Sulfonamides: A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.SulfathiazolesSulfisoxazole: A short-acting sulfonamide antibacterial with activity against a wide range of gram- negative and gram-positive organisms.Sulfacetamide: An anti-infective agent that is used topically to treat skin infections and orally for urinary tract infections.Sulfadiazine: One of the short-acting SULFONAMIDES used in combination with PYRIMETHAMINE to treat toxoplasmosis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and in newborns with congenital infections.Sulfamethoxypyridazine: A sulfanilamide antibacterial agent.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Drug Residues: Drugs and their metabolites which are found in the edible tissues and milk of animals after their medication with specific drugs. This term can also apply to drugs found in adipose tissue of humans after drug treatment.Sulfadimethoxine: A sulfanilamide that is used as an anti-infective agent.Sulfamethoxazole: A bacteriostatic antibacterial agent that interferes with folic acid synthesis in susceptible bacteria. Its broad spectrum of activity has been limited by the development of resistance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p208)Dihydropteroate Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of dihydropteroate from p-aminobenzoic acid and dihydropteridine-hydroxymethyl-pyrophosphate. EC 2.5.1.15.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.4-Aminobenzoic Acid: An aminobenzoic acid isomer that combines with pteridine and GLUTAMIC ACID to form FOLIC ACID. The fact that 4-aminobenzoic acid absorbs light throughout the UVB range has also resulted in its use as an ingredient in SUNSCREENS.Trimethoprim: A pyrimidine inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase, it is an antibacterial related to PYRIMETHAMINE. It is potentiated by SULFONAMIDES and the TRIMETHOPRIM, SULFAMETHOXAZOLE DRUG COMBINATION is the form most often used. It is sometimes used alone as an antimalarial. TRIMETHOPRIM RESISTANCE has been reported.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.R Factors: A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.Dapsone: A sulfone active against a wide range of bacteria but mainly employed for its actions against MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE. Its mechanism of action is probably similar to that of the SULFONAMIDES which involves inhibition of folic acid synthesis in susceptible organisms. It is also used with PYRIMETHAMINE in the treatment of malaria. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p157-8)Formiminoglutamic Acid: Measurement of this acid in the urine after oral administration of histidine provides the basis for the diagnostic test of folic acid deficiency and of megaloblastic anemia of pregnancy.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors: A class of compounds that reduces the secretion of H+ ions by the proximal kidney tubule through inhibition of CARBONIC ANHYDRASES.Spectrometry, Mass, Fast Atom Bombardment: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.Aminobenzoates: Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the benzene ring structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobenzoate structure.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Chemistry Techniques, Synthetic: Methods used for the chemical synthesis of compounds. Included under this heading are laboratory methods used to synthesize a variety of chemicals and drugs.Drug Hypersensitivity: Immunologically mediated adverse reactions to medicinal substances used legally or illegally.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Veterinary Drugs: Drugs used by veterinarians in the treatment of animal diseases. The veterinarian's pharmacological armamentarium is the counterpart of drugs treating human diseases, with dosage and administration adjusted to the size, weight, disease, and idiosyncrasies of the species. In the United States most drugs are subject to federal regulations with special reference to the safety of drugs and residues in edible animal products.Potassium Iodide: An inorganic compound that is used as a source of iodine in thyrotoxic crisis and in the preparation of thyrotoxic patients for thyroidectomy. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Sulfanilamides: Compounds based on 4-aminobenzenesulfonamide. The '-anil-' part of the name refers to aniline.Sulfamethizole: A sulfathiazole antibacterial agent.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Combination: This drug combination has proved to be an effective therapeutic agent with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It is effective in the treatment of many infections, including PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in AIDS.Glycosides: Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Nocardia Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus NOCARDIA.Lipid A: Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.TriterpenesChromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Extrachromosomal Inheritance: Vertical transmission of hereditary characters by DNA from cytoplasmic organelles such as MITOCHONDRIA; CHLOROPLASTS; and PLASTIDS, or from PLASMIDS or viral episomal DNA.Carbonic Anhydrases: A family of zinc-containing enzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. They play an important role in the transport of CARBON DIOXIDE from the tissues to the LUNG. EC 4.2.1.1.Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Databases, Chemical: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific chemicals.Spectrophotometry, Infrared: Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Amides: Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Drug Eruptions: Adverse cutaneous reactions caused by ingestion, parenteral use, or local application of a drug. These may assume various morphologic patterns and produce various types of lesions.Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.Salmonella enterica: A subgenus of Salmonella containing several medically important serotypes. The habitat for the majority of strains is warm-blooded animals.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Streptomycin: An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.Transferases: Transferases are enzymes transferring a group, for example, the methyl group or a glycosyl group, from one compound (generally regarded as donor) to another compound (generally regarded as acceptor). The classification is based on the scheme "donor:acceptor group transferase". (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.Solid Phase Extraction: An extraction method that separates analytes using a solid phase and a liquid phase. It is used for preparative sample cleanup before analysis by CHROMATOGRAPHY and other analytical methods.