Chemical Precipitation: The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Fractional Precipitation: A method which uses specific precipitation reactions to separate or collect substances from a solution.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Snow: Frozen water crystals that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Ammonium Sulfate: Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.Phosphotungstic Acid: Tungsten hydroxide oxide phosphate. A white or slightly yellowish-green, slightly efflorescent crystal or crystalline powder. It is used as a reagent for alkaloids and many other nitrogen bases, for phenols, albumin, peptone, amino acids, uric acid, urea, blood, and carbohydrates. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Calcium Carbonate: Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Weather: The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Ultracentrifugation: Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Multiple Chemical Sensitivity: An acquired disorder characterized by recurrent symptoms, referable to multiple organ systems, occurring in response to demonstrable exposure to many chemically unrelated compounds at doses below those established in the general population to cause harmful effects. (Cullen MR. The worker with multiple chemical sensitivities: an overview. Occup Med 1987;2(4):655-61)Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Chemical Industry: The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Hydrology: Science dealing with the properties, distribution, and circulation of water on and below the earth's surface, and atmosphere.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Desert Climate: A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chemical Warfare: Tactical warfare using incendiary mixtures, smokes, or irritant, burning, or asphyxiating gases.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Chemical Fractionation: Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Hazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.Inorganic Chemicals: A broad class of substances encompassing all those that do not include carbon and its derivatives as their principal elements. However, carbides, carbonates, cyanides, cyanates, and carbon disulfide are included in this class.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Burns, ChemicalWater: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Trichloroacetic Acid: A strong acid used as a protein precipitant in clinical chemistry and also as a caustic for removing warts.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.

Basic homopolyamino acids, histones and protamines are potent antagonists of angiogenin binding to ribonuclease inhibitor. (1/2034)

A radio-ribonuclease inhibitor assay based on the interaction of 125I-angiogenin with ribonuclease inhibitor (RI) was used to detect pancreatic-type ribonucleases and potential modulators of their action. We show that highly basic proteins including the homopolypeptides poly-arginine, poly-lysine and poly-ornithine, core histones, spermatid-specific S1 protein and the protamines HP3 and Z3 were strong inhibitors of angiogenin binding to RI. A minimum size of poly-arginine and poly-lysine was required for efficient inhibition. The inhibition likely resulted from direct association of the basic proteins with the acidic inhibitor, as RI bound to poly-lysine and protamines while 125I-angiogenin did not. Antagonists of the angiogenin-RI interaction are potential regulators of either angiogenin-triggered angiogenesis and/or intracellular RI function, depending on their preferential target.  (+info)

Clinical and immunochemical study of the serum IgG fraction not precipitated in a zinc-sodium salicylate reagent. (2/2034)

A reagent made of zinc sulphate (0-08 M) in a 0-4 M sodium salicylate solution at pH 7-3 precipitated most of the IgG when a small volume of human serum was added. Sera with normal IgG levels or polyclonal hyperglobulinaemia showed a close correlation between total IgG and zinc-precipitated IgG (r = + 0-95). In clinical material, not including IgG myeloma, zinc-soluble IgG varied between 0 and 6 mg/ml and was independent of the IgG serum concentration. In 31 normal subjects the average IgG concentration, as determined by the Technicon immunonephelometric method, was 10-2 +/- 1-7 mg/ml for total IgG and 2-2 +/- 1-0 mg/ml for the soluble fraction. Among 173 sera, including 24 from cord blood, 16 from pregnant women, and 133 from patients with miscellaneous diseases, no pathological conditions except three cases of IgG myeloma were found with a zinc-soluble IgG definitely above the normal values; zinc-soluble IgG levels were often low in patients with hyperglobulinaemia, and the difference was highly significant in liver disease. kappa and gamma light chains as well as the four IgG-Hp chain subclasses were found in both zinc-soluble fractions of normal IgG. A study of myeloma monoclonal IgG showed that globulins of classes 1, 3, and 4 could be either soluble or insoluble in the zinc reagent. One, G2, was mainly insoluble. Hexose and antistreptolysin contents per milligram normal IgG were not significantly different in either fraction. It is suggested that zinc-soluble IgG consists of the recently synthesized molecules, the zinc-solubility of which has not yet been decreased by protein association, lipid interaction, antigen binding, or enzymatic denaturation. Within this hypothesis, a low level of soluble IgG would mean either an increased precatabolic protein or a decreased synthesis.  (+info)

Prion domain initiation of amyloid formation in vitro from native Ure2p. (3/2034)

The [URE3] non-Mendelian genetic element of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an infectious protein (prion) form of Ure2p, a regulator of nitrogen catabolism. Here, synthetic Ure2p1-65 were shown to polymerize to form filaments 40 to 45 angstroms in diameter with more than 60 percent beta sheet. Ure2p1-65 specifically induced full-length native Ure2p to copolymerize under conditions where native Ure2p alone did not polymerize. Like Ure2p in extracts of [URE3] strains, these 180- to 220-angstrom-diameter filaments were protease resistant. The Ure2p1-65-Ure2p cofilaments could seed polymerization of native Ure2p to form thicker, less regular filaments. All filaments stained with Congo Red to produce the green birefringence typical of amyloid. This self-propagating amyloid formation can explain the properties of [URE3].  (+info)

Survey of total error of precipitation and homogeneous HDL-cholesterol methods and simultaneous evaluation of lyophilized saccharose-containing candidate reference materials for HDL-cholesterol. (4/2034)

BACKGROUND: Standardization of HDL-cholesterol is needed for risk assessment. We assessed for the first time the accuracy of HDL-cholesterol testing in The Netherlands and evaluated 11 candidate reference materials (CRMs). METHODS: The total error (TE) of HDL-cholesterol measurements was assessed in native human sera by 25 Dutch clinical chemistry laboratories. Concomitantly, the suitability of lyophilized, saccharose-containing CRMs (n = 11) for HDL-cholesterol was evaluated. RESULTS: In the precipitation method group, which included 25 laboratories and four methods, the mean (minimum-maximum) TE was 11.5% (2.7-25.2%), signifying that 18 of 25 laboratories satisfied the TE goal of +info)

Clusterin has chaperone-like activity similar to that of small heat shock proteins. (5/2034)

Clusterin is a highly conserved protein which is expressed at increased levels by many cell types in response to a broad variety of stress conditions. A genuine physiological function for clusterin has not yet been established. The results presented here demonstrate for the first time that clusterin has chaperone-like activity. At physiological concentrations, clusterin potently protected glutathione S-transferase and catalase from heat-induced precipitation and alpha-lactalbumin and bovine serum albumin from precipitation induced by reduction with dithiothreitol. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay data showed that clusterin bound preferentially to heat-stressed glutathione S-transferase and to dithiothreitol-treated bovine serum albumin and alpha-lactalbumin. Size exclusion chromatography and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analyses showed that clusterin formed high molecular weight complexes (HMW) with all four proteins tested. Small heat shock proteins (sHSP) also act in this way to prevent protein precipitation and protect cells from heat and other stresses. The stoichiometric subunit molar ratios of clusterin:stressed protein during formation of HMW complexes (which for the four proteins tested ranged from 1.0:1.3 to 1.0:11) is less than the reported ratios for sHSP-mediated formation of HMW complexes (1.0:1.0 or greater), indicating that clusterin is a very efficient chaperone. Our results suggest that clusterin may play a sHSP-like role in cytoprotection.  (+info)

A novel strategy for the preparation of liposomes: rapid solvent exchange. (6/2034)

During the preparation of multi-component model membranes, a primary consideration is that compositional homogeneity should prevail throughout the suspension. Some conventional sample preparation methods pass the lipid mixture through an intermediary, solvent-free state. This is an ordered, solid state and may favor the demixing of membrane components. A new preparative method has been developed which is specifically designed to avoid this intermediary state. This novel strategy is called rapid solvent exchange (RSE) and entails the direct transfer of lipid mixtures between organic solvent and aqueous buffer. RSE liposomes require no more than a minute to prepare and manifest considerable entrapment volumes with a high fraction of external surface area. In phospholipid/cholesterol mixtures of high cholesterol content, suspensions prepared by more conventional methods reveal evidence of artifactual demixing, whereas samples prepared by rapid solvent exchange do not. The principles which may lead to artifactual demixing during conventional sample preparation are discussed.  (+info)

von Willebrand factor contained in a high purity FVIII concentrate (Fanhdi) binds to platelet glycoproteins and supports platelet adhesion to subendothelium under flow conditions. (7/2034)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: There is evidence suggesting that von Willebrand factor (VWF) from high purity factor VIII concentrates could be of clinical use in the management of patients suffering from VWD. We analyzed structural and functional characteristics of VWF present in a high purity factor VIII concentrate VWFHPC (Fanhdi). The multimeric structure, the ability to bind to platelet GP Ib/IX or GP IIb/IIIa, and the capacity of VWFHPC to promote platelet adhesion on injured vessels were investigated and compared with that present in standard plasma cryoprecipitates [VWFCRYO]. DESIGN AND METHODS: Binding studies were carried out by incubating radiolabeled VWF and washed platelets, which were activated with either ristocetin (1 mg/mL; for GP Ib/IX), or thrombin (2.5 U/mL; for GP IIb/IIIa). Platelet adhesion was assessed in a perfusion system (shear rate = 800 s-1, 10 min) in which the source of VWF was added (at 0.4 or 0.8 U/mL VWF:Ag) to washed platelets and red cells suspended in a human albumin solution. The deposition of platelets onto the perfused subendothelial surface was morphometrically evaluated and expressed as percentage of surface coverage (%SC). RESULTS: The VWFHPC (152 Units VWF:RCof/mg protein; VWF:RCof/VWF:Ag = 0.97), lacked only a small proportion of high-molecular-weight multimers present in VWFCRYO. Binding affinities (Kd values, nM) of VWFHPC were similar to those of VWFCRYO (5.3 +/- 0.86 vs 5.2 +/- 0.95, for GP Ib/IX; and 11.6 +/- 2.7 vs 15.4 +/- 1.7 for GPIIb-IIIa). A slightly, though not significantly, higher binding capacity for these receptors (Bmax values, molecules/pit) was obtained for VWFHPC. The %SC in perfusions in the presence of albumin was < 10%. Addition of VWFHPC or VWFCRYO significantly increased the %SC, with values of 27.1 +/- 4.9 and 17.5 +/- 2.8%, respectively with 0.4 U/mL (p < 0.004 and p < 0.02 vs albumin); and 30.8 +/- 4.9% and 20.03 +/- 4.1%, respectively, at 0.8 U/mL (p < 0.001 and p < 0.02 vs albumin). INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that VWF present in the high purity FVIII concentrate Fanhdi retains the functional capacity to bind to GPs Ib/IX and IIb/IIIa and to promote platelet adhesion onto exposed subendothelium.  (+info)

