shoutwiki.com/wiki/Talk:Alleged_chemical_attack,_March_19,_2013 [3] Swedish scientist to head U.N. Syria chemical weapons probe Michelle Nichols and Louis Charbonneau, Reuters, Tue Mar 26, 2013 8:00pm EDT. [4] Local Coordination Committees of Syria, Daily summary for March 19 : http://www.lccsyria.org/11106 This has two possible chemical attacks noted, Otaybah (Ateibah) and Homs, and a scud impact in Anadan just 13 km north of Khan Al-Assal, but nothin in Khan Al-Assal, and no chemical anything for the Aleppo area. On Homs : Several cases of asphyxia were reported ...
Chemical weapons investigators have gone to Turkey to collect samples as part of an inquiry into an alleged chemical weapons attack in Syria last week.
Nerve agents are substances that disrupt the chemical communications through the nervous system. One mechanism of disruption, utilized by the G, GV, and V series of chemicals is caused by blocking the acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme that normally destroys and stops the activity of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter. Poisoning by these nerve agents leads to an accumulation of acetylcholine at the nerve axon, producing a perpetual excited state in the nerve (e.g. constant muscle contraction). The eventual exhaustion of muscles leads to respiratory failure and death. A separate class of nerve agents are related to Tetrodotoxin, frequently abbreviated as TTX, is a potent neurotoxin with no known antidote. Tetrodotoxin blocks action potentials in nerves by binding to the voltage-gated, fast sodium channels in nerve cell membranes, essentially preventing any affected nerve cells from firing by blocking the channels used in the process. ...
FSA chemical weapons threats made good in Khan al Asal. Syrias request for UN investigation was sabotaged by Member States France & UK The long history of FSA chemical weapons threats against the Syrian Arab Republic began in December 2012. This first was not covered by fake, war pimping msm that consistently engages in crimes…
Page 17 of 20 - Chemical weapon attack in Syria - posted in General Chat: QUOTE (GTAvanja @ Wednesday, Sep 4 2013, 14:45) This whole situation is ridiculous. So the international community doesnt care that Assad was killing thousands of his own people. No one did. But then Obama goes to say well, if he uses chemical weapons, thats a red flag. And lo and behold thats exactly what happened a week later. No one said a damn thing when Israel did it. Its like a scr...
A hundred years ago, on 22 April, poison gas was first used in warfare. Though about 95% of casualties in WW1 were caused by explosives, sickness and malnutrition, there is a peculiar horror associated with the use of chemical weapons. It is also true that, apart from isolated examples, WW1 was the only instance of…
A plasma decon chamber has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Albuquerque, NM, to study the decontamination of chemical and biologi
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The AquaFlex® Open-Cell foam technology has been adapted for use as a high surface area, disinfectant-infused foam Sponge and mitt to help mitigate the risk of human infection from COVID-19 and other pathogens from surfaces.. For more information go to https://aquaflexbiosolutions.com. The concept of infusing the AquaFlex Sponge to mitigate or neutralize exposure to dangerous chemicals and pathogens is not new.. In 2002, the FDA initially cleared a device consisting of a lotion-impregnated AquaFlex® Sponge. The AquaFlex® Sponge serves as the backbone for this Class II medical device that removes or neutralizes chemical warfare agents and T-2 toxin from the skin. Decontamination occurs by physical removal of the chemical warfare agent from the skin or by chemical neutralization. The lotion-impregnated Sponge removes toxins from the skin to allow for neutralization to occur within the Sponge.. In 2003, the FDA stated in a press release:. ...
Exposure to NM also caused long-term changes in iris appearance and structure. In the early postinjury period, dilation of iris vessels, iris stromal hemorrhages, and an inflammatory anterior chamber reaction were present. It was difficult, however, to quantify these findings accurately behind the edematous and opaque cornea. As corneal condition stabilized (usually within 7 to 14 days), it was possible to observe areas of iris pigmentation as well as atrophy in NM-exposed eyes (Fig. 3A) that were not present in noninjured fellow eyes (Fig. 3B) . These changes were much less severe in NM-exposed eyes treated with Zn/DFO (Fig. 3C) . The iris pigmentation score at 4 weeks after injury was significantly reduced (by ,60%) in Zn/DFO-treated eyes compared with saline-treated eyes (Fig. 3D) . Again, treatment with each component of the complex separately (i.e., ZnCl2 and DFO) showed a trend for reduction in severity that did not reach statistical significance (Fig. 3D ; exemplified also in Fig. 4 ). To ...
These molecules could be used in the detection of chemical warfare agents.. A family of fluorescent dye molecules has been developed for use in on-off fluorescence detection of specific chemicals. By themselves, these molecules do not fluoresce. However, when exposed to certain chemical analytes in liquid or vapor forms, they do fluoresce (see figure). These compounds are amenable to fixation on or in a variety of substrates for use in fluorescence-based detection devices: they can be chemically modified to anchor them to porous or non-porous solid supports or can be incorporated into polymer films. Potential applications for these compounds include detection of chemical warfare agents, sensing of acidity or alkalinity, and fluorescent tagging of proteins in pharmaceutical research and development. These molecules could also be exploited for use as two-photon materials for photodynamic therapy in the treatment of certain cancers and other diseases. Read more: ...
Briefly describing the main issues in chemical agent storage and disposal, and summarising the role that Markes thermal desorption technologies can play.
Quinn also considered the existence of a fourth domain in AChE, which binds to cationic substrates. This domain is located near the ridge of the gorge, more than 20 Å away from the active site, and is denominated peripheral anionic site. The binding of ligands to this peripheral site frequently causes conformational changes in the active site. These four domains act in a concerted way, resulting in the complex reaction dynamics that characterize AChE.28,53. As mentioned before, the enzymatic hydrolysis of ACh involves nucleophilic additions and acid-base reactions, and is based mainly on the action of the triad catalytic residues. The proposed mechanism most consistent with available experimental data consists of two nucleophilic attacks and two proton-transfers, with a covalent acyl-enzyme intermediate. In TcAChE, His-440 abstracts a proton from Ser-200, forming a nucleophile Ser-O- that attacks the ACh molecule, generating a tetrahedral adduct as intermediate. The protonated His-440 is ...
Practical advice, tutorials, and peer-reviewed research on liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC), mass spectrometry (MS) and related techniques.
In an advance that could be used in masks to protect against nerve gas, scientists are reporting development of proteins that are up to 15,000 times more effective than their natural
The White House Office of the Press Secretary ________________________________________________________________ For Immediate Release November 14, 1994 Executive Order #12938 - - - - - - - Proliferation Of Weapons Of Mass Destruction By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.), the National Emergencies Act (50 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.), the Arms Export Control Act, as amended (22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.), Executive Orders Nos. 12851 and 12924, and section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I, William J. Clinton, President of the United States of America, find that the proliferation of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and of the means of delivering such weapons, constitutes an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States, and hereby declare a national ...
My research may not be what you expect when you hear neuroscience. I work on developing treatments against the chemical weapons known as nerve agents.
This fact, as well as the increasing availability of advanced biotechnologies, contributes to a growing threat. Furthermore, the taboo against developing and using banned biological weapons is eroding. In recent years, Syria, Russia, and North Korea have employed prohibited chemical weapons in brazen attacks in Syria, the United Kingdom, Malaysia, and last summer against Russian dissident Alexei Navalny in Siberia. Although these were not biological attacks, a country that develops and uses horrific chemical weapons seems unlikely to respect the parallel taboo against bioweapons. We need to strengthen the Chemical Weapons and Biological Weapons Conventions and make pariah countries that wantonly violate them pay a heavy price.. Biological weapons are not an abstract concept. Twenty-five years ago, I led a secret U.S. visit to the worlds largest biological weapons factory, just over the Russian border in the formerly secret town of Stepnogorsk, Kazakhstan. The Soviet Union built this massive ...
Well done, President Trump, for preventing Assad from killing his people with chemical weapons, but everyone is asking, What about explosive barrels, cluster bombs, and others...? Arent they also weapons of mass destruction? What about the siege on the isolated villages and towns, starving them with the intention of displacing their people on the basis of ethnic cleansing? What about the Assad prisons packed with tens of thousands of innocent people, and the hanging and death under torture that takes place daily in the cellars of those Nazi camps? Isnt it the same as the weapons of mass destruction ...
Abstract Chemical warfare agents such as organophosphorus nerve agents, mustard agents, and psychotomimetic agent like 3quinuclidinylbenzilate degrade in the environment and form acidic degradation products, the analysis of which is difficult under normal analytical conditions. In the present work, a simultaneous extraction and derivatization...
The United States has found 500 chemical weapons in Iraq since 2003, and more weapons of mass destruction are likely to be uncovered, two Republican
Allowability of Costs Claimed for Reimbursement Under Floridas Bioterrorism Hospital Preparedness Program for the Period September 1, 2004, Through August 31, 2006
The House of Representatives passed a budget measure that would cut the federal Hospital Preparedness Program by $185 million, a 44 percent reduction from last years budget.
A generation ago, biological weapons were called germ-warfare weapons. Biological weapons are very different from chemical weapons. A chemical weapon is a poison that kills upon contact with the skin. Bioweapons are microorganisms, bacteria or viruses, that invade the body, multiply inside it, and destroy it. Bioweapons can be used as strategic weapons. That is, they are incredibly powerful and dangerous. They can kill huge numbers of people if they are used properly, and their effects are not limited to one place or a small target. Chemical weapons, on the other hand, can be used only tactically. It is virtually impossible to put enough of a chemical in the air in a high enough concentration to wipe out a large number of people over a large territory. And chemicals are not alive and can not spread through an infectious process. There are two basic types of biological weapons, those that are contagious and those that are not. Anthrax is not contagious: people dont spread it among themselves; ...
JERUSALEM - Human Rights Watch said Sunday that Israels military has fired artillery shells with the Chemical Weapon White Phosphorus into Gaza and Medics in Gaza say the latest casualties include at least 60 people affected by suspected phosphorus shells fired ILLEGALLY near civilian areas with burn victims having skin peeling off their faces and bodies ...
