The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
An acquired disorder characterized by recurrent symptoms, referable to multiple organ systems, occurring in response to demonstrable exposure to many chemically unrelated compounds at doses below those established in the general population to cause harmful effects. (Cullen MR. The worker with multiple chemical sensitivities: an overview. Occup Med 1987;2(4):655-61)
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
An idiopathic vascular disorder characterized by bilateral Raynaud phenomenon, the abrupt onset of digital paleness or CYANOSIS in response to cold exposure or stress.
The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Tactical warfare using incendiary mixtures, smokes, or irritant, burning, or asphyxiating gases.
A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.
Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.
A broad class of substances encompassing all those that do not include carbon and its derivatives as their principal elements. However, carbides, carbonates, cyanides, cyanates, and carbon disulfide are included in this class.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Chemicals that are used to cause the disturbance, disease, or death of humans during WARFARE.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Markedly reduced or absent REPERFUSION in an infarct zone following the removal of an obstruction or constriction of an artery.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific chemicals.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Exogenous agents, synthetic and naturally occurring, which are capable of disrupting the functions of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM including the maintenance of HOMEOSTASIS and the regulation of developmental processes. Endocrine disruptors are compounds that can mimic HORMONES, or enhance or block the binding of hormones to their receptors, or otherwise lead to activating or inhibiting the endocrine signaling pathways and hormone metabolism.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Large collections of small molecules (molecular weight about 600 or less), of similar or diverse nature which are used for high-throughput screening analysis of the gene function, protein interaction, cellular processing, biochemical pathways, or other chemical interactions.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The science concerned with the detection, chemical composition, and biological action of toxic substances or poisons and the treatment and prevention of toxic manifestations.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Sympathectomy using chemicals (e.g., 6-hydroxydopamine or guanethidine) which selectively and reversibly destroy adrenergic nerve endings while leaving cholinergic nerve endings intact.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.
The use of chemical agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of nerve agents, blood agents, blister agents, and choking agents (NOXAE).
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.
Chemical and physical transformation of the biogenic elements from their nucleosynthesis in stars to their incorporation and subsequent modification in planetary bodies and terrestrial biochemistry. It includes the mechanism of incorporation of biogenic elements into complex molecules and molecular systems, leading up to the origin of life.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Drugs that act locally on cutaneous or mucosal surfaces to produce inflammation; those that cause redness due to hyperemia are rubefacients; those that raise blisters are vesicants and those that penetrate sebaceous glands and cause abscesses are pustulants; tear gases and mustard gases are also irritants.
Procedures, such as TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES; mathematical models; etc., when used or advocated for use in place of the use of animals in research or diagnostic laboratories.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Tests to experimentally measure the tumor-producing/cancer cell-producing potency of an agent by administering the agent (e.g., benzanthracenes) and observing the quantity of tumors or the cell transformation developed over a given period of time. The carcinogenicity value is usually measured as milligrams of agent administered per tumor developed. Though this test differs from the DNA-repair and bacterial microsome MUTAGENICITY TESTS, researchers often attempt to correlate the finding of carcinogenicity values and mutagenicity values.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
Rapid methods of measuring the effects of an agent in a biological or chemical assay. The assay usually involves some form of automation or a way to conduct multiple assays at the same time using sample arrays.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Uncontrolled release of a chemical from its containment that either threatens to, or does, cause exposure to a chemical hazard. Such an incident may occur accidentally or deliberately.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.

An investigation into the binding of the carcinogen 15,16-dihydro-11-methylcyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-one to DNA in vitro. (1/6919)

After metabolic activation the carcinogen 15,16-dihydro-11-[3H]methylcyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-one binds to DNA in vitro, and this binding is prevented by 7,8-benzoflavone. Radioactivity cannot be removed from the DNA with organic solvents or by chromatography on Sephadex G-50, even after heat denaturation of the DNA. Enzymatic hydrolysis yields radioactive fractions, which elute from a column of Sephadex LH-20 immediately after the natural nucleosides. At least two species of reactive metabolites are involved in this bending, those with a half-life of a few hr and others with greater stability. After extraction from the aqueous incubation mixture, they could be detected in discrete polar fractions from separations of the complex metabolite mixture by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Their ability to bind to DNA decreased with time at ambient temperature, and they were rapidly deactivated by acid. 7,8-Benzolflavone acted by suppressing the formation of polar metabolites derived from enzymatic oxidation of the aromatic double bonds. The inhibitor had no effect on the enzymes hydroxylating saturated carbon; hence it is unlikely that metabolism of the methyl group is important in conversion of this carcinogen to its proximate form, although the presence of the 11-methyl group is essential for carcinogenic activity in this series.  (+info)

The interaction of rhodium(II) carboxylates with enzymes. (2/6919)

The effect of rhodium(II) acetate, propionate, and methoxyacetate on the activity of 17 enzymes was evaluated. The enzymes were preincubated with the rhodium(II) complexes in order to detect irreversible inhibition. All enzymes that have essential sulfhydryl groups in or near their active site were found to be irreversibly inhibited. Those enzymes without essential sulfhydryl groups were not affected. In each case, the rate of inactivation closely paralleled the observed toxicity and antitumor activity of rhodium(II) carboxylates; that is, rhodium(II) propionate greater than rhodium(II) acetate greater than rhodium(II) methoxyacetate. In addition, those enzymes that have been demonstrated to be most sensitive to established sulfhydryl inhibitors, such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, were also most sensitive to rhodium(II) carboxylate inactivation. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance measurements made during the titration of rhodium(II) acetate with cysteine showed that breakdown of the carboxylate cage occurred as a result of reaction with this sulfhydryl-containing amino acid.  (+info)

