The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.
A method which uses specific precipitation reactions to separate or collect substances from a solution.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Frozen water crystals that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.
Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.
Tungsten hydroxide oxide phosphate. A white or slightly yellowish-green, slightly efflorescent crystal or crystalline powder. It is used as a reagent for alkaloids and many other nitrogen bases, for phenols, albumin, peptone, amino acids, uric acid, urea, blood, and carbohydrates. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
An acquired disorder characterized by recurrent symptoms, referable to multiple organ systems, occurring in response to demonstrable exposure to many chemically unrelated compounds at doses below those established in the general population to cause harmful effects. (Cullen MR. The worker with multiple chemical sensitivities: an overview. Occup Med 1987;2(4):655-61)
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Science dealing with the properties, distribution, and circulation of water on and below the earth's surface, and atmosphere.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Tactical warfare using incendiary mixtures, smokes, or irritant, burning, or asphyxiating gases.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.
A broad class of substances encompassing all those that do not include carbon and its derivatives as their principal elements. However, carbides, carbonates, cyanides, cyanates, and carbon disulfide are included in this class.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
'Chemical burns' is a medical term that refers to injuries resulting from skin or eye contact with harmful substances, such as acids, alkalis, or irritants, which can cause damage ranging from mild irritation to severe necrosis and scarring.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
A strong acid used as a protein precipitant in clinical chemistry and also as a caustic for removing warts.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.

Basic homopolyamino acids, histones and protamines are potent antagonists of angiogenin binding to ribonuclease inhibitor. (1/2034)

A radio-ribonuclease inhibitor assay based on the interaction of 125I-angiogenin with ribonuclease inhibitor (RI) was used to detect pancreatic-type ribonucleases and potential modulators of their action. We show that highly basic proteins including the homopolypeptides poly-arginine, poly-lysine and poly-ornithine, core histones, spermatid-specific S1 protein and the protamines HP3 and Z3 were strong inhibitors of angiogenin binding to RI. A minimum size of poly-arginine and poly-lysine was required for efficient inhibition. The inhibition likely resulted from direct association of the basic proteins with the acidic inhibitor, as RI bound to poly-lysine and protamines while 125I-angiogenin did not. Antagonists of the angiogenin-RI interaction are potential regulators of either angiogenin-triggered angiogenesis and/or intracellular RI function, depending on their preferential target.  (+info)

Clinical and immunochemical study of the serum IgG fraction not precipitated in a zinc-sodium salicylate reagent. (2/2034)

A reagent made of zinc sulphate (0-08 M) in a 0-4 M sodium salicylate solution at pH 7-3 precipitated most of the IgG when a small volume of human serum was added. Sera with normal IgG levels or polyclonal hyperglobulinaemia showed a close correlation between total IgG and zinc-precipitated IgG (r = + 0-95). In clinical material, not including IgG myeloma, zinc-soluble IgG varied between 0 and 6 mg/ml and was independent of the IgG serum concentration. In 31 normal subjects the average IgG concentration, as determined by the Technicon immunonephelometric method, was 10-2 +/- 1-7 mg/ml for total IgG and 2-2 +/- 1-0 mg/ml for the soluble fraction. Among 173 sera, including 24 from cord blood, 16 from pregnant women, and 133 from patients with miscellaneous diseases, no pathological conditions except three cases of IgG myeloma were found with a zinc-soluble IgG definitely above the normal values; zinc-soluble IgG levels were often low in patients with hyperglobulinaemia, and the difference was highly significant in liver disease. kappa and gamma light chains as well as the four IgG-Hp chain subclasses were found in both zinc-soluble fractions of normal IgG. A study of myeloma monoclonal IgG showed that globulins of classes 1, 3, and 4 could be either soluble or insoluble in the zinc reagent. One, G2, was mainly insoluble. Hexose and antistreptolysin contents per milligram normal IgG were not significantly different in either fraction. It is suggested that zinc-soluble IgG consists of the recently synthesized molecules, the zinc-solubility of which has not yet been decreased by protein association, lipid interaction, antigen binding, or enzymatic denaturation. Within this hypothesis, a low level of soluble IgG would mean either an increased precatabolic protein or a decreased synthesis.  (+info)

Prion domain initiation of amyloid formation in vitro from native Ure2p. (3/2034)

The [URE3] non-Mendelian genetic element of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an infectious protein (prion) form of Ure2p, a regulator of nitrogen catabolism. Here, synthetic Ure2p1-65 were shown to polymerize to form filaments 40 to 45 angstroms in diameter with more than 60 percent beta sheet. Ure2p1-65 specifically induced full-length native Ure2p to copolymerize under conditions where native Ure2p alone did not polymerize. Like Ure2p in extracts of [URE3] strains, these 180- to 220-angstrom-diameter filaments were protease resistant. The Ure2p1-65-Ure2p cofilaments could seed polymerization of native Ure2p to form thicker, less regular filaments. All filaments stained with Congo Red to produce the green birefringence typical of amyloid. This self-propagating amyloid formation can explain the properties of [URE3].  (+info)

Survey of total error of precipitation and homogeneous HDL-cholesterol methods and simultaneous evaluation of lyophilized saccharose-containing candidate reference materials for HDL-cholesterol. (4/2034)

BACKGROUND: Standardization of HDL-cholesterol is needed for risk assessment. We assessed for the first time the accuracy of HDL-cholesterol testing in The Netherlands and evaluated 11 candidate reference materials (CRMs). METHODS: The total error (TE) of HDL-cholesterol measurements was assessed in native human sera by 25 Dutch clinical chemistry laboratories. Concomitantly, the suitability of lyophilized, saccharose-containing CRMs (n = 11) for HDL-cholesterol was evaluated. RESULTS: In the precipitation method group, which included 25 laboratories and four methods, the mean (minimum-maximum) TE was 11.5% (2.7-25.2%), signifying that 18 of 25 laboratories satisfied the TE goal of +info)

Clusterin has chaperone-like activity similar to that of small heat shock proteins. (5/2034)

Clusterin is a highly conserved protein which is expressed at increased levels by many cell types in response to a broad variety of stress conditions. A genuine physiological function for clusterin has not yet been established. The results presented here demonstrate for the first time that clusterin has chaperone-like activity. At physiological concentrations, clusterin potently protected glutathione S-transferase and catalase from heat-induced precipitation and alpha-lactalbumin and bovine serum albumin from precipitation induced by reduction with dithiothreitol. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay data showed that clusterin bound preferentially to heat-stressed glutathione S-transferase and to dithiothreitol-treated bovine serum albumin and alpha-lactalbumin. Size exclusion chromatography and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analyses showed that clusterin formed high molecular weight complexes (HMW) with all four proteins tested. Small heat shock proteins (sHSP) also act in this way to prevent protein precipitation and protect cells from heat and other stresses. The stoichiometric subunit molar ratios of clusterin:stressed protein during formation of HMW complexes (which for the four proteins tested ranged from 1.0:1.3 to 1.0:11) is less than the reported ratios for sHSP-mediated formation of HMW complexes (1.0:1.0 or greater), indicating that clusterin is a very efficient chaperone. Our results suggest that clusterin may play a sHSP-like role in cytoprotection.  (+info)

A novel strategy for the preparation of liposomes: rapid solvent exchange. (6/2034)

During the preparation of multi-component model membranes, a primary consideration is that compositional homogeneity should prevail throughout the suspension. Some conventional sample preparation methods pass the lipid mixture through an intermediary, solvent-free state. This is an ordered, solid state and may favor the demixing of membrane components. A new preparative method has been developed which is specifically designed to avoid this intermediary state. This novel strategy is called rapid solvent exchange (RSE) and entails the direct transfer of lipid mixtures between organic solvent and aqueous buffer. RSE liposomes require no more than a minute to prepare and manifest considerable entrapment volumes with a high fraction of external surface area. In phospholipid/cholesterol mixtures of high cholesterol content, suspensions prepared by more conventional methods reveal evidence of artifactual demixing, whereas samples prepared by rapid solvent exchange do not. The principles which may lead to artifactual demixing during conventional sample preparation are discussed.  (+info)

von Willebrand factor contained in a high purity FVIII concentrate (Fanhdi) binds to platelet glycoproteins and supports platelet adhesion to subendothelium under flow conditions. (7/2034)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: There is evidence suggesting that von Willebrand factor (VWF) from high purity factor VIII concentrates could be of clinical use in the management of patients suffering from VWD. We analyzed structural and functional characteristics of VWF present in a high purity factor VIII concentrate VWFHPC (Fanhdi). The multimeric structure, the ability to bind to platelet GP Ib/IX or GP IIb/IIIa, and the capacity of VWFHPC to promote platelet adhesion on injured vessels were investigated and compared with that present in standard plasma cryoprecipitates [VWFCRYO]. DESIGN AND METHODS: Binding studies were carried out by incubating radiolabeled VWF and washed platelets, which were activated with either ristocetin (1 mg/mL; for GP Ib/IX), or thrombin (2.5 U/mL; for GP IIb/IIIa). Platelet adhesion was assessed in a perfusion system (shear rate = 800 s-1, 10 min) in which the source of VWF was added (at 0.4 or 0.8 U/mL VWF:Ag) to washed platelets and red cells suspended in a human albumin solution. The deposition of platelets onto the perfused subendothelial surface was morphometrically evaluated and expressed as percentage of surface coverage (%SC). RESULTS: The VWFHPC (152 Units VWF:RCof/mg protein; VWF:RCof/VWF:Ag = 0.97), lacked only a small proportion of high-molecular-weight multimers present in VWFCRYO. Binding affinities (Kd values, nM) of VWFHPC were similar to those of VWFCRYO (5.3 +/- 0.86 vs 5.2 +/- 0.95, for GP Ib/IX; and 11.6 +/- 2.7 vs 15.4 +/- 1.7 for GPIIb-IIIa). A slightly, though not significantly, higher binding capacity for these receptors (Bmax values, molecules/pit) was obtained for VWFHPC. The %SC in perfusions in the presence of albumin was < 10%. Addition of VWFHPC or VWFCRYO significantly increased the %SC, with values of 27.1 +/- 4.9 and 17.5 +/- 2.8%, respectively with 0.4 U/mL (p < 0.004 and p < 0.02 vs albumin); and 30.8 +/- 4.9% and 20.03 +/- 4.1%, respectively, at 0.8 U/mL (p < 0.001 and p < 0.02 vs albumin). INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that VWF present in the high purity FVIII concentrate Fanhdi retains the functional capacity to bind to GPs Ib/IX and IIb/IIIa and to promote platelet adhesion onto exposed subendothelium.  (+info)

A novel class of lipophilic quinazoline-based folic acid analogues: cytotoxic agents with a folate-independent locus. (8/2034)