A novel class of lipophilic quinazoline-based folic acid analogues: cytotoxic agents with a folate-independent locus. (8/2034)

Three lipophilic quinazoline-based aminomethyl pyridine compounds, which differ only in the position of the nitrogen in their pyridine ring, are described. CB300179 (2-pyridine), CB300189 (4-pyridine) and CB30865 (3-pyridine) all inhibited isolated mammalian TS with IC50 values of 508, 250 and 156 nM respectively. CB30865 was the most potent growth inhibitory agent (IC50 values in the range 1-100 nM for several mouse and human cell types). CB300179 and CB300189 were active in the micromolar range. Against W1L2 cells, CB300179 and CB300189 demonstrated reduced potency in the presence of exogenous thymidine (dThd), and against a W1L2:C1 TS overproducing cell line. In contrast, CB30865 retained activity in these systems. Furthermore, combinations of precursors and end products of folate metabolism, e.g. dThd/hypoxanthine (HX) or leucovorin (LV), did not prevent activity. CB30865 did not interfere with the incorporation of tritiated dThd, uridine or leucine after 4 h. A cell line was raised with acquired resistance to CB30865 (W1L2:R865; > 200-fold), which was not cross-resistant to CB300179 or CB300189. In addition, W1L2:R865 cells were as sensitive as parental cells to agents from all the major chemotherapeutic drug classes. CB300179 and CB300189 induced an S phase accumulation (preventable by co-administration of dThd). No cell cycle redistribution was observed following exposure (4-48 h) to an equitoxic concentration of CB30865. In the NCI anticancer drug-discovery screen, CB30865 displayed a pattern of activity which was not consistent with known anti-tumour agents. These data suggest that CB30865 represents a class of potent potential anti-tumour agents with a novel mechanism of action.  (+info)

