Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Multiple Chemical Sensitivity: An acquired disorder characterized by recurrent symptoms, referable to multiple organ systems, occurring in response to demonstrable exposure to many chemically unrelated compounds at doses below those established in the general population to cause harmful effects. (Cullen MR. The worker with multiple chemical sensitivities: an overview. Occup Med 1987;2(4):655-61)Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Raynaud Disease: An idiopathic vascular disorder characterized by bilateral Raynaud phenomenon, the abrupt onset of digital paleness or CYANOSIS in response to cold exposure or stress.Chemical Industry: The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Chemical Warfare: Tactical warfare using incendiary mixtures, smokes, or irritant, burning, or asphyxiating gases.Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Hazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.Inorganic Chemicals: A broad class of substances encompassing all those that do not include carbon and its derivatives as their principal elements. However, carbides, carbonates, cyanides, cyanates, and carbon disulfide are included in this class.Burns, ChemicalMolecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Chemical Warfare Agents: Chemicals that are used to cause the disturbance, disease, or death of humans during WARFARE.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.No-Reflow Phenomenon: Markedly reduced or absent REPERFUSION in an infarct zone following the removal of an obstruction or constriction of an artery.Databases, Chemical: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific chemicals.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular: NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Toxicity Tests: An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Xenobiotics: Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Endocrine Disruptors: Exogenous agents, synthetic and naturally occurring, which are capable of disrupting the functions of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM including the maintenance of HOMEOSTASIS and the regulation of developmental processes. Endocrine disruptors are compounds that can mimic HORMONES, or enhance or block the binding of hormones to their receptors, or otherwise lead to activating or inhibiting the endocrine signaling pathways and hormone metabolism.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Small Molecule Libraries: Large collections of small molecules (molecular weight about 600 or less), of similar or diverse nature which are used for high-throughput screening analysis of the gene function, protein interaction, cellular processing, biochemical pathways, or other chemical interactions.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Toxicology: The science concerned with the detection, chemical composition, and biological action of toxic substances or poisons and the treatment and prevention of toxic manifestations.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Sympathectomy, Chemical: Sympathectomy using chemicals (e.g., 6-hydroxydopamine or guanethidine) which selectively and reversibly destroy adrenergic nerve endings while leaving cholinergic nerve endings intact.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Stimulation, Chemical: The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Cross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Mutagens: Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Chemical Terrorism: The use of chemical agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of nerve agents, blood agents, blister agents, and choking agents (NOXAE).Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Oils, Volatile: Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.Evolution, Chemical: Chemical and physical transformation of the biogenic elements from their nucleosynthesis in stars to their incorporation and subsequent modification in planetary bodies and terrestrial biochemistry. It includes the mechanism of incorporation of biogenic elements into complex molecules and molecular systems, leading up to the origin of life.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Irritants: Drugs that act locally on cutaneous or mucosal surfaces to produce inflammation; those that cause redness due to hyperemia are rubefacients; those that raise blisters are vesicants and those that penetrate sebaceous glands and cause abscesses are pustulants; tear gases and mustard gases are also irritants.Animal Testing Alternatives: Procedures, such as TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES; mathematical models; etc., when used or advocated for use in place of the use of animals in research or diagnostic laboratories.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Pesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Carcinogenicity Tests: Tests to experimentally measure the tumor-producing/cancer cell-producing potency of an agent by administering the agent (e.g., benzanthracenes) and observing the quantity of tumors or the cell transformation developed over a given period of time. The carcinogenicity value is usually measured as milligrams of agent administered per tumor developed. Though this test differs from the DNA-repair and bacterial microsome MUTAGENICITY TESTS, researchers often attempt to correlate the finding of carcinogenicity values and mutagenicity values.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Chemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Mutagenicity Tests: Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Glycosides: Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)HydrocarbonsLigands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.High-Throughput Screening Assays: Rapid methods of measuring the effects of an agent in a biological or chemical assay. The assay usually involves some form of automation or a way to conduct multiple assays at the same time using sample arrays.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Spectrophotometry, Infrared: Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Chemical Fractionation: Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Chemical Hazard Release: Uncontrolled release of a chemical from its containment that either threatens to, or does, cause exposure to a chemical hazard. Such an incident may occur accidentally or deliberately.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.

An investigation into the binding of the carcinogen 15,16-dihydro-11-methylcyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-one to DNA in vitro. (1/6919)

After metabolic activation the carcinogen 15,16-dihydro-11-[3H]methylcyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-one binds to DNA in vitro, and this binding is prevented by 7,8-benzoflavone. Radioactivity cannot be removed from the DNA with organic solvents or by chromatography on Sephadex G-50, even after heat denaturation of the DNA. Enzymatic hydrolysis yields radioactive fractions, which elute from a column of Sephadex LH-20 immediately after the natural nucleosides. At least two species of reactive metabolites are involved in this bending, those with a half-life of a few hr and others with greater stability. After extraction from the aqueous incubation mixture, they could be detected in discrete polar fractions from separations of the complex metabolite mixture by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Their ability to bind to DNA decreased with time at ambient temperature, and they were rapidly deactivated by acid. 7,8-Benzolflavone acted by suppressing the formation of polar metabolites derived from enzymatic oxidation of the aromatic double bonds. The inhibitor had no effect on the enzymes hydroxylating saturated carbon; hence it is unlikely that metabolism of the methyl group is important in conversion of this carcinogen to its proximate form, although the presence of the 11-methyl group is essential for carcinogenic activity in this series.  (+info)

The interaction of rhodium(II) carboxylates with enzymes. (2/6919)

The effect of rhodium(II) acetate, propionate, and methoxyacetate on the activity of 17 enzymes was evaluated. The enzymes were preincubated with the rhodium(II) complexes in order to detect irreversible inhibition. All enzymes that have essential sulfhydryl groups in or near their active site were found to be irreversibly inhibited. Those enzymes without essential sulfhydryl groups were not affected. In each case, the rate of inactivation closely paralleled the observed toxicity and antitumor activity of rhodium(II) carboxylates; that is, rhodium(II) propionate greater than rhodium(II) acetate greater than rhodium(II) methoxyacetate. In addition, those enzymes that have been demonstrated to be most sensitive to established sulfhydryl inhibitors, such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, were also most sensitive to rhodium(II) carboxylate inactivation. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance measurements made during the titration of rhodium(II) acetate with cysteine showed that breakdown of the carboxylate cage occurred as a result of reaction with this sulfhydryl-containing amino acid.  (+info)