Three lipophilic quinazoline-based aminomethyl pyridine compounds, which differ only in the position of the nitrogen in their pyridine ring, are described. CB300179 (2-pyridine), CB300189 (4-pyridine) and CB30865 (3-pyridine) all inhibited isolated mammalian TS with IC50 values of 508, 250 and 156 nM respectively. CB30865 was the most potent growth inhibitory agent (IC50 values in the range 1-100 nM for several mouse and human cell types). CB300179 and CB300189 were active in the micromolar range. Against W1L2 cells, CB300179 and CB300189 demonstrated reduced potency in the presence of exogenous thymidine (dThd), and against a W1L2:C1 TS overproducing cell line. In contrast, CB30865 retained activity in these systems. Furthermore, combinations of precursors and end products of folate metabolism, e.g. dThd/hypoxanthine (HX) or leucovorin (LV), did not prevent activity. CB30865 did not interfere with the incorporation of tritiated dThd, uridine or leucine after 4 h. A cell line was raised with acquired resistance to CB30865 (W1L2:R865; > 200-fold), which was not cross-resistant to CB300179 or CB300189. In addition, W1L2:R865 cells were as sensitive as parental cells to agents from all the major chemotherapeutic drug classes. CB300179 and CB300189 induced an S phase accumulation (preventable by co-administration of dThd). No cell cycle redistribution was observed following exposure (4-48 h) to an equitoxic concentration of CB30865. In the NCI anticancer drug-discovery screen, CB30865 displayed a pattern of activity which was not consistent with known anti-tumour agents. These data suggest that CB30865 represents a class of potent potential anti-tumour agents with a novel mechanism of action.  (+info)

Chemical precipitation is a process in which a chemical compound becomes a solid, insoluble form, known as a precipitate, from a liquid solution. This occurs when the concentration of the compound in the solution exceeds its solubility limit and forms a separate phase. The reaction that causes the formation of the precipitate can be a result of various factors such as changes in temperature, pH, or the addition of another chemical reagent.

In the medical field, chemical precipitation is used in diagnostic tests to detect and measure the presence of certain substances in body fluids, such as blood or urine. For example, a common test for kidney function involves adding a chemical reagent to a urine sample, which causes the excess protein in the urine to precipitate out of solution. The amount of precipitate formed can then be measured and used to diagnose and monitor kidney disease.

Chemical precipitation is also used in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as heavy metal poisoning. In this case, a chelating agent is administered to bind with the toxic metal ions in the body, forming an insoluble compound that can be excreted through the urine or feces. This process helps to reduce the amount of toxic metals in the body and alleviate symptoms associated with poisoning.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "rain" is not a medical term. In general, rain refers to water droplets that fall from the sky as part of the Earth's weather cycle. These drops form when moisture in the air condenses and cools, creating clouds which eventually become heavy enough to release the collected water.

If you have any medical concerns or questions, I'd be happy to try and help answer those for you!

"Fractional precipitation" is not a recognized medical term. However, in the field of chemistry and pharmaceutical sciences, fractional precipitation refers to a process used to separate or purify substances based on their different solubilities in various solvents. This technique involves changing the conditions such as temperature, pH, or solvent composition to cause some components of a mixture to precipitate (form a solid) while others remain in solution.

The precipitated fraction can then be separated from the remaining liquid, and further purification steps can be taken if necessary. While not a medical term per se, fractional precipitation may be used in the production or isolation of pharmaceutical compounds or in diagnostic tests that involve chemical separations.

Climate, in the context of environmental science and medicine, refers to the long-term average of weather conditions (such as temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, rainfall, and other meteorological elements) in a given region over a period of years to decades. It is the statistical description of the weather patterns that occur in a particular location over long periods of time.

In medical terms, climate can have significant impacts on human health, both physical and mental. For example, extreme temperatures, air pollution, and ultraviolet radiation levels associated with certain climates can increase the risk of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, heat-related illnesses, and skin cancer. Similarly, changes in climate patterns can affect the distribution and prevalence of infectious diseases, such as malaria and Lyme disease.

Climate change, which refers to significant long-term changes in the statistical distribution of weather patterns over periods ranging from decades to millions of years, can have even more profound impacts on human health, including increased rates of heat-related illnesses and deaths, worsening air quality, and altered transmission patterns of infectious diseases.

Chemical phenomena refer to the changes and interactions that occur at the molecular or atomic level when chemicals are involved. These phenomena can include chemical reactions, in which one or more substances (reactants) are converted into different substances (products), as well as physical properties that change as a result of chemical interactions, such as color, state of matter, and solubility. Chemical phenomena can be studied through various scientific disciplines, including chemistry, biochemistry, and physics.

Molecular weight, also known as molecular mass, is the mass of a molecule. It is expressed in units of atomic mass units (amu) or daltons (Da). Molecular weight is calculated by adding up the atomic weights of each atom in a molecule. It is a useful property in chemistry and biology, as it can be used to determine the concentration of a substance in a solution, or to calculate the amount of a substance that will react with another in a chemical reaction.

A chemical model is a simplified representation or description of a chemical system, based on the laws of chemistry and physics. It is used to explain and predict the behavior of chemicals and chemical reactions. Chemical models can take many forms, including mathematical equations, diagrams, and computer simulations. They are often used in research, education, and industry to understand complex chemical processes and develop new products and technologies.

For example, a chemical model might be used to describe the way that atoms and molecules interact in a particular reaction, or to predict the properties of a new material. Chemical models can also be used to study the behavior of chemicals at the molecular level, such as how they bind to each other or how they are affected by changes in temperature or pressure.

It is important to note that chemical models are simplifications of reality and may not always accurately represent every aspect of a chemical system. They should be used with caution and validated against experimental data whenever possible.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Snow" is not a medical term. It is a natural phenomenon and a common type of precipitation that occurs when water vapor in the atmosphere freezes into ice crystals. If you have any medical concerns or questions, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

Ammonium sulfate is a chemical compound with the formula (NH4)2SO4. It is a white crystalline solid that is highly soluble in water and is commonly used in fertilizers due to its high nitrogen content. In a medical context, it can be used as a laxative or for lowering the pH of the gastrointestinal tract in certain medical conditions. It may also be used in the treatment of metabolic alkalosis, a condition characterized by an excessively high pH in the blood. However, its use in medical treatments is less common than its use in agricultural and industrial applications.

Phosphotungstic acid is not typically defined in a medical context as it is a chemical compound with the formula H3PW12O40. It is a complex polyoxometalate anion consisting of 12 tungsten atoms and one phosphorus atom, all in the +5 or +6 oxidation state, surrounded by 40 oxygen atoms.

In medicine, phosphotungstic acid is sometimes used as a negative stain for electron microscopy to enhance contrast and visualization of biological specimens. However, it is not a medication or a therapeutic agent, so it does not have a medical definition per se.

Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3. It is a common substance found in rocks and in the shells of many marine animals. As a mineral, it is known as calcite or aragonite.

In the medical field, calcium carbonate is often used as a dietary supplement to prevent or treat calcium deficiency. It is also commonly used as an antacid to neutralize stomach acid and relieve symptoms of heartburn, acid reflux, and indigestion.

Calcium carbonate works by reacting with hydrochloric acid in the stomach to form water, carbon dioxide, and calcium chloride. This reaction helps to raise the pH level in the stomach and neutralize excess acid.

It is important to note that excessive use of calcium carbonate can lead to hypercalcemia, a condition characterized by high levels of calcium in the blood, which can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, constipation, confusion, and muscle weakness. Therefore, it is recommended to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any new supplement regimen.

Temperature, in a medical context, is a measure of the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment. It is usually measured using a thermometer and reported in degrees Celsius (°C), degrees Fahrenheit (°F), or kelvin (K). In the human body, normal core temperature ranges from about 36.5-37.5°C (97.7-99.5°F) when measured rectally, and can vary slightly depending on factors such as time of day, physical activity, and menstrual cycle. Elevated body temperature is a common sign of infection or inflammation, while abnormally low body temperature can indicate hypothermia or other medical conditions.

Immunodiffusion is a laboratory technique used in immunology to detect and measure the presence of specific antibodies or antigens in a sample. It is based on the principle of diffusion, where molecules move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until they reach equilibrium. In this technique, a sample containing an unknown quantity of antigen or antibody is placed in a gel or agar medium that contains a known quantity of antibody or antigen, respectively.

The two substances then diffuse towards each other and form a visible precipitate at the point where they meet and reach equivalence, which indicates the presence and quantity of the specific antigen or antibody in the sample. There are several types of immunodiffusion techniques, including radial immunodiffusion (RID) and double immunodiffusion (Ouchterlony technique). These techniques are widely used in diagnostic laboratories to identify and measure various antigens and antibodies, such as those found in infectious diseases, autoimmune disorders, and allergic reactions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "weather" is not a medical term. Weather refers to the state of the atmosphere at a particular place and time, including factors such as temperature, humidity, cloudiness, precipitation, and wind. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to try to help answer those for you!

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Ultracentrifugation is a medical and laboratory technique used for the separation of particles of different sizes, densities, or shapes from a mixture based on their sedimentation rates. This process involves the use of a specialized piece of equipment called an ultracentrifuge, which can generate very high centrifugal forces, much greater than those produced by a regular centrifuge.

In ultracentrifugation, a sample is placed in a special tube and spun at extremely high speeds, causing the particles within the sample to separate based on their size, shape, and density. The larger or denser particles will sediment faster and accumulate at the bottom of the tube, while smaller or less dense particles will remain suspended in the solution or sediment more slowly.

Ultracentrifugation is a valuable tool in various fields, including biochemistry, molecular biology, and virology. It can be used to purify and concentrate viruses, subcellular organelles, membrane fractions, ribosomes, DNA, and other macromolecules from complex mixtures. The technique can also provide information about the size, shape, and density of these particles, making it a crucial method for characterizing and studying their properties.

Climate change, as defined medically, refers to the long-term alterations in the statistical distribution of weather patterns caused by changes in the Earth's climate system. These changes can have significant impacts on human health and wellbeing.

Medical professionals are increasingly recognizing the importance of addressing climate change as a public health issue. The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified climate change as one of the greatest threats to global health in the 21st century, with potential impacts including increased heat-related mortality, more frequent and severe natural disasters, changes in the distribution of infectious diseases, and decreased food security.

Climate change can also exacerbate existing health disparities, as vulnerable populations such as children, the elderly, low-income communities, and those with chronic medical conditions are often disproportionately affected by its impacts. As a result, addressing climate change is an important public health priority, and medical professionals have a critical role to play in advocating for policies and practices that reduce greenhouse gas emissions and promote adaptation to the changing climate.

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) is a non-invasive diagnostic technique that provides information about the biochemical composition of tissues, including their metabolic state. It is often used in conjunction with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to analyze various metabolites within body tissues, such as the brain, heart, liver, and muscles.

During MRS, a strong magnetic field, radio waves, and a computer are used to produce detailed images and data about the concentration of specific metabolites in the targeted tissue or organ. This technique can help detect abnormalities related to energy metabolism, neurotransmitter levels, pH balance, and other biochemical processes, which can be useful for diagnosing and monitoring various medical conditions, including cancer, neurological disorders, and metabolic diseases.