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Chemical weapons are still a threat, although banned All lethal chemical weapons were banned by the Chemical Weapons Convention of 1997, which has been signed by nearly every country in the world. However, the recent use of chemical weapons in Syria shows that they remain a threat. The use of such weapons by terrorist groups is also possible and...
Natural News) When we think of weapons of war, most of us typically think about machine guns, frag grenades or bulletproof tanks. But in 2017, manmade machines arent the only type of weapon that is being used by various nations to harm their enemies.. Just days ago, President Donald Trump left the United States for a 12-day tour of various nations in Asia. During his visit to Beijing, Trump plans on addressing Chinas production and distribution of the synthetic opioid known as Fentanyl, which is considered by the DEA to be one of the most dangerous types of narcotics due to its cheap price, widespread use, addictive quality and its devastating effects. Considering the fact that the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission has called the problem Chinas deadly export to the United States, President Trump should be praised for speaking out about it on his tour of Asia. Indeed, forcing Chinas hand on the production and distribution of Fentanyl is the right thing to do.. Known as ...
but jon, you forget that war is good for the economy, dont you want to be a rich american slob? i sure do. and i did try to read everthing but you used up my atention span. one point i would like to argue, you said it yourself, we know iraq has weapons of mass destruction because we sold them during that iraq-iran war mostly because we didnt like rusia or something. and, we know that sadam doesnt like us. so i got a nice little analogy-lets say some guy has a gun and doesnt like you. what are you going to do? option A- do nothing and have a small risk of being shot, or option B-BLOW UP HIS HOUSE. personally id go with option b. then you can go over to his house and steel his oil. well not reall but you get the idea ...
Chemical warfare is ongoing every day in the U.S. and many other countries. Waging this chemical warfare keeps our foods, medicines and homes safe.
By Samuel Burke, CNN Evidence of chemical weapons use gets harder to find with each passing day in Syria. The Assad regime is blocking U.N. special investigators from entering the country as the Obama administration continues to seek concrete proof.
By Samuel Burke, CNN Evidence of chemical weapons use gets harder to find with each passing day in Syria. The Assad regime is blocking U.N. special investigators from entering the country as the Obama administration continues to seek concrete proof.
Chemical warfare agent detection[edit]. As part of the post-September 11 drive towards increased capability in homeland ... Chemical ionization[edit]. Main article: Chemical ionization. In chemical ionization a reagent gas, typically methane or ... "Chemical Heritage Magazine. 29 (1). Retrieved 22 March 2018.. *^ Webb-Halpern, Leah (2008). "Detecting Success". Chemical ... mass spectrometers have been modified for field portability and near real-time detection of chemical warfare agents (CWA) such ...
Palazzo, A. (2000). Seeking Victory on the Western Front: The British Army and Chemical Warfare in World War I (Bison Books ... ISBN 978-0-8032-8774-7. Fries, A. A.; West, C. J. (1921). Chemical Warfare. New York: McGraw-Hill. OCLC 570125. Retrieved 23 ... Helmets impregnated with chemicals to neutralise chlorine had been issued in several variants, each more effective than the ... 1923). Medical Services: Diseases of the War: Including the Medical Aspects of Aviation and Gas Warfare and Gas Poisoning in ...
Chemical Warfare. Chapter 12. Sighting and Ranging. The Navy's Future Weapons. Laughlin, Charlotte; Daniel J. H. Levack (1983 ...
Macabe, Bob (1998). "Chemical Warfare". Sight and Sound. 8: 6-8 - via Sight and Sound digital archive. McCabe, Bob (December ...
Chemical warfare. McGraw-Hill book company, inc. p. 144. http://termitetenting.com/ Chloropicrin in the Pesticide Properties ... more toxic chemical gases used as weapons during the war. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. "#0132". National Institute ... Its chemical structural formula is Cl3CNO2. Chloropicrin was discovered in 1848 by Scottish chemist John Stenhouse. He prepared ... While not as lethal as other chemical weapons, it caused vomiting and forced Allied soldiers to remove their masks to vomit, ...
Shawkey, Matthew D.; Pillai, Shreekumar R.; Hill, Geoffrey E. (2003). "Chemical warfare? Effects of uropygial oil on feather- ... A few species are able to use chemical defences against predators; some Procellariiformes can eject an unpleasant stomach oil ... Revis, Hannah C.; Waller, Deborah A. (2004). "Bactericidal and fungicidal activity of ant chemicals on feather parasites: an ... chemical defense in birds?". Science. 258 (5083): 799-801. Bibcode:1992Sci...258..799D. doi:10.1126/science.1439786. PMID ...
Chemical Warfare. Read. pp. 148-49, 407. ISBN 978-1-4437-3840-8.. International Chemical Safety Card 0953 Use in glass industry ... Stannic chloride was used as a chemical weapon in World War I, as it formed an irritating (but non-deadly) dense smoke on ... Stannic chloride is used in chemical reactions with fuming (90%) nitric acid for the selective nitration of activated aromatic ...
"Chemical Warfare". AllMusic. Retrieved May 15, 2010. "Before I Self Destruct". AllMusic. Retrieved May 15, 2010. "40 Glocc - I ...
Shawkey, Matthew D.; Pillai, Shreekumar R.; Hill, Geoffrey E. (2003). "Chemical warfare? Effects of uropygial oil on feather- ... Insects used for anting secrete chemical liquids such as formic acid, which can act as insecticides, miticides, fungicides and ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) CWS Barker (1926). "Gas mask development". Chemical Warfare. 12 (7): 11-15. Archived ... "Apparatus Of Gas Warfare". The Western Front Association. Archived from the original on July 27, 2009. Retrieved 2011-10-17. ... The Riddle of the Rhine: Chemical Strategy in Peace and War, Victor LeFebure, at Project Gutenberg "History of the U.S. Army's ... Rather than having a separate filter for removing the toxic chemicals, they consisted of a gas-permeable hood worn over the ...
Shawkey, M. D.; Pillai, S. R.; Hill, G. E. (2003). "Chemical warfare? Effects of uropygial oil on feather-degrading bacteria" ( ... Polly want a pigment? Cracking the chemical code to red coloration in parrots. Australian Birdkeeper Magazine 18:608-611. DeMeo ... Revis, Hannah C.; Deborah A. Waller (2004). "Bactericidal and fungicidal activity of ant chemicals on feather parasites: an ...
Palazzo, A. (2003) [2000]. Seeking Victory on the Western Front: The British Army and Chemical Warfare in World War I (repr. ... ISBN 978-3-8174-6605-4. Fries, A. A.; West, C. J. (1921). Chemical Warfare. New York: McGraw-Hill. OCLC 570125. Retrieved 21 ... Spiers, E. M. (1988) [1986]. Chemical Warfare (2nd ed.). London: Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-333-47610-9. Hoffmann, Klaus (1993). ... Brauch, Hans Günter (1982). Der chemische Alptraum, oder, gibt es einen C-Waffen-Krieg in Europa? [The Chemical Nightmare, or, ...
ISBN 978-0-323-35868-2. OCLC 982188831.CS1 maint: others (link) Sarah Everts (January 31, 2011). "Vegetative Warfare". Chemical ...
"Boozy Burps; and Chemical Warfare". The Guardian. 17 October 2005. Retrieved 20 September 2020. "OM-PSG : tacles, coups bas, ...
Sobotnik, Jan; Jirosova, Anna; Hanus, Robert (September 2010). "Chemical warfare in termites". Journal of Insect Physiology. 56 ... Prestwich, Glenn D. (May 1979). "Chemical Defense by Termite Soldiers". Journal of Chemical Ecology. 5 (3): 459-480. doi: ... It operates by a chemical reaction triggered when the termite contracts its mandibular muscles. The termite is "able to eject ... Its Chemical Composition, and Use in Defense". Psyche. 81 (1): 167-177. doi:10.1155/1974/13854. Prestwich, Glenn D. (August ...
Chemical warfare platoon 1. District detachment of Guardia di Finanza Footnotes An Italian Infantry Division normally consisted ...
"Chemical Warfare in Australia". Plunkett, Geoff (2007). Chemical warfare in Australia. Australian Military History Publications ... Of particular concern was whether Japan would use chemical weapons as it had in China. Australia requested chemical warfare ... Industrial scale production or bulk manufacturing of chemical warfare agents did not and has not taken place within Australia, ... 1 CR acted as a central depot for chemical and non chemical stocks and as a replenishment centre for NSW. The location of the ...
As a response to a possible Japanese chemical warfare threat the RAAF imported hundreds of thousands of chemical weapons into ... "Chemical Warfare in Australia". Geoff Plunkett. Archived from the original on 11 September 2009. Retrieved 24 July 2009. Dennis ... air lift and aerial refuelling capability Air Warfare Centre - information warfare, intelligence and capability development ... The Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF), formed in March 1921, is the aerial warfare branch of the Australian Defence Force (ADF ...
Judson, Chemical and Biological Warfare, p. 68 "Bert Stokes remembers Passchendaele". New Zealand History Online. New Zealand ... Evidence exists that the Germans used horses in their experimentations with chemical and biological warfare. German agents in ... ISBN 978-0-275-98726-8. Judson, Karen (2003). Chemical and Biological Warfare. Open for Debate. Marshall Cavendish. ISBN 0-7614 ... generally the mode of warfare changed. Tanks were beginning to take over the role of shock combat. The use of trench warfare, ...
Šobotník, Jan; Jirošová, Anna; Hanus, Robert (2010). "Chemical warfare in termites". Journal of Insect Physiology. 56 (9): 1012 ... Cylindricus Complex)". Journal of Chemical Ecology. 30 (8): 1479-1492. doi:10.1023/b:joec.0000042063.01424.28. ISSN 0098-0331. ...
U.S. Army Chemical Materials Agency. "Miscellaneous Chemical Warfare Materiel". Archived from the original on 2007-08-08. ... The United States Army has used ton containers to store and ship bulk chemicals, including chemical agent, since the 1930s. Ton ... containers are also used to store chemicals in water treatment plants. ...