Article The implement of the electro-static and magnetic precipitation technique through the centeral air-conditioning systems. In this paper we will introduce the electrostatic and magnetic precipitation technique, to deposit the solid dust within t...
pxpst2 at vms.cis.pitt.edu (THE GREEK) wrote: ,I am interested in getting some references to some precipitation methods ,other than TCA. The method must be suitable for low protein ,concentrations. ,Please reply by email and thanks in advance , , Peter Pediaditakis pxpst2 at vms.cis.pitt.edu try the phenol : ether method ... analytical biochemistry 226;382-383 (1995) hope this helps ...
A rapid and selective high-throughput HESI-LC-MS/MS method for determining eight cytochrome P450 probe drugs in one-step extraction and single run was developed and validated. The four specific probe
20°C for an hour is fine for using larger (1mL of bacterial culture, plasmid) amounts of DNA The DNA pellet will not always be visible depending on how much DNA you are precipitating. So always take care in loading your samples in the centrifuge to remember the direction they are facing. The DNA pellet will be on the part of the tube facing the outside of the centrifuge. This protocol will precipitate all nucleic acids, not just DNA. If you do not want RNA in your sample, one of the many ways to deal with it is to simply resuspend in TE + RNAse at the last step and leave it at room temperature for 15mins-1hr. ...
Hi Sigrid, if you just want to concentrate the protein in the solution you could also try it by using a SpeedVac. This works without precipitation, though. janosch s.hannier at abdn.ac.uk schrieb: , I would like to concentrate a sample of proteins with less than 1 ug (aout 900ng) in 1ml. What is the best precipitation method to use for a maximum recovery? I have heard about deoxycholate/TCA but it seems that recovery is 50% , which is not very good. Any advice? , , Many thanks, , , Sigrid , , http://biowww.net/mynews/tree.php?group_name=bionet_molbio_proteins&begin=0 -------------- next part -------------- A non-text attachment was scrubbed... Name: janosch.groening.vcf Type: text/x-vcard Size: 265 bytes Desc: Visitenkarte für janosch groening Url : http://iubio.bio.indiana.edu/bionet/mm/proteins/attachments/20021122/dcda3d9d/janosch.groening.bin ...
Protein precipitation technique is commonly used with biological samples. Study results show Bond Elut EMR-Lipid selectively removes lipids without affecting analyte recovery.
DNA precipictation at -80 went thick - posted in General Lab Techniques: Hi all, Ive just done normal DNA precipitation in a 50ml falcon (DNA in 10ml H20, 0.1 volume 3M NaAcOH, 2.5 volumes 100% Ethanol) and placed it at -80 for 3h. When I came to take it out it was all super thick. Has anyone seen anything like this before? This never happened to me at -20. My DNA pellet yield after centrifugation was tiny so I left it at -20 now in hope that whatever did not precipitate at -80 due...
Measure the effect of acid precipitation on plant growth and productivity. Experiment time is 45 days. Kit includes: standard Fast Plants® seed, all other planting materials, and instructions. Enough materials for a class of 32 students. This kit refill is enough materials for an additional clas...
How many fragments in plasmid DNA prep? - posted in Molecular Biology: How many bands would you get if you run an agarose gel with a prep product from a transformation experiment? Ive used the ethanol precipitation method to derive my plasmid. Heard that DNA comes in three forms - supercoiled, circular and linear. Can someone enlighten me on this? Cheers!
Effect of extremely fine Y[sub 2]BaCuO[sub 5] precipitates on the critical current density of melt-processed YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub x]. Sengupta, S.; Shi, Donglu; Luo, J. S.; Buzdin, A.; Gorin, V.; Todt, V. R.; Varanasi, C.; McGinn, P. J. // Journal of Applied Physics;6/1/1997, Vol. 81 Issue 11, p7396 Based on previously developed melt processing methods, Y[sub 2]BaCuO[sub 5] (211) precipitates with various size were obtained in YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub x] (123). In particular, a wide distribution of 211 size from 100 Å to 10 μm has been found to exist in the matrix of 123, and... ...
Location and Precipitation My biome is located in areas near the equator. These areas are tropical. The average temperature is 64°F year. In summer it is hotter because the sun. Its precipitation average is more then 400 inches a year.
Get the latest wet electrostatic precipitation news on Environmental XPRT, the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace and information resource.
Immune co-precipitation. A. Affinity purified proteins, Cp265 (265C), Cp266 (266C), Cp267 (267C) and OppAC, were analyzed on 15 % SDS-polyacrylamide gels by Coo
We propose that a weak compatibility condition predicts the elongated directions for Widmanstätten type precipitates. The distribution of the elongated directions of precipitates lies on a family of...
U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2011-5262 Prepared in collaboration with the University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma State University, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Stable-Isotope Ratios of Hydrogen and Oxygen in Precipitation at Norman, Oklahoma, 1996-2008 Cover Precipitation isotope collector (J.R. Masoner, U.S. Geological Survey). Stable-Isotope Ratios of Hydrogen and Oxygen in Precipitation at Norman, Oklahoma, 1996-2008 By Jeanne B. Jaeschke, Martha A. Scholl, Isabelle M. Cozzarelli, Jason R. Masoner, Scott Christenson, and Haiping Qi Prepared in collaboration with the University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma State University, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Scientific Investigations Report 2011-5262 U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological SurveyU.S. Department of the Interior KEN SALAZAR, Secretary U.S. Geological Survey Marcia K. McNutt, Director U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia: 2011 This and other USGS ...
U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2011-5262 Prepared in collaboration with the University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma State University, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Stable-Isotope Ratios of Hydrogen and Oxygen in Precipitation at Norman, Oklahoma, 1996-2008 Cover Precipitation isotope collector (J.R. Masoner, U.S. Geological Survey). Stable-Isotope Ratios of Hydrogen and Oxygen in Precipitation at Norman, Oklahoma, 1996-2008 By Jeanne B. Jaeschke, Martha A. Scholl, Isabelle M. Cozzarelli, Jason R. Masoner, Scott Christenson, and Haiping Qi Prepared in collaboration with the University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma State University, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Scientific Investigations Report 2011-5262 U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological SurveyU.S. Department of the Interior KEN SALAZAR, Secretary U.S. Geological Survey Marcia K. McNutt, Director U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia: 2011 This and other USGS ...
The affinity of metal chelates for amino acids, such as histidine, is widely used in purifying proteins, most notably through six-histidine `tails. We have found that metal affinity interactions can also be applied to separation of single-stranded nucleic acids through interactions involving exposed purines. Here we describe a metal affinity precipitation method to resolve RNA from linear and plasmid DNA. A copper-charged copolymer of N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAM) and vinyl imidazole (VI) is used to purify plasmid from an alkaline lysate of E. coli. The NIPAM units confer reversible solubility on the copolymer while the imidazole chelates metal ions in a manner accessible to interaction with soluble ligands. RNA was separated from the plasmid by precipitation along with the polymer in the presence of 800 mM NaCl. Bound RNA could be recovered by elution with imidazole and separated from copolymer by a second precipitation step. RNA binding showed a strong dependence on temperature and on the ...
Whitings are a natural phenomenon of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation that occurs in both fresh and tropical marine waters. Previous studies have associated whitings with Synechococcus bacillaris and have suggested ...
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Definition of Ammonium sulphate precipitation with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
Selective precipitation of gold from aqua regia, leaving pgm in solution february 25, 2010 am an analytical chemist for a recycler am new to this area and have a question regarding a selective precipitation of gold from an anolyte solution of 10 by volume aqua regia.
This protocol is being mention in the manual for the Gateway recombinational cloning system based on published methods.[1, 2, 3] Adjusting the PEG concentration can shift the threshold of the size of the precipitated DNA. The higher the final PEG concentration, the smaller the fragments that will be removed (which will stay in the supernantant). ...
The Geneaid™ DNA Isolation Kit (Blood) offers a simple and gentle reagent DNA precipitation method for isolating high molecular weight genomic, mitochondrial or viral DNA suitable for archiving or sensitive downstream applications.
Well calibrated core-shell multifunctional nanoparticles for biomedical applications were synthesized by a multistep soft chemistry route. The core is composed of Gd(OH)CO3·H2O spheres prepared via a urea-based homogeneous precipitation technique, while the shell is a homogeneous thin silica layer embedded w
Scale deposition is inhibited with a new scale inhibitor precipitation squeeze method wherein inhibitor solution is injected at a higher first pH into a subsurface brine producing formation. Thereafter, the solution is subjected to a fluid or substance which lowers the higher first pH of the scale inhibitor solution to a lower second pH, thereby causing precipitation of scale inhibitor in the formation. The scale inhibitor is characterized by the fact that the scale inhibitor exhibits a significant solubility decrease between the higher first pH and the lower second pH. The method of this invention, therefore, is based on decreasing the pH the scale inhibitor solution to deposit the scale inhibitor and does not use prior art divalent cation precipitation methods to precipitate inhibitors. This invention lessens the chances of formation damage or plugging. The preferred scale inhibitors are the amine phosphonates of a given general structure. The most preferred scale inhibitors are ethylenediaminetetra
precipitation: deposition of liquid water droplets and ice particles that are formed in the atmosphere and grow to a sufficient size so that they are returned to the Earths surface by gravitational settling. Solid and liquid. Dew and fog do not count as precipitation (can add 5-10% to precipitation in the Pacific Northwest ...
Several methodologies have been proposed to combine radar and raingauge measurements with the aim of generating improved quantitative precipitation estimates (QPEs). These methods are based on interpolating point raingauge ...
[Part 2 of 6 in a series investigating Paulings work on the serological properties of simple substances.] The first four papers published by Linus Pauling and his Caltech colleagues on the serological properties of simple substances described general aspects of the precipitation reactions that occur between antibodies and antigens. This work was spurred by a…
Nck coprecipitation with ADAP.Formation of a complex containing ADAP and Nck is increased after stimulation via TCR or chemokine receptor. Immunoprecipitation o
See the best 1 free high-resolution photos of landscapes selected by Sébastien Pereda. These HD images are free to use for commercial projects.
In Osh today we expect +1..+12 °C, without precipitation, light breeze. Tomorrow: +4..+12 °C, without precipitation, light breeze. rp5.ua
An isohyet is a line on a map which connects points that have the same amounts of precipitation in a given period or for a particular storm.
Information on Middlesex University's Research Repository: a online collection of Middlesex University's research outputs
Copyright © 2017 by The Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New York, Lamont -Doherty Earth Observatory. All rights reserved ...
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Fortunate this has changed overtime and today you can host and manage multiple domains on a single hosting account. Size bars represent 10 Оm. For businesses, selecting a good hosting service provider can be a huge task. GigaMail also comes with a browser-based interface with Zimlets- view Calendar Email, Address and Map Preview, Google Translate, Web-Ex, Smartsheet and Social managing. At 1В day after the cells had been seeded, the cells were transfected with the expression plasmid DNAs by the conventional calcium phosphate precipitation method for HEK-293 cells or by using FuGENE measuring the behavior of a world wide web server (Roche Applied Science) for HeLa cells. Compare Best Web Hosting Before You buy. Click where is says click to specifyв to select those web hosting 1 dollar. Because Magnolia is easy to use, new users need little or no training and can get up to speed quickly. You are allowed and have access to all resources available on the machine. After that add the web hosting 1 ...
Heavy metals precipitation The principle technology to remove metals pollutants from wastewater is by chemical precipitation. Chemical precipitation includes two secondary removal mechanisms, coprecipitation and adsorption . Precipitation processes are characterized by the solubility of the metal to be removed. They are generally designed to precipitate trace metals to their solubility limits and obtain additional removal by coprecipitation and adsorption during the precipitation reaction. Source for information on Heavy Metals Precipitation: Environmental Encyclopedia dictionary.