There are different types of MRS, such as Proton (^1^H) MRS, Phosphorus-31 (^31^P) MRS, and Carbon-13 (^13^C) MRS, each focusing on specific elements or metabolites within the body. The choice of MRS technique depends on the clinical question being addressed and the type of information needed for diagnosis or monitoring purposes.

Gel chromatography is a type of liquid chromatography that separates molecules based on their size or molecular weight. It uses a stationary phase that consists of a gel matrix made up of cross-linked polymers, such as dextran, agarose, or polyacrylamide. The gel matrix contains pores of various sizes, which allow smaller molecules to penetrate deeper into the matrix while larger molecules are excluded.

In gel chromatography, a mixture of molecules is loaded onto the top of the gel column and eluted with a solvent that moves down the column by gravity or pressure. As the sample components move down the column, they interact with the gel matrix and get separated based on their size. Smaller molecules can enter the pores of the gel and take longer to elute, while larger molecules are excluded from the pores and elute more quickly.

Gel chromatography is commonly used to separate and purify proteins, nucleic acids, and other biomolecules based on their size and molecular weight. It is also used in the analysis of polymers, colloids, and other materials with a wide range of applications in chemistry, biology, and medicine.

In the context of medicine, "chemistry" often refers to the field of study concerned with the properties, composition, and structure of elements and compounds, as well as their reactions with one another. It is a fundamental science that underlies much of modern medicine, including pharmacology (the study of drugs), toxicology (the study of poisons), and biochemistry (the study of the chemical processes that occur within living organisms).

In addition to its role as a basic science, chemistry is also used in medical testing and diagnosis. For example, clinical chemistry involves the analysis of bodily fluids such as blood and urine to detect and measure various substances, such as glucose, cholesterol, and electrolytes, that can provide important information about a person's health status.

Overall, chemistry plays a critical role in understanding the mechanisms of diseases, developing new treatments, and improving diagnostic tests and techniques.

Electrophoresis, polyacrylamide gel (EPG) is a laboratory technique used to separate and analyze complex mixtures of proteins or nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) based on their size and electrical charge. This technique utilizes a matrix made of cross-linked polyacrylamide, a type of gel, which provides a stable and uniform environment for the separation of molecules.

In this process:

1. The polyacrylamide gel is prepared by mixing acrylamide monomers with a cross-linking agent (bis-acrylamide) and a catalyst (ammonium persulfate) in the presence of a buffer solution.
2. The gel is then poured into a mold and allowed to polymerize, forming a solid matrix with uniform pore sizes that depend on the concentration of acrylamide used. Higher concentrations result in smaller pores, providing better resolution for separating smaller molecules.
3. Once the gel has set, it is placed in an electrophoresis apparatus containing a buffer solution. Samples containing the mixture of proteins or nucleic acids are loaded into wells on the top of the gel.
4. An electric field is applied across the gel, causing the negatively charged molecules to migrate towards the positive electrode (anode) while positively charged molecules move toward the negative electrode (cathode). The rate of migration depends on the size, charge, and shape of the molecules.
5. Smaller molecules move faster through the gel matrix and will migrate farther from the origin compared to larger molecules, resulting in separation based on size. Proteins and nucleic acids can be selectively stained after electrophoresis to visualize the separated bands.

EPG is widely used in various research fields, including molecular biology, genetics, proteomics, and forensic science, for applications such as protein characterization, DNA fragment analysis, cloning, mutation detection, and quality control of nucleic acid or protein samples.

Solubility is a fundamental concept in pharmaceutical sciences and medicine, which refers to the maximum amount of a substance (solute) that can be dissolved in a given quantity of solvent (usually water) at a specific temperature and pressure. Solubility is typically expressed as mass of solute per volume or mass of solvent (e.g., grams per liter, milligrams per milliliter). The process of dissolving a solute in a solvent results in a homogeneous solution where the solute particles are dispersed uniformly throughout the solvent.

Understanding the solubility of drugs is crucial for their formulation, administration, and therapeutic effectiveness. Drugs with low solubility may not dissolve sufficiently to produce the desired pharmacological effect, while those with high solubility might lead to rapid absorption and short duration of action. Therefore, optimizing drug solubility through various techniques like particle size reduction, salt formation, or solubilization is an essential aspect of drug development and delivery.

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a type of chromatography that separates and analyzes compounds based on their interactions with a stationary phase and a mobile phase under high pressure. The mobile phase, which can be a gas or liquid, carries the sample mixture through a column containing the stationary phase.

In HPLC, the mobile phase is a liquid, and it is pumped through the column at high pressures (up to several hundred atmospheres) to achieve faster separation times and better resolution than other types of liquid chromatography. The stationary phase can be a solid or a liquid supported on a solid, and it interacts differently with each component in the sample mixture, causing them to separate as they travel through the column.

HPLC is widely used in analytical chemistry, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, and other fields to separate, identify, and quantify compounds present in complex mixtures. It can be used to analyze a wide range of substances, including drugs, hormones, vitamins, pigments, flavors, and pollutants. HPLC is also used in the preparation of pure samples for further study or use.

Ion exchange chromatography is a type of chromatography technique used to separate and analyze charged molecules (ions) based on their ability to exchange bound ions in a solid resin or gel with ions of similar charge in the mobile phase. The stationary phase, often called an ion exchanger, contains fixed ated functional groups that can attract counter-ions of opposite charge from the sample mixture.

In this technique, the sample is loaded onto an ion exchange column containing the charged resin or gel. As the sample moves through the column, ions in the sample compete for binding sites on the stationary phase with ions already present in the column. The ions that bind most strongly to the stationary phase will elute (come off) slower than those that bind more weakly.

Ion exchange chromatography can be performed using either cation exchangers, which exchange positive ions (cations), or anion exchangers, which exchange negative ions (anions). The pH and ionic strength of the mobile phase can be adjusted to control the binding and elution of specific ions.

Ion exchange chromatography is widely used in various applications such as water treatment, protein purification, and chemical analysis.

Chromatography is a technique used in analytical chemistry for the separation, identification, and quantification of the components of a mixture. It is based on the differential distribution of the components of a mixture between a stationary phase and a mobile phase. The stationary phase can be a solid or liquid, while the mobile phase is a gas, liquid, or supercritical fluid that moves through the stationary phase carrying the sample components.

The interaction between the sample components and the stationary and mobile phases determines how quickly each component will move through the system. Components that interact more strongly with the stationary phase will move more slowly than those that interact more strongly with the mobile phase. This difference in migration rates allows for the separation of the components, which can then be detected and quantified.

There are many different types of chromatography, including paper chromatography, thin-layer chromatography (TLC), gas chromatography (GC), liquid chromatography (LC), and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Each type has its own strengths and weaknesses, and is best suited for specific applications.

In summary, chromatography is a powerful analytical technique used to separate, identify, and quantify the components of a mixture based on their differential distribution between a stationary phase and a mobile phase.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Organic chemicals" is a broad term that refers to chemical compounds containing carbon, often bonded to hydrogen. These can include natural substances like sugars and proteins, as well as synthetic materials like plastics and pharmaceuticals.

However, if you're asking about "organic" in the context of farming or food production, it refers to things that are produced without the use of synthetic pesticides, fertilizers, genetically modified organisms, irradiation, and sewage sludge.

In the field of medicine, there isn't a specific definition for 'organic chemicals'. If certain organic chemicals are used in medical contexts, they would be defined by their specific use or function (like a specific drug name).

Immunoelectrophoresis (IEP) is a laboratory technique used in the field of clinical pathology and immunology. It is a method for separating and identifying proteins, particularly immunoglobulins or antibodies, in a sample. This technique combines the principles of electrophoresis, which separates proteins based on their electric charge and size, with immunological reactions, which detect specific proteins using antigen-antibody interactions.

In IEP, a protein sample is first separated by electrophoresis in an agarose or agar gel matrix on a glass slide or in a test tube. After separation, an antibody specific to the protein of interest is layered on top of the gel and allowed to diffuse towards the separated proteins. This creates a reaction between the antigen (protein) and the antibody, forming a visible precipitate at the point where they meet. The precipitate line's position and intensity can then be analyzed to identify and quantify the protein of interest.

Immunoelectrophoresis is particularly useful in diagnosing various medical conditions, such as immunodeficiency disorders, monoclonal gammopathies (like multiple myeloma), and other plasma cell dyscrasias. It can help detect abnormal protein patterns, quantify specific immunoglobulins, and identify the presence of M-proteins or Bence Jones proteins, which are indicative of monoclonal gammopathies.

Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS), also known as Idiosyncratic Intolerance, is a chronic condition characterized by symptoms that the affected person attributes to low-level exposure to chemicals in the environment. These reactions are not part of a recognized allergic response and are often delayed in onset.

The American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI) defines MCS as: "A heightened sensitivity to chemicals that most people tolerate well... Symptoms can include headache, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, confusion, joint pain, and digestive disturbances."

However, it's important to note that the medical community has not reached a consensus on the definition, cause, or diagnosis of MCS. Some healthcare providers question its validity as a distinct medical entity due to lack of consistent scientific evidence supporting the relationship between exposure levels and symptoms.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "seasons" is not a term that has a medical definition. Seasons refer to the four divisions of the year (spring, summer, autumn or fall, and winter) based on the position of the earth in its orbit around the sun. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to try to help answer those!

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Amino acids are organic compounds that serve as the building blocks of proteins. They consist of a central carbon atom, also known as the alpha carbon, which is bonded to an amino group (-NH2), a carboxyl group (-COOH), a hydrogen atom (H), and a variable side chain (R group). The R group can be composed of various combinations of atoms such as hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon, which determine the unique properties of each amino acid.

There are 20 standard amino acids that are encoded by the genetic code and incorporated into proteins during translation. These include:

1. Alanine (Ala)
2. Arginine (Arg)
3. Asparagine (Asn)
4. Aspartic acid (Asp)
5. Cysteine (Cys)
6. Glutamine (Gln)
7. Glutamic acid (Glu)
8. Glycine (Gly)
9. Histidine (His)
10. Isoleucine (Ile)
11. Leucine (Leu)
12. Lysine (Lys)
13. Methionine (Met)
14. Phenylalanine (Phe)
15. Proline (Pro)
16. Serine (Ser)
17. Threonine (Thr)
18. Tryptophan (Trp)
19. Tyrosine (Tyr)
20. Valine (Val)

Additionally, there are several non-standard or modified amino acids that can be incorporated into proteins through post-translational modifications, such as hydroxylation, methylation, and phosphorylation. These modifications expand the functional diversity of proteins and play crucial roles in various cellular processes.

Amino acids are essential for numerous biological functions, including protein synthesis, enzyme catalysis, neurotransmitter production, energy metabolism, and immune response regulation. Some amino acids can be synthesized by the human body (non-essential), while others must be obtained through dietary sources (essential).