Croddy, Eric C.; Hart, C. Perez-Armendariz J. (2002). Chemical and Biological Warfare. Springer. pp. 30-31. ISBN 0-387-95076-1 ... The United States ended its biological warfare program in 1969. When it did, C. burnetii was one of seven agents it had ... ISBN 1-57356-217-3. "In contrast to other rickettsiae, which are highly sensitive and easily killed by chemical disinfectants ...
Chemical Warfare in Australia. Department of Defence. Retrieved 27 September 2018. Plunkett, Geoff. "Home page". Chemical ... Walker, Frank (20 January 2008). "Deadly chemicals hidden in war cache". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 27 September 2018 ... Warfare in Australia. Department of Defence. Retrieved 27 September 2018. Dunn, Peter. "CRASH OF AN AVRO ANSON AT GLENBROOK, ...
Leo M. van Westerhoven (2007). "The Fuchs NBC reconnaissance system is getting a makeover". Chemical Biological Warfare Review ... It feeds on a target's unintended emissive by-products, the "trails" - the spectral, chemical or RF that an object leaves ... Detecting shallow-water and beach mines remains a challenge, since mine warfare is a deadly "poor man's weapon." While initial ... Magnetic Anomaly Detection (MAD) is used in antisubmarine warfare, for final localization before attack. The existence of the ...
... the Chemical Warfare Corps; and tactical missile (longer range surface-to-surface missile forces), which may be part of the ... Aboul-Enein, Youssef (2004-01-01). "The Egyptian-Yemen War: Egyptian Perspectives on Guerrilla Warfare". Infantry Magazine (Jan ... the Signal Corps and Electronic Warfare forces; the Engineering Corps; the Medical Corps, whose field units' status in the ...
Plunkett, Geoff (n.d.). "Depots: Glenbrook Tunnel". Chemical Warfare in Australia. Retrieved 14 May 2020. "Wildwalks". AU-NS: ... During 1943 to 1946 the 660-metre-long (2,165 ft) Glenbrook tunnel stored chemical weapons, mainly of bulk drums of mustard. ...
"Chemical Warfare - The Alchemist". AllMusic. Retrieved September 21, 2012. "Popular Demand by K. Sparks & Pajozo". iTunes Store ...
"Australian supervised". Chemical Warfare in Australia. Geoff Plunkett. 2011. Archived from the original on 28 January 2012. ... were used to store chemical weapons for the Royal Australian Air Force. Principally mustard gas and phosgene, the chemical ...
... chemical, biological warfare entities; formulation of [global] problems, threats and treaties entities; ethical committees for ... Bartfai is an expert on the detection, destruction and decontamination of chemical and biological weapons, and the immediate ... Research on the coexistence of classical transmitters and neuropeptides, and frequency-dependent chemical coding led to Bartfai ... Theory and Application for a similar patent application on the technology Antibody coated crystal chemical sensor[dead link] ...
"Iraq events - Chemical warfare". BBC News. Retrieved 4 May 2010. Hirst, David (22 March 1988). "The Kurdish victims caught ... At least 5,000 people died as an immediate result of the chemical attack and it is estimated that a further 7,000 people were ... The town and surrounding district were attacked with bombs, artillery fire and chemical weapons, the last of which proved most ... A memorial was also constructed for the victims of the chemical attacks. However, residents of Halabja have complained about ...
Of those going on active duty, most enter the Navy as Naval Aviators, Naval Flight Officers, Surface Warfare Officers, ... former Deputy Director Expeditionary Warfare; Commander, Joint Task Force, Guantanamo; Commanding Officer USS Carney (DDG-64) ...
It has the potential to be weaponised for use in biological warfare,[226][227] and was investigated by Biopreparat for such use ... Viral replication triggers high levels of inflammatory chemical signals and leads to a septic state.[38] ...
Ledgard, Jared (2006). A Laboratory History of Chemical Warfare Agents. Lulu.com. ISBN 978-0615136455. .. p. 82. ... Cyanogen is the chemical compound with the formula (CN)2. It is a colorless, toxic gas with a pungent odor. The molecule is a ... "Chemical Entities of Biological Interest. UK: European Bioinformatics Institute. 27 October 2006. Main. Retrieved 6 June 2012. ... Brotherton, T. K.; Lynn, J. W. (1959). "The Synthesis And Chemistry Of Cyanogen". Chemical Reviews. 59 (5): 841-883. doi: ...
Chemical Warfare Secrets Almost Forgotton. A Personal Story of Medical Testing of Army Volunteers with Incapacitating Chemical ... Possible Long-Term Health Effects of Short-Term Exposure to Chemical Agents, Volume 1 (1982). Commission on Life Sciences. The ...
Chemical depilatory untuk pemindahan rambut: Pada abad ke-9, Ziryab mengajar para wanita di Al-Andalus "pembentukan bulu mata ... memakai pakaian who fireproof untuk melindungi diri mereka dari api-api gunpowder dan juga kimia-kimia dalam gunpowder warfare ... Ahmad Y Hassan (1987), "Chemical Technology in Arabic Military Treatises", Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, New York ... "Transfer Of Islamic Technology To The West, Part III: Technology Transfer in the Chemical Industries". History of Science and ...
Chemical activation: The carbon material is impregnated with certain chemicals. The chemical is typically an acid, strong base, ... Chemical purification[edit]. Activated carbon is commonly used on the laboratory scale to purify solutions of organic molecules ... Some of the chemical properties of activated carbon have been attributed to presence of the surface active carbon double bond.[ ... "WO18194533 METHOD FOR CHEMICAL MODIFICATION OF FLUORINATED CARBONS WITH SULFUR-CONTAINING SUBSTANCE". patentscope.wipo.int. ...
Huizenga 1993, p. viii "Enhancing the probability of a nuclear reaction by 50 orders of magnitude (...) via the chemical ... United States Navy researchers at the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center (SPAWAR) in San Diego have been studying cold ... Researchers working at the U.S. Navy's Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center (SPAWAR) reported detection of energetic neutrons ... "Cold fusion' rebirth? New evidence for existence of controversial energy source", American Chemical Society. ...
Warfare. *Trench warfare. *Chemical weapons. *Naval warfare *Convoy system. *Air warfare *Strategic bombing ... The land warfare was accompanied by naval engagements in the Black Sea. ...
High levels of organic chemicals accumulate in these animals since they are high in the food chain. They have large reserves of ...
Endicott, S. L.; Hageman, E. (1998). The United States and Biological Warfare: Secrets from the Early Cold War and Korea. ... Pyriproxyfen is recommended as a chemical larvicide, mainly because it is safe for humans and effective even in small doses.[4] ...
... where mustard gas and other chemical weapons were used. People were afraid that chemical and biological warfare could have ... It permanently bans the use of all forms of chemical and biological warfare.[11] The agreement was signed after World War I, ... Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare. Washington, D.C.: Office of the Surgeon General at TMM Publications. pp. ... Nerve gas or nerve agent is the name of a family of chemical poisons. Usually people call them nerve agents (they are not ...
Turing's 1952 paper, On the Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis,[26] gave a chemical and physical basis for many of the patterns ... remarkable during a century of near-constant warfare between the two nations. The work was written up in three papers in ... Turing, A. M. (1952). "The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological ... to denote a chemical species that modulates the growth of a species. ...
These chemical signatures reflect long-term dietary patterns, rather than a single meal or feast. Stable isotope analysis ... Andrushko, Valerie A.; Schwitalla, Al W.; Walker, Phillip L. (2010). "Trophy-Taking and Dismemberment as Warfare Strategies in ... Milner, George R. "An Osteological Perspective on Prehistoric Warfare." Regional Approaches to Mortuary Analysis. Ed. Beck, ... Including intimate partner violence, child abuse, institutional abuse, torture, warfare, human sacrifice, and structural ...
... a shift in military interest in cyber warfare has motivated the creation of the first U.S. Cyber Warfare Intelligence Center.[ ... "US Air Force Prepares For Cyber Warfare". Space Daily.. *^ "US needs 'digital warfare force'". BBC News. 5 May 2009. Retrieved ... Reportedly, this is in response to North Korea's creation of a cyber warfare unit.[53] In addition, the British GCHQ has begun ... Others have also discussed the creation of a cyber-warfare branch.[40][41] Lieutenant Colonel Gregory Conti[42] and Colonel ...
As the city was captured and occupied early in the war, it was spared the destruction through warfare suffered by many other ... Dow Chemical Company, Bridgeline, FMP, Tejas, Texaco, UTP).[132] Several energy companies have regional headquarters in the ... Other large governmental installations include the U.S. Navy's Space and Naval Warfare (SPAWAR) Systems Command, located within ...
Recruits are sent to the "gas chamber" during Phase I, as part of training for defensive chemical warfare. They are also ... Drills, First aid and chemical warfare, PT and obstacle course, First weapon qualification (FAMAS, pistol and grenade), Signals ... including protection against biological and chemical attack, basic marksmanship on the M16 rifle as well as first aid). ... warfare command and strategy, and associated technologies. ...
Uptake of chemicals into an organism can take place by breathing, absorbing through skin or swallowing.[7] When the ... Bioaccumulation is the gradual accumulation of substances, such as pesticides or other chemicals, in an organism.[1] ... The presence of various chemicals and harmful substances in the environment can be analyzed and assessed with a proper ... Wetland acidification can raise the chemical or metal concentrations which lead to an increased bioavailability in marine ...
143:74-9. [1] "Chemical Warfare in World War I". webharvest.gov. Archived from the original on 2004-10-17. Retrieved 2016-06-13 ... 51:98-107 Lazarus AA, Devereaux A. (2002) Potential agents of chemical warfare. Worst-case scenario protection and ... Sulfur mustard was used as a chemical weapon in World War I and more recently in the Iran-Iraq War. Sulfur mustard is a ... Some chemicals generate metabolic byproducts that could be used for diagnosis, but detection of these byproducts may not be ...