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Salmonella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.Hydrocarbons, HalogenatedFolic Acid Antagonists: Inhibitors of the enzyme, dihydrofolate reductase (TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE), which converts dihydrofolate (FH2) to tetrahydrofolate (FH4). They are frequently used in cancer chemotherapy. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.SulfonesDatabases, Pharmaceutical: Databases devoted to knowledge about PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS.Salmonella Infections, Animal: Infections in animals with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Mannich Bases: Ketonic amines prepared from the condensation of a ketone with formaldehyde and ammonia or a primary or secondary amine. A Mannich base can act as the equivalent of an alpha,beta unsaturated ketone in synthesis or can be reduced to form physiologically active amino alcohols.Integrons: DNA elements that include the component genes and insertion site for a site-specific recombination system that enables them to capture mobile gene cassettes.Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Bacteriophage Typing: A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages.Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular: NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.Phenothiazines: Compounds containing dibenzo-1,4-thiazine. Some of them are neuroactive.Chemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Saponins: A type of glycoside widely distributed in plants. Each consists of a sapogenin as the aglycone moiety, and a sugar. The sapogenin may be a steroid or a triterpene and the sugar may be glucose, galactose, a pentose, or a methylpentose.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Seaweed: Multicellular marine macroalgae including some members of red (RHODOPHYTA), green (CHLOROPHYTA), and brown (PHAEOPHYTA) algae. They are widely distributed in the ocean, occurring from the tide level to considerable depths, free-floating (planktonic) or anchored to the substratum (benthic). They lack a specialized vascular system but take up fluids, nutrients, and gases directly from the water. They contain CHLOROPHYLL and are photosynthetic, but some also contain other light-absorbing pigments. Many are of economic importance as FOOD, fertilizer, AGAR, potash, or source of IODINE.Acanthopanax: A plant genus of the family ARALIACEAE. Ciwujia extract, which is prepared from plants of this genus, contains ciwujianosides and is used to enhance PHYSICAL ENDURANCE.Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Glycosphingolipids: Lipids containing at least one monosaccharide residue and either a sphingoid or a ceramide (CERAMIDES). They are subdivided into NEUTRAL GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS comprising monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides; and ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS which comprises sialosylglycosylsphingolipids (GANGLIOSIDES); SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS (formerly known as sulfatides), glycuronoglycosphingolipids, and phospho- and phosphonoglycosphingolipids. (From IUPAC's webpage)Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship: A quantitative prediction of the biological, ecotoxicological or pharmaceutical activity of a molecule. It is based upon structure and activity information gathered from a series of similar compounds.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.Drug Resistance, Multiple: Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.Methylation: Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Toxicology: The science concerned with the detection, chemical composition, and biological action of toxic substances or poisons and the treatment and prevention of toxic manifestations.Biological Products: Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.Glycolipids: Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)Drug Discovery: The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Sugar AcidsOligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Prochlorperazine: A phenothiazine antipsychotic used principally in the treatment of NAUSEA; VOMITING; and VERTIGO. It is more likely than CHLORPROMAZINE to cause EXTRAPYRAMIDAL DISORDERS. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p612)Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Optical Rotation: The rotation of linearly polarized light as it passes through various media.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Small Molecule Libraries: Large collections of small molecules (molecular weight about 600 or less), of similar or diverse nature which are used for high-throughput screening analysis of the gene function, protein interaction, cellular processing, biochemical pathways, or other chemical interactions.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)EstersDisaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Streptothricins: A group of antibiotic aminoglycosides differing only in the number of repeating residues in the peptide side chain. They are produced by Streptomyces and Actinomyces and may have broad spectrum antimicrobial and some antiviral properties.Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.PicratesDesigner Drugs: Drugs designed and synthesized, often for illegal street use, by modification of existing drug structures (e.g., amphetamines). Of special interest are MPTP (a reverse ester of meperidine), MDA (3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine), and MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine). Many drugs act on the aminergic system, the physiologically active biogenic amines.Lactones: Cyclic esters of hydroxy carboxylic acids, containing a 1-oxacycloalkan-2-one structure. Large cyclic lactones of over a dozen atoms are MACROLIDES.Acids, Acyclic: Carboxylic acids that have open-chain molecular structures as opposed to ring-shaped structures.Garcinia: A plant genus of the family CLUSIACEAE. Members contain XANTHONES.Rhodiola: A plant genus of the family CRASSULACEAE. Members contain rhodioloside. This roseroot is unrelated to the familiar rose (ROSA). Some species in this genus are called stonecrop which is also a common name for SEDUM.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Multiple Chemical Sensitivity: An acquired disorder characterized by recurrent symptoms, referable to multiple organ systems, occurring in response to demonstrable exposure to many chemically unrelated compounds at doses below those established in the general population to cause harmful effects. (Cullen MR. The worker with multiple chemical sensitivities: an overview. Occup Med 1987;2(4):655-61)Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.Amino Sugars: SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Inhibitory Concentration 50: The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.Phaeophyta: A division of predominantly marine EUKARYOTA, commonly known as brown algae, having CHROMATOPHORES containing carotenoid PIGMENTS, BIOLOGICAL. ALGINATES and phlorotannins occur widely in all major orders. They are considered the most highly evolved algae because of their well-developed multicellular organization and structural complexity.