A comprehensive review and extension of the theoretical bases for the measurement of the characteristics of rain and snow with vertically pointing Doppler radar are presented. The drop size distribution in rain can be computed from the Doppler spectrum, provided that the updraft can be estimated, but difficulties are involved in the case of snow. Doppler spectra and their moments are computed for rain by using various power law relations of fall speed υ versus particle diameter D and an exponential fit to the actual fall speed data. In the former case, there is no sharp upper bound to the spectra and all the spectral moments increase with rainfall rate R without limit; in the latter case, there is a sharp upper bound of the spectra corresponding to the limiting terminal velocity of raindrops, and the spectral moments approach an asymptote. Accordingly, the power laws are useful approximations over only limited ranges of precipitation rate. A comparison of theoretical and experimental mean ...
A number of purification techniques such as adsorption, centrifugation, chromatography, extraction, distillation, filtration, precipitation etc. to name a few, are commonly used for the purification. However, due to a constant need of purification of even more complex crude mixtures, be it reaction mixtures, various proteins and DNA from cell extracts or medicinal compounds and fragrances from plant extracts, scientists needed to consistently develop new and improved techniques of purification. One such great advancement in the field of chromatography was the development of affinity chromatography. It revolutionized the field of bioseparations technology, and the dream of single stage purification of complex biological substrates such as proteins, enzymes, co-enzymes, DNA, RNA etc. was realized. Development of various precipitation techniques involving phase tags, acid-base induced precipitation, host-guest interactions, chemoselective precipitation etc. further simplified purification procedures for
Construction of clones and HEK transfection.α0 (cSlo1, GenBank numberU23821) was cloned by homology screening of a chick cochlear cDNA library (Jiang et al., 1997). Chimeric splice variant clones were constructed by inserting "exon-present" RT-PCR products into the α0 cDNA by ligation of the restricted products. Final sequence of each chimeric construct was confirmed using primers upstream of the added exons. Plasmids for expression in the mammalian HEK293 cell line were created by packaging the full-length cDNA clone into pcDNA 3.1 (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA). Before recording, cells were propagated in DMEM (Life Technologies, Gaithersburg, MD) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (Life Technologies). Cells were transfected using calcium phosphate precipitation. The mixture included green fluorescent protein (GFP) cDNA (pGreenLantern, Life Technologies) to label transfected cells. Recordings were made 24-48 hr after transfection.. The quail β subunit of the slo protein (GenBank accession ...
The method presented here describes an assay to follow activation of RhoA specific GDP/GTP Exchange Factors (GEFs) in cultured cells by ...
Use the ReadyPrep 2-D cleanup kit to free protein samples of ionic contaminants by selective precipitation. Remove detergents, lipids, and phenolic compounds.
Read chapter ATMOSPHERIC SULPHUR AND NITROGEN DEPOSITION AND THEIR IMPACT ON ACID PRECIPITATION IN THE USSR: Monitoring and Managing Environmental Impact:...
Precipitation-rain, snow, hail, sleet, or mist-is naturally acidified by carbonic acid (H2CO3). Carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere reacts with water molecules, lowering the pH of precipitation to 5.6. A pH scale is used to measure a solutions acidity or alkalinity; pH is defined as the negative logarithm of the concentration of hydrogen ions, H+ . A solution with a pH of 7.0 is neutral. A pH lower than 7 is acidic, and a pH greater than 7 is alkaline ...
Precipitation-rain, snow, hail, sleet, or mist-is naturally acidified by carbonic acid (H2CO3). Carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere reacts with water molecules, lowering the pH of precipitation to 5.6. A pH scale is used to measure a solutions acidity or alkalinity; pH is defined as the negative logarithm of the concentration of hydrogen ions, H+ . A solution with a pH of 7.0 is neutral. A pH lower than 7 is acidic, and a pH greater than 7 is alkaline ...
Abstract The use of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in routine biochemical assays such as restriction enzyme digestion and immunodetection is plagued largely by two common contaminants, DNase and immunoglobulins G (IgGs). Acetylation of BSA
Apparatus for producing nano-particles comprises a furnace defining a vapor region therein. A precipitation conduit having an inlet end and an outlet end is positioned with respect to the furnace so that the inlet end is open to the vapor region. A quench fluid port positioned within the precipitation conduit provides a quench fluid stream to the precipitation conduit to precipitate nano-particles within the precipitation conduit. A product collection apparatus connected to the outlet end of the precipitation conduit collects the nano-particles produced within the precipitation conduit.
After speaking with Axa regarding the DNA concentrations, he would like the DNA from the ethanol-fixed tissue to be more concentrated, and he wants them in ddH2O instead of Buffer AE (from the Qiagen DNeasy Kit). So, I preformed a standard ethanol precipitation. Added 0.1 volumes of 3M sodium acetate (pH = 5.2) [15uL], 2.5 volumes of 100% ethanol [412.5uL] and incubated @ -20C over the weekend.. Pelleted DNA by spinning 16,000g, 15mins @ 4C. Discarded supe, washed pellets with 1mL 70% ethanol and re-pelleted the DNA. Performed a second wash with 70% EtOH, pelleted DNA, discarded supe, resuspended DNA in 75uL of NanoPure H2O, and specd on NanoDrop1000.. Results:. Will spec when I re-isolate DNA from "fresh" geoduck samples for coordinating Axas DNA sequencing project with our potential RNA-seq project. See 20140219.. ...
We have observed the precipitation of a fluorescent dye in a microfluidic 3D hydrodynamic mixing set up. In addition to the short fluorescence lifetime of DBDCS molecule and to the long lifetime of their crystal, nuclei with an intermediate lifetime are observed. These are the first observation, enumeration and mapping of the early states of the crystallization during an anti-solvent precipitation ...
deposition of liquid water droplets and ice particles that are formed in the atmosphere and grow to a sufficient size so that they are returned to the Earths surface by gravitational settling. Solid and liquid. Dew and fog do not count as precipitation (can add 5-10% to precipitation in the Pacific Northwest ...
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Precipitation is usually classified as convective or stratiform. Convective precipitation is normally associated with cumulus and cumulonimbus clouds within which a significant vertical velocity keeps the cloud droplets inside the cloud, enhancing their growth until the vertical currents are not able to counteract the force of gravity any longer and precipitation is produced. Stratiform precipitation is produced mainly by nimbostratus and sometimes by stratocumulus/altocumulus. In these clouds the vertical velocity is lower than inside the convective clouds, and it cannot prevent cloud droplets from falling earlier. The result is a smaller raindrop in these clouds (Houze, 1993).. Drop Size Distribution (DSD) at ground level will depend, among other parameters, on the type of precipitation. It is known that DSD varies both spatially and temporally (Ulbrich, 1983), not only within a specific storm type but also across differing storm types and climatic regimes. It can be characterized by three ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Correlation of Cu precipitation with austenite-ferrite transformation in a continuously cooled multicomponent steel: An atom probe tomography study. AU - Liu, Qingdong. AU - Liu, Wenqing. AU - Xiong, Xiang-Yuan. PY - 2012. Y1 - 2012. UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.1557/jmr.2012.54. U2 - 10.1557/jmr.2012.54. DO - 10.1557/jmr.2012.54. M3 - Article. VL - 27. SP - 1060. EP - 1067. JO - Journal of Materials Research. JF - Journal of Materials Research. SN - 0884-2914. IS - 7. ER - ...
HB09-1129 - Colorado. Concerning an authorization of pilot projects for the beneficial use of captured precipitation in new real estate developments, and
Advanced Powder Technology IV: Ce|sub|0.8|/sub|Gd|sub|0.2|/sub|O|sub|1.9|/sub| Powders Synthesized by Co-Precipitation and Amorphous Citrate Processes
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The "Trisodium Citrate 5 5 hydrate Market" Report offers an inclusive and decision-making overview, including definitions, classifications and its applications. The Trisodium Citrate 5 5 hydrate market is anticipated to reflect a positive growth trend in forthcoming years. The essential driving forces behind the growth and popularity of Trisodium Citrate 5 5 hydrate market is analysed detailed in this report.. The "Trisodium Citrate 5 5 hydrate Market Report" further describes detailed information about tactics and strategies used by leading key companies in the Trisodium Citrate 5 5 hydrate industry. It also gives an extensive study about different market segments and regions.. Trisodium Citrate 5 5 hydrate Market Report Provides Comprehensive Analysis as Following: • Market segments and sub- ...
Protein precipitation is widely used in downstream processing of biological products in order to concentrate proteins and purify them from various contaminants. For example, in the biotechnology industry protein precipitation is used to eliminate contaminants commonly contained in blood. The underlying mechanism of precipitation is to alter the solvation potential of the solvent, more specifically, by lowering the solubility of the solute by addition of a reagent. The solubility of proteins in aqueous buffers depends on the distribution of hydrophilic and hydrophobic amino acid residues on the proteins surface. Hydrophobic residues predominantly occur in the globular protein core, but some exist in patches on the surface. Proteins that have high hydrophobic amino acid content on the surface have low solubility in an aqueous solvent. Charged and polar surface residues interact with ionic groups in the solvent and increase the solubility of a protein. Knowledge of a proteins amino acid ...
Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) activity was measured by a modification of the trichloroacetic acid precipitation procedure in plasma using [3H]-PAF (1-O-hexadecyl-2-[3H-acetyl]-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) (10 Ci/mmol, DuPont-New England Nuclear, Boston, MA, USA) as a substrate at a final concentration of 100 μmol/L, as described previously[24]. Briefly, 50 μL diluted plasma (1∶25 v/v with HEPES pH7.4 buffer which consists of 4.2 mmol/L HEPES, 137 mmol/L NaCl, 2.6 mmol/L KCl, and 2 mmol/L EDTA) as the source of the enzyme or blanks (for determination of background) were mixed with assay buffer (HEPES) to a final volume of 90 μL. The reaction was allowed to proceed for 10 minutes at 37 °C by addition of 10 μL of working substrate solution (2 mmol/L [3Η]-PAF in 2.5×103 mg/L BSA, prepared fresh daily). The reaction was terminated by addition of 20 μL ice-cold aqueous bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution (100×103 mg/L) followed by vortex-mixing and incubation for 10 ...
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Copper Atom Model, Chemical Precipitation of Cu(Oh)2 Photographic Print by Carol & Mike Werner. Find art you love and shop high-quality art prints, photographs, framed artworks and posters at Art.com. 100% satisfaction guaranteed.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Formation of homogeneous cross-linked lattices between oligomannose type glycopeptides and concanavalin A. AU - Islam Khan, M.. AU - Bhattacharyya, Lokesh. AU - Brewer, Curtis F.. PY - 1988/5/16. Y1 - 1988/5/16. N2 - Certain oligomannose type glycopeptides have previously been shown to be bivalent for binding to concanavalin A, and to give quantitative precipitation profiles with the protein that consist of single peaks which correspond to the binding stoichiometry of glycopeptide to protein monomer (1:2) (Bhattacharyya, L., Ceccarini, C., Lorenzoni, P., and Brewer, C.F. (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 1288-1293). In the present study, equimolar mixtures of two oligomannose type glycopeptides, a Man-6 and a Man-9 glycopeptide, gives a quantitative precipitation profile which shows two protein peaks. Each glycopeptide was radiolabelled with 3H or 14C, and the the precipitation profiles of the individual glycopeptides in the mixture determined. The results show that the radioactivity ...
Gene therapy is recognized as a medical approach for the treatment of diseases that are difficult to cure, such as tumors. Several viral and non-viral carriers for gene transfer have been developed for either in vivo or ex vivo/in vitro use [1-4]. The most important viral carriers, characterized in laboratory studies and clinical trials, have been inactivated retroviruses, adenoviruses, adeno-associated viruses, and herpes viruses. These viruses show relatively high transfection efficiency, but have some clinical safety problems. On the other hand, non-viral methods of gene delivery, including cationic lipofection, calcium phosphate precipitation, gene guns, and injection of naked DNA, generally show low transfection efficiency but are not pathogenic [1-4]. However, there is another serious issue regarding the present gene delivery methodologies. Almost all the gene delivery methods currently developed have insufficient ability to specifically recognize and target diseased cells and to ...
Ammonium sulfate protein precipitation is a key technique for concentration, fractionation and purification of proteins. Salting-out is a key technique.
A chemical precipitation method is utilized to synthesize bismuth-strontium-calcium-copper oxide powder. Tetra-methyl ammonium hydroxide and tetra-methyl ammonium carbonate are used as a precipitant and for pH adjustment. Effect of processing parameters like carbonization time, and cation solution concentration on Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 (Bi-2212) powders is reported. Powders with different particle size and distribution are used to fabricate Ag sheathed multifilamentary Bi-2212 round wires with diameter about 0.06 cm (corresponding to filament diameter about 3 μm). Significant sausaging was observed for wires processed with larger particle size powders. Good filament uniformity was observed for wires produced from finer powders.