An "ecosystem" is not a term that has a specific medical definition, as it is a concept that is more commonly used in the fields of ecology and environmental science. However, I can provide you with the general ecological definition of an ecosystem:

An ecosystem is a community of living organisms interacting with each other and their non-living environment, including both biotic factors (plants, animals, microorganisms) and abiotic factors (climate, soil, water, and air). These interactions create a complex network of relationships that form the foundation of ecological processes, such as energy flow, nutrient cycling, and population dynamics.

While there is no direct medical definition for an ecosystem, understanding the principles of ecosystems can have important implications for human health. For example, healthy ecosystems can provide clean air and water, regulate climate, support food production, and offer opportunities for recreation and relaxation, all of which contribute to overall well-being. Conversely, degraded ecosystems can lead to increased exposure to environmental hazards, reduced access to natural resources, and heightened risks of infectious diseases. Therefore, maintaining the health and integrity of ecosystems is crucial for promoting human health and preventing disease.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

In the context of medical research, "methods" refers to the specific procedures or techniques used in conducting a study or experiment. This includes details on how data was collected, what measurements were taken, and what statistical analyses were performed. The methods section of a medical paper allows other researchers to replicate the study if they choose to do so. It is considered one of the key components of a well-written research article, as it provides transparency and helps establish the validity of the findings.

The chemical industry is a broad term that refers to the companies and organizations involved in the production or transformation of raw materials or intermediates into various chemical products. These products can be used for a wide range of applications, including manufacturing, agriculture, pharmaceuticals, and consumer goods. The chemical industry includes businesses that produce basic chemicals, such as petrochemicals, agrochemicals, polymers, and industrial gases, as well as those that manufacture specialty chemicals, such as dyestuffs, flavors, fragrances, and advanced materials. Additionally, the chemical industry encompasses companies that provide services related to the research, development, testing, and distribution of chemical products.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "hydrology" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Hydrology is the scientific study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the hydrologic cycle, water resources and environmental impacts of water usage.

However, if you meant to ask about "hemodynamics" or "hydrostatic equilibrium," these are medical terms related to fluid dynamics within the body:

1. Hemodynamics: This term refers to the study of blood flow or the circulation of blood in the body, including the forces involved (such as pressure and resistance) and the properties of the blood vessels. It is a crucial aspect of understanding cardiovascular function and disease.
2. Hydrostatic equilibrium: In medical terms, this concept relates to the balance between the forces exerted by fluids within the body, particularly in reference to the distribution of body fluids and the maintenance of fluid compartments (intracellular and extracellular). It is essential for maintaining proper physiological functioning.

Please let me know if you had a different term or concept in mind, and I would be happy to help further!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "soil" is not a term that has a medical definition. Soil is defined as the top layer of earth in which plants grow, a mixture of organic material, clay, sand, and silt. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you.

A desert climate, also known as a hot desert climate or a BWh climate in the Köppen climate classification system, is characterized by extremely low rainfall, typically less than 10 inches (250 mm) per year. This type of climate is found in the world's desert areas, such as the Sahara Desert in Africa, the Mojave Desert in North America, and the Simpson Desert in Australia.

In a desert climate, temperatures can vary greatly between day and night, as well as between summer and winter. During the day, temperatures can reach extremely high levels, often above 100°F (38°C), while at night, they can drop significantly, sometimes below freezing in the winter months.

Desert climates are caused by a combination of factors, including geographical location, topography, and large-scale weather patterns. They typically occur in regions that are located far from sources of moisture, such as bodies of water, and are situated in the interior of continents or on the leeward side of mountain ranges.

Living things in desert climates have adapted to the harsh conditions through various means, such as storing water, reducing evaporation, and limiting activity during the hottest parts of the day. Despite the challenging conditions, deserts support a diverse array of plant and animal life that has evolved to thrive in this unique environment.

Chemical warfare is the use of chemicals in military conflict to incapacitate, injure, or kill enemy personnel or destroy equipment and resources. It involves the employment of toxic gases, liquids, or solids that have harmful effects on humans, animals, or plants. Chemical weapons can cause a wide range of symptoms, from temporary discomfort to permanent disability or death, depending on the type and amount of chemical used, as well as the duration and route of exposure.

Chemical warfare agents are classified into several categories based on their primary effects:

1. Nerve agents: These chemicals inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which is essential for the proper functioning of the nervous system. Examples include sarin, tabun, soman, and VX. Exposure to nerve agents can cause symptoms such as muscle twitching, convulsions, respiratory failure, and death.
2. Blister agents: Also known as vesicants, these chemicals cause severe blistering and burns to the skin, eyes, and mucous membranes. Mustard gas is a well-known example of a blister agent. Exposure can lead to temporary or permanent blindness, respiratory problems, and scarring.
3. Choking agents: These chemicals cause damage to the lungs and respiratory system by irritating and inflaming the airways. Phosgene and chlorine are examples of choking agents. Symptoms of exposure include coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and potentially fatal lung edema.
4. Blood agents: These chemicals interfere with the body's ability to transport oxygen in the blood, leading to asphyxiation. Cyanide is a common example of a blood agent. Exposure can cause rapid heart rate, dizziness, headache, seizures, and death due to lack of oxygen.
5. Incapacitating agents: These chemicals are designed to temporarily disable or disorient enemy personnel without causing serious harm or death. Examples include riot control agents such as tear gas (CS) and pepper spray (OC). Exposure can cause symptoms such as coughing, sneezing, tears, and temporary blindness.

The use of chemical weapons in warfare is prohibited by several international treaties, including the Geneva Protocol and the Chemical Weapons Convention. Despite these bans, there have been numerous instances of their use throughout history, most notably during World War I and more recently in Syria's ongoing civil war.

Chemical water pollutants refer to harmful chemicals or substances that contaminate bodies of water, making them unsafe for human use and harmful to aquatic life. These pollutants can come from various sources, including industrial and agricultural runoff, sewage and wastewater, oil spills, and improper disposal of hazardous materials.

Examples of chemical water pollutants include heavy metals (such as lead, mercury, and cadmium), pesticides and herbicides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and petroleum products. These chemicals can have toxic effects on aquatic organisms, disrupt ecosystems, and pose risks to human health through exposure or consumption.

Regulations and standards are in place to monitor and limit the levels of chemical pollutants in water sources, with the aim of protecting public health and the environment.

Chemical fractionation is a process used in analytical chemistry to separate and isolate individual components or fractions from a mixture based on their chemical properties. This technique typically involves the use of various chemical reactions, such as precipitation, extraction, or chromatography, to selectively interact with specific components in the mixture and purify them.

In the context of medical research or clinical analysis, chemical fractionation may be used to isolate and identify individual compounds in a complex biological sample, such as blood, urine, or tissue. For example, fractionating a urine sample might involve separating out various metabolites, proteins, or other molecules based on their solubility, charge, or other chemical properties, allowing researchers to study the individual components and their roles in health and disease.

It's worth noting that while chemical fractionation can be a powerful tool for analyzing complex mixtures, it can also be time-consuming and technically challenging, requiring specialized equipment and expertise to perform accurately and reliably.

In medical terms, the term "atmosphere" is not typically used as a standalone definition or diagnosis. However, in some contexts, it may refer to the physical environment or surroundings in which medical care is provided. For example, some hospitals and healthcare facilities may have different atmospheres depending on their specialties, design, or overall ambiance.

Additionally, "atmosphere" may also be used more broadly to describe the social or emotional climate of a particular healthcare setting. For instance, a healthcare provider might describe a patient's home atmosphere as warm and welcoming, or a hospital ward's atmosphere as tense or chaotic.

It is important to note that "atmosphere" is not a medical term with a specific definition, so its meaning may vary depending on the context in which it is used.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Molecular structure, in the context of biochemistry and molecular biology, refers to the arrangement and organization of atoms and chemical bonds within a molecule. It describes the three-dimensional layout of the constituent elements, including their spatial relationships, bond lengths, and angles. Understanding molecular structure is crucial for elucidating the functions and reactivities of biological macromolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates. Various experimental techniques, like X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), are employed to determine molecular structures at atomic resolution, providing valuable insights into their biological roles and potential therapeutic targets.

An antigen-antibody complex is a type of immune complex that forms when an antibody binds to a specific antigen. An antigen is any substance that triggers an immune response, while an antibody is a protein produced by the immune system to neutralize or destroy foreign substances like antigens.

When an antibody binds to an antigen, it forms a complex that can be either soluble or insoluble. Soluble complexes are formed when the antigen is small and can move freely through the bloodstream. Insoluble complexes, on the other hand, are formed when the antigen is too large to move freely, such as when it is part of a bacterium or virus.

The formation of antigen-antibody complexes plays an important role in the immune response. Once formed, these complexes can be recognized and cleared by other components of the immune system, such as phagocytes, which help to prevent further damage to the body. However, in some cases, the formation of large numbers of antigen-antibody complexes can lead to inflammation and tissue damage, contributing to the development of certain autoimmune diseases.

Hazardous substances, in a medical context, refer to agents that pose a risk to the health of living organisms. These can include chemicals, biological agents (such as bacteria or viruses), and physical hazards (like radiation). Exposure to these substances can lead to a range of adverse health effects, from acute symptoms like irritation and poisoning to chronic conditions such as cancer, neurological disorders, or genetic mutations.

The classification and regulation of hazardous substances are often based on their potential for harm, the severity of the associated health risks, and the conditions under which they become dangerous. These assessments help inform safety measures, exposure limits, and handling procedures to minimize risks in occupational, environmental, and healthcare settings.

I must clarify that "Inorganic Chemicals" is a broad term related to the field of chemistry and not specifically within the realm of medicine. However, I can provide a general definition for you:

Inorganic chemicals are chemical substances that primarily consist of matter other than carbon-based compounds. They include metallic and non-metallic elements, along with their compounds, excluding carbon-hydrogen bonds (organic compounds). Examples of inorganic chemicals are salts, acids, and bases, as well as metal alloys and oxides.

In the context of medicine, certain inorganic chemicals can be used in medical treatments, such as lithium carbonate for bipolar disorder or potassium chloride as an electrolyte replenisher. However, some inorganic chemicals can also pose health risks depending on the type and level of exposure. For instance, lead and mercury are toxic heavy metals that can cause serious health problems if ingested or inhaled.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "trees" is not a medical term. It is a common term used in various fields, including biology, ecology, and dendrology, to refer to a woody perennial plant with a single stem or trunk that supports branches and leaves in most species.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, please provide more context so I can offer an accurate and helpful response.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "tropical climate" is not a medical term. It is a geographical term that refers to the climate of tropical regions, which are located around the equator. These regions are characterized by high temperatures and consistent rainfall throughout the year.

However, it's worth noting that certain environmental factors, such as climate, can have an impact on human health. For instance, tropical climates can contribute to the spread of certain diseases, like malaria and dengue fever, due to the presence of mosquitoes that thrive in warm, wet environments. But a "tropical climate" itself is not a medical condition or diagnosis.