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Chemical Fractionation: Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Xenobiotics: Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.Camellia: A plant genus in the family THEACEAE, order THEALES best known for CAMELLIA SINENSIS which is the source of Oriental TEA.Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Chemical Industry: The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Toxicity Tests: An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.Diterpenes: Twenty-carbon compounds derived from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Anthraquinones: Compounds based on ANTHRACENES which contain two KETONES in any position. Substitutions can be in any position except on the ketone groups.Aquatic Organisms: Organisms that live in water.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Isatin: An indole-dione that is obtained by oxidation of indigo blue. It is a MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITOR and high levels have been found in urine of PARKINSONISM patients.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Benzene DerivativesPerphenazine: An antipsychotic phenothiazine derivative with actions and uses similar to those of CHLORPROMAZINE.Chemical Warfare: Tactical warfare using incendiary mixtures, smokes, or irritant, burning, or asphyxiating gases.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)PolysaccharidesBacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Mutagens: Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Plant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.BenzoxepinsFurans: Compounds with a 5-membered ring of four carbons and an oxygen. They are aromatic heterocycles. The reduced form is tetrahydrofuran.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Mutagenicity Tests: Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.Hazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.Alkaloids: Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Inorganic Chemicals: A broad class of substances encompassing all those that do not include carbon and its derivatives as their principal elements. However, carbides, carbonates, cyanides, cyanates, and carbon disulfide are included in this class.Burns, ChemicalAmino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Pharmacology: The study of the origin, nature, properties, and actions of drugs and their effects on living organisms.Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Zingiberaceae: A plant family of the order Zingiberales, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida. It includes plants which have both flavoring and medicinal properties such as GINGER; turmeric (CURCUMA), and cardamom (ELETTARIA).Nitro Compounds: Compounds having the nitro group, -NO2, attached to carbon. When attached to nitrogen they are nitramines and attached to oxygen they are NITRATES.Isomerism: The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Amines: A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Monosaccharides: Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Countercurrent Distribution: A method of separation of two or more substances by repeated distribution between two immiscible liquid phases that move past each other in opposite directions. It is a form of liquid-liquid chromatography. (Stedman, 25th ed)Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Free Radical Scavengers: Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.HexosaminesProtein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Lignans: A class of dibenzylbutane derivatives which occurs in higher plants and in fluids (bile, serum, urine, etc.) in man and other animals. These compounds, which have a potential anti-cancer role, can be synthesized in vitro by human fecal flora. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)GlucosidesSpectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Mannans: Polysaccharides consisting of mannose units.Sulfur Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.Terpenes: A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Biphenyl CompoundsCarboxylic Acids: Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
Penicillin core structure, where "R" is the variable group. Sulfanilamide, a sulfonamide antibacterial, called a sulfa drug. ... Odours occur as well in chemical processing of coal or crude oil into precursor chemicals (feedstocks) for downstream ... Sulfur mustard, a chemical warfare agent. These compounds are characterized by C−S−C bonds Relative to C−C bonds, C−S bond are ... Thioesters have general structure R−CO−S−R. They are related to regular esters but are more reactive. The above classes of ...
J. Elks (14 November 2014). The Dictionary of Drugs: Chemical Data: Chemical Data, Structures and Bibliographies. Springer. pp ... Sulfanitran is a sulfonamide antibiotic which is used in the poultry industry. It is a component of Novastat, Polystat, and ...
... is an aromatic chemical compound composed of fused pyrimidine and pyrazine rings. A pteridine is also a group of ... The enzyme dihydropteroate synthetase is inhibited by sulfonamide antibiotics. Dihydrobiopterin Pyrazine Pyrimidine ... heterocyclic compounds containing a wide variety of substitutions on this structure. Pterins and flavins are classes of ...
American Chemical Society & Chemical Heritage Foundation. ISBN 0-8412-2459-5. .. *^ Dunitz, J. D. (1998). "Obituary: Vladimir ... He found an ideal topic in the elucidation of the structure of solanine; he continued his work on Cinchona alkaloids and ... He developed a financially successful method of producing Streptazol, one of the first commercial sulfonamides. In 1941, while ... Later he worked on elucidating the structures of aromatic Erythrina alkaloids with Derek Barton, Oskar Jeger and Robert Burns ...
... s (transition state analogues), are chemical compounds with a chemical structure that resembles the ... In addition, the sulfonamide functional group can also mimic that transition state structure. The evidence of boronic acid ... compounds with similar chemical structure Enzyme inhibitor Substrate analog Suicide inhibitor Substrate Silverman, Richard B. ( ... The transition state of a structure can best be described in regards to statistical mechanics where the energies of bonds ...
The chemical structure of penicillin was first proposed by Abraham in 1942[117] and then later confirmed by Dorothy Crowfoot ... the sulfonamides, the quinolones, and the oxazolidinones-are produced solely by chemical synthesis.[57] Many antibacterial ... Antibiotics are commonly classified based on their mechanism of action, chemical structure, or spectrum of activity. Most ... "Chemical Biology & Drug Design. 85 (1): 56-78. doi:10.1111/cbdd.12478. PMC 4279029 . PMID 25393203.. ...