Tabletop Centrifuge can act as different model to meet all your application needs: micro centrifuge for DNA precipitations, high-capacity and low-to-high speed general-purpose centrifuge for cell application.
Yes, please follow the Supplementary Protocol Acetone precipitation of protein from Buffer RLT or Buffer RLT Plus lysates (RY22).. Important Note:. Do not use TCA to precipitate protein from Buffer RLT and Buffer RLT Plus lysates. These buffers contain guanidine thiocyanate, which can form highly reactive compounds when combined with acidic solutions.. For simultaneous purification of DNA, RNA, and protein from the same sample (either cultured cells or easy-to-lyse tissues), we recommend using the AllPrep DNA/RNA/Protein Mini Kit. This kit allows precipitation of protein from Buffer RLT lysates using a novel protein precipitation buffer, Buffer APP.. Please note that Buffer APP is not compatible with Buffer RLT Plus. Acetone should be used instead to precipitate protein from RLT Plus lysates. ...
BioAssay record AID 211293 submitted by ChEMBL: Tested for inhibitory activity against Topoisomerase II isolated from HeLa cells by using SDS-K+ precipitation method.
Purification and characterication of casein phosphopeptides from kefir. According to Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan, calcium intake was below Recommended Daily Nutrient Allowances (RDNA). Milk is the best source of calcium supply for human. Kefir is a beverage produced by lactic-alcoholic fermentation of milk using kefir grains. The bioactive peptides released from casein by proteolysis during fermentation. The purpose of this study was to purify the casein phosphopeptides (CPP) from kefir and analyse its bioactivity. CPP in kefir were prepared by CaCl2 aggregation/ethanol precipitation method. The amounts of CPP from reconstituted milk fermented kefir were higher than the fresh milk fermented kefir. CPP improved calcium absorption by binding with the calcium, both the kefir fermented by fresh and reconstituted milk, the calcium content were higher than the non-hydrolyzed casein. Phosphopeptide enrichment spin columns were used for CPP purification, and the lyophilized fractions were ...
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A method for preparing an aqueous solution enriched in EG III from an aqueous mixture containing cellulase proteins, xylanase and EG III is disclosed. The method involves adding an amount of a low molecular weight alcohol selected from the group consisting of ethanol, methanol, propanol and mixtures thereof to the aqueous mixture containing cellulase proteins, xylanase and EG III and an organic salt under conditions wherein substantially all of the cellulase proteins other than EG III and xylanase are precipitated out of the aqueous mixture. The method then involves removing the precipitate from the aqueous mixture so as to recover an aqueous supernate enriched in EG III. Next, the method involves adding an amount of an inorganic salt to the supernate produced in step b) so as to form a second precipitate and a second supernate and then finally collecting the second supernate from the second precipitate to obtain a supernate enriched in EG III.
FIG. 45. October 1998 April 1999 (a) total precipitation (mm), (b) precipitation anomalies (mm), (c) precipitation percentiles based on a gamma distribution fit to the 1961 90 base period. Panel (d) shows a monthly time series of precipitation percentiles, based on precipitation totals averaged over the boxed region depicted in panels (a) (c).. ...
powdered gold gold formed by atomizing or by chemical precipitation, lightly precondensed, and wrapped with gold foil so as to form pellets. ...
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This product shows, for each month, season and year since 1895, how much of the contiguous United States experienced extreme (top or bottom 10%) temperature and precipitation conditions.
This product shows, for each month, season and year since 1895, how much of the contiguous United States experienced extreme (top or bottom 10%) temperature and precipitation conditions.
This clear 96-well filter plate has a Hydrophobic PTFE membrane used for Peptide-bead cleavage & cleanup, in-plate protein precipitation, sample recovery following in-plate compound cleavage, peptide synthesis. Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information.
DNA purified by organic extraction can principally be used for these downstream reactions. It should be noted that phenol, like all organic solvents, alters the active centre of enzymes, thus deactivating them. An ethanol precipitation should therefore generally be carried out prior to enzyme controlled downstream reactions. Potential phenol residue is thereby effectively removed.. The use of MaXtract Low and High Density tubes has the advantage that no recontamination of the sample by organic solvents or proteins occurs.. ...
Figure 1 - Precipitation % of Normal- June 1 to 30, 2005 Figure 2 - June Precipitation as % of Summer (May-Aug) - June 1 to 30, 2005 Figure 3 - Accumulated Precipitation (mm) - June 1 to 30, 2005 ...
Figure 5 - Precipitation % of Normal - November 1, 2005 to April 30, 2006 Figure 6 - Accumulated Precipitation (mm) - November 1, 2005 to April 30, 2006. ...
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Percentage change in the precipitation falling on days within which the daily precipitation is above the pth percentile (p is horizontal axis) as a function of latitude and averaged over longtitude, over the 21st century in a GCM projection for a business-as-usual scenario, from Pall et al 2007.
Dr. bob could you please check this work cus i cant seem to get it right the first step of the synthesis is described by the reaction below. When 1.750 g of Fe(NH4)2(SO4)2 6H2O is mixed with 13 mL of 1.0 M H2C2O4, the theoretical ...
Is solubility equilibrium the same as saturated solution? I know that the rate of the dissolving is the same as the rate of precipitation. Am I ri...
Did you know that each winter one septillion (1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000) of snow crystals drop from the sky and that it takes about a million little droplets to make one snowflake? As common as it might seem at first glance, snow is actually a very complex type of precipitation. If you are wondering which is
Know whats coming with AccuWeathers extended daily forecasts for Castillo, Extremadura, Spain. Up to 90 days of daily highs, lows, and precipitation chances.
Fe-Zr oxides with different Zr/Fe molar ratios were prepared by a co-precipitation method and used as catalysts for the vapor phas... ...
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|p|Water desalination by membrane distillation is restricted by calcium carbonate precipitation on the membrane surface, what resulted in a progressive decline of the permeate flux. The module rinsing by HCl solution removed this deposit, however, such operation could cause the membrane wettability, associated with lowering of the permeate flux. This phenomenon was inhibited when the membrane modules with prefiltration element, assembled directly at the inlet to module, were used. The salt deposits were formed mainly on the surface of the filtration element (nets area constituted over 10% of the membranes area), what protected the membranes assembled inside the module. The filter efficiency decreased when the deposit layer covered the entire surface of pre-filter element, and after a few hours (period of 10-20 h) the formation of crystallite on the membrane surface was also observed. Therefore, the formed deposit was systematically removed (at every 5 h) from this pre-filter by 3 wt.%
1. The aim of the present study was to investigate noradrenaline (NA)-induced regulation of alpha(1) -adrenoceptor (AR) mRNA expression in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells stably expressing cloned alpha(1) -AR subtypes with similar receptor densities. Stable transfection was performed by calcium phosphate precipitation. Receptor expression was detected by radioligand binding assay. The mRNA expression was measured by RNase protection assay.. 2. alpha(1) -Adrenoceptor subtype mRNA respond in distinct ways following prolonged exposure to NA. The mRNA level of the alpha(1A) -AR subtype was unchanged, the mRNA level of the alpha(1B) -AR subtype was increased and the mRNA level of the alpha(1D) -AR subtype declined time dependently. The protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor calphostin C or RO 31-8220 abolished the NA-induced downregulation of alpha(1D) -AR mRNA. Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), a PKC activator, similarly repressed the effects of NA on alpha(1D) -AR. However, calphostin C, RO 31-8220 ...
The effect of insulin administration on immune complex (IC) formation in diabetic patients was analysed in vivo and in vitro. Firstly, serial studies of IC status were performed over a mean period of 18 months in 44 diabetic patients, 37 of whom were receiving standard insulin therapy. Thirty patients changed to monocomponent (MC) insulin while seven commenced MC insulin after tablet failure. The other seven patients remained on standard insulin throughout the study. Secondly, nine patients had serial measurements of IC over a 6-8 h period following a routine morning dose of MC insulin; eight control subjects were similarly studied. The insulin content of IC in insulin treated patients was assessed in vitro by examining, (a) the selective precipitation of antibody bound insulin by 3% polyethylene glycol (PEG) and (b) the insulin specificity of antisera raised against PEG precipitates of IC positive sera. The longitudinal study of circulating IC showed no significant changes apart from an isolated fall
As a qualitative serum with an optimized protein content to study the normal protein composition of bovine serum. To identify or quantitate a normal serum protein component using a variety of immunodiffusion techniques including immunoelectrophoresis, single and double radial immunodiffusion and electroimmunodiffusion. As a reference serum in nephelometry and other automated precipitation techniques. As a blocking agent or as a negative control in non-precipitating antibody-binding assays e.g. in serodiagnostic immunofluorescence and immunoenzyme tests. This normal reference serum does not contain assigned values for individual proteins but can be used as an internal relative standard for quantitative protein assays such as double radial immunodiffusion (Mancini, Fahey), ELISA, Western immunoblotting and electroimmunodiffusion (Laurell), expressing the results obtained with the serum sample under investigation as a percentage of the protein concentration in the normal reference serum ...
Precipitation of insulin is a problem with mechanical insulin infusion devices. Therefore conditions affecting insulin precipitation have been studied in a recirculating system using a peristaltic pump. Acetate buffer favoured precipitation and a pH of 2, 3 or 8 resulted in no less (and often more) precipitation than a pH of 7 using either acetate of phosphate buffer. However, no precipitation occurred in a phosphate buffered neutral preparation after ten days of pumping through tubing pretreated with EDTA. In comparison at pH 7, using acetate buffer with untreated tubing, more than 95% of insulin was precipitated in ten days. A heavy metal-insulin association appears to be a major factor in the precipitation. However, some formation of insulin fibrils is probable as the precipitate is autocatalytic and partially acid insoluble. Phosphate buffered highly purified porcine insulin is suitable for relatively prolonged infusion if metal ion contamination of the delivery system is minimised.
The following was contributed by Dr. John Keyantash, California State University, Dominguez Hills, January, 2014:. The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) is a widely accepted index for the quantification of drought. In fact, the SPI was recommended through the Lincoln Declaration on Drought as the internationally preferred index for meteorological drought (Hayes et al., 2011). The SPI specifically addresses the intensity of meteorological drought, or precipitation deficit. The shortage of precipitation is a fundamental, intuitive metric for drought-perhaps the most basic description possible. However, interpreting the magnitude of the precipitation deficit can be challenging, because precipitation climatology varies widely over geographical regions as well as temporal scales. For example, when an unusually wet month is embedded within a period of extended drought, should the month be considered droughty or not? Furthermore, the level of the precipitation deficit/excess should be judged ...
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity from clouds.[2] The main forms of precipitation include drizzle, rain, sleet, snow, ice pellets, graupel and hail. Precipitation occurs when a portion of the atmosphere becomes saturated with water vapor (reaching 100% relative humidity), so that the water condenses and "precipitates". Thus, fog and mist are not precipitation but suspensions, because the water vapor does not condense sufficiently to precipitate. Two processes, possibly acting together, can lead to air becoming saturated: cooling the air or adding water vapor to the air. Precipitation forms as smaller droplets coalesce via collision with other rain drops or ice crystals within a cloud. Short, intense periods of rain in scattered locations are called "showers."[3] Moisture that is lifted or otherwise forced to rise over a layer of sub-freezing air at the surface may be condensed into clouds and rain. This process is ...
Precipitation of amorphous silica (SiO2) in geothermal power plants, although a common factor limiting the efficiency of geothermal energy production, is poorly understood and no universally applicable mitigation strategy to prevent or reduce precipitation is available. This is primarily due to the lack of understanding of the precipitation mechanism of amorphous silica in geothermal systems.. In the present study data are presented about microstructures and compositions of precipitates formed on scaling plates inserted at five different locations in the pipelines at the Hellisheiði power station (SW-Iceland). Precipitates on these plates formed over 6 to 8 weeks of immersion in hot (120 or 60ºC), fast-flowing and silica-supersaturated geothermal fluids (~800 ppm of SiO2). Although the composition of the precipitates is fairly homogeneous, with silica being the dominant component and Fe sulfides as a less common phase, the microstructures of the precipitates are highly variable and dependent ...