Harvest of Death: Chemical Warfare in Vietnam and Cambodia. New York: Free Press; 1972. ... "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards #0583". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).. ... 5-T contaminates this chemical with trace amounts of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). TCDD is a carcinogenic ... IARC considers the chlorophenoxyacetic acids group of chemicals as possibly carcinogenic to humans.[7] In 1963 a production ...
Educated in the fundamentals of maneuver warfare, tactics, combined arms, and the time-tested principles of battle ... Marine Corps Chemical Biological Incident Response Force, Marine Corps Security Force Regiment, or the Marine Corps Embassy ...
"Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons. Retrieved 20 November 2011.. *^ "Hazard Communication". US Department of ... which bans the use of all riot control agents in warfare whether lethal or less-than-lethal.[22] In the US, when pepper spray ... Pepper spray (also known as capsicum spray) is a lachrymatory agent (a chemical compound that irritates the eyes to cause tears ... The active ingredient in pepper spray is capsaicin, which is a chemical derived from the fruit of plants in the genus Capsicum ...
"Chemical research at the Institut Pasteur," Journal of Chemical Education, (1926) 3#11, p 1217+ DOI: 10.1021/ed003p1217 ... The First World War involved science in warfare: a movement of active participation arose among researchers who felt the need ... Duclaux work in the chemical biology departmentEdit. The work done in the new pavilion by Duclaux clarified how the human body ... was used to build a vast pavilion that accommodated the Department of Chemical Biology of the Institute.[1]:118 ...
Croddy, Eric (2002). Chemical and biological warfare: a comprehensive survey for the concerned citizen. Springer. p. 128. ISBN ... Merck Index of Chemicals and Drugs, 9th edition monograph 1650 *^ Miller, M. Michael (2007). "Lime". Minerals Yearbook (PDF). U ... Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound. It is a white, caustic, ... Zumdahl, Steven S. (2009). Chemical Principles 6th Ed. Houghton Mifflin Company. p. A21. ISBN 978-0-618-94690-7. .. ...
He was well known for his superior skills in warfare. He was killed by Rama. ... which is a dialogue between the king of Lanka and his wife Mandodhari about which herbs and chemicals can be used in a mixture ...
Considering that you are the South american early 20th century naval warfare guru, I thought that you would be able to spice ... The field of halogen and organofluorine chemistry was poorly understood until around 1942, when the chemists, chemical ...
... s are known to communicate through many different chemicals and odors, as is common in insects. They also rely on a ...
... biological and chemical warfare laboratories cooperated closely with Allied counterparts.[10] In 1944, Chalmers Mackenzie and ...
Four aircraft converted as Nuclear, biological and chemical warfare reconnaissance versions of the An-24B, carrying RR8311-100 ... To assist in the development of advanced optical, chemical, sonic, infra-red and electromagnetic detection systems, several ...
Targeting can be due to the chemical properties of the isotope such as radioiodine which is specifically absorbed by the ...
Martin's Press (2003) argues that recurring famines have been the major cause of warfare since paleolithic times. ISBN 0-312- ... stating that these new high-yielding crops require more chemical fertilizers and pesticides, which can harm the environment.[ ... with intensive agriculture such as groundwater overdrafting and overuse of pesticides and other agricultural chemicals. ... may be worsened by natural climate fluctuations and by extreme political conditions related to oppressive government or warfare ...
While limited use of chemicals and disease in warfare dates from ancient times, the origins of modern chemical and biological ... CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WARFARE. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WARFARE. While limited use of chemicals and disease in warfare dates ... The term chemical warfare came into use with the gas warfare of World War I, and modern biological warfare dates from the ... In 1932, chemical warfare preparedness became U.S. military policy.. The use of gas warfare in the 1930s by Italy in Ethiopia, ...
A chemical weapon agent (CWA) is a chemical substance whose toxic properties are used to kill, injure or incapacitate human ... The names and number of categories varies slightly from source to source, but in general, types of chemical warfare agents are ... About 70 different chemicals have been used or stockpiled as chemical weapon agents during the 20th century. These agents may ... A blister agent is a chemical compound that irritates and causes injury to the skin. These substances also attack the eyes, or ...
chemical warfare type of warfare that involves using the toxic properties of chemical substances as weapons ... Chemical sensors, oxygen tanks, and other equipment sit inside a case during a joint chemical warfare training by U.S. Soldiers ... Chemical attack, Chemical warfare (th); Chemické zbrane (sk); Kemorelv (et); Gassangrep (nb); Hemijski rat, Hemijsko ratovanje ... Media in category "Chemical warfare". The following 76 files are in this category, out of 76 total. ...
... military has been accused of exposing service members and the public to chemical and biological warfare agents and simulants. ... New Site Details Chemical Warfare, LSD Tests. For decades, the U.S. military has been accused of exposing service members and ... the public to chemical and biological warfare agents and simulants. Fears have been stoked by the Cold Wars Shipboard Hazard ... And even today, theres nothing quite as good as the traditional CB warfare agents developed during the Cold War. It could save ...
... including chemical warfare agents) at sea was common. Commercial fishing, clamming, and dredging operations can stir up these ... Chemical protective suit that provide protection against chemical warfare agents (such as a suit made out of Tychem® F, Tychem ... Closing U.S. Chemical Warfare Agent Disposal Facilities. *CDC Participation in the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness ... Chemical-resistant outer gloves that provide protection against chemical warfare agents (such as butyl rubber, Viton® HPS/Butyl ...
A chemical used in warfare is called a chemical warfare agent (CWA). About 70 different chemicals have been used or stockpiled ... Although crude chemical warfare has been employed in many parts of the world for thousands of years, "modern" chemical warfare ... Chemical warfare (CW) involves using the toxic properties of chemical substances as weapons. This type of warfare is distinct ... The Chemical Warfare Service: From Laboratory to Field (1959); and B. E. Kleber and D. Birdsell, The Chemical Warfare Service ...
... hundreds of Israeli schoolchildren pulled tight the straps of their gas masks Tuesday in a simulation of a chemical ... The army has become more concerned that Arab countries will wage chemical warfare against Israel since such weapons have been ... "There is a growing threat of chemical warfare, mainly from Syria," Lt. Col. Mordechai, civil defense coordinator for Israeli ... an Israeli school and part of a recent series of measures taken by the army to prepare civilians for possible chemical warfare. ...
... its Chemical Warfare because the first album was 1st Infantry and this is a futuristic version. Chemical Warfare is the type ... Chemical Warfare is the second studio album by American hip hop producer and recording artist the Alchemist. The album was ... "Alchemist: Mixing Dangerous Chemicals". BallerStatus.com. Archived from the original on 3 December 2008. Retrieved 8 March 2015 ...
This soldier claims to have been taught chemical warfare in Kabul. He also says a Soviet helicopter pilot once ordered him to ... Amid charges and countercharges about the use of chemical warfare in Afghanistan, new evidence points an accusing finger at ... Both Western and neutral analysts still lack the necessary tangible proof to put the clincher on the chemical warfare ... Earlier this year the US State Department maintained that more than 3,000 Afghans had suffered from chemical warfare attacks. ...
... suggesting the toxic chemicals in the butts may deter the parasites ... Is this a cigarette habit with some benefits? A species of urban bird seems to harness the toxic chemicals in cigarette butts ... Initial evidence hinted that nicotine and other chemicals in the butts might help deter insect pests from moving into the nests ... Birds use cigarette butts for chemical warfare against ticks. Life 26 June 2017 By Natasha Khaleeq ...
... chemical weapons elimination program. This page links to chemical warfare agent exposure limits for GA, GB, VX, H, HD, and ... Closing U.S. Chemical Warfare Agent Disposal Facilities. *CDC Participation in the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness ... History of U.S. Chemical Weapons Elimination. * Methods Used to Destroy Chemical Warfare Agents ... CDC recommends exposure limits for chemical warfare agents. These exposure limits protect workers and the general population. ...
... suggesting the toxic chemicals in the butts may deter the parasites ... Is this a cigarette habit with some benefits? A species of urban bird seems to harness the toxic chemicals in cigarette butts ... Initial evidence hinted that nicotine and other chemicals in the butts might help deter insect pests from moving into the nests ...
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The latter constitute biological warfare. History of Chemical Warfare The use of chemicals in warfare began centuries ago, when ... Chemical Warfare Agents There are several classes of chemical warfare agents, based on their effects: * compounds that cause ... Chemical warfare involves the aggressive use of bulk chemicals that cause death or grave injury. These chemicals are different ... Modern Day Chemical Warfare In 2003, the use of chemical weapons remains a threat from rogue states and terrorists. Current ...
... Wednesday, August 10, 2011 By Marjorie Cohn, Truthout , News Analysis ... Compensate Victims of US Chemical Warfare in Vietnam Wednesday, August 10, 2011 By Marjorie Cohn, Truthout , News Analysis ... Today marks the 50th anniversary of the start of the chemical warfare program in Vietnam without sufficient remedial action by ... Today marks the 50th anniversary of the start of the chemical warfare program in Vietnam without sufficient remedial action by ...
The most deadly of chemical warfare agents, one drop of nerve gas can kill a person within a minute. Death comes through ... A cyanide-based chemical weapon also used during World War I, this is a rapid killer thats easily dispersed. Its known as a ... After an antidote was found during World War II, the Army decided that it wasnt as useful as other chemical weapons.. PHOSGENE ... It was the most common type of chemical weapon dumped. It was dumped in 1-ton canisters and artillery shells for decades. ...
Analysis of Chemical Warfare Degradation Products. Karolin K. Kroening, Renee N. Easter, Douglas D. Richardson, Stuart A. ... "The strength of the book "Analysis of chemical warfare degradation products" is that it gives a short introduction to CWAs in ... At the University of Cincinnati her research focused on the identification and cytotoxicity of chemical warfare agent ... Research areas include water protection and indoor/outdoor decontamination as well as method development of chemical warfare ...
... is being warned not to use its stockpiles of chemical weapons. Back in the early days of the blog, I did a series on the ... Chemical Warfare in Syria?. By Derek Lowe. December 5, 2012. Its a grim topic, but I see that there are worries that the ... Many Japanese medical doctors and scientists who implemented the chemical and biological warfare programs in China were never ... The Syrian government also claims to have chemical weapons (err, chemical or biological, but thats obviously a deliberate ...