... is a potentially serious hypersensitivity reaction that can be seen with drugs with an aromatic amine chemical structure, such ... as aromatic anticonvulsants (e.g. diphenylhydantoin, phenobarbital, phenytoin, carbamazepine, lamotrigine), sulfonamides, or ...
... but does not have the chemical properties of a thiazide, lacking the benzothiadiazine molecular structure. Examples include ... A thiazide-like diuretic is a sulfonamide diuretic that has similar physiological properties to a thiazide diuretic, ...
Most organic compounds have planar structures and higher photoemission efficiencies in solution than in the solid state. ... Chemical Society Reviews. 40 (11): 5361. doi:10.1039/c1cs15113d. ISSN 0306-0012. Mei, Ju; Hong, Yuning; Lam, Jacky W. Y.; Qin, ... diketopyrrolopyrrole-based and sulfonamide-based luminophores, only display enhanced emission upon entering the crystalline ... Chemical Reviews. 115 (21): 11718-11940. doi:10.1021/acs.chemrev.5b00263. ISSN 0009-2665. PMID 26492387. Jin, Yi; Xu, Yanbin; ...
Two regions of the sulfonamide antibiotic chemical structure are implicated in the hypersensitivity reactions associated with ... The nonantibiotic sulfonamides lack both of these structures. The most common manifestations of a hypersensitivity reaction to ... Sulfonamide (also called sulphonamide, sulfa drugs or sulpha drugs) is the basis of several groups of drugs. The original ... Sulfonamides are prepared by the reaction of a sulfonyl chloride with ammonia or an amine. Certain sulfonamides (sulfadiazine ...
... (IUPAC name: sulfuric diamide) is a chemical compound with the molecular structure H2NSO2NH2. Sulfamide is produced ... Sulfamic acid Sulfonamide (chemistry) Merck Index, 11th Edition, 8894. Regnault, Victor (1838) "Sur l'acide chlorosulfurique et ... Chemical Communications. 2006 (27): 2887-2889. doi:10.1039/b605063h. Reitz‌, A. B.; Smith‌, G. R.; Parker‌, M. H. (2009). "The ...
The structure of CSI is represented as ClS(O)2-N=C=O. It consists of two electron-withdrawing components, the chlorosulfonyl ... Thus, alkenes undergo a [2+2]-cycloaddition to give the sulfonamide. The SO2Cl group can be removed simply by hydrolysis, ... Chlorosulfonyl isocyanate is the chemical compound ClSO2NCO, known as CSI. This compound is a versatile reagent in organic ... group (SO2Cl) and the isocyanate group (-N=C=O). Because of its resulting electrophilicity, the use of CSI in chemical ...
The development of synthetic chemical methods allowed scientists to systematically vary the structure of chemical substances, ... the first representative of the sulfonamide class of antibiotics. Compared to arsphenamine, the sulfonamides had a broader ... Ehrlich's approach of systematically varying the chemical structure of synthetic compounds and measuring the effects of these ... If the cost of these failed drugs is taken into account, the cost of developing a successful new drug (new chemical entity, or ...
Carrier brighteners (e.g. paratoluene sulfonamide, benzene sulphonic acid) in concentration 0.75-23 g/l. Carrier brighteners ... contain sulfur providing uniform fine grain structure of the nickel plating.. *Levelers, second class brighteners (e.g. allyl ... Chemical name. Formula. Bath concentration[3]. Metric. Nickel sulfate. NiSO4·6H2O. 24 oz/gal. 179.7g/L. ...
The bulky sulfonamide group in COX-2 inhibitors such as celecoxib and rofecoxib prevent the molecule from entering the COX-1 ... DuP-697 was a building-block for synthesis of COX-2 inhibitors and served as the basic chemical model for the coxibs that are ... Structure activity relationship (SAR) studies for diaryl heterocyclic compounds have indicated that a cis-stilbene moiety and ... Celecoxib and parecoxib have a sulfonamide substituent (SO2NH2) in para-position on one of the aryl rings while etoricoxib and ...
An indicative cost structure for a fine chemical company is shown in Table 10. Nowadays, a full 7-day/week operation, ... the sulfonamide antibiotics, e.g. Madribon (sulfadimethoxime) and -half a century later- the sulfonyl urea herbicides, e.g. ... Chemical industry Commercial classification of chemicals Commodity chemicals Petrochemical Speciality chemicals. ... The term "fine chemicals" was in use as early as 1908 The emergence of the fine chemical industry as a distinct entity dates ...
The intermolecular interactions and resulting crystal structures can generate physical and chemical properties that differ from ... Among the earliest pharmaceutical cocrystals reported are of sulfonamides. The area of pharmaceutical cocrystals has thus ... Changing the structure and composition of the API can greatly influence the bioavailability of a drug. The engineering of ... Structure and Bonding. 132. p. 25. Bibcode:2009MNSB..132...25B. ISBN 978-3-642-01366-9. doi:10.1007/430_2008_7. Vishweshwar, P ...