Glycopeptides from the surgace of human neuroblastoma cells. (3/6919)

Glycopeptides suggesting a complex oligosaccharide composition are present on the surface of cells from human neuroblastoma tumors and several cell lines derived from the tumors. The glycopeptides, labeled with radioactive L-fucose, were removed from the cell surface with trypsin, digested with Pronase, and examined by chromatography on Sephadex G-50. Human skin fibroblasts, brain cells, and a fibroblast line derived from neuroblastoma tumor tissue show less complex glycopeptides. Although some differences exist between the cell lines and the primary tumor cells, the similarities between these human tumors and animal tumors examined previously are striking.  (+info)

The isolation and partial characterization of the serum lipoproteins and apolipoproteins of the rainbow trout. (4/6919)

1. VLD (very-low-density), LD (low-density) and HD (high-density) lipoproteins were isolated from the serum of trout (Salmo gairdneri Richardson). 2. Each lipoprotein class resembled that of the human in immunological reactivity, electrophoretic behaviour and appearance in the electron microscope. Trout LD lipoprotein, however, was of greater density than human LD lipoprotein. 3. The trout lipoproteins have lipid compositions which are similar to those of the corresponding human components, except for their high contents of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids. 4. HD and LD lipoproteins were immunologically non-identical, whereas LD lipoproteins possessed antigenic determinants in common with VLD lipoproteins. 5. VLD and HD lipoproteins each contained at least seven different apoproteins, whereas LD liprotein was composed largely of a single apoprotein which resembled human apolipoprotein B. 6. At least one, and possibly three, apoprotein of trout HD lipoprotein showed features which resemble human apoprotein A-1.7. The broad similarity between the trout and human lipoprotein systems suggests that both arose from common ancestral genes early in evolutionary history.  (+info)

Studies of the binding of different iron donors to human serum transferrin and isolation of iron-binding fragments from the N- and C-terminal regions of the protein. (5/6919)

1. Trypsin digestion of human serum transferrin partially saturated with iron(III)-nitrilotriacetate at pH 5.5 or pH 8.5 produces a carbohydrate-containing iron-binding fragment of mol.wt. 43000. 2. When iron(III) citrate, FeCl3, iron (III) ascorabate and (NH4)2SO4,FeSO4 are used as iron donors to saturate the protein partially, at pH8.5, proteolytic digestion yields a fragment of mol.wt. 36000 that lacks carbohydrate. 3. The two fragments differ in their antigenic structures, amino acid compositions and peptide 'maps'. 4. The fragment with mol.wt. 36000 was assigned to the N-terminal region of the protein and the other to the C-terminal region. 5. The distribution of iron in human serum transferrin partially saturated with various iron donors was examined by electrophoresis in urea/polyacrylamide gels and the two possible monoferric forms were unequivocally identified. 6. The site designated A on human serum transferrin [Harris (1977) Biochemistry 16, 560--564] was assigned to the C-terminal region of the protein and the B site to the N-terminal region. 7. The distribution of iron on transferrin in human plasma was determined.  (+info)

Carbon 13 NMR study of nonenzymatic reactions of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate with selected amino acids and of related reactions. (6/6919)

Carbon 13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been used to monitor the nonenzymatic reactions of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate with glycine, alanine, valine, serine, and with several other model compounds. Isotopically enriched amino acids were employed so that low concentrations could be utilized while still allowing relatively rapid acquisition of spectral data. The results for alanine and serine are particularly noteworthy in that alanine is deaminated to pyruvate and pyruvate is aminated to alanine, but contrary to the enzymatic reactions of various serine dehydratases wherein serine is converted to pyruvate, the nonenzymatic reaction utilizing serine results in hydroxypruvate rather than pyruvate formation. In the reverse reaction, hydroxypyruvate is aminated to serine but very inefficiently relative to the amination of pyruvate to alanine. The experimental results have been formulated into a proposed reaction mechanism for deamination of amino acids by pyridoxal-P.  (+info)

Herpetic keratitis. Proctor Lecture. (7/6919)

Although much needs to be learned about the serious clinical problem of herpes infection of the cornea, we have come a long way. We now have effective topical antiviral drugs. We have animal models which, with a high degree of reliability, clearly predict the effect to be expected clinically in man, as well as the toxicity. We have systemically active drugs and the potential of getting highly active, potent, completely selective drugs, with the possibility that perhaps the source of viral reinfection can be eradicated. The biology of recurrent herpes and stromal disease is gradually being understood, and this understanding may result in new and better therapy of this devastating clinical disease.  (+info)

Crystal structure of the FMN-binding domain of human cytochrome P450 reductase at 1.93 A resolution. (8/6919)

The crystal structure of the FMN-binding domain of human NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (P450R-FMN), a key component in the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system, has been determined to 1.93 A resolution and shown to be very similar both to the global fold in solution (Barsukov I et al., 1997, J Biomol NMR 10:63-75) and to the corresponding domain in the 2.6 A crystal structure of intact rat P450R (Wang M et al., 1997, Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 94:8411-8416). The crystal structure of P450R-FMN reported here confirms the overall similarity of its alpha-beta-alpha architecture to that of the bacterial flavodoxins, but reveals differences in the position, number, and length of the helices relative to the central beta-sheet. The marked similarity between P450R-FMN and flavodoxins in the interactions between the FMN and the protein, indicate a striking evolutionary conservation of the FMN binding site. The P450R-FMN molecule has an unusual surface charge distribution, leading to a very strong dipole, which may be involved in docking cytochrome P450 into place for electron transfer near the FMN. Several acidic residues near the FMN are identified by mutagenesis experiments to be important for electron transfer to P4502D6 and to cytochrome c, a clear indication of the part of the molecular surface that is likely to be involved in substrate binding. Somewhat different parts are found to be involved in binding cytochrome P450 and cytochrome c.  (+info)