Chemical burns are a type of tissue injury that results from exposure to strong acids, bases, or other corrosive chemicals. These substances can cause damage by reacting chemically with the skin or other tissues, leading to destruction of cells and potentially serious harm. The severity of a chemical burn depends on several factors, including the type and concentration of the chemical, the duration of exposure, and the amount of body surface area affected.

Chemical burns can occur through direct contact with the skin or eyes, inhalation of toxic fumes, or ingestion of harmful substances. Symptoms may include redness, pain, blistering, swelling, and irritation at the site of contact. In severe cases, chemical burns can lead to scarring, disability, or even death.

Immediate medical attention is required for chemical burns, as they can continue to cause damage until the source of the injury is removed, and appropriate first aid measures are taken. Treatment typically involves thorough cleaning and irrigation of the affected area, followed by administration of pain medication and other supportive care as needed. In some cases, skin grafting or other surgical interventions may be required to promote healing and minimize scarring.

Medical definitions of water generally describe it as a colorless, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for all forms of life. It is a universal solvent, making it an excellent medium for transporting nutrients and waste products within the body. Water constitutes about 50-70% of an individual's body weight, depending on factors such as age, sex, and muscle mass.

In medical terms, water has several important functions in the human body:

1. Regulation of body temperature through perspiration and respiration.
2. Acting as a lubricant for joints and tissues.
3. Facilitating digestion by helping to break down food particles.
4. Transporting nutrients, oxygen, and waste products throughout the body.
5. Helping to maintain healthy skin and mucous membranes.
6. Assisting in the regulation of various bodily functions, such as blood pressure and heart rate.

Dehydration can occur when an individual does not consume enough water or loses too much fluid due to illness, exercise, or other factors. This can lead to a variety of symptoms, including dry mouth, fatigue, dizziness, and confusion. Severe dehydration can be life-threatening if left untreated.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Rabbits" is a common name used to refer to the Lagomorpha species, particularly members of the family Leporidae. They are small mammals known for their long ears, strong legs, and quick reproduction.

However, if you're referring to "rabbits" in a medical context, there is a term called "rabbit syndrome," which is a rare movement disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements of the fingers, resembling those of a rabbit chewing. It is also known as "finger-chewing chorea." This condition is usually associated with certain medications, particularly antipsychotics, and typically resolves when the medication is stopped or adjusted.

'Immune sera' refers to the serum fraction of blood that contains antibodies produced in response to an antigenic stimulus, such as a vaccine or an infection. These antibodies are proteins known as immunoglobulins, which are secreted by B cells (a type of white blood cell) and can recognize and bind to specific antigens. Immune sera can be collected from an immunized individual and used as a source of passive immunity to protect against infection or disease. It is often used in research and diagnostic settings to identify or measure the presence of specific antigens or antibodies.

Drug stability refers to the ability of a pharmaceutical drug product to maintain its physical, chemical, and biological properties during storage and use, under specified conditions. A stable drug product retains its desired quality, purity, strength, and performance throughout its shelf life. Factors that can affect drug stability include temperature, humidity, light exposure, and container compatibility. Maintaining drug stability is crucial to ensure the safety and efficacy of medications for patients.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

In a medical context, "hot temperature" is not a standard medical term with a specific definition. However, it is often used in relation to fever, which is a common symptom of illness. A fever is typically defined as a body temperature that is higher than normal, usually above 38°C (100.4°F) for adults and above 37.5-38°C (99.5-101.3°F) for children, depending on the source.

Therefore, when a medical professional talks about "hot temperature," they may be referring to a body temperature that is higher than normal due to fever or other causes. It's important to note that a high environmental temperature can also contribute to an elevated body temperature, so it's essential to consider both the body temperature and the environmental temperature when assessing a patient's condition.

Environmental monitoring is the systematic and ongoing surveillance, measurement, and assessment of environmental parameters, pollutants, or other stressors in order to evaluate potential impacts on human health, ecological systems, or compliance with regulatory standards. This process typically involves collecting and analyzing data from various sources, such as air, water, soil, and biota, and using this information to inform decisions related to public health, environmental protection, and resource management.

In medical terms, environmental monitoring may refer specifically to the assessment of environmental factors that can impact human health, such as air quality, water contamination, or exposure to hazardous substances. This type of monitoring is often conducted in occupational settings, where workers may be exposed to potential health hazards, as well as in community-based settings, where environmental factors may contribute to public health issues. The goal of environmental monitoring in a medical context is to identify and mitigate potential health risks associated with environmental exposures, and to promote healthy and safe environments for individuals and communities.

Trichloroacetic Acid (TCA) is not typically defined in the context of medical terminology, but rather it is a chemical compound used in various medical and cosmetic applications.

Medically, TCA is often used as a chemical agent for peels to treat various skin conditions such as acne, sun damage, age spots, fine lines, and wrinkles. It works by causing the top layers of the skin to dry up and peel off, revealing smoother, more even-toned skin underneath.

The medical definition of Trichloroacetic Acid is:
A colorless crystalline compound, used as a chemical peel in dermatology for various skin conditions, that works by causing the top layers of the skin to dry up and peel off. It is also used as a fixative in histological preparations and as an antiseptic and disinfectant. The chemical formula for TCA is C2HCl3O2.

Affinity chromatography is a type of chromatography technique used in biochemistry and molecular biology to separate and purify proteins based on their biological characteristics, such as their ability to bind specifically to certain ligands or molecules. This method utilizes a stationary phase that is coated with a specific ligand (e.g., an antibody, antigen, receptor, or enzyme) that selectively interacts with the target protein in a sample.

The process typically involves the following steps:

1. Preparation of the affinity chromatography column: The stationary phase, usually a solid matrix such as agarose beads or magnetic beads, is modified by covalently attaching the ligand to its surface.
2. Application of the sample: The protein mixture is applied to the top of the affinity chromatography column, allowing it to flow through the stationary phase under gravity or pressure.
3. Binding and washing: As the sample flows through the column, the target protein selectively binds to the ligand on the stationary phase, while other proteins and impurities pass through. The column is then washed with a suitable buffer to remove any unbound proteins and contaminants.
4. Elution of the bound protein: The target protein can be eluted from the column using various methods, such as changing the pH, ionic strength, or polarity of the buffer, or by introducing a competitive ligand that displaces the bound protein.
5. Collection and analysis: The eluted protein fraction is collected and analyzed for purity and identity, often through techniques like SDS-PAGE or mass spectrometry.

Affinity chromatography is a powerful tool in biochemistry and molecular biology due to its high selectivity and specificity, enabling the efficient isolation of target proteins from complex mixtures. However, it requires careful consideration of the binding affinity between the ligand and the protein, as well as optimization of the elution conditions to minimize potential damage or denaturation of the purified protein.

Carbohydrates are a major nutrient class consisting of organic compounds that primarily contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. They are classified as saccharides, which include monosaccharides (simple sugars), disaccharides (double sugars), oligosaccharides (short-chain sugars), and polysaccharides (complex carbohydrates).

Monosaccharides, such as glucose, fructose, and galactose, are the simplest form of carbohydrates. They consist of a single sugar molecule that cannot be broken down further by hydrolysis. Disaccharides, like sucrose (table sugar), lactose (milk sugar), and maltose (malt sugar), are formed from two monosaccharide units joined together.

Oligosaccharides contain a small number of monosaccharide units, typically less than 20, while polysaccharides consist of long chains of hundreds to thousands of monosaccharide units. Polysaccharides can be further classified into starch (found in plants), glycogen (found in animals), and non-starchy polysaccharides like cellulose, chitin, and pectin.

Carbohydrates play a crucial role in providing energy to the body, with glucose being the primary source of energy for most cells. They also serve as structural components in plants (cellulose) and animals (chitin), participate in various metabolic processes, and contribute to the taste, texture, and preservation of foods.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "geography" is not a term that has a medical definition. Geography is a field of study that deals with the location and distribution of physical and cultural features on Earth's surface, as well as how humans interact with and affect those features. It is not a concept that is typically used in a medical context. If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you!

Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are a family of synthetic, water-soluble polymers with a wide range of molecular weights. They are commonly used in the medical field as excipients in pharmaceutical formulations due to their ability to improve drug solubility, stability, and bioavailability. PEGs can also be used as laxatives to treat constipation or as bowel cleansing agents prior to colonoscopy examinations. Additionally, some PEG-conjugated drugs have been developed for use in targeted cancer therapies.

In a medical context, PEGs are often referred to by their average molecular weight, such as PEG 300, PEG 400, PEG 1500, and so on. Higher molecular weight PEGs tend to be more viscous and have longer-lasting effects in the body.

It's worth noting that while PEGs are generally considered safe for use in medical applications, some people may experience allergic reactions or hypersensitivity to these compounds. Prolonged exposure to high molecular weight PEGs has also been linked to potential adverse effects, such as decreased fertility and developmental toxicity in animal studies. However, more research is needed to fully understand the long-term safety of PEGs in humans.