"Synthesis and Structure of Environmentally Relevant Perfluorinated Sulfonamides". J. Fluor. Chem. 128 (6): 595-607. doi:10.1016 ... Calafat AM, Wong LY, Kuklenyik Z, Reidy JA, Needham LL (November 2007). "Polyfluoroalkyl Chemicals in the U.S. Population: Data ... It is a fluorocarbon derivative and a perfluorinated compound, having an eight-carbon chain and a terminal sulfonamide ... Schnellmann RG, Manning RO (April 1990). "Perfluorooctane sulfonamide: a structurally novel uncoupler of oxidative ...
The crystal structure of the human CA1-bicarbonate anion complex reveals the geometry of two H-bonds between the Glu106-Thr199 ... Nonetheless, it has medium affinity for CA inhibitor sulfonamides. CA1 has been shown to interact with: TFCP2 HSD17B7 MAPK6 ... Accounts of Chemical Research. 21 (1): 30-36. doi:10.1021/ar00145a005. Torella D, Ellison GM, Torella M, Vicinanza C, Aquila I ... The complete primary structure of the C isozyme". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 249 (8): 2329-37. PMID 4207120. Giraud N ...
Bell, R. P.; Higginson, W. C. E. (1949). "The Catalyzed Dehydration of Acetaldehyde Hydrate, and the Effect of Structure on the ... The ortho isomer is separated and converted to the sulfonamide with ammonia. Oxidation of the methyl substituent gives the ... Easton, Pa: Journal of chemical education. p. 66. OCLC 2640159 "Sugar: A Cautionary Tale". www.fda.gov. Retrieved 2010-06-20. ... The EPA has officially removed saccharin and its salts from their list of hazardous constituents and commercial chemical ...
Sulfonamides can undergo a Hofmann rearrangement when treated with a Difluoro-λ3-bromane to yield a singly substituted N- ... sulfamoyl fluoride, in organic chemistry, is a functional group that has the chemical formula F-SO2-N(-R)-R'. Examples include ... It can be contrasted with the sulfonimidoyl fluorides with structure R-S(O)(F)=N-R'. Sulfamoyl fluorides can be made by ... "Difluoro-λ3-bromane-Induced Hofmann Rearrangement of Sulfonamides: Synthesis of Sulfamoyl Fluorides". Journal of the American ...
Example: C03CA Sulfonamides The fifth level of the code indicates the chemical substance and consists of two digits. Example: ... the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification system Structure "ATCvet". WHO Collaborating Centre for Drug ... The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) Classification System is used for the classification of active ingredients of drugs ... "ATC: Structure and principles". WHO Collaborating Centre for Drug Statistics Methodology. "ATC/DDD Index". WHO Collaborating ...
The structures of vardenafil and sildenafil are similar, they both contain similar structured purine ring of cGMP that ... That suggest that other chemicals similar to guanidine groups of cGMP can also bind at this region. The amino acids residues, ... A group was substituted for the hydrogen atom as demonstrated in figure 6. The sulfonamide group was chosen to lower ... Sung, B. J.; Hwang, K. Y.; Jeon, Y. H.; Lee, J. I.; Heo, Y. S.; Kim, J. H. (2003). "Structure of the catalytic domain of human ...
... an origami structure with complex folds can be created in just 10 minutes. Incredibly, these structures are only 100 nanometers ... Pang B, de Jong J, Qiao X, Wessels LF, Neefjes J (2015). "Chemical profiling of the genome with anti-cancer drugs defines ... Baruffa G (1966). "Clinical trials in Plasmodium falciparum malaria with a long-acting sulphonamide". Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med ... G J Quigley; A H Wang; G Ughetto; G van der Marel; J H van Boom & A Rich (December 1980). "Molecular structure of an anticancer ...
... a higher percentage than this can be genetic or caused by exposure to various chemicals and depending on the level can cause ... quinones and sulfonamides Environmental agents Aromatic amines (e.g. p-nitroaniline, patient case) Arsine Chlorobenzene ... "Structure of human erythrocyte NADH-cytochromeb5reductase". Acta Crystallographica Section D. 60 (11): 1929-1934. doi:10.1107/ ...
Ang Sistema ng klasipikasyon sa Anatomika, Terapeutika at Kemikal o Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) ay ginagamit para sa ... Halimbawa: C03CA Sulfonamide Panglimang baytang[baguhin , baguhin ang batayan]. Nilalaman ng ikalimang baytang ng kodigo ang ... "ATC: Structure and principles". WHO Collaborating Centre for Drug Statistics Methodology. http://www.whocc.no/atc/structure_and ...
Antibiotics, Antibiotics A to Z, Antibiotics N-S, Biochemicals and Reagents, Chemical Structure Class, Sulfonamides ... Antibiotics, Antibiotics A to Z, Antibiotics N-S, Biochemicals and Reagents, Chemical Structure Class, Sulfonamides ... Fine Chemicals. Adsorbents Biotech Chemicals Diagnostics Flavors & Fragrances Pharmaceuticals Solvents >> View All Fine ... Important Notice: This product belongs to MP Biomedicals Rare Chemical library. Most Rare Chemical products are available for ...