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1-Methyl-4-nitroimidazole, 97%. Catalog No.:MB-22036. CAS No.: 3034-41-1. Molecular Formula:C4H5N3O2. Molecular Weight:127.1. ...
Order online IDNUMBER ST029401 CAS 57531-37-0 MDL NUMBER MFCD03419295 Molecular formula C3H2ClN3O2 Molecular weight 147. 52 Purity 97% Selling terms Not for personal use, R&D use only....
CAS No 2002-59-7 EINECS N/A Molecular Formula C5H4N4OS Molecular Weight 168.18 Appearance White or light yellow powder Assay 98% Usage Antineoplastic ...
We are surrounded by all kinds of matter, with a wide range of chemical phenomena always occurring. Through clarification and understanding of the properties of matter and chemical phenomena on atomic and molecular levels, through creation of new matter and discovery of unknown functionality, the study of chemistry contributes to the development of human society while maintaining a harmonious coexistence with the natural environment. It is also the foundation that supports the important 21st Century issues of nanotechnology and bioscience. The Department of Chemistry aims to foster talented individuals who can focus on the basics of chemistry while responding flexibly to new issues as they arise ...
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9780199604135: Chemical Structure and Reactivity, Keeler J. - Why do certain substances react together in the way that they do? What determines the shape of molecules? And how can we predict whether a particular reaction will happen at all?nnSuch question
6-(phenylsulfanyl)-2,4,7-pteridinetriamine - chemical structural formula, chemical names, chemical properties, synthesis references
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Ferretti A, Knijn A, Raggi C, Sargiacomo M. High-resolution proton NMR measures mobile lipids associated with Triton-resistant membrane domains in haematopoietic K562 cells lacking or expressing caveolin-1. European biophysics journal with biophysics letters 2003;32(2):83-95 ...
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Product name Oral Turinabol Other name 4-Chlorodehydromethyltestosterone; turinabol-oral CAS register number 2446-23-3 Molecular formula C20H27ClO2 Molecular weight 334.88 Molecular structure Assay 99% Product description: Oral Turinabol, commonly...
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The Centre for Separation Technology (CST) at Lappeenranta University of Technology (LUT) is a cooperative institution founded in 1997. It integrates the expertise in separation technologies of several laboratories operating under LUT School of Engineering Science.. The research within CST is genuinely multi-disciplinary, and applications of the separation technologies studied at CST can be found widely in various industries. Our knowledge in separation processes is based on a deep understanding of the related physical and chemical phenomena and mastery of the modern methodology of chemical and process engineering.. ...
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... noun, Chemistry. 1. any of three bivalent, isomeric groups having the formula -C 6 H 4 -, derived from benzene by the removal of two hydrogen atoms.
noun ● A drug traditionally prescribed for hypertension, having the chemical formula C9H9Cl2N3, and acting by stimulating α2 receptors in the brain
chemBlink provides information about CAS # 124655-17-0, N-Boc-D-tert-leucine, (R)-N-(tert-Butoxycarbonyl)-tert-leucine, molecular formula: C11H21NO4.
chemBlink provides information about CAS # 205526-34-7, Fmoc-D-4-Cyanophenylalanine, Fmoc-4-Cyano-D-phenylalanine, molecular formula: C25H20N2O4.
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A thermal and chemical degradation approach was followed to determine the precursors of pristane (Pr) and phytane (Ph) in samples from the Gessoso-solfifera, Ghareb and Green River Formations. Hydrous pyrolysis of these samples yields large amounts of Pr and Ph carbon skeletons, indicating that their precursors are predominantly sequestered in high-molecular-weight fractions. However, chemical degradation of the polar fraction and the kerogen of the unheated samples generally does not release large amounts of Pr and Ph. Additional information on the precursors of Pr and Ph is obtained from flash pyrolysis analyses of kerogens and residues after hydrous pyrolysis and after chemical degradation. Multiple precursors for Pr and Ph are recognised in these three samples. The main increase of the Pr/Ph ratio with increasing maturation temperature, which is associated with strongly increasing amounts of Pr and Ph, is probably due to the higher amount of precursors of Pr compared to Ph,...
Drugs occasionally become known by an unofficial trivial name. The trivial name should be used in biomedical publications only to reproduce the exact language used as part of a study (eg, in a questionnaire), for historical reasons, or rarely when readers may be unfamiliar with the nonproprietary name. When reproducing the exact language used in a study, the nonpropietary name should be provided in brackets after the term used in the study.The participants were asked,
Drugs occasionally become known by an unofficial trivial name. The trivial name should be used in biomedical publications only to reproduce the exact language used as part of a study (eg, in a questionnaire), for historical reasons, or rarely when readers may be unfamiliar with the nonproprietary name. When reproducing the exact language used in a study, the nonpropietary name should be provided in brackets after the term used in the study.The participants were asked,
Quick Detail Product name Oxandrolone Factory Supplying Other name Anavar CAS register number 53-39-4 EINECS 200-172-9 Molecular formula C19H30O3 Molecular weight 306.44 Molecular structure Melting point 235-238°C Specific optical rotation -22.0°...
Read about the chemical and physical properties of 1-[(S)-2-(5-Bromo-2-methoxy-phenyl)-4,5-dihydro-oxazol-4-ylmethyl]-4-phenyl-piperazine. Get 1-[(S)-2-(5-Bromo-2-methoxy-phenyl)-4,5-dihydro-oxazol-4-ylmethyl]-4-phenyl-piperazine molecular formula, CAS number, boiling point, melting point, applications, synonyms and more here.
Read about the chemical and physical properties of (4-Benzhydryloxy-benzyl)-pyridin-4-yl-amine. Get (4-Benzhydryloxy-benzyl)-pyridin-4-yl-amine molecular formula, CAS number, boiling point, melting point, applications, synonyms and more here.
... Other names PhenylamineAminobenzeneBenzenamine Identifiers CAS number 62-53-3 SMILES NC1=CC=CC=C1 Properties Molecular formula C6H7N Molar mass
A two-dimensional representation of Somatostatin-14 (SST-14). This compound can also be described with its molecular formula C76H104N18O19S2 or in IUPAC form as H-DL-Ala-Gly-DL-Cys(1)-DL-Lys-DL-Asn-DL-Phe-DL-Phe-DL-Trp-DL-Lys-DL-xiThr-DL-Phe-DL-xiThr ...
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Divergent synthesis and chemical reactivity of bicyclic lactone fragments of complex rearranged spongian diterpenes.: The synthesis and direct comparison of the