"Precipitation (Chemical) - an overview". ScienceDirect. Retrieved 2020-11-28. "Chemical precipitation". Encyclopedia Britannica ... In case of an inorganic chemical reaction leading to precipitation, the chemical reagent causing the solid to form is called ... The physico-chemical process underlying digestion is called Ostwald ripening. While precipitation reactions can be used for ... In metallurgy, precipitation from a solid solution is also a way to strengthen alloys. Precipitation of ceramic phases in ...
... chemical precipitation and filtration for dissolved metals; carbon adsorption and biological oxidation for organic pollutants; ... Smelting is a process of applying heat and a chemical reducing agent to an ore to extract a desired base metal product. It is a ... Most ores are the chemical compound of the metal and other elements, such as oxygen (as an oxide), sulfur (as a sulfide), or ... The oxygen in the ore binds to carbon at high temperatures as the chemical potential energy of the bonds in carbon dioxide (CO2 ...
Some chemical treatment techniques include ozone and oxygen gas injection, chemical precipitation, membrane separation, ion ... Chemicals can reach into ground water through precipitation and runoff. New landfills are required to be lined with clay or ... Many chemicals undergo reactive decay or chemical change, especially over long periods of time in groundwater reservoirs. A ... As the health effects of most toxic chemicals arise after prolonged exposure, risk to health from chemicals is generally lower ...
Lambie, C. G.; Trikojus, V. M. (June 1937). "The preparation of a purified thyrotropic hormone by chemical precipitation". The ...
... or by chemical precipitation. Ores most amenable to leaching include the copper carbonates malachite and azurite, the oxide ... This causes the chemical precipitation and thus immobilization of major contaminants. Phase 4: Circulation of the liquid by ... Usually this is potable water or stock water (usually less than 500 ppm total dissolved solids), and while not all chemical ... Phase 3: as 2, with the addition of a reducing chemical (for example hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or sodium sulfide (Na2S). ...
These include dry ash handling, closed-loop ash recycling, chemical precipitation, biological treatment (such as an activated ... Typical treatment processes used in the industry are chemical precipitation, sedimentation and filtration.: 145 Textile mills, ... chemical precipitation, filtration), oils and grease removal, removal of biodegradable organics, removal of other organics, ... "Lithium enrichment optimization from Dead Sea end brine by chemical precipitation technique". Minerals Engineering. 170: 107038 ...
Otherwise it must first be removed by ion exchange, adsorption or chemical precipitation. A common form of antibiotic ... Mutation is often used, and is encouraged by introducing mutagens such as ultraviolet radiation, x-rays or certain chemicals. ...
During this time, two main processes were used; phosphates were removed from the wastewater by either chemical precipitation or ... Investigations of the chemical properties of Triclosan have revealed it has the potential to accumulate and persist in the ... "Cleaning Supplies and Household Chemicals." American Lung Association, 2020, www.lung.org/clean-air/at-home/indoor-air- ... Artificial fragrances can cause sensitivity, allergies, and rashes and some of these chemicals are known carcinogens and ...
Deposition: The material settles on a horizontal plane either through chemical or physical precipitation. Note: The secondary ... Weathering: the chemical or physical forces breaking apart the solid materials that are potentially transported. Erosion: The ... There must be repeated depositional events with changes in precipitation of materials over time. The thickness of graded beds ... Grades of the bedding material are determined by precipitation of solid components compared to the viscosity of the medium in ...
The graphene-sulfur nanocomposites were prepared with a combination of thermal and chemical precipitation. The Mg/S cell ... Two commercial chemicals, a magnesium amide and aluminum chloride were mixed in a solvent, the product can then be used ... Journal of the American Chemical Society. 137 (38): 12388-12393. doi:10.1021/jacs.5b07820. ISSN 0002-7863. PMID 26360783. Gao, ...
Chemical precipitation is a common process used to reduce heavy metals concentrations in wastewater. The dissolved metal ions ... Wang, Lawrence K.; Vaccari, David A.; Li, Yan; Shammas, Nazih K. (2005), "Chemical Precipitation", Physicochemical Treatment ... Different chemical procedures for the conversion into final products or the removal of pollutants are used for the safe ... The removal or destruction of microbial pathogens is essential, and commonly involves the use of reactive chemical agents such ...
It has been asserted that chemical precipitation methods result in the cubic zincblende form. Pigment production usually ... CS1: long volume value, Chemical articles with multiple compound IDs, Multiple chemicals in an infobox that need indexing, ... In the chemical bath deposition method, thin films of CdS have been prepared using thiourea as the source of sulfide anions and ... Cadmium sulfide can be prepared by the precipitation from soluble cadmium(II) salts with sulfide ion. This reaction has been ...
Processes could involve techniques for chemical reactions, precipitations, filtrations and dissolutions.: 150 Determination of ... Philadelphia, Pa.: Chemical Heritage Foundation. ISBN 978-0-941901-23-9. Braun, Robert Denton (2016). "Chemical analysis". ... American Chemical Society. September 25, 1941. p. NA. Drees, Julia C.; Wu, Alan H. B. (2013). "Chapter 5: Analytic techniques ... One of the first fully integrated instruments: 11 or "black boxes" used in modern chemical laboratories, it sold for $723 in ...
... and the precipitation that results when grown with the chemicals Tween 20 or Cremophor EL. The type strain is NCCPF 127130 ( ...
Chemical sedimentary rocks, including some carbonates, are deposited by precipitation of minerals from aqueous solution. These ... There are four primary types of sedimentary rocks: clastics, carbonates, evaporites, and chemical. Clastic rocks are composed ...
Study of precipitation, chemical variation and powder properties". Journal of Nuclear Materials. 99 (2-3): 135-147. Bibcode: ... doi:10.1016/0022-3115(81)90182-3. Kan-Sen, Chou; Ding-Yi, Lin; Mu-Chang, Shieh (May 1989). "Precipitation studies of ammonium ... doi:10.1016/0022-3115(89)90246-8. Mellah, A.; Chegrouche, S.; Barkat, M. (March 2007). "The precipitation of ammonium uranyl ... Mellah, A.; Chegrouche, S.; Barkat, M. (2007-03-01). "The precipitation of ammonium uranyl carbonate (AUC): Thermodynamic and ...
The chemical causes the precipitation of dissolved proteins, which is measured from the degree of turbidity. It is also used ... Articles containing unverified chemical infoboxes, Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, ...
Some chemical treatment techniques include ozone and oxygen gas injection, chemical precipitation, membrane separation, ion ... This area, called the capillary fringe, is often highly contaminated, as it holds undissolved chemicals, chemicals that are ... Contaminants found in groundwater cover a broad range of physical, inorganic chemical, organic chemical, bacteriological, and ... Chemical precipitation is commonly used in wastewater treatment to remove hardness and heavy metals. In general, the process ...
Gustav Valentine Alsing, who was Danish and an acknowledged expert on chemical precipitation, designed the works. Construction ... The coke filters were not particularly successful, and were abandoned in favour of precipitation. Sludge from this process was ...
This disturbs the chemical balance and causes precipitation of the carbonates, which then creates sedimentary deposits. Since ... The precipitation of calcium carbonate, however, does not occur right at the springs of the rivers that flow into the Plitvice ... For the precipitation of carbonate chalk (calcium carbonate) the water needs to reach a certain mineral saturation level. At ... The area of a river, in which the formation of tufa occurs, is called precipitation area. Along the Korana river for example, ...
This result occurs when chemical use is excessive or poorly timed with respect to high precipitation. The resulting ... Chemical use and handling. Following enactment of the U.S. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in 1976, and later the ... Measurements can also be made in batch form by extracting a single water sample and conducting any number of chemical or ... ISBN 0-8225-4596-9 Wigley T.M.L & Jones P.D (1985). "Influences of precipitation changes and direct CO2 effects on streamflow ...
These includes processes like chemical precipitation, chemical disinfection, Advanced oxidation process (AOP), ion exchange, ... Chemical treatments utilizes the additive of chemicals to make industrial water suitable for use or discharge. ... Most petroleum refineries, chemical and petrochemical plants have onsite facilities to treat their wastewaters so that the ... Chemical additives to reduce these disadvantages may introduce toxicity to wastewater. Water cooling is commonly used for ...
Recently it has been demonstrated that microbially induced precipitation may be more important than physico-chemical ... 2009) showed with flume experiments that precipitation does not occur unless a biofilm is present, despite supersaturation. ... Since carbonate solubility decreases with increased pH, precipitation is induced. Supersaturation may be enhanced by factors ... fault-related CO 2 as the key control in precipitation". Terra Nova. 26 (1): 1-13. doi:10.1111/ter.12059. Forster, A.; Forster ...
For several years, Odén collected data on the chemicals contaminating the precipitation, lakes and land in Sweden; on 24 ... Acidification of precipitation). He wrote in the article that precipitation in Europe over a 20-year period had gradually ... He was a pioneer of publicizing the problems of acid precipitation in Europe. In 1986, he disappeared while working on a ... ISBN 978-1-4398-2645-4. Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Acid Precipitation and the Forest Ecosystem, May 12 ...
Chemical weathering includes dissolution of matter composing a rock and precipitation in the form of another mineral. Clay ... The most common mineral constituent of silt and sand is quartz, also called silica, which has the chemical name silicon dioxide ... Due to the large surface area available for chemical, electrostatic, and van der Waals interaction, the mechanical behavior of ... Weathering mechanisms are physical weathering, chemical weathering, and biological weathering Human activities such as ...
A study of the exact chemical components of the precipitation in the park has been carried out. The park possesses a large ... Galloway, James N.; William C. Keene (20 March 1996). "Processes controlling the composition of precipitation at a remote ...
Bittern can also be used as a source of magnesium ions (Mg2+) for the precipitation of struvite, a useful fertilizer, from ... Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification. 47 (2): 215-221. doi:10.1016/j.cep.2007.02.012. ISSN 0255-2701. ... Bittern is commonly formed in salt ponds where the evaporation of water prompts the precipitation of halite. These salt ponds ... Ethanol is also used, but it exhibits a preference for potassium sulfate precipitation. The solution can furthermore be used in ...
The primary removal methods include: (1) sorption and precipitation, (2) chemical reaction, and (3) reactions involving ... Sorption and precipitation are potentially reversible and may thus require removal of the reactive medium and gathered products ... Immobilization of the contaminant may occur through sorption to the barrier materials or precipitation from the dissolved state ... In: Tarr M. A. (ed.), Chemical Degradation Methods for Wastes and Pollutants; Environmental and Industrial Applications. ...
Further developments in alternative pre-tanning processes and precipitation recovery/re-use of chemicals continue to be ... Precipitation techniques and fluid-reuse has reduced the total amount of solid and water waste produced. High-exhaustion ... The hides are spun in a float of chemicals and dyes, mostly consisting of oils distilled from different tree barks and ... Tanneries process animal skins with the use of chemicals to alter the proteins and produce a durable and flexible product. ...
Precipitation is the formation of a solid in a solution or inside another solid during a chemical reaction. It usually takes ... A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the chemical transformation of one set of chemical substances to another. ... Chemical equation Chemical reaction Substrate Reagent Catalyst Product Chemical reaction model Chemist Chemistry Combustion ... Chemical reactions are central to chemical engineering, where they are used for the synthesis of new compounds from natural raw ...
He later admitted his mistake when it proved to be just the product of an inorganic chemical process (precipitation). In 1868 ... George Charles Wallich claimed that Bathybius was a product of chemical disintegration. In 1872 the Challenger expedition began ...