Glycopeptides from the surgace of human neuroblastoma cells. (3/6919)

Glycopeptides suggesting a complex oligosaccharide composition are present on the surface of cells from human neuroblastoma tumors and several cell lines derived from the tumors. The glycopeptides, labeled with radioactive L-fucose, were removed from the cell surface with trypsin, digested with Pronase, and examined by chromatography on Sephadex G-50. Human skin fibroblasts, brain cells, and a fibroblast line derived from neuroblastoma tumor tissue show less complex glycopeptides. Although some differences exist between the cell lines and the primary tumor cells, the similarities between these human tumors and animal tumors examined previously are striking.  (+info)

The isolation and partial characterization of the serum lipoproteins and apolipoproteins of the rainbow trout. (4/6919)

1. VLD (very-low-density), LD (low-density) and HD (high-density) lipoproteins were isolated from the serum of trout (Salmo gairdneri Richardson). 2. Each lipoprotein class resembled that of the human in immunological reactivity, electrophoretic behaviour and appearance in the electron microscope. Trout LD lipoprotein, however, was of greater density than human LD lipoprotein. 3. The trout lipoproteins have lipid compositions which are similar to those of the corresponding human components, except for their high contents of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids. 4. HD and LD lipoproteins were immunologically non-identical, whereas LD lipoproteins possessed antigenic determinants in common with VLD lipoproteins. 5. VLD and HD lipoproteins each contained at least seven different apoproteins, whereas LD liprotein was composed largely of a single apoprotein which resembled human apolipoprotein B. 6. At least one, and possibly three, apoprotein of trout HD lipoprotein showed features which resemble human apoprotein A-1.7. The broad similarity between the trout and human lipoprotein systems suggests that both arose from common ancestral genes early in evolutionary history.  (+info)

Studies of the binding of different iron donors to human serum transferrin and isolation of iron-binding fragments from the N- and C-terminal regions of the protein. (5/6919)

1. Trypsin digestion of human serum transferrin partially saturated with iron(III)-nitrilotriacetate at pH 5.5 or pH 8.5 produces a carbohydrate-containing iron-binding fragment of mol.wt. 43000. 2. When iron(III) citrate, FeCl3, iron (III) ascorabate and (NH4)2SO4,FeSO4 are used as iron donors to saturate the protein partially, at pH8.5, proteolytic digestion yields a fragment of mol.wt. 36000 that lacks carbohydrate. 3. The two fragments differ in their antigenic structures, amino acid compositions and peptide 'maps'. 4. The fragment with mol.wt. 36000 was assigned to the N-terminal region of the protein and the other to the C-terminal region. 5. The distribution of iron in human serum transferrin partially saturated with various iron donors was examined by electrophoresis in urea/polyacrylamide gels and the two possible monoferric forms were unequivocally identified. 6. The site designated A on human serum transferrin [Harris (1977) Biochemistry 16, 560--564] was assigned to the C-terminal region of the protein and the B site to the N-terminal region. 7. The distribution of iron on transferrin in human plasma was determined.  (+info)

Carbon 13 NMR study of nonenzymatic reactions of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate with selected amino acids and of related reactions. (6/6919)

Carbon 13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been used to monitor the nonenzymatic reactions of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate with glycine, alanine, valine, serine, and with several other model compounds. Isotopically enriched amino acids were employed so that low concentrations could be utilized while still allowing relatively rapid acquisition of spectral data. The results for alanine and serine are particularly noteworthy in that alanine is deaminated to pyruvate and pyruvate is aminated to alanine, but contrary to the enzymatic reactions of various serine dehydratases wherein serine is converted to pyruvate, the nonenzymatic reaction utilizing serine results in hydroxypruvate rather than pyruvate formation. In the reverse reaction, hydroxypyruvate is aminated to serine but very inefficiently relative to the amination of pyruvate to alanine. The experimental results have been formulated into a proposed reaction mechanism for deamination of amino acids by pyridoxal-P.  (+info)

Herpetic keratitis. Proctor Lecture. (7/6919)

Although much needs to be learned about the serious clinical problem of herpes infection of the cornea, we have come a long way. We now have effective topical antiviral drugs. We have animal models which, with a high degree of reliability, clearly predict the effect to be expected clinically in man, as well as the toxicity. We have systemically active drugs and the potential of getting highly active, potent, completely selective drugs, with the possibility that perhaps the source of viral reinfection can be eradicated. The biology of recurrent herpes and stromal disease is gradually being understood, and this understanding may result in new and better therapy of this devastating clinical disease.  (+info)

Crystal structure of the FMN-binding domain of human cytochrome P450 reductase at 1.93 A resolution. (8/6919)

The crystal structure of the FMN-binding domain of human NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (P450R-FMN), a key component in the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system, has been determined to 1.93 A resolution and shown to be very similar both to the global fold in solution (Barsukov I et al., 1997, J Biomol NMR 10:63-75) and to the corresponding domain in the 2.6 A crystal structure of intact rat P450R (Wang M et al., 1997, Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 94:8411-8416). The crystal structure of P450R-FMN reported here confirms the overall similarity of its alpha-beta-alpha architecture to that of the bacterial flavodoxins, but reveals differences in the position, number, and length of the helices relative to the central beta-sheet. The marked similarity between P450R-FMN and flavodoxins in the interactions between the FMN and the protein, indicate a striking evolutionary conservation of the FMN binding site. The P450R-FMN molecule has an unusual surface charge distribution, leading to a very strong dipole, which may be involved in docking cytochrome P450 into place for electron transfer near the FMN. Several acidic residues near the FMN are identified by mutagenesis experiments to be important for electron transfer to P4502D6 and to cytochrome c, a clear indication of the part of the molecular surface that is likely to be involved in substrate binding. Somewhat different parts are found to be involved in binding cytochrome P450 and cytochrome c.  (+info)

The diagnosis of MCS is based on a combination of medical history, physical examination, and laboratory tests. There is no specific diagnostic test for MCS, and the condition can be difficult to diagnose because its symptoms are similar to those of other conditions. Treatment for MCS typically involves avoiding exposure to chemicals and managing symptoms through lifestyle changes, stress reduction techniques, and medication.