Injury from chemical weapon agents, known as CWAs, may result from industrial accidents, military stockpiling, war, or a ... Heyndrickx A.Chemical warfare injuries.Lancet.Feb 161991;337(8738):430.[Medline].. 6. Holstege CP, Kirk M, Sidell FR.Chemical ... 1. Borak J, Sidell FR.Agents of chemical warfare: sulfur mustard.Ann Emerg Med.Mar1992;21(3):303-8.[Medline].. 2. Brennan RJ, ... Sidell FR, Borak J.Chemical warfare agents: II. Nerve agents.Ann Emerg Med.Jul1992;21(7):865-71.[Medline].. 18. Smith KJ, Hurst ...
... www.greenmedinfo.com/blog/declaring-chemical-warfare-against-alzheimers1 ... The problem, however, is that as is the case with virtually all FDA-approved, novel and patented chemical drugs it is ... As a member of the chemical class known as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors donepezil interferes with the cholinesterase enzyme ... chemical weapons and venom? Quite a lot more than consumers taking them have been lead to believe. ...
... has raised security concerns in Delhi as the chemical can cause large-scale casualties if used in chemical warfare, a scenario ... chemical warfareIndoreIndore attackDrug prohibition lawBiowarIndore terror plotterror attackMorphine ... A team of experienced scientists dealing with protection against chemical and biological warfare were called from the DRDE, a ... "If 4ANPP is not available, Fentanyl can be manufactured using another precursor chemical NPP but it requires advanced skills," ...
The symptoms described by the Kurds do not conform to any known chemical or combination of chemicals. ... In our book Iraqi Power and U.S. Security in the Middle East we questioned whether Iraq had used chemicals against its Kurdish ... as saying the symptoms described by the Kurds do not conform to any known chemical or combination of chemicals. But US ... I accept that in the specific case of Halabja the possibility that the chemical attack came from Iran (which might not have ...
b) Transportation of chemical munitions not in chemical weapons stockpile. In the case of any chemical munitions that are ... Annual report on chemical and biological warfare defense. (a) Report required. The Secretary of Defense shall include in the ... Chemical Warfare Defense. Pub. L. 105-261,. div. A, title II, §247, Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 1956. , provided that:. (a) ... the chemical and biological warfare defense program, and (B) the chemical and biological medical defense program. ...
Written at the height of controversy about the U.S. use of chemicals in Vietnam, Chemical Warfare offers a valuable historical ... In Chemical Warfare, Frederic J. Brown, presents a cogent, innovative framework for understanding the historical forces that ... The author offers a detailed examination of American chemical warfare policy as it was shaped by industry and public sentiment ... Part I examines the use of chemical weapons in World War I as it influenced subsequent national policy decisions. Part II ...
Chemical and biological warfare has been used long before World War One. As early as the Stone Age (4500-2000 BC), arrows were ... Home » war » Chemical warfare used since 4000BC. Chemical warfare used since 4000BC. Chemical and biological warfare has been ... The deadly rally of chemical warfare was on. In 1918 both sides used mustard gas, which seeped through masks, burning skin and ... 1966: Army germ warfare experiment in New York subway system.. 1969: Utah chemical weapons accident kills thousands of sheep; ...
Part IV(B) - Old Chemical Weapons and Abandoned Chemical Weapons * Part V - Destruction of Chemical Weapons Production ... preliminary information on some of the other toxic chemicals that could also be used as chemical warfare agents; a diagram to ... Issues covered for each class of chemical warfare agents include their mechanism of toxicity, signs and symptoms occurring ... Medical Aspects of Assistance and Protection Against Chemical Weapons * Practical Guide for Medical Management of Chemical ...
A new technique based on the same technology used to detect chemical warfare agents and explosives is being employed by ... Chemical warfare agent detection technology used to treat lung disease. 24.01.2006 ... Dr Paul Thomas from the Universitys School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, who is leading the research, said ...
4.3 OPCs as chemical warfare agents. The so-called neurotoxic chemical warfare agents, also known as nerve gases or nerve ... 2. History and Classification of the Chemical War Agents. The expression "chemical warfare", first used in 1917, refers to all ... The employ of chemical warfare in conflicts is strongly objected by the majority of mankind; perhaps only biological warfare ... Despite the widespread adherence to the Chemical Weapons Convention, chemical warfare agents still constitute a threat, due to ...
New Ventilation System to Protect Buildings from Chemical Warfare and Diseases. Researchers are designing a ventilation system ... Superwipe That Decontaminates Spills of Chemical Warfare Agents Developed. Scientists have developed a super-wipe that can ... New Substances a Lot More Powerful in Destroying Chemical Warfare Agents. by Savitha C Muppala on August 10, 2012 at 8:38 PM ... Natural PTE, however, works against only one of the two molecular forms of these chemical warfare agents, and it happens to be ...
  • Chemicals used in CWAs are widely available, and recipes for CWA production may be found on the Internet. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • 6 Chemical warfare agents (CWAs) distinguish themselves from biological warfare agents, since the latter consist of microorganisms which cause diseases in humans, animals or plants, or which deteriorate different materials. (scielo.br)
  • Today, chemical warfare agents (CWAs) may pose a greater hazard to civilians than soldiers. (emra.org)
  • Traditionally used by armies to break a stalemate against relatively defenseless targets (those lacking masks, antidotes, and easy mobility), today, chemical warfare agents (CWAs) may pose a greater hazard to civilians than soldiers. (emra.org)
  • Nanowerk News ) Researchers have created a fabric material containing nanoscale fibers that are capable of degrading chemical warfare agents (CWAs). (nanowerk.com)
  • Current technologies for addressing CWAs rely on carbon-based materials but these carbon materials can only adsorb hazardous compounds, they can t degrade them, says Junjie Zhao, a former Ph.D. student at North Carolina State University and lead author of a paper on the work ( Angewandte Chemie International Edition , 'Ultra-Fast Degradation of Chemical Warfare Agents Using MOF Nanofiber Kebabs' ). (nanowerk.com)
  • Consequently, the main objective of the proposed work is to develop a microwave low-temperature catalytic oxidation system that will effectively decontaminate air containing aerosolized or gaseous chemical agents (CWAs). (sbir.gov)
  • 1.1 This practice establishes an in-vivo method for assessing the comparative efficacy of products used for the decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) on the skin. (astm.org)
  • Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) are substances that can be used to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy in warfare, but also against civilian population in terrorist attacks. (csic.es)
  • Examples include dimethyl methylphosphonate, a precursor to sarin also used as a flame retardant, and thiodiglycol, a precursor chemical used in the manufacture of mustard gas but also widely used as a solvent in inks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Frank Raushel, David Barondeau and colleagues explain that a soil bacterium makes a protein called phosphotriesterase (PTE), which is an enzyme that detoxifies some pesticides and chemical warfare agents like sarin and tabun. (medindia.net)
  • Rebel groups have used chemical weapons in the past, but Moscow's claim that they possess sarin is highly unlikely, says Dr. Dany Shoham. (haaretz.com)
  • Only chemical analysis can categorically identify the chemical, he says, but "the pictures are highly reminiscent of the event in 2013, when Assad's army definitely used sarin and about 1,400 people, including children, died because of it. (haaretz.com)
  • Nanowerk News ) Researchers of the Universitat Polit cnica de Val ncia have developed a prototype of electronic "nose" for the detection of chemical warfare gases, fundamentally nerve gases Sarin, Soman and Tabun ( 'An electronic nose for the detection of Sarin, Soman and Tabun mimics and interfering agents' ). (nanowerk.com)
  • Sarin is a chemical warfare agent belonging to class of compounds called organophosphates -- the basis for insecticides, herbicides and nerve agents. (eurekalert.org)
  • The enzyme DFPase from the squid Loligo vulgaris , is able to rapidly and efficiently detoxify chemical warfare agents such as Sarin, which was used in the Tokyo subway attacks in 1995. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Maclellan notes that under Project 112 and SHAD, weapons with sarin, VX and other chemical and biological agents were tested in Hawai'i, Panama, and the Marshall Islands in the 1960s. (nautilus.org)
  • Newly declassified Australian Defence Department and Prime Minister's office files show that the United States was strongly pushing the Government for tests on Australian soil of two of the most deadly chemical weapons ever developed, VX and GB - Sarin - nerve gas. (nautilus.org)
  • Phase 1 of this test was conducted in April - May 1967 on the island of Hawai'i and in the Panama Canal Zone, testing the M55 rocket warhead and the dissemination of Sarin from an M121A1 chemical projectile in the upper Waiakea Forest Reserve on the island of Hawai'i, southwest of Hilo. (nautilus.org)
  • Application of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to the analysis of chemical warfare samples, found to contain residues of the nerve agent sarin, sulphur mustard and their degradation products. (health.mil)
  • Sulfur mustard was the major cause of chemical casualties in World War I. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Azizi F, Keshavarz A, Roshanzamir F, Nafarabadi M (1995) Reproductive function in men following exposure to chemical warfare with sulfur mustard. (springer.com)
  • Agents of chemical warfare: sulfur mustard. (health.mil)
  • In an advance that could be used in masks to protect against nerve gas, scientists are reporting development of proteins that are up to 15,000 times more effective than their natural counterpart in destroying chemical warfare agents. (medindia.net)
  • At the University of Cincinnati her research focused on the identification and cytotoxicity of chemical warfare agent degradation products and protein phosphorylation studies on cerebral spinal fluid, a study that may help in the development of drugs for patients diseased with a hemorrhagic stroke. (wiley.com)
  • Research areas include water protection and indoor/outdoor decontamination as well as method development of chemical warfare agent degradation products in various environmental matrices. (whsmith.co.uk)
  • The CWA degradation research was conducted by researchers in Gregory Parsons group at NC State, and co-workers at RTI International and the Edgewood Chemical Biological Center. (nanowerk.com)
  • The army has become more concerned that Arab countries will wage chemical warfare against Israel since such weapons have been used in the Iran-Iraq War and Syria has acquired ground-to-ground missiles capable of delivering chemical warheads inside Israel. (latimes.com)
  • There is a growing threat of chemical warfare, mainly from Syria," Lt. Col. Mordechai, civil defense coordinator for Israeli schools, said during the half-hour simulation at Jerusalem Traditional Middle and High School. (latimes.com)
  • Chemical Warfare in Syria? (sciencemag.org)
  • 16 comments on "Chemical Warfare in Syria? (sciencemag.org)