In summary of this section, generally, veterinary drugs are compounds characterized by a complex chemical structure that have ... Sulfonamides (SAs) show impartially low sorption capacity to solids compared to other veterinary drugs. These are used for the ... 36] used traditional DLLME for the determination of several sulfonamides in milk. The analytes were detected by HPLC with ... The most commonly used macrolides have 12-16 membered structures. Erythromycin is the most common veterinary drug in this class ...
Structure, properties, spectra, suppliers and links for: 2-(3-Hydroxyphenyl)-3-(4-morpholinylmethyl)-2H-thieno[3,2-e][1,2] ... www.chemspider.com/Chemical-Structure.3571857.html (accessed 14:47, Jun 4, 2020) Copy. Copied ... sulfonamide 1,1-dio. xide [ACD/IUPAC Name] 2H-Thieno[3,2-e]-1,. 2-thiazine-6-sulfon. amide, 2-(3-hydroxy. phenyl)-3-(4-morpho. ... Ligand/binding/crystal Structure Databases. Metabolic Pathways. Molecular Libraries Screening Center Network. Natural Products ...
Structure, properties, spectra, suppliers and links for: GLIMEPIRIDE SULFONAMIDE, 119018-29-0. ... www.chemspider.com/Chemical-Structure.9947203.html (accessed 22:23, Apr 9, 2020) Copy. Copied ... Ligand/binding/crystal Structure Databases. Metabolic Pathways. Molecular Libraries Screening Center Network. Natural Products ... Experimental Physico-chemical Properties * Experimental Melting Point:. 177-179 °C LabNetwork LN00336635. ...
Schulten, M., & Schnitzer, H. R. (1997). Chemical model structures for soil organic matter and soils. Soil Science, 162, 115- ... Avisar, D., Primor, O., Gozlan, I. et al. Sorption of Sulfonamides and Tetracyclines to Montmorillonite Clay. Water Air Soil ... In addition, differences in sorption of OTC or TET to SE were attributed to their different molecular structure. Moreover, the ... Lindsey, M. E., Meyer, M., & Thurman, E. M. (2001). Analysis of trace levels of sulfonamide and tetracycline antimicrobials in ...
Figure 1: The chemical structures of compounds used in this study. Compound 1 is saccharin, a secondary sulfonamide. Compound 2 ... The binding of four saccharin sulfonamides (including saccharin itself, chemical structures shown in Figure 1) to five isoforms ... Figure 1 shows the chemical structures of saccharin (1) and the three saccharin sulfonamide derivatives (2, 3, and 4) that are ... Based on the findings, we chose as a reference a compound having a similar ring structure to 3-4, indane-5-sulfonamide ligand ( ...
Difference in risks of allergic reaction to sulfonamide drugs based on chemical structure. Publication Type:. Journal Article ...
A series of novel sulfonamide substituted heteroleptic salan titanium(iv)-bis-chelates complexed to 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic ... a Fachbereich Chemie and Konstanz Research School Chemical Biology, Universität Konstanz, Universitätsstr. 10, D-78457 Konstanz ... Synthesis and X-ray structure analysis of cytotoxic heptacoordinate sulfonamide salan titanium(IV)-bis-chelates T. Zhao, M. ... Synthesis and X-ray structure analysis of cytotoxic heptacoordinate sulfonamide salan titanium(IV)-bis-chelates ...
5. •• ClassificationClassification Chemical structure:Chemical structure: •• Sulfonamides and related drugs.Sulfonamides and ... Hence the sulfonamide antibacterials exhibit acells will be unable to divide. Hence the sulfonamide antibacterials exhibit a ... Side effectsSide effects •• Sulfonamides have the potential to cause a variety of untoward reactions,Sulfonamides have the ... Antibiotic agentsAntibiotic agents: Chemical substances produced by microorganisms that: Chemical substances produced by ...
Market Research Report 2017 aims at providing comprehensive data on n-butyl benzene sulfonamide(n-bbsa) ... Composition, chemical structure. 1.3. Safety information. 1.4. Hazards identification. 1.5. Handling and storage. 1.6. ... Inorganic Chemicals Alkali Inorganic Salts Non-Metallic Oxides Inorganic Acids Metal Oxides Chemical Company Reports Chemical ... Chemicals Organic Chemicals Alcohols Alkenes (Olefins) Ethers Organic Acids & Derivatives Aldehydes & Ketones Amines ...
Protein Structure, Tertiary * Recombinant Proteins / chemistry * Sulfonamides / chemical synthesis* * Sulfonamides / ...
... isozyme has been investigated with a series of aromatic and heterocyclic sulfonamides, including the six clinically used ... Structure-Activity Relationship * Sulfonamides / chemical synthesis * Sulfonamides / chemistry* * Sulfonamides / pharmacology* ... 4-thiadizole-2-sulfonamide, etc.) sulfonamides examined. Because CA IX is a highly active isozyme predominantly expressed in ... Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: inhibition of the tumor-associated isozyme IX with aromatic and heterocyclic sulfonamides Bioorg ...