MCS is a controversial condition, and some researchers question whether it is a valid medical diagnosis. However, many health professionals recognize MCS as a legitimate condition that affects thousands of people worldwide.

There are several types of chemical sensitivity, including:

* Irritant-induced sensitivity: This type of sensitivity occurs when an individual becomes sensitive to a specific chemical after repeated exposure to it.
* Allergic contact sensitivity: This type of sensitivity occurs when an individual develops an allergic reaction to a specific chemical.
* Idiopathic environmental intolerance: This type of sensitivity occurs when an individual experiences adverse reactions to multiple chemicals, without any known cause.

There are several risk factors for developing MCS, including:

* Previous exposure to toxic chemicals
* Genetic predisposition
* Age (MCS is more common in younger adults)
* Gender (women are more likely to develop MCS than men)
* Stress and psychological factors

There are several ways to prevent or reduce the risk of developing MCS, including:

* Avoiding exposure to toxic chemicals
* Using protective gear and equipment when working with chemicals
* Properly disposing of chemical waste
* Following safety protocols when handling chemicals
* Reducing stress and managing psychological factors.

There are several ways to diagnose MCS, including:

* Medical history and physical examination
* Allergy testing (such as skin prick testing or blood tests)
* Environmental exposure assessment
* Physiological testing (such as heart rate and blood pressure monitoring)
* Neuropsychological testing (such as cognitive function and mood assessment).

There are several treatment options for MCS, including:

* Avoiding exposure to triggers
* Medications (such as antihistamines or antidepressants)
* Immunotherapy (such as allergy shots)
* Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)
* Alternative therapies (such as acupuncture or herbal supplements).

It is important to note that MCS is a complex and controversial condition, and there is ongoing debate about its cause and validity. However, for those who suffer from the condition, it can have a significant impact on their quality of life, and it is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

The exact cause of Raynaud disease is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to an autoimmune disorder, in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue. The condition can occur on its own or as a secondary symptom of another underlying medical condition such as scleroderma or rheumatoid arthritis.

Symptoms of Raynaud Disease:

1) Discoloration: Raynaud disease causes the affected areas to turn white or blue in response to cold temperatures or stress.

2) Pain: The constriction of blood vessels can cause pain in the affected areas.

3) Numbness or tingling: The lack of blood flow can cause numbness or tingling sensations in the fingers and toes.

4) Swelling: In severe cases, swelling may occur in the affected areas.

5) Burning sensation: Some people with Raynaud disease may experience a burning sensation in their hands and feet.

Diagnosis of Raynaud Disease:

1) Medical history: A doctor will ask about symptoms, medical history, and any triggers that may cause the condition.

2) Physical examination: The doctor will perform a physical examination to look for signs of discoloration or swelling in the affected areas.

3) Tests: Additional tests such as nailfold capillary microscopy, pulse volume recording and thermography may be ordered to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment options for Raynaud Disease:

1) Medications: Drugs such as calcium channel blockers, alpha-blockers, and anticoagulants can help to relax blood vessels and improve blood flow.

2) Lifestyle changes: Avoiding triggers such as cold temperatures and taking steps to keep hands and feet warm can help manage the condition.

3) Alternative therapies: Some people with Raynaud disease may find relief with alternative therapies such as acupuncture or biofeedback.

It is important to note that in some cases, Raynaud disease can be a symptom of an underlying autoimmune disorder, such as lupus or scleroderma. If you suspect you have Raynaud disease, it is essential to seek medical attention to rule out any other conditions.

A burn that is caused by direct contact with a chemical substance or agent, such as a strong acid or base, and results in damage to the skin and underlying tissues. Chemical burns can be particularly severe and may require extensive treatment, including surgery and skin grafting.

Examples of how Burns, Chemical is used in medical literature:

1. "The patient sustained a chemical burn on her hand when she spilled a beaker of sulfuric acid."
2. "The burn team was called in to treat the victim of a chemical explosion, who had suffered extensive burns, including chemical burns to his face and arms."
3. "The patient was admitted with severe chemical burns on her legs and feet, caused by exposure to a corrosive substance at work."
4. "Chemical burns can be difficult to treat, as they may require specialized equipment and techniques to remove the damaged tissue and promote healing."
5. "The patient required multiple debridements and skin grafting procedures to treat her chemical burns, which had resulted in extensive scarring and disfigurement."

The "no-reflow" phenomenon is defined as the absence of hyperemia (increased blood flow) in the myocardium after successful reperfusion therapy, which includes primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or thrombolysis. It is characterized by a decrease in the size of the infarct area, but not complete resolution of the infarction.

The no-reflow phenomenon can be diagnosed using various techniques such as echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging. Treatment for the no-reflow phenomenon is aimed at addressing the underlying cause, such as managing blood pressure, controlling blood sugar levels, and administering medications to reduce inflammation and improve coronary blood flow.

In summary, the no-reflow phenomenon is a complex condition that can occur after reperfusion therapy, characterized by reduced or absent blood flow to certain areas of the heart muscle despite adequate perfusion pressure. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment are essential to prevent further damage and improve outcomes in patients with this condition.