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A formula which gives the kinds of atoms or radicals and the number of each kind in the molecule of a compound. For example, C6H6 is the molecular formu...
Spectroscopy has been crucial for our understanding of physical and chemical phenomena. The interpretation of interstellar line spectra with radiative transfer calculations usually requires two kinds of molecular input data: spectroscopic data (such as energy levels, statistical weights, transition probabilities, etc.) and collision data. This contribution describes how such data are collected, stored, and which limitations exist. Also, here we summarize challenges of atomic/molecular databases and point out our experiences, problems, etc., which we are faced with. We present overview of future developments and needs in the areas of radiative transfer and molecular data.
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The giardins are a family of approximately 30000 Mr structural proteins found in microribbons attached to microtubules in the disc cytoskeleton of Giardia. After examining the solubility of giardins in various agents, a method has been developed to extract these polypeptides and subsequently precipitate them selectively. The giardin chains are soluble in 10 mM-HEPES/EDTA buffer at high pH and low ionic strength, but become insoluble in 10 mM-MES/EDTA buffer at pH 6.7 when the ionic strength is raised above 50 mM salt. By dialysing giardin extracts in turn against dissociating and reassembly buffers, the purification is obtained of a subset of giardin chains identified by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as the cytoskeleton bands 14a, 14b and 15. The structures forming under assembly conditions are all composed of fine filaments, 2-3 nm in diameter. Filaments after the first cycle of assembly are found in bundles, narrow ribbons of two or three filaments, and large ...
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Imidazole, appears in a number of pharmaceuticals, is characterized by a ring structure composed of three carbon atoms and two nitrogen atoms at nonadjacent positions. The simplest member of the imidazole family is itself, a compound with molecular formula C3H4N2. Labs can produce it and its derivatives, like clotrimazole and econazole, synthetically. This allows for efficient mass production in a controlled environment.. The chemical was first prepared in 1858. Other imidazole compounds have been known longer: allantoin (discovered in 1800) and parabanic acid were prepared in 1837 from uric acid. The amino acid histidine and its decomposition product histamine have the structure, as does biotin, a growth factor for both humans and yeast.. Patients may be told to take an imidazole to treat a fungal infection because it has a broad mechanism of action and is usually easy to use. It can be applied topically to skin infections as well as fungal infections in the eyes and orifices, like vaginal ...
... , appears in a number of pharmaceuticals, is characterized by a ring structure composed of three carbon atoms and two nitrogen atoms at nonadjacent positions. The simplest member of the imidazole family is itself, a compound with molecular formula C3H4N2. Labs can produce it and its derivatives, like clotrimazole and econazole, synthetically. This allows for efficient mass production in a controlled environment.. The chemical was first prepared in 1858. Other imidazole compounds have been known longer: allantoin (discovered in 1800) and parabanic acid were prepared in 1837 from uric acid. The amino acid histidine and its decomposition product histamine have the structure, as does biotin, a growth factor for both humans and yeast.. Patients may be told to take an imidazole to treat a fungal infection because it has a broad mechanism of action and is usually easy to use. It can be applied topically to skin infections as well as fungal infections in the eyes and orifices, like vaginal ...
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Aniline Compounds are organic compounds, consisting of a phenyl group attached to an amine group, with a molecular formula (C6H5NH2)
Draw the structures of 4 amines with formula C3H9N. Draw the structures of all monoiodo derivatives of 3-methylpentane, C6H13I, which have the iodine on a
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3. Chemical Equations and Stoichiometry. 3.1 Formulae of Compounds 3.2 Derivation of Empirical Formulae 3.3 Derivation of Molecular Formulae 3.4 Chemical Equations 3.5 Calculations Based on Chemical Equations 3.6 Simple Titrations. 3.1. Formulae of Compounds. Slideshow 3393863 by...
[extract] Philosophers and scientists often describe theories, laws, and explanations as applying to the world at different levels. This idea of a level of application is often used to demarcate disciplinary or sub-disciplinary boundaries in the sciences. For instance, stoichiometric laws and quantum mechanical laws might be said to describe chemical phenomena at different levels. More generally, the idea of levels is used to distinguish more fundamental laws or theories from less fundamental ones: more fundamental theories are those that apply at more fundamental levels.
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Bromous acid is an acid which is not stable and only occurs as an intermediate. It is represented using the chemical formula HBrO2.
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Brine, G., Boldt, K., Huang, P-T., Sawyer, D., & Carroll, F. (1989). Carbon-13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectra of Fentanyl Analogs. Journal of Heterocyclic Chemistry, 26, 677 ...
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Basic info: Product Name Methylstenbolones CAS Number 5197-58-0 Molecular Formula C20H30O2 Molecular Weight 302.455 Assay 99.5% Appearance White powder Methylstenbolone/M-Sten Powder Description: Methylstenbolone or M-Sten is a mass-building prohormone that helps users gain size and strength without sacrificing definition. M-Sten is derived from DHT, so it doesnt convert to estrogen, resulting in little to no water…
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Unit Size 100 mcg/vial, 2 mg, 5mg, 10 mg Unit Quantity 1 Vial CAS NO. 57773-63-4 Synonyms Triptorelin Acetate, GnRH Molecular Formula C64H82N18O13 Molecular Weight 1311.45 Sequence pGlu-His-Trp-Ser-Tyr-D-Trp-Leu-Arg-Pro-Gly-NH2 Appearance Whit ...
... Identifiers CAS number 58-82-2 PubChem 6026 MeSH Bradykinin Properties Molecular formula C50H73N15O11 Molar mass 1060.21 Except where
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Research outputs, collaborations and relationships for Interunversity Consortium Chemical Reactivity and Catalysis (CIRCC) published between 1 October 2018 - 30 September 2019 as tracked by the Nature Index.
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Product Number , 70623648. CAS Number , 32042-43-6. EC , 250-903-0. Molecular Formula , C6H14N4O2HCl. Molecular Weight , 210.67. Storage Temp , Harmonized Tariff code , 29252900. Signal Word , ...
Product Number , 66466809. CAS Number , 349-46-2. EC , 206-486-2. Molecular Formula , C6H12N2O4S2. Molecular Weight , 240.3. Storage Temp , +20°C. Harmonized Tariff code , 29309013. Signal Word , ...