  • Dr. Emily Landau, head of the Arms Control and Regional Security Program and the Institute for National Security Studies, said Wednesday that "in Syria there is always use being made of different types of chemical weapons, but those that are not defined as such under the convention. (haaretz.com)
  • The threat that Bashar al-Assad may use chemical weapons against opposition forces in Syria means it is time for President Obama and America's NATO allies to intervene and establish a no-fly zone. (csmonitor.com)
  • Kabul, Afghanistan - President Obama 's warning to Syria 's President Bashar al-Assad not to use chemical weapons in the country's ongoing civil war is just one more signal that in this ever-escalating crisis, it's time for the international community to intervene. (csmonitor.com)
  • In the meantime, there has been reports that Bashar al Assad is claiming that U.K.'s MI6 is planning a chemical attack in Syria so that they could blame it on President Assad. (therealnews.com)
  • Just reported is that Syria agrees to UN inspections of the chemical weapons attack site in Damascus. (inhomelandsecurity.com)
  • If Syria has permitted the the present UN team to conduct an investigation, then it is likely that they have either managed to scrub the chemical site, or will dispute it or blame it on the rebels with Russia as a backer to their claims. (inhomelandsecurity.com)
  • Syria has been involved in developing and producing chemical weapons since the 1980s. (tolerance.ca)
  • Since the start of the rebellion in Syria in March 2011, the international community has been concerned regarding Syria's stores of chemical weapons. (tolerance.ca)
  • However, since late 2012, repeated reports have surfaced about the use of chemical weapons in Syria against civilians. (tolerance.ca)
  • I'm not denying the chemical attack in Syria, but I think it's very important to be open to the possibility that the United States was privy to this information before it occurred, that they had a hand in creating the conflict necessary to justify a military intervention, and that they sacrificed the lives of so many -as they have done before in order to move forward with their agendas. (collective-evolution.com)
  • Syria has denied the use of chemical weapons on its own people, saying that this is a ridiculous accusation, citing that the Syrian government would never attack its own people. (collective-evolution.com)
  • Much of it was contaminated with dioxin, a deadly chemical. (truth-out.org)
  • The most deadly of chemical warfare agents, one drop of nerve gas can kill a person within a minute. (dailypress.com)
  • Indian authorities are tracking the procurement of precursor chemical 4ANPP which is used to manufacture the deadly Fentanyl. (indiatimes.com)
  • The deadly rally of chemical warfare was on. (didyouknow.org)
  • The use of chemicals led to more deadly weaponry being available to the infantry soldier - the most famous being the phosphorous grenade/bomb and the use of napalm. (historylearningsite.co.uk)
  • And akthough chemicl warfare was very limited suring the War, WMD were largely unknown to the public was the huge advances that he Germans and made in CW during the War creating deadly nerve agents and the massive BW progrm launched by the Soviet Union after the War. (histclo.com)
  • This month also marks the 25th anniversary of Saddam Hussein's deadly chemical weapons attack on the Kurdish town of Halabja in northeast Iraq, which killed 5,000 Iraqi Kurds and injured about 10,000 others. (91outcomes.com)
  • It should be mentioned, that many other deadly chemicals reside in our nation's chemical industries, and sabotage of these plants is a distinct possibility. (4dtraveler.net)
  • Now, another Soviet soldier captured by Afghan guerrillas has said that occupying Soviet troops have used lethal chemical agents. (csmonitor.com)
  • These chemicals are different from the lethal chemical compounds that are part of infectious bacteria or viruses. (faqs.org)
  • During this time, military chemists in the United Kingdom and then in the United States adapted insecticides to produce the most lethal chemical agent then known. (faqs.org)
  • Destruction of existing stockpile of lethal chemical agents and munitions. (house.gov)
  • The Department of State, acting under authority delegated to the Secretary of State pursuant to Executive Order 12851, has determined pursuant to Section 306(a) of the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and Warfare Elimination Act of 1991 that the Government of the Russian Federation has used chemical weapons in violation of international law or lethal chemical weapons against its own nationals. (federalregister.gov)
  • Pursuant to Sections 306(a), 307(a), and 307(d) of the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and Warfare Elimination Act of 1991, as amended (22 U.S.C. Section 5604(a) and Section 5605(a)), on August 6, 2018, the Deputy Secretary of State determined that the Government of the Russian Federation has used chemical weapons in violation of international law or lethal chemical weapons against its own nationals. (federalregister.gov)
  • The Abortion Supervisory Committee reported to Parliament in 2015 revealed that 1627 pre-born children were killed in their mother's womb in 2014, with the lethal chemical Mifegyne RU 486. (righttolife.org.nz)
  • Conduct of chemical and biological defense program. (house.gov)
  • Annual report on chemical and biological warfare defense. (house.gov)
  • directed Secretary of Defense to submit an annual report to Congress on expenditures for research, development, test, and evaluation of all lethal and nonlethal chemical and biological agents. (house.gov)
  • 176] directed the U.S. Department of the Army (DA) 1 to examine the scale of effort and consider plans needed to safely dispose of nonstockpile chemical materiel (NSCM), previously identified as an area of national concern in House Appropriations Report 101-822 from the FY 1991 Defense Appropriations Act. (springer.com)
  • DoD's RCWM Program maintains a critical DoD capability (i.e., the RCWM Program Support Functions), providing a wide range of support to the DoD Defense Environmental Restoration Program as DoD seeks to address locations known or suspected to contain chemical warfare materiel (CWM). (osd.mil)
  • a) Report required The Secretary of Defense shall include in the annual report of the Secretary under section 113(c) of title 10 a report on chemical and biological warfare defense. (cornell.edu)
  • The quantities, characteristics, and capabilities of fielded chemical and biological defense equipment to meet wartime and peacetime requirements for support of the Armed Forces, including individual protective items. (cornell.edu)
  • The status of research and development programs, and acquisition programs, for required improvements in chemical and biological defense equipment and medical treatment, including an assessment of the ability of the Department of Defense and the industrial base to meet those requirements. (cornell.edu)
  • Measures taken to ensure the integration of requirements for chemical and biological defense equipment and material among the Armed Forces. (cornell.edu)
  • The status of nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) warfare defense training and readiness among the Armed Forces and measures being taken to include realistic nuclear, biological, and chemical warfare simulations in war games, battle simulations, and training exercises. (cornell.edu)
  • Measures taken to improve overall management and coordination of the chemical and biological defense program. (cornell.edu)
  • Problems encountered in the chemical and biological warfare defense program during the past year and recommended solutions to those problems for which additional resources or actions by the Congress are required. (cornell.edu)
  • A description of the chemical warfare defense preparations that have been and are being undertaken by the Department of Defense to address needs which may arise under article X of the Chemical Weapons Convention. (cornell.edu)
  • Ironically, when Senator Riegle first approached officials at the Department of Defense about veterans' possible exposures to chemical and biological warfare agents in the Persian Gulf, he was told by Walter Reed Army Medical Center commander Major General Ronald Blank that the issue was not even explored because "military intelligence maintained that such exposures never occurred. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • NaturalNews) With every ignorant news organization across America now pushing Americans to slather their skin with DEET chemicals as a defense against Zika mosquitoes, there's something every American needs to know: DEET is one chemical component of a binary chemical weapon system currently being carpet bombed onto U.S. civilian populations. (fourwinds10.com)
  • It begins with a section on the background of decontamination, which includes a chronological history of military research, an overview of the US Department of Defense decontamination principles and requirements and a chapter that acts as a primer on chemical and biological warfare agents. (labmate-online.com)
  • Military leaders, policymakers, the intelligence community, members of government and Congress, the Department of Defense and its agencies and contractors, and committees and organizations interested in biological warfare and its possible use by different kids of actors in the future may be interested in this publication. (gpo.gov)
  • Inventory of chemical/biological defense equipment & supplies is conducted. (cram.com)
  • Non-stockpile chemical materiel is defined in the Appropriations Report as "… lethal wastes from past disposal efforts, unserviceable munitions, chemically contaminated containers, chemical production facilities, subsequently located chemical munitions, sites known to contain significant concentrations of buried chemical weapons and waste, and binary weapons and components. (springer.com)
  • DoDD 5101.17E , Roles and Responsibilities Associated with the Recovery of Chemical Warfare Material, dated 11 May 2016, assigns the Secretary of the Army (SA) as DoD's Executive Agent (EA) for the Recovered Chemical Warfare Materiel (RCWM) Program. (osd.mil)
  • However, they deny using chemicals as a weapon of mass destruction, that is against civilians. (nybooks.com)
  • The quantity of fentanyl in this case amounts to chemical warfare and a weapon of mass destruction," Ohio Attorney General Dave Yost said in a statement . (ktvz.com)
  • Japanese military discovered to have conducted biological warfare experiments on POWs, killing 3000. (didyouknow.org)
  • These Cold War-era experiments to test the Navy's vulnerability to toxic warfare involved about 4,300 US military personnel, mostly from the Navy. (nautilus.org)
  • Rather, it promised that new experiments on a still larger scale might be necessary - to protect the population against biological warfare! (laleva.org)
  • Both have been used as chemical weapons but phosgene is an important precursor in the manufacture of plastics and chloropicrin is used as a fumigant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, industrial chemicals such as phosgene, ammonia, and chlorine are not only cheap, but also easy to manufacture. (emra.org)
  • According to Israeli security officials, reports that Assad was responsible for the chemical attack are highly probable. (haaretz.com)
  • President Obama has warned the Assad regime against chemical warfare in the conflict. (csmonitor.com)
  • Because we're postulating almost daily, John Bolton in particular, the National Security Advisor, that Assad is going to use chemical weapons and we're going to have to react. (therealnews.com)
  • And in terms of Bolton, and of course President Trump has gotten in on this as well, Tweeting about what Assad might have coming if he were to use any chemical weapons. (therealnews.com)
  • Chemical Assad? (tolerance.ca)
  • It was the first such exercise in an Israeli school and part of a recent series of measures taken by the army to prepare civilians for possible chemical warfare. (latimes.com)