In chemical engineering, transport phenomena are studied in reactor design, analysis of molecular or diffusive transport ... ISBN 978-0-13-156988-1. Plawsky, Joel L. (April 2001). Transport phenomena fundamentals (Chemical Industries Series). CRC Press ... An important principle in the study of transport phenomena is analogy between phenomena. There are some notable similarities in ... "transport phenomena". Another example is in biomedical engineering, where some transport phenomena of interest are ...
... electrical phenomena; the nature of chemical action; the way in which God created matter in "the Beginning;" the proper way to ... These Queries, especially the later ones, deal with a wide range of physical phenomena, far transcending any narrow ... stimulated a great deal of speculation and development on theories of chemical affinity. ...
... electrical phenomena; the nature of chemical action; the way in which God created matter in "the Beginning;" the proper way to ... Rather, the Opticks is a study of the nature of light and colour and the various phenomena of diffraction, which Newton called ... These Queries, especially the later ones, deal with a wide range of physical phenomena, far transcending any narrow ... stimulated a great deal of speculation and development on theories of chemical affinity. ...
Steiner UE, Ulrich T (1989-01-01). "Magnetic field effects in chemical kinetics and related phenomena". Chemical Reviews. 89 (1 ... Other examples of quantum phenomena in biological systems include the conversion of chemical energy into motion and brownian ... After the binding of the chemical to the receptor, the chemical would then act as a bridge allowing for the electron to be ... To achieve chemical ATP, researchers have found that a preliminary stage before chemical conversion is necessary; this step, ...
Slattery, John C. (1999). "Differential balances in mass-transfer". Advanced Transport Phenomena. Cambridge Series in Chemical ... In chemical engineering, a Stefan tube is a device that was devised by Josef Stefan in 1874. It is often used for measuring ... Wiley Series in Chemical Engineering. Vol. 2. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9780471574170. Teixeira, Miguel A.; Rodriguez, Oscar; ... Series on Chemical Engineering. Vol. 2. World Scientific. ISBN 9781783262243. Kirwan, Donald J. (1987). "Mass transfer ...
Ultrafast Phenomena XI. Springer Series in Chemical Physics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. 63: 24-26. doi:10.1007/978-3-642- ... He is also a Senior Member of the IEEE, has been awarded a Swarnajayanti Fellowship for Chemical Sciences, and has held a ... Chemical Physics Letters. 558: 1-7. Bibcode:2013CPL...558....1G. doi:10.1016/j.cplett.2012.10.054. ISSN 0009-2614. PMC 3790071 ... The Journal of Chemical Physics. 137 (18): 184201. Bibcode:2012JChPh.137r4201K. doi:10.1063/1.4764470. ISSN 0021-9606. PMID ...
Chemical engineer Distillation Design Transport phenomena Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering Perry's Chemical Engineers' ... Transport Phenomena is the first textbook about transport phenomena. It is specifically designed for chemical engineering ... Lightfoot Programs Archived 2004-05-17 at Transport Phenomena: A Landmark in Chemical Engineering Education ... Chemical engineering books, Science books, Technology books, Transport phenomena). ...
Transport phenomena gave an analytical approach to chemical engineering while PSE focused on its synthetic elements, such as ... units List of chemical engineering societies List of chemical engineers List of chemical process simulators Outline of chemical ... of Chemical Engineers Chemical Institute of Canada European Federation of Chemical Engineering Indian Institute of Chemical ... Biotechnology engineering Catalysts Ceramics Chemical process modeling Chemical reactor Chemical technologist Chemical weapons ...
S.l.]: American Chemical Society, ISSN 1520-6904, Vol. 31, No. 12 (1966), p. 4292-4293. Zvi Blank, Walter Brenner, Yoshiyuki ... Nucleation Phenomena In Polymers Defense Technical Information Center, 1968, 216 p. Contributor: New York University, NY ... American Chemical Society, 1967. Walter Brenner, R. F. Shaffer, R. Vermes, Charles Marsel, William H. Kapfer. Nucleation ... Brenner served as a full professor at New York University for over 25 years teaching chemical engineering. He taught in the ...
Introduction to Combustion Phenomena. New York: Gordon and Breach. p. 150. ISBN 0-677-02690-0. (Chemical physics, Combustion, ...
1984). Ultrafast Phenomena IV. Springer Series in Chemical Physics. Vol. 38. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, Tokyo: Springer. doi ... He graduated from Harvard University with an M.A. in physics and a Ph.D. in chemical physics. His doctoral thesis supervisor ... He received in 1998 the ACS Award in Surface Chemistry [de] from the American Chemical Society, in 2016 the Joel Henry ... Journal of Chemical Physics. 42 (2): 794-796. doi:10.1063/1.1696013. Auston, D. H.; Eisenthal, K. B., eds. ( ...
Bickle, William Henry (1960). "Surface Phenomena: Surface Energy". Crushing and Grinding a Bibliography. New York: Chemical ... Journal of the Chemical Society, Faraday Transactions. 2. Molecular and Chemical Physics. London: Royal Society of Chemistry. ... Journal of the Chemical Society, Faraday Transactions. 2 Molecular and Chemical Physics. London: Royal Society of Chemistry. 80 ... Barden, Stanley Edgar (June 1954). "Regenerative Deflection as a Parametrically Excited Resonance Phenomenon". Review of ...
The spectra were computed from the fundamental theory, using quantum chemical methods, and were shown to be in close agreement ... 1985). Phenomena Induced by Intermolecular Interactions. New York: Plenum Press. Borysow, Aleksandra; Frommhold, Lothar (1989 ... Advances in Chemical Physics. Vol. 75. pp. 439-505. doi:10.1002/9780470141243.ch7. Moraldi, Massimo; Frommhold, Lothar (1996 ... Journal of Chemical Physics. 134: 076101:1-076101:2. H. L. Welsh (1972). "3". In A. D. Buckingham; D. A. Ramsay (eds.). ...