Rat C-reactive protein (CRP) is a serum glycoprotein belonging to the pentraxin family of proteins. In this study we have shown the specific binding of 125I-CRP to rat peritoneal macrophages at 4 degrees C. This binding was dependent upon incubation time, CRP and cell concentrations, and was not inhibited by either phosphorylcholine or human IgG. At 37 degrees C, the surface-bound 125I-CRP was internalized and degraded. The degradation of 125I-CRP was measured by the formation of 125I-labelled trichloroacetic-acid-soluble CRP peptides by either precipitation assays or by h.p.l.c. of the incubation medium using a gel-filtration column. Since chloroquine and leupeptin inhibited CRP degradation, it was concluded that degradation of CRP occurred in the lysosomal compartment of the macrophage. There was an absolute requirement for the presence of bivalent cations (Ca2+ and Mg2+) in the incubation medium for the binding and degradation of CRP, which could be inhibited by EDTA but not by ...
Mn2+-doped ZnS nanoparticles were prepared by chemical arrested precipitation method. The samples were heated at 300, 500, 700 and 900°C. The average particle size was determined from the X-ray line broadening. Samples were characterized by XRD, FTIR and UV. The composition was verified by EDAX spectrum. The hexagonal structure of the sample was identified. The size of the particles increased as the annealing temperature was increased. The crystallite size varied from 5 nm to 34 nm as the calcination temperature increased. At around $700^{\circ}$C, ZnS is converted into ZnO phase due to oxidation. The emission peak of the sample is observed at 300 nm resulting in blue emission. The solid state theory based on the delocalized electron and hole within the confined volume can explain the blue-shifted optical absorption spectra. UV-VIS spectro-photometric measurement shows an indirect allowed band gap of 3.65 eV.. ...
It has been asserted that chemical precipitation methods result in the cubic zincblende form.[6] ... a b c D. Lincot, Gary Hodes Chemical Solution Deposition of Semiconducting and Non-Metallic Films: Proceedings of the ... CDC International Chemical Safety Card - Cadmium Sulfide *^ Bjornberg, A (Sep 1963). "Reactions to light in yellow tattoos from ... In the chemical bath deposition method, thin films of CdS have been prepared using thiourea as the source of sulfide anions and ...
Methods include adsorption, precipitation, chemical and photo-oxidation. Biological routes, which involve oxidase and ... Azo coupling Ponceau 4R Ponceau S Glycoazodyes IUPAC, Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book") (1997). ... "Chemical Synthesis of a Novel Aromatic Amine Mutagen Isolated from Water of the Nishitakase River in Kyoto and a Possible Route ... Azo pigments are similar in chemical structure to azo dyes, but they lack solubilizing groups. Because they are insoluble in ...
Recently it has been demonstrated that microbially induced precipitation may be more important than physico-chemical ... 2009) showed with flume experiments that precipitation does not occur unless a biofilm is present, despite supersaturation. ... Since carbonate solubility decreases with increased pH, precipitation is induced. Supersaturation may be enhanced by factors ...
... or by chemical precipitation. Ores most amenable to leaching include the copper carbonates malachite and azurite, the oxide ... This causes the chemical precipitation and thus immobilization of major contaminants. Phase 4: Circulation of the liquid by ... Usually this is potable water or stock water (usually less than 500 ppm total dissolved solids), and while not all chemical ... Phase 3: as 2, with the addition of a reducing chemical (for example hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or sodium sulfide (Na2S). ...
They are themselves of sedimentary origin and are formed by chemical precipitation. Geodes are hollow, vaguely spheroid to ... When cut in half, visible bands corresponding to varied stages of precipitation may at times show patterns that reveal points ...
Otherwise it must first be removed by ion exchange, adsorption or chemical precipitation. A common form of antibiotic ... Mutation is often used, and is encouraged by introducing mutagens such as ultraviolet radiation, x-rays or certain chemicals. ...
When atmospheric CO2 concentration rise, temperature and precipitation increase and thereby enhance chemical weathering. The ...
Some chemical treatment techniques include ozone and oxygen gas injection, chemical precipitation, membrane separation, ion ... Chemical precipitation is commonly used in wastewater treatment to remove hardness and heavy metals. In general, the process ... In this process, called In Situ Chemical Oxidation or ISCO, chemical oxidants are delivered in the subsurface to destroy ( ... This area, called the capillary fringe, is often highly contaminated, as it holds undissolved chemicals, chemicals that are ...
Deposition: The material settles on a horizontal plane either through chemical or physical precipitation. Note: The secondary ... Weathering: the chemical or physical forces breaking apart the solid materials that are potentially transported. Erosion: The ... There must be repeated depositional events with changes in precipitation of materials over time. The thickness of graded beds ... Grades of the bedding material are determined by precipitation of solid components compared to the viscosity of the medium in ...
The graphene-sulfur nanocomposites were prepared with a combination of thermal and chemical precipitation. The Mg/S cell ... Two commercial chemicals, a magnesium amide and aluminum chloride were mixed in a solvent, the product can then be used ... Journal of the American Chemical Society. 137 (38): 12388-12393. doi:10.1021/jacs.5b07820. ISSN 0002-7863. PMID 26360783. Gao, ...
... can be generated by chemical precipitation, from disaggregation of peloids, or by micritization. The term was coined in ...
Processes could involve techniques for chemical reactions, precipitations, filtrations and dissolutions. Determination of the ... Philadelphia, Pa.: Chemical Heritage Foundation. ISBN 978-0-941901-23-9. Braun, Robert Denton (2016). "Chemical analysis". ... American Chemical Society. September 25, 1941. p. NA. Drees, Julia C.; Wu, Alan H. B. (2013). "Chapter 5: Analytic techniques ... Chemical Heritage Foundation Archives. Click on 'Beckman Historical Collection Finding Aid' to go to full document. ...
This is done either by the action of heat, or at lower temperatures using precipitation reactions from high-purity chemical ... but chemical and physical vapour deposition and chemical (e.g., sol-gel and polymer pyrolysis) methods are all seeing increased ... Chemical vapour infiltration is used to manufacture carbon/carbon and silicon carbide reinforced with carbon or silicon carbide ... The formulation of these organic chemical additives is an art in itself. This is particularly important in the manufacture of ...
Chemical sedimentary rocks, including some carbonates, are deposited by precipitation of minerals from aqueous solution. These ... There are four primary types of sedimentary rocks: clastics, carbonates, evaporites, and chemical. Clastic rocks are composed ...
The chemical causes the precipitation of dissolved proteins, which is measured from the degree of turbidity. It is also used ...
A study of the exact chemical components of the precipitation in the park has been carried out. The park possesses a large ... Galloway, James N.; William C. Keene (March 20, 1996). "Processes controlling the composition of precipitation at a remote ...
... which leads to higher efficiency than chemical precipitation.[54] List of minerals[edit]. Examples of biogenic minerals include ... Many man-made crystals require elevated temperatures and strong chemical solutions, whereas the organisms have long been able ... Chemical Geology. 363: 164-184. Bibcode:2014ChGeo.363..164N. doi:10.1016/j.chemgeo.2013.10.034.. ... perhaps to avoid the inadvertent precipitation of calcium carbonate from the supersaturated Proterozoic oceans.[38] Forms of ...
He later admitted his mistake when it proved to be just the product of a chemical process (precipitation). In 1868 Huxley ... George Charles Wallich claimed that Bathybius was a product of chemical disintegration. In 1872 the Challenger expedition began ...
The primary removal methods include: (1) sorption and precipitation, (2) chemical reaction, and (3) reactions involving ... Sorption and precipitation are potentially reversible and may thus require removal of the reactive medium and gathered products ... Immobilization of the contaminant may occur through sorption to the barrier materials or precipitation from the dissolved state ... In: Tarr M. A. (ed.), Chemical Degradation Methods for Wastes and Pollutants; Environmental and Industrial Applications. ...
These can be recovered through chemical precipitation or stripping processes, or simply by use of the wastewater sludge. ... environmental persistent pharmaceutical pollutants and other chemicals.[citation needed] Since the majority of fertilizing ...
Further developments in alternative pre-tanning processes and precipitation recovery/re-use of chemicals continue to be ... Precipitation techniques and fluid-reuse has reduced the total amount of solid and water waste produced. High-exhaustion ... The hides are spun in a float of chemicals and dyes, mostly consisting of oils distilled from different tree barks and ... Tanneries process animal skins with the use of chemicals to alter the proteins and produce a durable and flexible product. ...
This disturbs the chemical balance and causes precipitation of the carbonates, which then creates sedimentary deposits. Since ... The precipitation of calcium carbonate, however, does not occur right at the springs of the rivers that flow into the Plitvice ... For the precipitation of carbonate chalk (calcium carbonate) the water needs to reach a certain mineral saturation level. At ... On average, the annual precipitation rate at the Plitvice Lakes is 1,500 mm (59.06 in). Usually, in spring and fall (autumn) ...
In the United States, the first sewage treatment plant using chemical precipitation was built in Worcester, Massachusetts in ... In the United States, the first sewage treatment plant using chemical precipitation was built in Worcester, Massachusetts in ... In the late 19th century some cities began to add chemical treatment and sedimentation systems to their sewers. Most cities in ... In the late 19th century some cities began to add chemical treatment and sedimentation systems to their sewers. ...
Chemical weathering includes dissolution of matter composing a rock and precipitation in the form of another mineral. Clay ... The most common mineral constituent of silt and sand is quartz, also called silica, which has the chemical name silicon dioxide ... Due to the large surface area available for chemical, electrostatic, and van der Waals interaction, the mechanical behavior of ... Weathering mechanisms are physical weathering, chemical weathering, and biological weathering Human activities such as ...
... chemical precipitation and ion exchange). Lithium ions replace magnesium or iron in certain octahedral locations in clays, and ...
These chemical reactions require energy, which mainly comes from the Sun and largely by photosynthesis, although a very small ... "Bacterial biomineralization: new insights from Myxococcus-induced mineral precipitation". Geological Society, London, Special ... structural and chemical) suggests a bottom-up form of regulation or control.[17][18][19] Recent studies have concluded that ... obtain energy by the chemical oxidation of inorganic compounds and can grow in dark environments, such as the sulfur bacterium ...
Chemical precipitation is a widely used technology for controlling effluent OP discharge, either on its own or supplementing ... The various chemical and physico-chemical mechanisms that result in extremely low residual OP levels are complex and pH ... chemical savings), b) better estimates of chemical sludge produced, and c) by modeling the competition between iron phosphate ... Analysis of effluent data from the DCWASA plant (Washington, DC.), the largest chemical P removal plant in the world, showed ...
Such rapid chemical reactions are not common in nature. But this is exactly what occurs when Deer Creek meets the upper Snake ... Note that iron precipitation gives the streambed a rusty brown color. Deer Creek, on the other hand, is naturally basic (high ... The mixing of the streams reduces the acidity of the water, leading to precipitation of oxides of iron and aluminum. A few ... In high school chemistry, you may have watched a mixture of dissolved chemicals in a test tube produce a dramatically colored ...
... precipitation and redox equilibria, and includes questions and answers to facilitate the understanding ... This book provides a modern and easy-to-understand introduction to the chemical equilibria in solutions, focuses on aqueous ... Chemical Equilibria in Analytical Chemistry. The Theory of Acid-Base, Complex, Precipitation and Redox Equilibria. Authors: ... Chemical Equilibria in Analytical Chemistry. Book Subtitle. The Theory of Acid-Base, Complex, Precipitation and Redox ...
Fellingsdams: an investigation of wastewater treatment by chemical precipitation in ponds in northern Sweden. Zhang, Wen ... Physics Chemistry Maths, Fellingsdam, Wastewater treatment, In-pond system, Pre-pond, system, Chemical precipitation, Sludge ... Turbidity is mainly influenced by precipitation and algae. From the perspective of actual detention time, the pond geometry ... there is usually a large amount of sludge accumulated around the influent pipe because of fast precipitation. In the ...
Chemical Precipitation of Cu(Oh)2 Photographic Print by Carol & Mike Werner. Find art you love and shop high-quality art prints ...