Listing of Chemical-related topic pages on the NIOSH Web site. ... Benzenes; Sulfonamides; Plasticizers; Chemical-structure; ... N-Butylbenzene sulfonamide (NBBS) is a commonly used plasticizer found in numerous products. Due to its extensive use, lack of ...
Chemical structure: sulfonamide Application Refer to the product′s Certificate of Analysis for more information on a suitable ... Chemical Structure, Chromatography, Clinical Standards, Pharmaceuticals, Illicit Drugs & Alcohol, Sulfonamides ... Our team of scientists has experience in all areas of research including Life Science, Material Science, Chemical Synthesis, ...
Chemical Structure Class, Inhibits an Enzyme, Interferes with DNA Synthesis, L - Z, Spectrum of Activity, Sulfonamides ... Sulfaguanidine is a sulfonamide antibiotic. Sulfonamides block the synthesis of dihydrofolic acid by inhibiting the enzyme ... Sulfonamides are active against Gram positive bacteria and Gram negative bacteria. Mode of resistance is via the alteration of ... Sulfonamides are competitive inhibitors of bacterial para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), which is required for bacterial synthesis ...
A series of new coumarin-6-sulfonamides have been synthesized as potential antibacterial agents. The reaction of coumarin with ... The chemical structures of the products were elucidated by IR, 1H NMR, and 13C NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. All the ... A series of new coumarin-6-sulfonamides have been synthesized as potential antibacterial agents. The reaction of coumarin with ... was reacted with various amines in the presence of K2CO3 under solvent-free conditions to produce coumarine sulfonamides (2a - ...
The chemical structure of almotriptan contains a sulfonyl group, which is structurally different from a sulfonamide. Cross- ... are allergic to sulfa (sulfonamide). *are pregnant or plan to become pregnant. It is not known if AXERT will harm your unborn ... Hypersensitivity To Sulfonamides. Caution should be exercised when prescribing AXERTR® to patients with known hypersensitivity ... ensitivity to almotriptan in patients allergic to sulfonamides has not been systematically evaluated. ...
Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information. ... Structure Descriptors. InChI. 1S/C7H6N2O3S2/c8-14(11,12)7-9-5-3-4(10)1-2-6(5)13-7/h1-3,10H,(H2,8,11,12). Download. ... Substance Name: 6-Hydroxybenzothiazide-2-sulfonamide. RN: 29927-14-8. InChIKey: ZOAXTOPVRCPOQX-UHFFFAOYSA-N. ...
Penicillin core structure, where "R" is the variable group. Sulfanilamide, a sulfonamide antibacterial, called a sulfa drug. ... Odours occur as well in chemical processing of coal or crude oil into precursor chemicals (feedstocks) for downstream ... Sulfur mustard, a chemical warfare agent. These compounds are characterized by C−S−C bonds Relative to C−C bonds, C−S bond are ... Thioesters have general structure R−CO−S−R. They are related to regular esters but are more reactive. The above classes of ...
J. Elks (14 November 2014). The Dictionary of Drugs: Chemical Data: Chemical Data, Structures and Bibliographies. Springer. pp ... Sulfanitran is a sulfonamide antibiotic which is used in the poultry industry. It is a component of Novastat, Polystat, and ...
... structure-activity studies on sulfonamide. In: AriËns EJ, ed. Physico-Chemical Aspects of Drugs Action. Oxford - London: ... Sulfonamides, structure-activity relationship and mode of action. J Pharm Sci 1968;57:1455-78.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... The effect of the molecular structure of closely related N1-substituents of sulfonamides on the pathways of elimination in man ... Public Health Sulfonamide Internal Medicine Methoxy Parent Compound These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors ...
Chemical structure: This structure is also available as a 2d Mol file or as a computed 3d SD file The 3d structure may be ... Other names: o-Toluenesulfonamide; o-Methylbenzenesulfonamide; Toluene-2-sulfonamide; 2-Methylbenzenesulfonamide; ortho- ... Toluenesulfonamide; Ortho-toluol-sulfonamid; OTS amide; 2-Tolylsulfonamide; NSC 2185; toluene-2-sulphonamide ...
2), equivalent to a hit identification rate of approximately 0.01%. The chemical structures of the four hit compounds are shown ... A portion of the latter in dichloromethane (0.55 mmol) was added to a cold solution of 4-amino-prolidinyl sulfonamide (see Fig ... and compound structure. A screen of 34,000 compounds from a library of the Emory Chemical Biology Discovery Center has yielded ... Structure of the uncleaved ectodomain of the paramyxovirus (hPIV3) fusion protein. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102:9288-9293. ...
Sulfonamide ("sulfa") allergy: The FDA-approved product labeling for many medications containing a sulfonamide chemical group ... However, because of similarities in chemical structure and/or pharmacologic actions, the possibility of cross-sensitivity ... concerns for cross-reactivity have previously extended to all compounds containing the sulfonamide structure (SO2NH2). An ... Ajmaline: Sulfonamides may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Ajmaline. Specifically, the risk for cholestasis may be ...