cite journal}}: Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) Peek, F.W. (1929). Dielectric Phenomena in High Voltage Engineering. ... Alternating current Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization Crookes tube Dielectric barrier discharge Kirlian photography List ... Chen, Junhong (August 2002). "Direct-Current Corona Enhanced Chemical Reactions". University of Minnesota. {{ ... through chemical reactions, and can be used to produce ozone. Coronas can generate audible and radio-frequency noise, ...
Survey of geochemical self-patterning phenomena. In Nicolis, G., and Baras, F. (eds.), Chemical Instabilities. Dordrecht: D. ... Chemical weathering of rocks that leads to the formation of Liesegang rings typically involves the diffusion of oxygen in ... Liesegang rings may form from the chemical segregation of iron oxides and other minerals during weathering. One popular ... The purpose of Liesegang's experiment was to observe precipitate formation resulting from the chemical reaction produced when a ...
Bird, R.B. (Fall 2001). "Who Was Who in Transport Phenomena". Chemical Engineering Education. 35 (4). Retrieved 20 May 2021. ... Klinkenberg, A.; Mooy, H. H. (1948). "Dimensionless Groups in Fluid Friction, Heat, and Material Transfer". Chemical ... who was the first head of the Chemical Engineering Department at MIT. Some workers in the field of combustion assume ( ...
While the type and amount of surfactant determine what properties will be affected, other chemicals in a paint can alter the ... Surfactant leaching Rosen, Milton J. (September 2010) [2004]. Surfactants and Interfacial Phenomena (3rd ed.). Hoboken, New ... M. R. Bresler & J. P. Hagen (2008). "Diethyl Surfactant Adsorption: A Revised Physical Chemistry Lab". Journal of Chemical ...
A mood ring is an excellent example of this phenomenon, but thermochromism also has more practical uses, such as baby bottles ... This mixture is stable in solid phase; however, when the octadecylphosphonic acid is melted, the dye undergoes a chemical ... Thermochromic dyes are based on mixtures of leuco dyes with other suitable chemicals, displaying a color change (usually ... High temperatures, ultraviolet radiation, some chemicals and/or solvents have a negative impact on their lifespan. ...
Začs, Laimons (2000). "The Chemical Composition and Orbital Parameters of Barium Stars". The Carbon Star Phenomenon. 177: 277- ... "Stellar parameters and chemical abundances of 223 evolved stars with and without planets". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 574: A50. ...
As the name suggests, LEIS is primarily concerned with scattering phenomena. Due to the energy range typically used in ion ... AES results may typically be used to infer information on the chemical environment of particular atoms in a surface. Behrisch, ... ISBN 0-677-15850-5. Rabalais, J. Wayne (2003). Principles and Applications of Ion Scattering Spectrometry: Surface Chemical and ... is a surface-sensitive analytical technique used to characterize the chemical and structural makeup of materials. LEIS involves ...
... as motion of particles under influence of a chemical potential gradient; capillary osmosis, as motion of liquid in porous body ... Electrokinetic phenomena are a family of several different effects that occur in heterogeneous fluids, or in porous bodies ... Dukhin, S.S. and Derjaguin, B.V. (1974) Electrokinetic Phenomena, J. Willey and Sons. Russel, W.B., Saville, D.A., and ... There are detailed descriptions of electrokinetic phenomena in many books on interface and colloid science. Wikimedia Commons ...
Quantum biology - application of quantum mechanics to biological phenomenon. Chemical physics - the branch of physics that ... History of chemical physics - history of the branch of physics that studies chemical processes from the point of view of ... Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns and principles that relate these phenomena. These patterns ... History of quantum physics - history of the branch of physics dealing with physical phenomena where the action is on the order ...
Ultrafast Phenomena X. Springer Series in Chemical Physics. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. 62: 431-432. doi:10.1007/978-3-642- ... Ultrafast Phenomena X. Springer Series in Chemical Physics. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. 62: 431-432. doi:10.1007/978-3-642- ... Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, and Materials Science at Vanderbilt University. She is a joint faculty member at Oak ... Chemical Physics Letters. 498 (1-3): 1-9. Bibcode:2010CPL...498....1M. doi:10.1016/j.cplett.2010.08.052. ISSN 0009-2614. PMC ...
Sonochemistry Sonication Ultrasonics Moriguchi, N. (1934)."The influence of supersonic waves on chemical phenomena. III-the ... hydrodynamics in an electrochemical cell was greatly increased in the presence of ultrasound and described this phenomenon as ...
Kapral used CMLs for modeling chemical spatial phenomena. Kuznetsov sought to apply CMLs to electrical circuitry by developing ... Space-time chaotic phenomena can be demonstrated from chaotic mappings subject to weak coupling coefficients and are popular in ... Crutchfield, James P. (1984). "Space-time dynamics in video feedback". Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena. Elsevier BV. 10 (1-2): ... Weak coupling with monotonic (bistable) dynamical regimes demonstrate spatial chaos phenomena and are popular in neural models ...
Mathematical chemistry the mathematical modeling of chemical phenomena. Mathematical economics the application of mathematical ... Quantum geometry the generalization of concepts of geometry used to describe the physical phenomena of quantum physics ... Mathematical biology the mathematical modeling of biological phenomena. ... primarily of the science physics that uses mathematical models and abstraction of physics to rationalize and predict phenomena ...
A. Pacault; P. Hanusse; P. De Kepper; C. Vidal; J. Boissonade (1976). "Phenomena in homogeneous chemical systems far from ... In May 1972 a pair of articles in the Journal of Chemical Education brought it to the attention of Thomas Briggs and Warren ... Furrow, S. D. in Field, R. J. and M. Burger(1985), Oscillations and Traveling Waves in Chemical Systems, J. Wiley & Sons, New ... The Briggs-Rauscher oscillating reaction is one of a small number of known oscillating chemical reactions. It is especially ...