Precipitation) with video tutorials and quizzes, using our Many Ways(TM) approach from multiple teachers.,p,This lesson will ... demonstrate how to identify a precipitation reaction and determine whether or not it will occur by using several examples.,/p, ... This lesson will demonstrate how to identify a precipitation reaction and determine whether or not it will occur by using ... We explain Chemical Reaction Types: Double Displacement ( ... Chemical Reaction Types Double Displacement open player in a ...
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. Modeling the voltage loss mechanisms in lithium-sulfur cells: the importance of ... Modeling the voltage loss mechanisms in lithium-sulfur cells: the importance of electrolyte resistance and precipitation ... overlooked potential drop mechanism in the low voltage-plateau which originates from the limited rate of Li2S precipitation. ...
NiFe2O4 nanoparticle has been prepared by chemical co-precipitation technique. X-ray diffraction patterns of as dried and ... Keywords: ferrite nanoparticle, chemical co-precipitation, permeability, transport properties, Curie temperature. Abstract:. ... NiFe2O4 nanoparticle has been prepared by chemical co-precipitation technique. X-ray diffraction patterns of as dried and ... Magnetic and Electrical Properties of NiFe2O4 Nanoparticle Synthesized by Chemical Co-precipitation Technique. Authors: Sk. ...
Nanometer La2CuO4 particles have been prepared using chemical precipitation method. The reaction mechanism, microstructure and ... Preparation of Nanosized La2CuO4 Particle by Chemical Precipitation Method and its Thermoelectrical Properties p.556 ... Y. Liu et al., "Preparation of Nanosized La2CuO4 Particle by Chemical Precipitation Method and its Thermoelectrical Properties ... Preparation of Nanosized La2CuO4 Particle by Chemical Precipitation Method and its Thermoelectrical Properties. ...
Chemical precipitation of phosphate within a high rate bio-oxidation system. I. Synthetic sewage studies ... Chemical Precipitation of Phosphate withi a High Rate Bio-oxidation System I. Synthetic Sewage Studies W. A. EBERHARDT, FWPCA ... Chemical Precipitation of Phosphate withi a High Rate Bio-oxidation System I. Synthetic Sewage Studies W. A. EBERHARDT, FWPCA ... Chemical precipitation of phosphate within a high rate bio-oxidation system. I. Synthetic sewage studies. ...
Precipitation influences chemical fingerprint In another cooperative study including 38 Camponotus species and 42 Crematogaster ... Chemical profile of ants adapts rapidly Protective skin with communication function: Significant differences in the cuticular ... He suspects that this enables the ants to adapt their chemical signals over short evolutionary periods if necessary, for ... Their study revealed a clear correlation of CHC composition and precipitation: ant species from humid regions such as the ...
Precipitation is the formation of a solid in a solution or inside another solid during a chemical reaction. It usually takes ... A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the chemical transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.[1] ... Chemical equilibrium. Main article: Chemical equilibrium. Most chemical reactions are reversible, that is they can and do run ... Main article: Chemical equation. Chemical equations are used to graphically illustrate chemical reactions. They consist of ...
Representation using chemical equations[edit]. See also: solubility product. An example of a precipitation reaction: Aqueous ... Precipitation in solids is routinely used to synthesize nanoclusters.[1] An important stage of the precipitation process is the ... This article is about the chemical phenomenon. For other uses, see Precipitation (disambiguation). ... In metallurgy, precipitation from a solid solution is also a useful way to strengthen alloys; this process is known as solid ...
... chemical precipitation Remove constraint Subject: chemical precipitation Start Over ... chemical precipitation, etc ; Prunus persica; rheological properties; chemical structure; gums; plant exudates; plant extracts ... chemical precipitation, etc ; cod (fish); Gadus morhua; collagen; extraction; chemical concentration; pepsin; denaturation; ... chemical precipitation, etc ; fish; myosin; protein aggregates; Gadus morhua; food analysis; gelation; temperature; pH; heat ...
Copyright © 2017 Division of Chemical Education, Inc. of the American Chemical Society. All rights reserved. ...
... precipitation Subject chemical precipitation Remove constraint Subject: chemical precipitation Subject wastewater treatment ... chemical precipitation, etc ; anaerobic digestion; chemical oxygen demand; liquids; magnesium ammonium phosphate; methane ... chemical precipitation, etc ; adsorbents; adsorption; aluminum; aqueous solutions; chemical oxygen demand; coagulation; color; ... To improve the settling performance of chemical precipitation sludge, controlled double-jet precipitation (CDJP) was used to ...
... with the size range of 20-30 nm were prepared by the modified controlled chemical co-precipitation method from the solution of ... Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, Polyethylene glycol, Surfactant, Superparamagnetic, Chemical co-precipitation. Article 6, ... "Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, Polyethylene glycol, Surfactant, Superparamagnetic, Chemical co-precipitation". ... with the size range of 20-30 nm were prepared by the modified controlled chemical co-precipitation method from the solution of ...
Chemical composition of acid precipitation in central Texas. Studies were undertaken to determine factors affecting composition ... Foliar and soil chemical analyses were used to examine this apparent anomaly. Japanese larch demonstrated an ability to grow ... Proceedings of the first international symposium on acid precipitation and the forest ecosystem; Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-23. Upper ... of acidic precipitation formation in the Austin area of Central Texas. The study was initiated to determine background levels ...
Modeling and Simulation of Reservoir Formation Damage due to Chemical Precipitation and Particulate Processes. Grema, Alhaji ... A model for petroleum reservoir formation damage by chemical precipitation and fines migration is presented. Single type of ... Macroscopic mass balance approach was used for the particle, fluid and chemical species. A complete formation damage model was ...
Chemical Information , Contact Us Science Stuff Main Website. Copyright © 2015, Science Stuff, Inc. Science Stuff is a ... Notify me of updates to CALCIUM CARBONATE LAB GR PRECIP PWD (2.5KG). ...
Chemical precipitation method was used in order to synthesize CdSe:Ag quantum dots (2-3 nm). Their Physical properties and ... Chemical precipitation method was used in order to synthesize CdSe:Ag quantum dots (2-3 nm). Their Physical properties and ... 2016). Synthesis and assessment of antibacterial effects of CdSe:Ag nanoparticles produced by chemical precipitation method. ... 2016). Synthesis and assessment of antibacterial effects of CdSe:Ag nanoparticles produced by chemical precipitation method, ...
naturally occurring homogeneous solid with a definite chemical composition and a highly ordered atomic arrangement; it is ...
Sludge from chemical precipitation. Screenings include all types of organic and inorganic materials large enough to be removed ... Chemical stabilization. Chemical stabilization is a process whereby the sludge matrix is treated with chemicals in different ... Chemical conditioning. Chemical conditioning involves use of inorganic chemicals or organic polyelectrolytes, or both. The most ... The odor of chemical sludge may be objectionable, but is not as objectionable as the odor of primary sludge. While chemical ...
The purpose of this paper is to present a survey of published data on chemical analysis of atmospheric precipitation to discuss ... 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; ATMOSPHERIC PRECIPITATIONS; CHEMICAL COMPOSITION; NITROGEN COMPOUNDS; ECOLOGICAL CONCENTRATION; ACID ... The purpose of this paper is to present a survey of published data on chemical analysis of atmospheric precipitation to discuss ... Eriksson, E. Composition of atmospheric precipitation. I. Nitrogen compounds. Sweden: N. p., 1952. Web. doi:10.1111/j.2153- ...
  • Bacteria can also be made competent through a variety of chemical treatments including exposure to calcium ions, or a mixture of polyethylene glycol and dimethylsulfoxide, which make the cell membrane more permeable, leading to the uptake of the exogenous DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on this chemical approach chalcogels were first demonstrate using platinum linking ions, and thiogermanate or selenogermanate anions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Copper is usually leached using acid (sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid), then recovered from solution by solvent extraction electrowinning (SX-EW) or by chemical precipitation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two commercial chemicals, a magnesium amide and aluminum chloride were mixed in a solvent, the product can then be used directly as an electrolyte. (wikipedia.org)
  • The divalent metal cations Cd2+, Zn2+, Pb2+, Cu2+, and Ni2+ have been found to promote TMV precipitation from solution at a critical concentration Ccrit, which for a given metal depends on the pH and the ionic strength of the solution, but is largely independent of the virus concentration. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Fundamentally, two types of diffusion are distinguished: Tracer diffusion and Self-diffusion, which is a spontaneous mixing of molecules taking place in the absence of concentration (or chemical potential) gradient. (wikipedia.org)
  • The self-diffusion coefficient of neat water is: 2.299·10−9 m²·s−1 at 25 °C and 1.261·10−9 m²·s−1 at 4 °C. Chemical diffusion occurs in a presence of concentration (or chemical potential) gradient and it results in net transport of mass. (wikipedia.org)
  • When precipitation occurs, canopy nutrients are leached into the water because of the differences in nutrient concentration between the tree and the rainfall. (wikipedia.org)
  • Trapping is required to concentrate the metal via some physical, chemical, or geological mechanism into a concentration which forms mineable ore. (wikipedia.org)
  • Structural, functional and nutritional properties of protein recovered from brown seaweed, S. latissima with alkaline solubilization/isoelectric precipitation as a function of different post-harvest stabilization methods were studied. (usda.gov)
  • This study demonstrated that relatively small adjustments to processing conditions of different wet chemical preparation methods significantly affect the morphological and chemical characteristics of nHA. (duhnnae.com)
  • One of the earliest satisfactory methods of clarification, by chemical precipitation. (scribd.com)
  • It has been asserted that chemical precipitation methods result in the cubic zincblende form . (wikipedia.org)
  • Coagulation can be achieved by a chemical coagulant or by electrical methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are traditional methods that are used to extract mercury from the natural water sources and industrial waste water, such as chemical precipitation, amalgamation, reverse osmosis, membrane filtration and photochemical methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Classical qualitative methods use separations such as precipitation, extraction, and distillation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Major physical and chemical methods include magnetic separation, froth flotation, leaching etc., whereby the impurities and unwanted materials are removed from the ore and the base ore of the metal is concentrated, meaning the percentage of metal in the ore is increased. (wikipedia.org)
  • Precipitation hardening , also called age hardening or particle hardening , is a heat treatment technique used to increase the yield strength of malleable materials, including most structural alloys of aluminium , magnesium , nickel , titanium , and some steels and stainless steels . (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemical Weathering/ Hydrolysis/ Acid Precip. (prezi.com)
  • The process by which rocks are broken down because of chemical interactions with the environment is called chemical weathering. (prezi.com)
  • Whereas physical weathering attacks the rock as a whole, chemical weathering involves the breakdown of the minerals or organic materials that make up the rock. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Weathering: the chemical or physical forces breaking apart the solid materials that are potentially transported. (wikipedia.org)
  • Veneers typically form in semiarid and arid regions where chemical weathering rates and the potential for mass wasting are low. (wikipedia.org)
  • Root throw produces a rock veneer when there are a large number of clasts near the surface, where there are: a slow rate of chemical weathering, insufficient precipitation to move the large clasts, high velocity winds, conditions favorable to shallow-rooted trees, and trees large enough to embed coarse rock in their roots. (wikipedia.org)
  • During rhexistasy, the dominance of chemical weathering that characterizes biostasy is replaced by the dominance of physical weathering. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process of soil formation is dominated by chemical weathering of silicate minerals, aided by acidic products of pioneering plants and organisms as well as carbonic acid inputs from the atmosphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • H 2 O + C O 2 ⟶ H + + H C O 3 − ⟶ H 2 C O 3 {\displaystyle \mathrm {H_{2}O+CO_{2}\longrightarrow H^{+}+HCO_{3}^{-}\longrightarrow H_{2}CO_{3}} } This is the dominant form of chemical weathering and aides in the breakdown of carbonate minerals like calcite and dolomite and silicate minerals like feldspar. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2016). Synthesis and assessment of antibacterial effects of CdSe:Ag nanoparticles produced by chemical precipitation method. (ac.ir)
  • This book provides a modern and easy-to-understand introduction to the chemical equilibria in solutions. (springer.com)
  • GWB reads datasets of thermodynamic equilibrium constants (most commonly compiled from 0 to 300 °C along the steam saturation curve) with which it can calculate chemical equilibria. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mixing of the streams reduces the acidity of the water, leading to precipitation of oxides of iron and aluminum. (usra.edu)