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CAS NO:76141-89-4; Chemical name:1-(4-fluorobenzyl)-1,4-diazepane ; physical and chemical property of 76141-89-4, 1-(4-fluorobenzyl)-1,4-diazepane is provided by ChemNet.com
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Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of 7.BETA.-[2-(2-aminothiazol-4-yl)acetamido]-cephalosporin derivatives. III. Synthesis and antibacterial activity of 7.BETA.-[2-amino-2-(2-aminothiazol-4-yl)acetamido]cephalosporins.:III. SYNTHESIS AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF 7β-[2-AMINO- 2-(2-A MINOTHIAZOL-4-YL)ACETAMIDO]CEPHALOSPORINS (1980 ...
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Ecadotril IUPAC name[hide] Benzyl N-[(2S)-3-(acetylsulfanyl)-2-benzylpropanoyl]glycinate Identifiers CAS number 112573-73-6 PubChem 60561 ChemSpider 54591 SMILES [show] O=C(SC[[email protected]](C(=O)NCC(=O)OCc1ccccc1)Cc2ccccc2)C InChI [show] InChI=InChI=1S/C21H23NO4S/c1-16(23)27-15-19(12-17-8-4-2-5-9-17)21(25)22-13-20(24)26-14-18-10-6-3-7-11-18/h2-11,19H,12-15H2,1H3,(H,22,25)/t19-/m1/s1 Properties Molecular formula C21H23NO4S Molar mass 385.48 g mol−1 Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox references Ecadotril a neutral endopeptidase inhibitor ((NEP[1]) EC…
The fight against superbugs has taken a leap forward thanks to the discovery that powerful new antibiotics could come from frogs.
KOHNO Jun , ASAI Yasuyuki , NISHIO Maki , SAKURAI Masaaki , KAWANO Kimio , HIRAMATSU Hajime , KAMEDA Noriaki , KISHI Noboru , OKUDA Toru , KOMATSUBARA Saburo Journal of antibiotics 52(12), 1114-1123, 1999-12-25 参考文献6件 被引用文献2件 ...
Operator Splitting methods are widely used for the numerical computation of reactive flows. The classical analysis of the error induced by such techniques is based on asymptotic expansions with respect to the splitting timestep Δt (supposed to be a small parameter). Such an assumption is unfortunately rather difficult to meet in real computations since Δt is actually much larger than the smallest physical timescales (defined by fast chemical phenomena). The usual error analysis has then to be replaced by another approach, which is associated with the multi-scale behaviour of the coupled system. We give here some theoretical indications and illustrate them with a monodimensional application in Air Pollution Modelling.
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Product Name: Glucosamine Hydrochloride CAS No.: 66-84-2 Molecular Formula: C6H13NO5, HCI Molecular Weight: 215.63 Appearan
Now you want to fine the ratio of the moles to each other in small whole numbers. The easy way to do that is to divide the smallest number by itself thereby making sure that is 1.000. Then divide the other numbers by the same small number and round to whole numbers (dont round too much; i.e., if you end up with x.5 multiply everything by 2; if by x.25 multiply everything by 4 etc). That will give you the empirical formula. Using the empirical formula mass you can determine the molecular formula. Ill leave that for you but you can check back if you need additional assistance.. ...
The degradation of proteins in reductively [3H]methylated mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) transplanted into cells by a poly(ethylene glycol)-mediated process has been studied. The average rate of degradation (t1/2 24-28 h) of MOM proteins transplanted into HTC cells was not the same as for endogenous MOM proteins (t1/2 56 h), mitoplast proteins (t1/2 120 h), plasma membrane proteins (t1/2 approx. 90 h) or cytosol proteins (t1/2 75 h). The degradation of transplanted MOM proteins was inhibited to the same extent (30-45%) as that of endogenous mitochondrial and plasma membrane proteins by leupeptin and NH4Cl. No inhibition of HTC cell cytosol protein degradation by NH4Cl was observed. NH4Cl differentially inhibited the degradation of endogenous MOM and mitoplast protein subunits as shown after sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Proteins in MOM transplanted into tissue culture cells were degraded either with t1/2 24-28 h (MRC-5, B82 and A549 cells) or with t1/2 55-70 h ...
Pantothenase (EC 3.5.1.22) from Pseudomonas fluorescens UK-1 was purified to homogeneity as judged by disc-gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing. The purification procedure consisted of four steps: DEAE-Sephadex chromatography, (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, hydroxyapatite chromatography and preparative polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Gel filtration on Ultrogel AcA 34 was used to determine the molecular weight, and sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis to study the subunit molecular weight. The enzyme appeared to be composed of two subunits with mol.wts. of approx. 50000 each. The total mol.wt. of the enzyme was thus about 100000. The isoelectric point was 4.7 at 10 degrees C. ...
Chlorine (Cl), a chemical element. *Clay (Unified Soil Classification System), a type of soil ... Cathodoluminescence, an optical and electrical phenomenon. *Centilitre (cL), a metric measure of volume ...
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"Self Similarity in Brownian Motion and Other Ergodic Phenomena" (PDF). Journal of Chemical Education. 63 (11): 933-934. ... This article is about Brownian motion as a natural phenomenon. For the stochastic process, see Wiener process. For Temperature ... Within such fluid there exists no preferential direction of flow as in transport phenomena. More specifically the fluid's ... Tyndall effect: physical chemistry phenomenon where particles are involved; used to differentiate between the different types ...
Phenomenon of attracting and holding water molecules. This article is about a chemical property. For the underwater optical ... These compounds are used in the chemical industry to remove the water produced by chemical reactions.[citation needed] ... Hygroscopy is the phenomenon of attracting and holding water molecules from the surrounding environment, which is usually at ... many fertilizer chemicals, many salts (like calcium chloride, bases like sodium hydroxide etc.), and a wide variety of other ...
This article is about the chemical phenomenon. For other uses, see Precipitation (disambiguation). ... Representation using chemical equations[edit]. See also: solubility product. An example of a precipitation reaction: Aqueous ... Zumdahl, Steven S. (2005). Chemical Principles (5th ed.). New York: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-618-37206-7.. ... When the reaction occurs in a liquid solution, the solid formed is called the 'precipitate'. The chemical that causes the solid ...
The o- stands for ortho-, m- stands for meta- , and p- stands for para- . All three are aryl amines whose chemical structures ... Alba-Simionesco, C.; Fan, J.; Angell, C. A. (1999). "Thermodynamic aspects of the glass transition phenomenon. II. Molecular ... The chemical properties of the toluidines are quite similar to those of aniline, and toluidines have properties in common with ... o-Toluidine, m-Toluidine, p-Toluidine CDC - NIOSH Pocket to Chemical Hazards ...