  • Civilians also have been exposed inadvertently to chemical weapons many years after weapon deployment during war. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • 1. State Department officials said on September 8, 1988, that US intelligence agencies had confirmed Iraq's use of chemicals in its recent drive against Kurdish civilians in Northern Iraq. (nybooks.com)
  • Infrequently used in warfare given their high volatility and propensity for quick dispersal , cyanogen chloride and hydrogen cyanide nevertheless occupy a uniquely infamous place in history because of their use by Nazi Germany in WWII to kill up to 1 million civilians . (emra.org)
  • A no-fly zone will provide protection to Syrian civilians from the regime's warplanes and artillery barrage and help remove the threat of chemical weapons being used against the Syrian populace in an aerial attack. (csmonitor.com)
  • On August 21, 2013 reports of a large chemical attack in the suburbs of Damascus began to surface, along with online video clips showing grim photographs of wounded civilians. (tolerance.ca)
  • In December 2012 it was reported that seven civilians were killed by chemical weapons in the al-Bayada neighborhood of Homs. (tolerance.ca)
  • Chemical and biological warfare agents are threats to the military and civilians alike in both terrorist and conventional warfare scenarios. (labmate-online.com)
  • It is considered the largest chemical attack on civilians in world history. (91outcomes.com)
  • Notice landed today that this book 'Dirty War: Rhodesia and Chemical Biological Warfare 1975-1980' is due out in April 2017, publihed by Helion Books (UK). (smallwarsjournal.com)
  • During the Vietnam War of the 1970s, the U.S. use of defoliants-chemicals that killed vegetation, permitting a clearer detection of the enemy-was extensive. (faqs.org)
  • Researchers in industry, government and academia are applying microfluidic technologies for use in food process controls, protein separation, drug development, diagnostics, environmental monitoring and chemical and biological warfare agent detection. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Smiths Detection provides systems to detect chemical and biological warfare agents, explosives and drugs to the military, transportation and facility security markets. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The recently formed division includes Graseby, with its chemical and biological warfare agent detection capability, Barringer Instruments (now Smiths Detection Warren) with their expertise in trace explosive and narcotics detection and Environmental Technologies Group (Now Smiths Detection Edgewood) with their expertise in artillery meteorology and biological warfare agent detection. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • U.S. dismisses Soviet trials of Japanese for germ warfare as "propaganda. (didyouknow.org)
  • North Korea and China accuse U.S. of germ warfare - charges still not proven. (didyouknow.org)
  • Biological warfare (BW), commonly called germ warfare is the use of biological toxins or infectious agents (bacteria, viruses, and fungi) to ill or incapacitate people directky or the animals and plants on which people depend. (histclo.com)
  • Where applicable, attention is also drawn to the possible occurrence of long term effects caused by exposure to the various classes of chemical warfare agents. (opcw.org)
  • These substances are for producing chemical casualties without regard to long-term consequences or loss of life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemical warfare (CW) involves using the toxic properties of chemical substances as weapons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemical weapon agents are hazardous substances. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • 5 For the Brazilian Army, chemical war is the one that utilizes substances designated as "chemical agents", which are defined as all the compounds that, due to their chemical activity, generate a toxic, smoking or incendiary effect, when used for military purposes. (scielo.br)
  • Warfare or terrorism agents are a class that includes chemicals, biological substances, radioactive materials, nuclear materials, or explosives. (cdc.gov)
  • Auerbach C, Robson JM (1947a) The production of mutations by chemical substances. (springer.com)
  • Auerbach C, Robson JM (1947b) Tests of chemical substances for mutagenic action. (springer.com)
  • Chemical weapons are organic and inorganic chemical substances that are harmful to humans. (4dtraveler.net)
  • During the remainder of World War I, German and British forces used chlorine gas, and other chemicals (i.e., mustard gas and phosphene) with increasing tendency. (faqs.org)
  • Shoham says that while the rebels have also used chemical weapons in the past - mainly chlorine, but also mustard gas - and may have those agents, in principle the likelihood that they have nerve gas is very low. (haaretz.com)
  • Armstrong GC, Wells HB, Wilkes AE, Moulton CH (1928) Comparative test with mustard gas (HS) lewisite (M-1), methyldicloroarsine (MD) and methyldifluorarsine (MD2) in 75 mm shell fired statically in collaboration with chemical division. (springer.com)
  • In an interview with The Daily Beast, Pitts alleges that at the time of the attack on the Kurds, Alcolac, Inc., a now-defunct Maryland company whose assets are owned by Paris-based chemical concern Rhodia , was, through a middleman, supplying Iraq with thiodiglycol (TDG) , the chemical used to make mustard gas, a highly toxic agent used in the attack. (91outcomes.com)
  • Considered the most toxic of chemical weapons, these agents are extremely potent organophosphates, achieving toxicity through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase at muscarinic and nicotinic receptors. (emra.org)
  • These agents are organophosphates, a type of chemical usually used as insecticide. (4dtraveler.net)
  • Deals with the general considerations in management of chemical casualties, and provides an overview of basic concepts that should be considered by medical personnel involved in the management of a chemical weapon incident. (opcw.org)
  • A new technique based on the same technology used to detect chemical warfare agents and explosives is being employed by scientists at The University of Manchester to treat hospital patients with lung disease. (innovations-report.com)
  • In theory, with proper protective equipment, training, and decontamination measures, the primary effects of chemical weapons can be overcome. (wikipedia.org)
  • These may only be produced or used for research, medical, pharmaceutical or protective purposes (i.e. testing of chemical weapons sensors and protective clothing). (wikipedia.org)
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, along with other partners, developed tools for commercial fishermen encountering chemical munitions that will help identify personal protective equipment that be used to help prevent exposure, how to safely handle the munition, how to report the incident, and includes a resource card that can be taken with them to seek medical attention and is useful in the identification of signs and symptoms of exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • In theory every soldier in the Red Army is said to be equipped with a respirator and chemical protection suit, but whether such protective equipment has been systematically issued in Afghanistan remains unclear. (csmonitor.com)
  • A member of a biological and chemical warfare response team wearing a protective suit carries a suspicious envelope in a bag at Jerusalem's Malcha shopping mall in 2001. (faqs.org)
  • Personal protective equipment: First responders to a chemical attack are at serious risk themselves from the chemically contaminated environment (known as the hot zone). (emedicinehealth.com)
  • This will provide a significant boon to chemical protective clothing as well as a method to trap chemical warfare agents. (phys.org)
  • What are the 5 items of individual protective equipment (IPE) items used against chemical/biological warfare. (brainscape.com)
  • What is the purpose of a Chemical protective overgarment? (cram.com)
  • As a member of the chemical class known as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors donepezil interferes with the cholinesterase enzyme, preventing the neurotransmitter acetylcholine from breaking down, resulting in an increase in both its levels and duration of action. (whale.to)
  • After a brief historical introduction, it will be done a discussion about the structural and biological characteristics of acetylcholinesterase, followed by a review of the properties of organophosphorus compounds and their application as chemical warfare agents. (scielo.br)
  • We've found that DEET is not simply a behavior-modifying chemical but also inhibits the activity of a key central nervous system enzyme, acetylcholinesterase, in both insects and mammals," Corbel said in a statement to the media. (naturalnews.com)
  • Perhaps the only beneficial consequence of chemical weapons like mustards is the finding that exposure to them killed lymphocytes, leading to the use of compounds like cyclophosphamide for lymphoma chemotherapy. (sciencemag.org)
  • This review focus on the use of organophosphorus compounds as neurotoxic chemical warfare agents. (scielo.br)
  • But meanwhile, over at Army Chemical Center at Edgewood Arsenal in Maryland, psychiatrist James S. Ketchum was testing LSD, BZ and other psychedelic and deliriant compounds on fully informed volunteers for the U.S. military. (10zenmonkeys.com)
  • That meant the harmful compounds were likely hydrophobic chemicals that dissolved in oil rather than water. (eponline.com)
  • 1.3 To minimize the number of animals used, this in-vivo practice should be performed only after rigorous in-vitro studies of the candidate decontaminant, which can show the implied claims including chemical neutralization, decontamination studies on surfaces and appropriate testing such as cytotoxicity. (astm.org)
  • A blister agent is a chemical compound that irritates and causes injury to the skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is treated with chemicals that neutralize blister agent vapors and sprays, but do not stop penetration by liquid agents. (cram.com)
  • A species of urban bird seems to harness the toxic chemicals in cigarette butts in its fight against nest parasites - although there is a downside to the practice. (newscientist.com)
  • The nanofabric, created by exposing polyurethane to high voltage, can not only trap toxic chemicals, but also be used in a hazardous material suit. (phys.org)
  • This may not only provide increased surfaces area, but also can trap toxic chemicals more efficiently. (phys.org)
  • This can be a very efficient filter against toxic chemicals, as well as a membrane for protecting people," he said. (phys.org)
  • Earlier this year the US State Department maintained that more than 3,000 Afghans had suffered from chemical warfare attacks. (csmonitor.com)
  • At the same time, throughout the study we cited instances of Iraqi-instigated chemical attacks against Iranian military units. (nybooks.com)
  • During attacks by chemical and biological weapons, personnel in temporary and permanent shelters are dependent on a constant supply of clean air. (sbir.gov)
  • Project 112 included tests on land while Project SHAD encompassed tests at sea designed to identify U.S. warships' vulnerabilities to attacks with chemical or biological warfare agents and to develop procedures to respond to such attacks while maintaining a war-fighting capability. (nautilus.org)
  • We are witnessing alleged chemical attacks from the Syrian government on its own people. (collective-evolution.com)
  • Any production over 100 g must be reported to the OPCW and a country can have a stockpile of no more than one tonne of these chemicals. (wikipedia.org)
  • A chemical weapon agent (CWA) is a chemical substance whose toxic properties are used to kill, injure or incapacitate human beings. (wikipedia.org)