American Chemical Society (2013) F. H. Stillinger, Energy Landscapes, Inherent Structures, and Condensed-Matter Phenomena. ... "Past Recipients - American Chemical Society". American Chemical Society. Stillinger, Frank H. (2016). Energy Landscapes, ... American Chemical Society (1986) Irving Langmuir Award, American Physical Society (1989) Peter Debye Award, American Chemical ... "Past Recipients - American Chemical Society". Joel Henry Hildebrand Award in the Theoretical and Experimental Chemistry of ...
Karukstis, Kerry K.; Van Hecke, Gerald R. (2003-04-10). Chemistry Connections: The Chemical Basis of Everyday Phenomena. ... The chemicals inside the plastic tube are a mixture of the dye, the base catalyst, and diphenyl oxalate. The chemical in the ... Glow sticks emit light when two chemicals are mixed. The reaction between the two chemicals is catalyzed by a base, usually ... Demonstrations To Illustrate Chemical Processes". Journal of Chemical Education. 89 (7): 910-916. Bibcode:2012JChEd..89..910K. ...
ISBN 978-3-527-30666-4. Davy, Humphry (1808). "On some new Phenomena of Chemical Changes produced by Electricity, particularly ... "Joseph Priestley". Chemical Achievers: The Human Face of Chemical Sciences. Chemical Heritage Foundation. 2005. {{cite web}}: ... "Svante August Arrhenius". Chemical Achievers: The Human Face of Chemical Sciences. Chemical Heritage Foundation. 2005. {{cite ... This work identified chemical elements as a specific type of atom, therefore rejecting Newton's theory of chemical affinities. ...
The Summer of Love was a social phenomenon that occurred during the summer of 1967, when as many as 100,000 people, mostly ... After taking psilocybin, a psychoactive chemical produced by certain mushrooms that causes effects similar to those of LSD, ...
The first one injected a few grams of cobalt nitrate crystals to a sodium silicate to create a chemical garden in weightless ... fluid dynamics and transport phenomena, glass and ceramics, metals and alloys, and acceleration measurements. Life sciences ...
1934 reference book for chemical engineering Transport Phenomena Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering Batch distillation ... packed column sizing Chemical engineer - Professional in the field of chemical engineering Continuous distillation - Form of ... It has been a classical chemical engineering textbook since it was first published in February 1992. The subjects covered in ... chemical and petrochemical plants, natural gas processing, pharmaceutical, food and alcohol distilling industries. ...
HR sees chemical dependency and related behaviors as a response to a lack of a sense of self-efficacy, rather than the result ... In the Health Realization ("HR") model, all psychological phenomena, from severe disorder to glowing health, are presented as ...
The phenomenon that muography cannot differentiate density variations is called the "Volume Effects." Volume Effects happen ... the muon's kinetic energy into a number of electrons in order to process muon events as electronic data rather than as chemical ...
Compendium of chemical terminology - Gold Book (PDF). International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. 2014. Archived from ... v t e v t e (Electric and magnetic fields in matter, Electrical phenomena, Phases of matter, All stub articles, Condensed ...
... and chemical weapons" working U.S. ports of entry. Airport security mechanisms must be quick, efficient, and effective due to ... Given the phenomenon of undocumented migration at the U.S.-Mexico border, some government officials and political candidates ...
This new phenomenon would also lead to the construction of bombs, and it is conceivable - though much less certain - that ... GB patent 630726, Leo Szilard, "Improvements in or relating to the transmutation of chemical elements", published 1949-09-28, ...
Previously, it was thought that this phenomenon could only occur in non-aqueous batteries. Using this approach to create SEI, ... They also lack the poisonous chemicals and environmental risks associated with their non-aqueous counterparts. Aqueous Li-ion ... Chemical Reviews. 121 (11): 6654-6695. doi:10.1021/acs.chemrev.1c00191. ISSN 0009-2665. PMID 33900728. S2CID 233409171. (AC ...
... and he sought to explain them by reference to the same laws as are applicable in the case of physical and chemical phenomena. ... and that their secretory action is attended by chemical and thermal changes both in themselves and in the blood passing through ... he rejected the assumption that the phenomena of living animals depend on special biological laws and vital forces different ...
Chemicals, Inc. (APCI) Cascade - designed by ConocoPhillips AP-X - designed by Air Products & Chemicals, Inc. (APCI) AP-SMR ( ... This phenomenon is also called auto-refrigeration. Boil-off gas from land based LNG storage tanks is usually compressed and fed ... "Fuels and Chemicals - Autoignition Temperatures". Archived from the original on 4 May 2015. Retrieved 17 April 2015. " ... APCI) AP-N (Nitrogen Refrigerant) - designed by Air Products & Chemicals, Inc. (APCI) MFC (mixed fluid cascade) - designed by ...
McGrath, M.A. (1996). "Long-term Chemical Evolution of the Jupiter Stratosphere Following the SL9 Impacts". Bulletin of the ... The phenomena associated with an impact on a gas giant are mainly transitory in nature, and depend on the size of the impacting ... The identification of specific chemical species through spectroscopic analysis of the debris makes it possible to distinguish a ... knowledge of such impacts is dependent upon direct and almost immediate observation of the event itself or of the phenomena ...
... which determines their chemical and physical properties. Because neodymium (Nd) is right above uranium (U) the chemical ... This color-change phenomenon is highly prized by collectors.[citation needed] In combination with gold or selenium, red colors ... Chemical elements, Chemical elements with double hexagonal close-packed structure, Energy development, Lanthanides, Reducing ... Neodymium is a chemical element with the symbol Nd and atomic number 60. It is the fourth member of the lanthanide series and ...