... electrical phenomena; the nature of chemical action; the way in which God created matter in "the Beginning;" the proper way to ... These Queries, especially the later ones, deal with a wide range of physical phenomena, far transcending any narrow ... stimulated a great deal of speculation and development on theories of chemical affinity. ...
... electrical phenomena; the nature of chemical action; the way in which God created matter in "the Beginning;" the proper way to ... Rather, the Opticks is a study of the nature of light and colour and the various phenomena of diffraction, which Newton called ... These Queries, especially the later ones, deal with a wide range of physical phenomena, far transcending any narrow ... stimulated a great deal of speculation and development on theories of chemical affinity. ...
Slattery, John C. (1999). "Differential balances in mass-transfer". Advanced Transport Phenomena. Cambridge Series in Chemical ... In chemical engineering, a Stefan tube is a device that was devised by Josef Stefan in 1874. It is often used for measuring ... Wiley Series in Chemical Engineering. 2. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9780471574170. Teixeira, Miguel A.; Rodriguez, Oscar; Gomes, ... Series on Chemical Engineering. 2. World Scientific. ISBN 9781783262243. Kirwan, Donald J. (1987). "Mass transfer principles". ...
The electromagnetic force is also involved in all forms of chemical phenomena. ... Extension to nonlinear phenomena[edit]. Magnetic reconnection in the solar plasma gives rise to solar flares, a complex ... Electromagnetic phenomena are defined in terms of the electromagnetic force, sometimes called the Lorentz force, which includes ... At the time of discovery, Ørsted did not suggest any satisfactory explanation of the phenomenon, nor did he try to represent ...
P. K. Kuroda (1982). The Origin of Chemical Elements and the Oklo Phenomenon. Berlin;New York:Springer-Verlag. ISBN 978-0-387- ... More about this matter can be found in Kuroda's book, The Origin of Chemical Elements and the Oklo Phenomenon, and the book Ida ... The development and structure of chemical science). References[edit]. *^ a b c d e "Ida Noddack and the Missing Elements". ... "Chemical & Engineering News. 81 (36): 110. doi:10.1021/cen-v081n036.p110.. *^ Günter Herrmann (11 December 1989). "Technetium ...
American Chemical Society, 1967. Central Research Laboratory, Allied Chemical Corp., Morristown, N. J. Research Division, New ... Nucleation Phenomena In Polymers Defense Technical Information Center, 1968, 216 p. Contributor: New York University, NY ... S.l.] : American Chemical Society, ISSN 1520-6904, Vol. 31, No. 12 (1966), p. 4292-4293. Zvi Blank, Walter Brenner, Yoshiyuki ... American Chemical Society, 1967. Walter Brenner, R. F. Shaffer, R. Vermes, Charles Marsel, William H. Kapfer. Nucleation ...
In chemical engineering, process design is the design of processes for desired physical and/or chemical transformation of ... ISBN 0-07-049479-7. Bird, R.B., Stewart, W.E. and Lightfoot, E.N. (August 2001). Transport Phenomena (Second ed.). John Wiley ... Process design is central to chemical engineering, and it can be considered to be the summit of that field, bringing together ... ISBN 0-07-100871-3. J. M. Smith, H. C. Van Ness and M. M. Abott (2001). Introduction to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics ( ...
These phenomena are thus sensitive to the density of nodes.. *Surface tension: The condensation of a material means that the ... Pauling, Linus (1947). "Atomic Radii and Interatomic Distances in Metals". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 69 (3): ... The difficulty of predicting stable crystal structures based on the knowledge of only the chemical composition has long been a ... Adsorption and reactivity: Physical adsorption and chemical reactions occur at or near surface atoms or molecules. ...
By radiolysis (breaking chemical bonds) within the material, which can weaken it, cause it to swell, polymerize, promote ... Growth in irradiated materials is caused by Diffusion Anisotropy Difference (DAD). This phenomenon frequently occurs in ... All liquids are subject to radiation damage, with few exotic exceptions; e.g. molten sodium, where there are no chemical bonds ... The least susceptible to damage are noble gases, where the major concern is the nuclear transmutation with follow-up chemical ...
I believe it is a gasronomical, ratherer than chemical phenomenon. Try adding some Tanqueray to your spaghetti--you never know ... There are also a lot of chemical aromatics contained in a plastic bottle that may or may not be tasteable in an otherwise ... As vodka is a colorless liquid, it's hard to illustrate, but as the article makes clear it is a worldwide phenomenon. The ...
12,4, 125 Stauffer, Dietrich, et al.(1982) "Gelation and Critical Phenomena". Advances in Polymer Science 44, 103 Flory, P.J.( ... General Cross Linking". Journal of Chemical Physics. ...
These equations enable coupled simulations of fluid, thermal, chemical, biological, electrical and mechanical phenomena.[1] ... CFD-ACE+ was used by the Indian Institute of Technology Bombay to model the interplay of multiphysics phenomena involved in ... A. Bouteville, "Numerical Simulation Applied to Chemical Vapour Deposition Process: Rapid Thermal CVD and Spray CVD," Journal ... A. Bouteville, "Numerical Simulation Applied to Chemical Vapour Deposition Process: Rapid Thermal CVD and Spray CVD," Journal ...
Chemical analysis[edit]. The chemical identification of organic bodies by their optical properties was treated in 1864;[27] and ... In 1852, in his famous paper on the change of wavelength of light, he described the phenomenon of fluorescence, as exhibited by ... "Journal of the Chemical Society. 17: 304-318. doi:10.1039/js8641700304.. *^ Stokes, G. G. (1872). "Notice of the researches of ... William Vernon Harcourt, on the conditions of transparency in glass, and the connexion between the chemical constitution and ...
Chemical analysis[edit]. The chemical identification of organic bodies by their optical properties was treated in 1864;[27] and ... In 1852, in his famous paper on the change of wavelength of light, he described the phenomenon of fluorescence, as exhibited by ... "Journal of the Chemical Society. 17: 304-318.. *^ Stokes, G.G. (1872). "Notice of the researches of the late Rev. William ... William Vernon Harcourt, he investigated the relation between the chemical composition and the optical properties of various ...
Survey of geochemical self-patterning phenomena. In Nicolis, G., and Baras, F. (eds.), Chemical Instabilities. Dordrecht: D. ... Chemical weathering of rocks that leads to the formation of Liesegang rings typically involves the diffusion of oxygen in ... Liesegang rings may form from the chemical segregation of iron oxides and other minerals during weathering. One popular ... The purpose of Liesegang's experiment was to observe precipitate formation resulting from the chemical reaction produced when a ...
1. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 39(9), 1848-1906.. *^ Harkins, W. D. (1917). The evolution of the elements and the ... Langmuir, I. (1920). The mechanism of the surface phenomena of flotation. Transactions of the Faraday Society, 15(June), 62-74. ... The Journal of Chemical Physics, 126(24), 244706.. *Yang, W., Auciello, O., Butler, J. E., Cai, W., Carlisle, J. A., Gerbi, J. ... Journal of the American Chemical Society, 57(6), 1007-1022.. *^ Kuhn, H. (1971). Interaction of chromophores in monolayer ...
Page participated in organizing a college chemical club where he demonstrated electricity and other phenomena. After receiving ... Sturgeon, W. (1837). Explanation of the Phenomena, &c. Annals of Electricity, 1, pp. 294-295. ... Page began his career as an astute natural philosopher who developed innovative work with natural phenomena through direct ...
Chemical properties[edit]. Newton used a prism to split white light into a spectrum of color, and Fraunhofer's high-quality ... In the 1850s, Gustav Kirchhoff and Robert Bunsen described the phenomena behind these dark lines. Hot solid objects produce ... For example, the chemical composition of Comet ISON[59] was determined by spectroscopy due to the prominent emission lines of ... Detection usually occurs in radio, microwave, or infrared portions of the spectrum.[40] The chemical reactions that form these ...
As the name suggests, LEIS is primarily concerned with scattering phenomena. Due to the energy range typically used in ion ... AES results may typically be used to infer information on the chemical environment of particular atoms in a surface. Behrisch, ... ISBN 0-677-15850-5. Rabalais, J. Wayne (2003). Principles and Applications of Ion Scattering Spectrometry: Surface Chemical and ... is a surface-sensitive analytical technique used to characterize the chemical and structural makeup of materials. LEIS involves ...
A mood ring is an excellent example of this phenomenon, but thermochromism also has more practical uses, e.g. in baby bottles ( ... This mixture is stable in solid phase; however, when the octadecylphosphonic acid is melted, the dye undergoes a chemical ... Thermochromic dyes are based on mixtures of leuco dyes with suitable other chemicals, displaying a color change (usually ... High temperatures, ultraviolet radiation, some chemicals and/or solvents have a negative impact on their lifespan. ...
We know from molecular biology that distinct parts of the nervous system release distinct chemical cues, from growth factors to ... collaborate closely with experimentalists in analyzing novel data and synthesizing new models of biological phenomena. ... and chemical coupling to network oscillations, columnar and topographic architecture, and learning and memory. Furthermore, ...
Besides, he has published three books, including Dissipative Phenomena in Condensed Matter: Some Applications, co-authored with ... Journal of Chemical Physics. 133 (15). doi:10.1063/1.3491833. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Awaneesh Singh, ... Sushanta Dattagupta; Sanjay Puri (9 March 2013). Dissipative Phenomena in Condensed Matter: Some Applications. Springer Science ... Dissipative Phenomena in Condensed Matter: Some Applications. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 978-3-662-06758-1. ...
When a chemical is particularly toxic, or present in a high concentration, this appears to switch on an immune mechanism for ... related chemicals. This is called the spreading phenomenon and results in multiple chemical sensitivity, whereby one reacts to ... The Spreading Phenomenon. However, chemicals are often related - and the next step which happens is that the body then starts ... These chemicals are equally toxic to the body and the body recognizes this. To cause damage the chemical either has to be ...
... the constellation of symptoms described for multiple chemical sensitivity is not new and perhaps this is not a new phenomenon. ... Chemical Injury Information Network, White Sulphur Springs, Montana.. 9. Lieberman MS, DiMuro BJ, Boyd JB. Multiple chemical ... Advocates of multiple chemical sensitivity have successfully sought sympathy and support by attacking the chemical industry and ... at school and in housing for those with a diagnosis of multiple chemical sensitivity. In some states, multiple chemical ...
Chemical sensitivity can be tested for by Lymphocyte sensitivity to metals and chemicals tests. These same tests can be done ... There is no doubt that electrical sensitivity (ES) is a real phenomenon - I have had too many people affected by electro- ... Chemical sensitivity is often switched on by some sort of exposure to chemicals which can be a single overwhelming exposure or ... This leads to multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) but then sufferers notice that it is not just chemicals that are a problem - ...
Your questions answered about Multiple Chemical Sensitivity. Information for sufferers and for people affected by living in a ... This seemingly strange phenomenon is a well documented & often-reported feature of multiple chemical sensitivity & in our ... how does Multiple Chemical Sensitivity start?. *What is Multiple Chemical Sensitivity?. *The Symptoms of Multiple Chemical ... What You Can Do - Toxic Chemicals. As already discussed, the mechanisms of multiple chemical sensitivity & environmental injury ...
This seemingly strange phenomenon is a well documented & often-reported feature of multiple chemical sensitivity & in our ... How Does Multiple Chemical Sensitivity Start. As already discussed, the mechanisms of multiple chemical sensitivity & ... Once sensitized, via a chemical OR physical route, the experience for the multiple chemical sensitivity sufferer is much the ... multiple chemical sensitivity & food intolerance etc, gradually start to appear. At present, this phenomenon is inexplicable. ...
... diffusion and chemical reaction in wall-flow monoliths. The advantage of having analytical instead of numerical treatments is ... Computationally Fast Implementations of Convection, Diffusion and Chemical Reaction Phenomena in Diesel Particulate Filters ... In the present work we derive analytical solutions for the problem of convection, diffusion and chemical reaction in wall-flow ... Citation: Konstandopoulos, A. and Kostoglou, M., "Computationally Fast Implementations of Convection, Diffusion and Chemical ...
Chemical Engineering, , Upcoming Events , Recent Events , Transport Phenomena and Protein Stability in Downstream Processing of ... Transport Phenomena and Protein Stability in Downstream Processing of Biopharmaceuticals. *Chemical Engineering Seminar Series ... Transport Phenomena and Protein Stability in Downstream Processing of Biopharmaceuticals-Chemical Engineering - Carnegie Mellon ... Chemical Engineering Seminar Series - Professor Michael Baldea. *Chemical Engineering Seminar Series - Professor Chaitan Khosla ...