Lithium oxides precipitation in nonaqueous Li-air batteries Junbo Hou,*a Min Yang,a Michael W. Ellis,b Robert B. Moorec and ... precipitation. in nonaqueous Li-air batteries J. Hou, M. Yang, M. W. Ellis, R. B. Moore and B. Yi, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., ... precipitation. , which has been one of the vital and attractive aspects of the research communities of science and technology. ... d Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian, China ...
Chemical precipitation in the simultaneous removal of NH4−N and PO4−P from wastewaters using industrial waste materials ... Chemical precipitation in the simultaneous removal of NH4−N and PO4−P from wastewaters using industrial waste materials ... Chemical precipitation in the simultaneous removal of NH4−N and PO4−P from wastewaters using industrial waste materials ... The use of industrial waste materials as precipitation chemicals in the simultaneous removal of ammonium and phosphate from ...
"Precipitation (Chemical) - an overview". ScienceDirect. Retrieved 2020-11-28. "Chemical precipitation". Encyclopedia Britannica ... In case of an inorganic chemical reaction leading to precipitation, the chemical reagent causing the solid to form is called ... The physico-chemical process underlying digestion is called Ostwald ripening. While precipitation reactions can be used for ... In metallurgy, precipitation from a solid solution is also a way to strengthen alloys. Precipitation of ceramic phases in ...
Experimental study on chemical agglomeration of fly ash from coal combustion [D].] and its mechanism analysis Harbin University ... The collision efficiency of liquid bridge agglomeration[J]. Chemical Engineering Science, 2015, 137. [PubMed] [Google Scholar] ... Chemical Performance Research and Chemical Industry Technology Research and Development. DOI. https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/ ... Experimental Study on the Coupling of Turbulence and Chemical Agglomeration to Promote the Removal of Coal-fired Particles by ...
This Agent B is the key item for gold/silver/PGM precipitation from pregnant solution in the Chemical precipitation method. ... Agent B for Chemical Precipitation in E-waste recycling. Agent B for Chemical Precipitation in E-waste recycling. USD $50.00. ... This Agent B is the key item for gold/silver/PGM precipitation from pregnant solution in the Chemical precipitation method. ... Agent A of Chemical precipitation in E-waste stripping solution Rated 0 out of 5 ...
Precipitation reaction of sodium iodide and mercury(II) chloride. Precipitation reaction of sodium iodide and mercury(II) ... Copyright © 2022 Division of Chemical Education, Inc. of the American Chemical Society. All rights reserved. ...
Physical and chemical properties of multifunctional ZnO nanostructures prepared by precipitation and hydrothermal methods. ... Spherical, cabbage-like and flower-like ZnO powders were prepared by precipitation and hydrothermal methods. Zn(CH3COO)2·2H2O, ...
... have been prepared by chemical precipitation. These NixNb1-xO catalysts are characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray ... Li, C.,Jin, S.,Guan, W.,Tsang, C.,Chu, W.,Lau, W.,& Liang, C. (2018). Chemical precipitation method for the synthesis of Nb2O5 ... Chemical precipitation method for the synthesis of Nb2O5 modified bulk nickel catalysts with high specific surface area ... have been prepared by chemical precipitation. These NixNb1-xO catalysts are characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray ...
Chemical Precipitation * DNA / isolation & purification* * Humans * Saline Solution, Hypertonic Substances * Saline Solution, ...
2-D Nanosheets and Rod-Like WO3 Obtained via Chemical Precipitation Method for Detecting Formaldehyde *HuiMin Yu, JianZhong Li ...
Structural characterization and optical studies of CeO2 nanoparticles synthesized by chemical precipitation ... Structural characterization and optical studies of CeO2 nanoparticles synthesized by chemical precipitation. ...
CHEMICAL. Chemical sedimentary rocks are formed by chemical precipitation. This process begins when water traveling through ... The chemical composition of the magma and its cooling rate determine the final rock type. INTRUSIVE IGNEOUS (PLUTONIC). ...
Systematic design of chemical oscillators using complexation and precipitation equilibria p.139 doi: 10.1038/nature03214 ...
... prepared by the chemical precipitation method. Docetaxel (an anticancer drug) loaded polymeric nanoparticles (DNPs) composed of ... Chemical modifications of the sigma subunit of the E. colt RNA polymerase. May 1983 · Nucleic Acids Research ... Exact Masses and Chemical Formulas of Individual Suwannee River Fulvic Acids from Ultrahigh Resolution Electrospray Ionization ... Analytical and physical-chemical techniques, such as elemental analysis, FTIR, surface tension (ST) measurement, high ...
Chemical Characteristics of Precipitation in the Champlain Valley.. 1971. 4. Development of Economic Water Harvest Systems for ...
The decrease in calcium carbonate precipitation was highly correlated to the aragonite saturation state. Even though this study ... Precipitation of CaCO3, measured as the incorporation of 45Ca, significantly declined as a function of pCO2 at both ... Chemical precipitation Is the Subject Area "Chemical precipitation" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
Chemical treatment technologies. Chemical precipitation. Chemical precipitation is commonly used in wastewater treatment to ... Some chemical treatment techniques include ozone and oxygen gas injection, chemical precipitation, membrane separation, ion ... Chemical oxidation. In this process chemical oxidants are delivered in the subsurface to destroy (converted to water and carbon ... This area, called the capillary fringe, is often highly contaminated, as it holds undissolved chemicals, chemicals that are ...
This is particularly true for the chemical precipitation of cationic metals.. BRCs are more successful in removing heavy metals ... In BRCs, chemical and biological classifications are challenging processes. Absorption and adsorption are chemical processes ... chemical precipitation, and the complexation of negatively charged functional groups on its surface. ... 38]s critical review study evaluates the efficiency of BRCs based on biochar for the removal of chemical and microbiological ...
It was revealed that sewage treatment technology as well as combustion technology influence many physical and chemical ... biological phosphorus removal, chemical precipitation with iron salts (PIX). disc dryer, fluidized bed, cyclone and bag filter ... biological phosphorus removal, chemical precipitation with Aluminum salts (PAX) and iron salts (PIX). disc dryer, fluidized bed ... biological phosphorus removal, chemical precipitation with aluminum salts (PAX) and iron salts (PIX). drum dryer, fluidized bed ...
... and material safety data sheets for toxic chemicals used should be readily available. ...
IFAS-MBR with co-precipitation and combined pre- and post-denitrification for removal of P and N from wastewater.Removal of 95 ... Chemical precipitation of phosphorus was introduced in Train A on 17 December 2018. Data presented in this paper are from 2 ... However, chemical co-precipitation of phosphorus in an IFAS-MBR system had never been tested. Unpublished observations from ... Example of TMP over the membranes, 28 days after the last chemical wash. Train A (co-precipitation) on the left and Train B ( ...
Chemical treatments: synthesis, crystallization, precipitation, etc.. The mineral solutions and advanced materials we market ...
Chemical precipitation: used primarily to remove the metal ions. • Sedimentation. • Filtration: used as final clarification ... Additional physico-chemical information *Additional physico-chemical properties of nanomaterials * Nanomaterial agglomeration ... Must be disposed as hazardous chemical waste. Do not allow product to reach sewage system. ...
Chemical precipitation: used primarily to remove the metal ions. • Sedimentation. • Filtration: used as final clarification ... Additional physico-chemical information *Additional physico-chemical properties of nanomaterials * Nanomaterial agglomeration ... Chemical stability. Expected to be stable under normal conditions of use.. Possibility of hazardous reactions. None expected.. ...
... and chemical transformations control V concentrations in groundwater. Based on thermodynamic data and laboratory studies, V ... Geochemical processes such as adsorption/desorption, precipitation/dissolution, ... Geochemical processes such as adsorption/desorption, precipitation/dissolution, and chemical transformations control V ...
The most widely used traditional wastewater treatment process for textile effluents is chemical precipitation. However, alum ... The textile, printing and leather industries are known for the use of chemicals, especially, in the wetting processes where ... Table 1 highlights the oxidation potentials of certain chemical oxidizers (Babuponnusami and Muthukumar, 2011). ...
... iron and hydroxide ions generated during autotrophic denitrification will remove phosphorus via chemical precipitation and ... natural scienceschemical scienceselectrochemistryelectrolysis. *natural sciencesearth and related environmental sciencesgeology ... and denitrification and phosphorus precipitation kinetics. The applicant is a highly experienced researcher and develops the ...
Chemical Precipitation. One option for treating inorganic materials is to add a chemical reagent to remove inorganics. This ...
In-situ Examination of Diffusion and Precipitation Processes during the Evolution of Chemical Garden Systems. ...
  • It was revealed that sewage treatment technology as well as combustion technology influence many physical and chemical parameters of ashes that are crucial for further phosphorus recovery from such waste according to the proposed method. (degruyter.com)
  • The type of the precipitating agent is also significant: iron or aluminium salts used for phosphorus compound precipitation cause a higher concentration of Fe or Al in ash. (degruyter.com)
  • simultaneously, iron and hydroxide ions generated during autotrophic denitrification will remove phosphorus via chemical precipitation and coagulation. (europa.eu)
  • and (2) to analyze the mechanisms by examining the ecological structure in biofilms, oxidation of pyrrhotite, and denitrification and phosphorus precipitation kinetics. (europa.eu)
  • The WWTPs are in the process of converting from chemical phosphorus removal to enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). (sintef.no)
  • The goal is to reach the total phosphorus discharge limits without using any chemicals for precipitation. (sintef.no)
  • Phosphorus recovery by precipitation is a well-established process whereby the minerals struvite (MgNH 4 PO 4 ·6H 2 O), 7,9-12 and to a lesser extent potassium struvite (MgKPO 4 ·6H 2 O), 13,14 have been investigated for various types of wastewater. (rsc.org)
  • Pilot trials with struvite precipitation for P-recovery have been performed and will be implemented in full scale to recover 18-30 tons P/year. (sintef.no)
  • 50%) by struvite precipitation will be demonstrated. (sintef.no)
  • For example, the presence of calcium during struvite precipitation can decrease mineral purity by co-precipitating calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate minerals with struvite. (rsc.org)
  • Chemical precipitation method for the synthesis of Nb2O5 modified bulk" by Chuang Li, Shaohua Jin et al. (edu.hk)
  • Geochemical processes such as adsorption/desorption, precipitation/dissolution, and chemical transformations control V concentrations in groundwater. (usgs.gov)
  • We identify the oxidative dissolution of biotite as the key chemical reaction because of the volumetric expansion that accompanies formation of altered biotite and precipitation of ferrihydrite. (lu.se)
  • In case of an inorganic chemical reaction leading to precipitation, the chemical reagent causing the solid to form is called the precipitant. (wikipedia.org)
  • The formation of a precipitate can be caused by a chemical reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • A common example of precipitation reaction in aqueous solution is that of silver chloride. (wikipedia.org)
  • While precipitation reactions can be used for making pigments, removing ions from solution in water treatment, and in classical qualitative inorganic analysis, precipitation is also commonly used to isolate the products of an organic reaction during workup and purification operations. (wikipedia.org)
  • By cooling the reaction mixture to room temperature, crystals of the porphyrin precipitate, and are collected by filtration on a Büchner filter as illustrated by the photograph here beside: Precipitation may also occur when an antisolvent (a solvent in which the product is insoluble) is added, drastically reducing the solubility of the desired product. (wikipedia.org)
  • homogeneous reaction, any of a class of chemical reactions that occur in a single phase (gaseous, liquid, or solid), one of two broad classes of reactions-homogeneous and heterogeneous-based on the physical state of the substances present. (britannica.com)
  • Most chemical agents damage the skin by producing a chemical reaction rather than hyperthermic injury. (medscape.com)