  • News stories in recent years have reported experiences of unfortunate individuals who have unknowingly consumed tainted or otherwise unsafe drinking water that included high levels of lead, calcium, arsenic, and other chemicals that have serious negative health effects. (environmental-expert.com)
  • chemical agent added to water to destroy algae. (hach.com)
  • Acid precipitation acid precipitation is caused by fossil fuels and nitrogen,sulfur and other chemicals being burned in the air and mixing with the water in the air this later causes acid precipitation.This can weather away rock faster than regular rain. (prezi.com)
  • Odor as an aid to chemical safety: Odor thresholds compared with threshold limit values and volatilities for 214 industrial chemicals in air and water dilution. (cdc.gov)
  • After addition of (208)Po and (232)U tracers, the radionuclides were preconcentrated from water samples by co-precipitation on Fe(OH)(3) or MnO(2) at pH 9 using ammonia solution. (nih.gov)
  • Precipitation techniques and fluid-reuse has reduced the total amount of solid and water waste produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • CRISM is being used to identify locations on Mars that may have hosted water, a chemical considered important in the search for past or present extraterrestrial life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcium carbonate is deposited where evaporation of the water leaves a solution supersaturated with the chemical constituents of calcite. (wikipedia.org)
  • Magnetic water treatment (also known as anti-scale magnetic treatment or AMT) is a controversial method of supposedly reducing the effects of hard water by passing it through a magnetic field, as a non-chemical alternative to water softening. (wikipedia.org)
  • This opaque, green banded mineral crystallizes in the monoclinic crystal system, and most often forms botryoidal, fibrous, or stalagmitic masses, in fractures and spaces, deep underground, where the water table and hydrothermal fluids provide the means for chemical precipitation. (wikipedia.org)
  • They accomplish this either (a) by physical attachment of fine-grained material as they roll around, much in the manner of a snowball, and (b) by the chemical precipitation of material in solution, much as salt crystallizes from water during evaporation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Precipitation is a major component of the water cycle, and is responsible for depositing the fresh water on the planet. (wikipedia.org)
  • Precipitation is a major component of the water cycle, and is responsible for depositing most of the fresh water on the planet. (wikipedia.org)
  • Approximately 505,000 km3 (121,000 mi3) of water falls as precipitation each year, 398,000 km3 (95,000 cu mi) of it over the oceans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Precipitation can be divided into three categories, based on whether it falls as liquid water, liquid water that freezes on contact with the surface, or ice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scale inhibitors (SIs) are a class of specialty chemicals that are used to slow or prevent scaling in water systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • These are designed to balance the "hardness" of water (the presence of other trace chemicals that change the water's pH or neutrality) and to help reduce the deceased's acidity, a by-product of decomposition, as formaldehyde works best in an alkaline environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, water conditioners may be used to help inactivate chemotherapy drugs and antibiotics, which may bind to and render ineffectual the preservative chemical. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most arterial solutions are a mix of some of the preceding chemicals with tepid water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some organic forms may be released into the atmosphere from volatilization by chemical or microbial activity in the water and sediment or by direct release from plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Precipitation may refer to: Precipitation, the meteorological phenomenon consisting of rain, sleet, hail, snow, and other forms of water falling from the sky. (wikipedia.org)
  • Frost flowers growing on sea ice have extremely high salinities and concentrations of other sea water chemicals and, because of their high surface area, are efficient releasers of these chemicals into the atmosphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rate at which these shells form is greatly influenced by physical and chemical characteristics of the water in which these organisms live. (wikipedia.org)
  • Estuaries are dynamic habitats which expose their inhabitants to a wide array of rapidly changing physical conditions, exaggerating the differences in physical and chemical properties of the water. (wikipedia.org)
  • To prevent mineral precipitation in the pipes, the wells are fitted with heat exchangers using closed loop water circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Semiconducting metal chalcogenide aerogels, first demonstrated by Professor Stephanie Brock at Wayne State University, show great promise for use in chemical sensors, solar cells, and photoelectrolysis of water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Foliar and soil chemical analyses were used to examine this apparent anomaly. (usda.gov)
  • Soil forms from parent rocks through physical disintegration of rocks and by chemical alteration of the rock fragments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Limestone has numerous uses: as a building material, an essential component of concrete (Portland cement), as aggregate for the base of roads, as white pigment or filler in products such as toothpaste or paints, as a chemical feedstock for the production of lime, as a soil conditioner, or as a popular decorative addition to rock gardens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stemflow, along with throughfall, is responsible for the transferral of precipitation and nutrients from the canopy to the soil. (wikipedia.org)
  • During biostasy, abundant and regular precipitation induces strong pedogenesis characterized by chemical alteration of parent material and intensified eluviation and illuviation of soil minerals within the surface soil and subsoil layers (the solum). (wikipedia.org)
  • Soil formation begins with the chemical and/or physical breakdown of minerals to form the initial material that overlies the bedrock substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sorption and precipitation are potentially reversible and may thus require removal of the reactive medium and gathered products in order to continue with remediation. (wikipedia.org)
  • treatment of a substance by heat, radiation, or activating reagent to produce a more complete or rapid chemical or physical change. (hach.com)
  • There are related non-chemical devices based on a variety of physical phenomena which have been marketed for over 50 years with similar claims of scale inhibition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transport is required first to move the metal-bearing fluids or solid minerals into their current position, and refers to the act of physically moving the metal, as well as to chemical or physical phenomenon which encourage movement. (wikipedia.org)
  • Separations differ in chemical properties or physical properties such as size, shape, mass, density, or chemical affinity, between the constituents of a mixture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Usually there is only physical movement and no substantial chemical modification. (wikipedia.org)
  • On Sewage and Sewage Rivers (1855) Disinfectants and Disinfection (1869) Air and Rain: The Beginnings of a Chemical Climatology (1872) Chemical and Physical Researches (1876) Loch Etive and the sons of Uisnach: With Illustrations (1879) A Centenary of Science in Manchester (1883) Thorpe, T. E. (1884). (wikipedia.org)
  • The researchers selected 43 ant species from the Crematogaster genus from five continents and examined them concerning their relatedness and their chemical profiles. (uni-mainz.de)
  • In another cooperative study including 38 Camponotus species and 42 Crematogaster species from different climatic zones ranging from temperate to tropical, the German and US-American biologists demonstrated that climate also exerts selection pressures on the chemical fingerprint. (uni-mainz.de)
  • The diffusion coefficients for these two types of diffusion are generally different because the diffusion coefficient for chemical diffusion is binary and it includes the effects due to the correlation of the movement of the different diffusing species. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the solid appears in the form of cellulose fibers which have been through chemical processing, the process is often referred to as regeneration . (wikipedia.org)
  • An important stage of the precipitation process is the onset of nucleation . (wikipedia.org)
  • As flow and load to the plant are highly variable depending on the production process an aerated mixing and balancing reactor has been installed to equalise flow and load before final chemical pre-treatment. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Tillsammans utgör alla de här funktionerna en energi- och resurskrävande process som dessutom kräver tillskott av mer kol, oftast som ren alkohol, för att kvävereningen ska fungera. (diva-portal.org)
  • Chemical separation is a highly complex multistage process that converts the five pgms into their final product forms, commonly a pgm sponge. (matthey.com)
  • Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuONPs) were synthesized using a process of chemical precipitation. (hindawi.com)
  • He later admitted his mistake when it proved to be just the product of a chemical process (precipitation). (wikipedia.org)
  • Because chemical diffusion is a net transport process, the system in which it takes place is not an equilibrium system (i.e. it is not at rest yet). (wikipedia.org)
  • This process continues down the tube forming several, perhaps a couple of dozen regions of clearing, then precipitation rings. (wikipedia.org)
  • This process is especially well understood in gold metallogeny where various thiosulfate, chloride, and other gold-carrying chemical complexes (notably tellurium-chloride/sulfate or antimony-chloride/sulfate). (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrochloric acid regeneration or HCl regeneration refers to a chemical process for the reclamation of bound and unbound HCl from metal chloride solutions such as hydrochloric acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the first chemicals to be produced in large amounts through industrial process was sulfuric acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Play media The crystallization process consists of two major events, nucleation and crystal growth which are driven by thermodynamic properties as well as chemical properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • International Chemical Safety Card 0217 Diammonium phosphate fertilizer manufacturing process flowsheet Pradyot Patnaik. (wikipedia.org)
  • A separation process is a method to achieve any phenomenon that converts a mixture of chemical substance into two or more distinct product mixtures, which may be referred to as mixture, at least one of which is enriched in one or more of the mixture's constituents. (wikipedia.org)
  • The refining process splits this mixture into other, more valuable mixtures such as natural gas, gasoline and chemical feedstocks, none of which are pure substances, but each of which must be separated from the raw crude. (wikipedia.org)
  • Superalloy development has relied heavily on both chemical and process innovations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Magnetite can also be prepared by the chemical co-precipitation in presence of ammonia, which consist in a mixture of a solution 0.1 M of FeCl3·6H2O and FeCl2·4H2O with mechanic agitation of about 2000 rpm. (wikipedia.org)
  • A mixture of these chemicals is known as embalming fluid and is used to preserve bodies of deceased persons and in the case of medical research cadavers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Instead, various chemicals are used to create a mixture, called an arterial solution, which is uniquely generated for the needs of each case. (wikipedia.org)
  • This assay is based on isotope dilution liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The sample preparation entails protein precipitation, acid hydrolysis with 6 N HCl, and solid-phase extraction (using reverse and aminopropyl phase cartridges) prior to the determinative step. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In mountainous areas, heavy precipitation is possible where upslope flow is maximized within windward sides of the terrain at elevation. (wikipedia.org)
  • HCFCs and HFCs) Atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases are determined by the balance between sources (emissions of the gas from human activities and natural systems) and sinks (the removal of the gas from the atmosphere by conversion to a different chemical compound). (wikipedia.org)
  • Eventually these chemicals fall to earth as precipitation, or acid rain. (cdc.gov)
  • The iron based bullion is also acid leached but follows a different chemical treatment route, given the different solubilities of the five pgms that it contains. (matthey.com)
  • There are numerous qualitative chemical tests, for example, the acid test for gold and the Kastle-Meyer test for the presence of blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sulfuric acid began to be used as a more efficient agent as well as lime by the middle of the century, but it was the discovery of bleaching powder by Charles Tennant that spurred the creation of the first great chemical industrial enterprise. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some example applications of diffusion: Sintering to produce solid materials (powder metallurgy, production of ceramics) Chemical reactor design Catalyst design in chemical industry Steel can be diffused (e.g., with carbon or nitrogen) to modify its properties Doping during production of semiconductors. (wikipedia.org)