Interfacial phenomena in gas hydrate systems Z. M. Aman and C. A. Koh, Chem. Soc. Rev., 2016, 45, 1678 DOI: 10.1039/C5CS00791G ... a School of Mechanical and Chemical Engineering, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy M050, Crawley WA, Australia E ... b Colorado School of Mines, Center for Hydrate Research, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, 1600 Illinois St, ... The fundamental physical and chemical knowledge and methods presented in this review may be of value in probing parallel ...
The Peters group studies chemical reaction kinetics, nucleation kinetics, and catalysis in a variety of contexts. They use ... CHEMICAL ENGINEERING. Engineering II Building. University of California, Santa Barbara. Santa Barbara, CA 93106-5080 ... The Peters group studies chemical reaction kinetics, nucleation kinetics, and catalysis in a variety of contexts. They use ... The Fredrickson group has developed rare event sampling techniques for field-based simulations of phenomena including ...
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Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction ... Chemical Phenomenon; Chemical Concept; Concept, Chemical; Concepts, Chemical; Phenomena, Chemical; Phenomenon, Chemical; ... Chemical Phenomena. Subscribe to New Research on Chemical Phenomena The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and ...
Therefore, this study investigated how chemical phenomena are represented or depicted in secondary school chemistry textbooks. ... Pract., 12, 5-14) to analyze the textbooks for types of representations; relatedness of chemical representations to text; and ... Development and application of suitable criteria for the evaluation of chemical representations in school textbooks, Chem. ... Therefore, this study investigated how chemical phenomena are represented or depicted in secondary school chemistry textbooks. ...
Representations of chemical phenomena in secondary school chemistry textbooks J. Enero Upahi and U. Ramnarain, Chem. Educ. Res ... Therefore, this study investigated how chemical phenomena are represented or depicted in secondary school chemistry textbooks. ... Pract., 12, 5-14) to analyze the textbooks for types of representations; relatedness of chemical representations to text; and ... While many of the chemical representations were completely related to the texts, some were unlinked. The germaneness of ...
The model incorporates turbulent fluid dynamics, chemical reaction kinetics, and heat and mass transfer. The key features ... Mathematical Modeling of the Combined Turbulent Transport Phenomena, Chemical Reactions, and Thermal Radiation in a Flash- ... The model incorporates turbulent fluid dynamics, chemical reaction kinetics, and heat and mass transfer. The key features ...
Tunneling Phenomena in Chemical Physics: New Book. Shipped from US within 10 to 14 business days. Established seller since 2000 ... Title: Tunneling Phenomena in Chemical Physics. Publisher: CRC Press. Publication Date: 1988. Binding: HRD. Book Condition: New ... Tunneling Phenomena in Chemical Physics. Goldanskii, V. I.. Published by CRC Press, 1988 ... 4. Tunneling Phenomena in Chemical Physics (Hardback) Vitalii I. Goldanskii, L.I. Trakhtenberg, V.N. Fleurov ...
Various transport phenomena in conjunction with chemical reactions are strongly affected by reformer configurations and the ... Article The CFD approach to analyse transport phenomena-coupled chemical reactions relevant for methane reformers. ... The CFD approach to analyse transport phenomena-coupled chemical .... The CFD approach to analyse transport phenomena-coupled ... No comments were found for The CFD approach to analyse transport phenomena-coupled chemical reactions relevant for methane ...
... and a discussion of some motivational strategies that may be beneficial to patient and clinicians in addressing the phenomenon. ... and a discussion of some motivational strategies that may be beneficial to patient and clinicians in addressing the phenomenon. ...
... and the atomic number 13 belong to the chemical element Aluminium. It is a solid material and the most abundant metal in the ... A chemical element and the goalkeeper phenomenon. 06.03.2011, 17:54 Uhr von: Redaktion ... Another regularity is that this phenomenon only applies to goalkeepers, so I will refer to it as „the goalkeeper phenomenon" in ... But this phenomenon only shows close to 2 goalposts and a crossbar made of aluminium and so we can assume that it is linked to ...
Diffusion with homogeneous chemical reaction of a solid sphere in a liquid ... Transport phenomena mass transfer problem solution BSL : ...
This course concentrates on a rigorous development of the multicomponent transport equations, boundary conditions at phase interfaces, and volume-averaged transport equations for multiphase reacting systems. (BB)
There are thousands of termite species, and many engage in chemical warfare. Some squirt noxious chemicals from nozzles on ... How to Follow Your Phenomena Favorites. Heres where to find us, and new RSS feeds to make it easier to keep up with the latest ... Phenomena is hosted by National Geographic magazine, which invites you to join the conversation. Follow on Twitter at @ ... Phenomena is a gathering of spirited science writers who take delight in the new, the strange, the beautiful and awe-inspiring ...
Rather than just phenomena conventional physical and chemical systems (thin film growth, self-assembly of nanoclusters, spatial ... Physics Colloquium: Complex self-organization phenomena in physical and chemical systems: From discrete stochastic atomistic ... Physics Colloquium: Complex self-organization phenomena in physical and chemical systems: From discrete stochastic atomistic ... Statistical physics provide a powerful tool to describe cooperative many-particle phenomena both in- and out-of-equilibrium ...
Browsing Chemical engineering by Subject "acid-base interaction; apolar media; interfacial phenomena; particle charge; trace ...
The chemical analysis showed that more than 85% of the fouling material was CaCO3, which was expected from the chemical ... an undesirable yet unavoidable phenomenon. Due to the fouling deposit on the heat transfer surfaces, the thermal resistance ... the tube-in-tube heat exchanger was further analyzed by using a CCD camera with a borescope probe and by adopting a chemical ... Thermal and Chemical Analysis of Fouling Phenomenon in Condensers for Cooling Tower Applications ...
This post by Amphos 21 describes how to model Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical-Chemical phenomena using iMaGe, a multiphysics and ... This post by Amphos 21 describes how to model Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical-Chemical phenomena using iMaGe, a multiphysics and ... Amphos 21: Modeling Coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical-Chemical Phenomena Guest Jorge Molinero February 18, 2014 ... Porous Media, a Playground for Coupled Physical and Chemical Phenomena. A large number of problems in porous media frequently ...
  • Perhaps of more significance is the position of the Society of Nuclear Medicine Brain Imaging Council 6 that SPECT scans cannot detect brain abnormalities produced by chemicals. (aafp.org)
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