  • Although some chemicals produce considerable heat as the result of an exothermic reaction when they come into contact with water, their ability to produce direct chemical changes on the skin accounts for most significant injury. (medscape.com)
  • The wastewater is treated by adjusting pH value and adding chemicals that cause de-emulsification, precipitation, coagulation, and flocculation. (yokogawa.com)
  • In an aqueous solution, precipitation is the process of transforming a dissolved substance into an insoluble solid from a supersaturated solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Various methods have been developed to remove the chromium from industrial waste water, such as chemical redox followed by precipitation, ion exchange, and reverse osmosis. (hindawi.com)
  • The most significant of these techniques include chemical precipitation, filtration, reverse osmosis, ion exchange by resin, and membrane systems. (bioline.org.br)
  • The chemical composition of the magma and its cooling rate determine the final rock type. (nps.gov)
  • The chemical composition of the ash depends on the treatment method (either biological or chemical) used in wastewater treatment plants. (degruyter.com)
  • Currently, for large-scale used chemical redox method, a major drawback related to precipitation is slurry production. (hindawi.com)
  • IFAS-MBR with co-precipitation, not yet commonly used in practice, will result in a very compact process for nutrient removal. (iwaponline.com)
  • Chemical injuries are commonly encountered following exposure to acids and alkali, including hydrofluoric acid (HF), formic acid, anhydrous ammonia, cement, and phenol. (medscape.com)
  • When evaluating indoor air quality, ATSDR considers the widespread nature of many commonly found chemicals in building indoor air. (cdc.gov)
  • The tests demonstrated that an IFAS-MBR process with co-precipitation and an aerobic suspended biomass SRT of 5-10 days is feasible, and that all the performance goals set up for the full-scale plant were achieved. (iwaponline.com)
  • The precipitation of a compound may occur when its concentration exceeds its solubility. (wikipedia.org)
  • By varying the Nb:Ni ratio, a series of NixNb1-xO nanoparticles with different atomic compositions (x = 0.03, 0.08, 0.15, and 0.20) have been prepared by chemical precipitation. (edu.hk)
  • Experimental study on chemical agglomeration of fly ash from coal combustion [D].] and its mechanism analysis Harbin University of Technology, 2008. (e3s-conferences.org)
  • The notion of precipitation can also be extended to other domains of chemistry (organic chemistry and biochemistry) and even be applied to the solid phases (e.g. metallurgy and alloys) when solid impurities segregate from a solid phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The precipitation chemistry measurements that underpin evaluations of atmospheric deposition have a further use - they are a direct indicator of changes in air chemistry, with relevance to air aloft rather than air in contact with the surface. (noaa.gov)
  • Thus, a combination of measurements of air chemistry near the surface and precipitation chemistry is often an optimal indicator of changes in the quality of the atmosphere as a whole. (noaa.gov)
  • The National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) is the community-wide activity to monitor the deposition of atmospheric trace chemicals in precipitation. (noaa.gov)
  • The physico-chemical process underlying digestion is called Ostwald ripening. (wikipedia.org)
  • Physico-chemical analysis of fertilizer industry effluent and its effects on crop plants. (cdc.gov)
  • The difference in the removal of the two soils may be attributed to their physico-chemical properties in which the Isarog soil has higher clay content, porosity and lower bulk density. (bioline.org.br)
  • IFAS-MBR with co-precipitation and combined pre- and post-denitrification for removal of P and N from wastewater. (iwaponline.com)
  • This Agent B is the key item for gold/silver/PGM precipitation from pregnant solution in the Chemical precipitation method. (eco-goldex.com)
  • Mechanochemical method is an efficient processing method that uses mechanical means to change the structure and physical and chemical properties of objects. (researchgate.net)
  • The sampling modules passively collected organic chemical compounds on an adsorbent sampling medium, which was later analyzed by a gas chromatograph using a modified EPA Method 8260/8270. (cdc.gov)
  • Dimethylglyoxime (DMG) was used as a Co(II) and Ni(II) chelator with selective chemical precipitation for trace electrochemical analysis. (cdc.gov)
  • When silver nitrate (AgNO3) is added to a solution of potassium chloride (KCl) the precipitation of a white solid (AgCl) is observed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hybrid anion exchange resin containing hydrous ferric oxide (HAIX-Fe) was used in column tests to remove phosphate (PO 4 ) from fresh urine, hydrolyzed urine, and anaerobic digester filtrate, and subsequently recover PO 4 as struvite (MgNH 4 PO 4 ·6H 2 O) or potassium struvite (MgKPO 4 ·6H 2 O) via precipitation in the spent regenerant. (rsc.org)
  • Precipitation in the spent regenerants and original wastewaters (urine and filtrate) yielded 96.7-99.8% PO 4 recovery as struvite or potassium struvite. (rsc.org)
  • For example, previous researchers have achieved 95% P recovery by precipitation of either struvite or potassium struvite in human urine, 14 and 94% P recovery by precipitation of struvite in anaerobic digester sidestreams. (rsc.org)
  • The recovery of PO 4 using the two-step adsorption-precipitation process was compared with direct precipitation in urine and anaerobic digester filtrate considering chemical requirements for precipitation and mineral purity. (rsc.org)
  • Precipitation in the spent regenerant from HAIX-Fe resin saturated with PO 4 from anaerobic digester filtrate produced a higher purity mineral than direct precipitation in the anaerobic digester filtrate. (rsc.org)
  • The key findings of this research are new experimental data on (1) P adsorption from urine and anaerobic digester filtrate to resin under continuous-flow operation and corresponding regeneration efficiency, and (2) chemical requirements for and mineral purity of P precipitation in the spent regenerants from resin adsorption/desorption and original waste waters. (rsc.org)
  • Chemical Characteristics of Precipitation in the Champlain Valley. (epa.gov)
  • Thirteen lakes in Mount Rainier National Park were evaluated for general chemical characteristics, sensitivity to acidification by acidic precipitation, and degree of existing acidification. (usgs.gov)
  • Documentation of the threshold limit values: For chemical substances in the work environment. (cdc.gov)
  • 2001. Threshold limit values for chemical substances and physical agents and biological exposure indices. (cdc.gov)
  • Chemical-release incidents were calculated for the nine states reporting to the Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) database between 1999 and 2008. (medscape.com)
  • The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) asked the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) to review indoor air and soil gas sampling data to determine if exposure to chemical substances detected in indoor air posed an immediate or long-term health hazard to residents occupying a home at 4625 Rockwood Parkway, Spring Valley. (cdc.gov)
  • Detected substances in soil gas included low levels of some polyaromatic hydrocarbons and several common volatile organic chemicals including petroleum hydrocarbons, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene), trimethylbenzenes, napthalene and chloroform. (cdc.gov)
  • chemical precipitation: …effective technique is that called homogeneous precipitation, in which the precipitating agent is synthesized in the solution rather than added mechanically. (britannica.com)
  • The sampling plan was designed to collect a broad range of volatile and semivolatile chemicals including petroleum hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, potential explosive degradation products and potential chemical warfare agent degradation products. (cdc.gov)
  • Surprisingly few studies connect the chemical, mechanical, and hydrological evolution of rock as it weathers to saprolite and soil. (lu.se)
  • Major changes in rock properties can occur with only minor element leaching, and the threshold behavior of weathering that arises from the coevolution of chemical, hydrological, and mechanical properties may be difficult to capture using simplified weathering models that fail to incorporate these properties. (lu.se)
  • Our results, which combine the mechanical and hydrological evolution of weathering rock with more common measurements of chemical changes, should help to more accurately model the effects of, and mechanical and hydrological feedbacks upon, chemical weathering of rock. (lu.se)
  • Once the tubules are opened, they act as channels that transmit mechanical, chemical and bacterial stimuli to the pulp 18 . (bvsalud.org)
  • The low concentrations of chemicals detected in the soil gas would not be high enough to significantly impact indoor air. (cdc.gov)
  • An important stage of the precipitation process is the onset of nucleation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Targeting at the air electrode in nonaqueous lithium-air batteries, this review attempts to summarize the knowledge about the fundamentals related to lithium oxides precipitation , which has been one of the vital and attractive aspects of the research communities of science and technology. (rsc.org)
  • Odor as an aid to chemical safety: Odor thresholds compared with threshold limit values and volatilities for 214 industrial chemicals in air and water dilution. (cdc.gov)
  • Experimental Study on the Coupling of Turbulence and Chemical Agglomeration to Promote the Removal of Coal-fired Particles by Electric Dust [J]. Journal of Electrical Engineering of China,2019, 39(10):2954-2962. (e3s-conferences.org)
  • Effect of turbulent flow field properties on improving the removal of coal-fired fine particles in chemical-turbulent agglomeration[J]. Advanced Powder Technology, 2020, 31(1). (e3s-conferences.org)
  • The collision efficiency of liquid bridge agglomeration[J]. Chemical Engineering Science, 2015, 137. (e3s-conferences.org)
  • Train A was operated with co-precipitation in order to achieve high removal of total P (TP). (iwaponline.com)
  • 15 One of the major challenges to P recovery by precipitation is achieving a high purity product. (rsc.org)
  • The small sizes of the lakes, and their locations in basins of high precipitation and weathering-resistant rock types, enhance their sensitivity. (usgs.gov)
  • The use of industrial waste materials as precipitation chemicals in the simultaneous removal of ammonium and phosphate from nutrient-containing wastewaters was studied in this dissertation. (oulu.fi)
  • Precipitation occurs more rapidly from a strongly supersaturated solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • If energy changes are not favorable, or without suitable nucleation sites, no precipitation occurs and the solution remain supersaturated. (wikipedia.org)
  • The agent B is solely used for precious metals (Au, Ag, Pt, Pd, Rh) precipitation in eco-goldex E agent derived pregnant solution. (eco-goldex.com)
  • Due to the coagulant (Al) addition, the concern was precipitation on the biofilm carriers in the aerobic reactor in Train A. A small internal air-lift pump proved to be very efficient in controlling biofilm thickness and removing excess biofilm mass as needed. (iwaponline.com)
  • Direct precipitation in fresh urine and hydrolyzed urine was more efficient than precipitation in the corresponding spent regenerants based on lower chemical requirements. (rsc.org)
  • During World War I, the AUES was established to investigate testing, production and effects of chemical warfare agents, antidotes and protective equipment. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition to individualized state health departments, the following 5 national sources provide information regarding death and injuries caused by chemical releases: National Response Center (NRC), Department of Transportation (DOT), Hazardous Materials Information System (HMIS), Acute Hazardous Events (AHE) Database, and American Poison Control Centers Association. (medscape.com)
  • A review by Ahmmed et al reported that worldwide, ocular surface chemical injuries (OSCIs) account for 0.1-15% of all ocular emergency presentations, with such injuries having been responsible for an estimated $106.7 million in emergency department costs in the United States over a 4-year period. (medscape.com)
  • The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) contains extensive provisions for emergency planning and the rights of communities to be informed of toxic chemical releases. (medscape.com)
  • In addition to an identified source of contamination (such as a underground waste disposal site), many chemicals routinely detected in indoor air originate from common sources including cleaning chemicals, gasoline, cosmetics, perfumes, paints, air fresheners, dry cleaning, cigarette smoke, and cooking byproducts. (cdc.gov)
  • The pupils will also make calculations on the conversion of chemical energy to electrical energy, using our pedal bikes. (lu.se)