Chemical structure: This structure is also available as a 2d Mol file ... Other names: 10H-Phenothiazine-2-sulfonamide, 10-[2-(dimethylamino)propyl]-N,N-dimethyl-; Phenothiazine-2-sulfonamide, 10-(2-( ... N-dimethylphenothiazine-2-sulfonamide; Dimethylsulfamido-3-(dimethylamino-2-propyl)-10-phenothiazine; 3-Dimethylsulfonamido 10 ...
  • Herein, we describe the structure-guided discovery of PLX4032 (RG7204), a potent inhibitor of oncogenic B-RAF kinase activity. (nih.gov)
  • A stacking interaction of the perfluorophenyl ring of the inhibitor and the aromatic ring of Phe 131 was also observed for the first time in a CA-sulfonamide adduct. (cf.ac.uk)
  • G. Swedberg, S. Castensson and O. Skold (1979) 'Characterization of mutationally altered dihydropteroate synthase and its ability to form a sulfonamide-containing dihydrofolate analog', J. Bacteriol 137 129. (springer.com)
  • O. Skold (1976) 'R-factor-mediated resistance to sulfonamides by a plasmid-borne, drug-resistant dihydropteroate synthase', Antimicrobial Agents Chemother . (springer.com)
  • All cytotoxic complexes showed complete inhibition of cell growth at active concentration, two complexes based on pyrrolidine and azepane substituted sulfonamides displayed IC 50 values below 1.7 μM and are more cytotoxic than cisplatin in both tested cell lines. (rsc.org)
  • In the context of our program of photochromic pharmacophores we were interested in the exploration of azobenzene-containing sulfonamides to block the catalytic activity of human carbonic anhydrase II (hCAII). (uni-muenchen.de)
  • W-18 is a research chemical with analgesic (painkilling) activity first made by three pharmaceutical chemists at the University of Alberta in Edmonton in the early 1980s. (forbes.com)
  • Building upon this work, we envisioned the construction of a larger library of alkaloid/terpenoid-like small molecules for further chemical and biological evaluation. (pnas.org)
  • Then a reported second polymorph unleashed a rancorous dispute over the subtleties of how molecules pack in crystals ( C&EN, Jan. 1, page 27 ). (acs.org)
  • Privileged structures such as 2-arylindoles are recurrent molecular scaffolds in bioactive molecules. (usda.gov)
  • All molecules are azobenzene-4-sulfonamides, which are substituted by different functional groups in the 4 '-position and were characterized by X-ray crystallography. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Jaguar has been used to investigate the mechanism of carbon nanotube growth, the conformation dependence of molecular conduction, the electronic structure of molecular rectifiers, switching in mechanically interlocked molecules, and interference effects in conduction through arene molecular wires. (schrodinger.com)
  • Sorption of ciprofloxacin and oxytetracycline zwitterions to soils and soil minerals: Influence of compound structure. (springer.com)
  • The structure of the ligand, 4-bromo-2-((E)-{4-[(3,4-dimethylisoxazol-5-yl)sulfamoyl]phenyl} iminiomethyl)phenolate was also determined by X-ray diffraction method. (docme.ru)
  • A longstanding effort to do so is by exploiting protein structures to predict new reagents and therapeutic leads (structure-based ligand discovery). (ucsf.edu)
  • The influences of scaffolds and substituents were also evaluated, with both found to have significant impacts on location in chemical space and three-dimensional shape. (pnas.org)
  • Following his father's wishes, he moved to Prague , where he received his diploma in chemical engineering from the Czech Technical University in 1928. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, replacement of the bromine atom in 4BP-TQS with a fluorine atom [4FP-TQS (4-(4-fluorophenyl)-3 a ,4,5,9 b -tetrahydro-3 H -cyclopenta[ c ]quinoline-8-sulfonamide)] generated a compound that lacks allosteric agonist activity but acts a potentiator of responses to acetylcholine. (aspetjournals.org)
  • 2 , 3 As we assume in this paper this activity depends on the substitutes that the compound chemical structure has in addition to sulfonamide group. (openaccesspub.org)
  • Hydrochlorothiazide (HCT, Figure 1 ), 6-chloro-3,4-dihydro- 2H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine-7-sulfonamide-1,1-dioxide, is a diuretic of the class of benzothiadiazines widely used in antihypertensive pharmaceutical formulations which decreases active sodium reabsorption and reduces peripheral vascular resistence [ 4 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • 3 No interaction between the human immune system and the sulfonamide functional group has been demonstrated. (scielo.org.za)
  • Stronger sorption to humic acid than to the oligomer was related to the more complex structure and functional group diversity of humic acid. (hindawi.com)
  • Jaguar specializes in fast electronic structure predictions for molecular systems of medium and large size via the use of the pseudospectral (PS) method and computational strategies that scale reasonably as system size grows, such as density functional theory (DFT) and local second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (LMP2). (schrodinger.com)