The chemical reactions of metabolism are organized into metabolic pathways, in which one chemical is transformed through a ... Cellular phenomena Oncometabolism Reactome - Database of biological pathways KEGG - Collection of bioinformatics databases ... This nucleotide is used to transfer chemical energy between different chemical reactions. There is only a small amount of ATP ... Their chemical energy can also be used. Lipids are the polymers of fatty acids[citation needed] that contain a long, non-polar ...
The presence or absence of certain minerals is indicative of physical and chemical processes. Impacts on the parent body are ... and of the phenomena that are associated with such matter or such bodies. The term meteoroid was not defined until 1961 by the ... "Chronology and chemical history of the parent body of basaltic achondrites studied by the 87Rb-87Sr method". Earth and ... and chemical compositions; analysis of isotope ratios; and radiometric dating. These techniques are used to determine the age, ...
These chemical reactions require energy, which mainly comes from the Sun and largely by photosynthesis, although a very small ... These characterizations stem from the ecosystem concept, which assumes that the phenomena under investigation (interactions and ... The field of chemical ecology has elucidated multitrophic interactions that entail the transfer of defensive compounds across ... These sequestered iridoid glycosides then confer chemical protection against bird predators to the butterfly larvae. Another ...
One of his early famous papers was the exact denial of a non-existing phenomenon called quantum 1/f noise. The denial was based ... The time dependent spectral analysis of this radiation offers a powerful tool to study the chemical reactions and their ... laser science and chemical sensors, including fluctuation-enhanced sensing. ...
... (/ˈliːzəɡɑːŋ/) are a phenomenon seen in many, if not most, chemical systems undergoing a precipitation reaction ... The phenomenon is most commonly seen as rings in a Petri dish or bands in a test tube; however, more complex patterns have been ... The phenomenon was first noticed in 1855 by the German chemist Friedlieb Ferdinand Runge. He observed them in the course of ... In 1896 the German chemist Raphael E. Liesegang noted the phenomenon when he dropped a solution of silver nitrate onto a thin ...
This phenomenon may have started when truckers began to heat their lunch from the heat of their vehicles' engines. It is a ... because cans have an epoxy resin layer on the inside that protects the food from chemical reactions with the can, so the resin ...
Major physical and chemical methods include magnetic separation, froth flotation, leaching etc., whereby the impurities and ... Additionally, electrochemical phenomena play a considerable role in many mineral processing and hydrometallurgical processes. ... The field is a materials science, covering all aspects of the types of ore, washing, concentration, separation, chemical ... DESs are generally liquid at temperatures lower than 100 °C, and they exhibit similar physico-chemical properties to ...
Allen G. Debus (21 March 2013). The Chemical Philosophy. Courier Corporation. p. 290. ISBN 978-0-486-15021-5. Retrieved 3 June ... the work addressed a wide variety of different phenomena, including some that have no relationship to the modern scientific ...
In the 1950s and 1960s, while working as industrial research executive with Imperial Chemical Industries, he became known for ... Near-Death Experiences: A Significant New Inter-Religious Phenomenon by John Wren-Lewis. URL: "Archived copy". Archived from ...
Chemical damage to structural proteins can lead to loss of function; for example, damage to collagen of blood vessel walls can ... Dańko MJ, Kozłowski J, Schaible R (October 2015). "Unraveling the non-senescence phenomenon in Hydra". Journal of Theoretical ... With respect to specific types of chemical damage caused by metabolism, it is suggested that damage to long-lived biopolymers, ... The damage can include breakage of biopolymer chains, cross-linking of biopolymers, or chemical attachment of unnatural ...
He started his career as a project assistant at the National Chemical Laboratory (NCL) the same year. After a year of service, ... Joshi's research team at IIT Kanpur engages in multidisciplinary research on "molecular phenomena that is responsible for the ... He continues his service at IIT Kanpur as a professor in the department of chemical engineering, also holding the C . V. ... In between, the Indian Institute of Chemical Engineers awarded him the first of their two awards, the Diamond Jubilee Young ...
... chemical, and physiological phenomena, that is to say as being subject to natural and invariable laws, the discovery of which ... It was here that Hobbes began to outline the idea of representing the "physical phenomena" of society in terms of the laws of ... In a modern commercial use, it can also refer to the analysis of social phenomena with big data. Social physics is closely ... It emphasizes the alignment of the neighboring spins in a phenomenon called "social validation". It follows the same properties ...
Helm, Georg (1897). The Principles of Mathematical Chemistry: The Energetics of Chemical Phenomena. (Transl. Livingston, J.; ... introducing the concept of a chemical element and clarifying the Law of conservation of mass for chemical reactions. 1792: ... As a consequence, the mass of one mole of a chemical compound, in grams, is numerically equal (for all practical purposes) to ... Sometimes, the amount of substance is referred to as the chemical amount. Historically, the mole was defined as the amount of ...
Rudwell and Stype discuss Stype's suspicions of a reported "chemical leak" at the factory, and learn that the LDF has ... NATO and the LDF set out to investigate, Rudwell using repurposed EOD robots, as paranormal phenomena occur in Livonia, ... following the deterioration of relations between the LDF and NATO training assistants following extraterrestrial phenomena and ...