  • In spite of President Richard Nixon's 1973 promise of $3.25 billion in reconstruction aid to Vietnam 'without any preconditions,' the Vietnamese and Vietnamese-American victims of the disgraceful chemical warfare the United States conducted in Vietnam have not seen one penny of compensation. (truth-out.org)
  • Chemicals were also used during the Iran-Iraq conflict (1980 - 1988), a war that claimed a million victims. (didyouknow.org)
  • In recognition of the importance of providing assistance to victims of chemical weapons, the OPCW has developed this guidebook for medical practitioners who care for the victims of chemical warfare. (opcw.org)
  • The United Nations [UN] has dedicated 29th April as the day of remembrance for all victims of chemical warfare. (righttolife.org.nz)
  • We should mourn for our own innocent and defenceless victims of chemical warfare in New Zealand. (righttolife.org.nz)
  • This chemical war is also violence against women who are the second victims of this war. (righttolife.org.nz)
  • This type of warfare is distinct from nuclear warfare, biological warfare and radiological warfare, which together make up CBRN, the military acronym for nuclear, biological, and chemical (warfare or weapons), all of which are considered "weapons of mass destruction" (WMDs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Categorized by the Soviets themselves as ''weapons of mass destruction,'' chemical and biological agents were reportedly stocked in Afghanistan shortly after the December 1979 invasion. (csmonitor.com)
  • books.google.co.uk - In the aftermath of 9/11, the potential terror of weapons of mass destruction--from nuclear, biological, and chemical to dirty bombs--preoccupies national security experts. (google.co.uk)
  • Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using weapons of mass destruction in the form of chemical and biological warfare from the perspective of the user. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • For decades, the U.S. military has been accused of exposing service members and the public to chemical and biological warfare agents and simulants. (wired.com)
  • The DOD Force Health Protection & Readiness Policy and Program Office is sponsoring an easy-to-use web site that provides information on testing and potential exposure cases associated with chemical and biological warfare agents and simulants . (wired.com)
  • Chemical warfare agent simulants in Gamble's fluid: Is the fluid toxic? (k-state.edu)
  • The reactions of chemical warfare agent simulants, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (2-CEES) and di-i-propyl fluoro phosphate (DFP), in fluids have been investigated. (k-state.edu)
  • The chemical structure of most nerve gases is related to that of methylphosphonic acid, whereas most organo-phosphorus pesticides have the phosphoric acid structure. (sciencemag.org)
  • The symptoms resulting from poisoning by these chemicals, which include organophate-based pesticides are notoriously difficult to treat. (brainfacts.org)
  • Of the 34 chemicals most widely used in pesticides, only two have been completely cleared by the Environmental Protection Agency, according to the General Accounting Office. (baltimoresun.com)
  • I personally run mass spec (LC/MS-TOF) systems with a special focus on pesticides, herbicides and chemical toxicology. (fourwinds10.com)
  • According to that science paper, AChE inhibitors work similarly to carbamate and organophosphate pesticides -- two classes of chemicals routinely sprayed all over the national food supply -- meaning that people who slather their skin with DEET are poisoning themselves with brain-disrupting pesticide chemicals . (fourwinds10.com)
  • The Iraqi military also used chemical weapons against the Iraqi Kurds during the second Persian Gulf War. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • The symptoms described by the Kurds do not conform to any known chemical or combination of chemicals. (nybooks.com)
  • The exports continued to at least November 28, 1989, despite evidence that Iraq was engaging in chemical and biological warfare against Iranians and Kurds since as early as 1984. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It's [also] likely that Hussein used this chemical precursor supplied by Alcolac in his attack on the Kurds," says Pitts-adding that he believes at least one other American company supplied chemical precursors to Saddam: Al-Haddad Trading, owned and operated from Nashville by an Iraqi national who fled the U.S. when the Gulf War began. (91outcomes.com)
  • Barnaby F. Iran-Iraq war: the use of chemical weapons against the Kurds. (health.mil)
  • A cyanide-based chemical weapon also used during World War I, this is a rapid killer that's easily dispersed. (dailypress.com)
  • 5 A chemical asphyxiant, cyanide blocks the aerobic utilization of oxygen and causes within the exposed individual a progressive hypoxia. (emra.org)
  • Despite the positive contributions to science, Haber has been vilified for carrying out the first chemical attack, in the form of chlorine gas, during the early days of World War I. And one of the insecticides he developed, the cyanide-based Zyklon B, later became a standard means of mass murder in Nazi Germany concentration camps. (blogspot.com)
  • The combustion of many household and industrial chemicals can produce cyanides, and people suffering from smoke inhalation from any kind of industrial or household fire may also have cyanide poisoning. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The combustion of many household and industrial chemicals can produce cyanide. (msdmanuals.com)
  • and during 1945, when the United States faced no credible threat of retaliation to deter its strategic and battlefield use of chemical weapons. (google.co.uk)
  • The threat of chemical warfare is hardly novel. (emra.org)
  • The threat of chemical weapons worsens the situation and strengthens the case for a no-fly zone. (csmonitor.com)
  • Other Soviets captured by the guerrillas have referred to the presence of chemical and biological agents in Afghanistan. (csmonitor.com)
  • Restrictions on use of human subjects for testing of chemical or biological agents. (house.gov)
  • In-depth definitions of biological agents, biological weapons, and biological warfare (BW) are included, as well as an appendix of further reading on the subject. (gpo.gov)
  • Some cases appear to show additional signs consistent with exposure to organophosphorus chemicals, a category of chemicals that includes nerve agents,' the WHO said in a statement, putting the death toll at at least 70. (haaretz.com)
  • The horrors of chemical warfare during World War I prompted the drafting of the Geneva Protocol of 1925, which banned chemical and biological weapons of warfare. (faqs.org)
  • Issues covered for each class of chemical warfare agents include their mechanism of toxicity, signs and symptoms occurring after an acute exposure, clinical management and treatment. (opcw.org)
  • French scientists Vincent Corbel from the Institut de Recherche pour le Developement in Montpellier and Bruno Lapied from the University of Angers headed a team of researchers who studied the mode of action and toxicity of DEET, also known by the chemical name N,N-Diethyl-3-methylbenzamide. (fourwinds10.com)
  • The entire class known as Lethal Unitary Chemical Agents and Munitions have been scheduled for elimination by the CWC. (wikipedia.org)
  • These munitions often contain warfare chemicals, and they can be encountered anywhere at sea, not just charted hazardous areas. (cdc.gov)
  • Sea-disposal operations included the disposal of conventional munitions of every type and chemical munitions with various chemical agent fills. (cdc.gov)
  • Transportation of chemical munitions. (house.gov)
  • Lethal binary chemical munitions. (house.gov)
  • Estimates are that approximately 113,000 tons of chemical weapons were used from 1915 to 1918, killing some 92,000 people and injuring over one million people. (faqs.org)
  • however, the use of nonliving toxic products produced by living organisms (e.g. toxins such as botulinum toxin, ricin, and saxitoxin) is considered chemical warfare under the provisions of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). (wikipedia.org)
  • About 70 different chemicals have been used or stockpiled as chemical weapon agents during the 20th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • About 70 different chemicals have been used or stockpiled as chemical warfare agents during the 20th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was not until the 19th century that the modern conception of chemical warfare emerged, as various scientists and nations proposed the use of asphyxiating or poisonous gasses. (wikipedia.org)
  • So alarmed were nations and scientists, that multiple international treaties were passed - banning chemical weapons. (wikipedia.org)
  • A team of experienced scientists dealing with protection against chemical and biological warfare were called from the DRDE, a defence laboratory of the Defence Research & Development Organisation (DRDO), to confirm and authenticate the seizure of Fentanyl last week. (indiatimes.com)
  • Scientists have developed a super-wipe that can easily decontaminate spills of chemical warfare agents or industrial acids. (medindia.net)
  • Scientists for the first time have identified and mapped the chemical structure of molecules used by certain species of marine seaweed to kill or inhibit the growth of reef-building coral. (eponline.com)
  • The potential for clandestine biological warfare attack is considerable," the scientists wrote. (sott.net)
  • Several characteristics of chemical weapon agents lend themselves to terrorist use. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Most civilian medical communities are inadequately prepared to deal with a chemical terrorist attack. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • One of the greatest threats in modern world is the possibility of use of chemical weapons by regular forces or by terrorist groups. (scielo.br)
  • Although early in the rebellion there was some concern that the regime would attempt to use chemical weapons against its enemies at home, the greater fear was actually the opposite: that rebel forces would take over the stores of chemical weapons and attempt to use them against the regime - or worse, would sell quantities of chemical weapons to extremist terrorist organizations around the world. (tolerance.ca)
  • Factories produced large quantities of this chemical weapon while other plants took care of its weaponization, specifically, chemical warheads for the Scud B missiles in Syria's possession at that time, aerial bombs, and artillery rockets. (tolerance.ca)
  • In March 2013, there were allegations that Scud missiles with chemical warheads were fired in Khan al-Assal, a suburb of Aleppo. (tolerance.ca)
  • This however did not prevent the extensive use of chemical weapons in World War I. The development of chlorine gas, among others, was used by both sides to try to break the stalemate of trench warfare. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dawn of modern chemical warfare occurred during World War I. On April 15, 1915, German forces released about 160 tons of chlorine gas into the wind near the Belgian village of Ypres. (faqs.org)
  • Chemical weapons first were used in 1915, when the German military released 168 tons of chlorine gas at Ypres, Belgium, killing an estimated 5,000 Allied troops. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Following World War I, the United States signed but the Senate failed to ratify the 1925 Geneva Protocol prohibiting chemical weapons, again arguing that they were as humane as other weapons and that the United States needed to be prepared. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The first international accord on the banning of chemical warfare was agreed upon in Geneva in 1925. (didyouknow.org)