Some topics covered to date include: noise enhanced phenomena including stochastic resonance; cardiovascular dynamics; quantum ... Chemical & Earth Sciences CompuMath Citation Index ISI Alerting Services Fluctuation and Noise Letters on Scholar Google ( ... fluctuations; statistical physics; degradation and aging phenomena; traffic; the stockmarket; and climate. The founder and ...
Chemical Physics. 277 (2): 201. Bibcode:2002CP....277..201W. doi:10.1016/S0301-0104(02)00303-8. É.A. Manykin; M.I. Ozhovan; P.P ... researching space phenomena, and usage in sensors. State of matter Wang, Jiaxi; Holmlid, Leif (2002). "Rydberg Matter clusters ... Chemical Physics. Elsevier BV. 321 (1-2): 215-222. Bibcode:2006CP....321..215A. doi:10.1016/j.chemphys.2005.08.016. ISSN 0301- ... Chemical Physics. 282 (1): 137-146. Bibcode:2002CP....282..137B. doi:10.1016/S0301-0104(02)00601-8. S. Badiei & L. Holmlid ( ...
The europium anomaly is the phenomenon whereby the europium (Eu) concentration in a mineral is either enriched or depleted ... If the Eu-depleted magma is then separated from its plagioclase crystals and subsequently solidifies, its chemical composition ... leading to chemical reaction differences in how these ions can partition versus the 3+ REEs. In the case of Eu, its reduced ... Chemical Geology. 93 (3-4): 219-230. Bibcode:1991ChGeo..93..219B. doi:10.1016/0009-2541(91)90115-8. Harry Y. Mcsween, Jr.; Huss ...
Start Over You searched for: Subjects Chemical Phenomena ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Chemical Phenomena ... Chemical Phenomena 7. Elements of chemical philosophy, on the basis of Reid: comprising the rudiments of that science and the ... Chemical Phenomena 8. Elements of chemistry Author(s): Thomson, Thomas, 1773-1852 Publication: [Philadelphia] : Published and ... Chemical Phenomena 9. An introduction to practical chemistry: including analysis Author(s): Bowman, John E. (John Eddowes), ...
Thomas Markland (Stanford University), David Ceperley (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign), Michele Ceriotti (Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne), Local Organisers: Ali Hassanali, Sebastiano Pilati ...
American Chemical Society DOI: 10.1021/acs.macromol.0c01518 Faceted gratings for an optical security feature Author(s): Qiang ... PHENOmenon Workshop A final project event will be organized and open to the public, targeting the main stakeholders by the end ... PHENOmenon Website A project website will be published with both public and private sections. The public section will be ... Demonstrator consisting of a functional 4.7-inch OLCD including PHENOmenon light management sheet, and report on its ...
Chemical Phenomena in Everyday Life: An Adventure in Writing Across the Curriculum. By Laurie Smith ...
... chemical systems; basic concepts of aquatic and soil chemistry; water resources; transport phenomena; water pollution; human ... ENIN 350 - Chemical Manufacturing Process Mass and energy balances in chemical process industries. Applications including the ... ENPE 880AA - Interfacial Phenomena Capillary phenomena and equation of cappilarity; Young and Laplace equation, Surface/ ... The main topics include introduction to clay mineralogy and physico-chemical interactions, use of index properties for volume ...
Life is a chemical phenomenon. Living organisms are the most complicated of all chemical systems in the universe. In contrast ... Pure chemical substances can often be obtained in the form of crystals, in which the position of the constituent atoms and ... As examples may be mentioned that the chemical machinery of heridity is localized in the cell nucleus, and other organelles, ... The goal of biochemistry is to explain a biological function on the basis of chemical structure. An important step in ...
Special Issue in International Journal of Molecular Sciences: Advances in Chemical Bond and Bonding. Special Issue in Symmetry ... Special Issue in International Journal of Molecular Sciences: Glass Transition and Related Phenomena. Special Issue in ... Special Issue in International Journal of Molecular Sciences: Advances in Chemical Bond and Bonding 2.0. Special Issue in ... Special Issue in International Journal of Molecular Sciences: Chemical Bond and Bonding 2015. Special Issue in International ...
Raynaud phenomenon is a condition in which the bodys normal response to cold or emotional stress is exaggerated, resulting in ... exposure to certain medicines or chemicals; cigarette smoking; injury or trauma; prolonged repetitive motions such as typing; ... Primary Raynaud phenomenon is much more common and usually less severe than secondary Raynaud phenomenon. In severe cases of ... Primary Raynaud phenomenon often begins between the ages of 15 and 25, while secondary Raynaud phenomenon usually starts after ...
Advanced course in biochemistry and modern biotechnology, covering the chemical principles behind key biological phenomena. ... Introduction to the chemical composition of food ingredients, and the chemical transformations of the three major components in ... This course focuses on the material and energy balances in chemical processes, laying the foundation for other chemical ... students should be able to apply various chemical engineering principles and economic evaluation methods to design a chemical ...
Chemical stress caused by the chemical agent used at the reprocessing. Storage environment at the user facility. The exact ... Omsc surmised that this phenomenon attributed to the following. Physical stress caused by hitting the distal end against an ...
Chemical Phenomena [G02]. *Biochemical Phenomena [G02.111]. *Molecular Structure [G02.111.570]. *Base Sequence [G02.111.570.080 ...
50%: STP Chemical Demon Program. *50%: STP XY Model Program. *49%: STP Textbook Chapter 9: Critical Phenomena ...
But not everyone experiences the phenomenon. Whats the deal here?. Despite several studies on the subject, no definitive ... The most probable candidates are a few volatile chemical compounds: the colorless gas methanethiol; sulfur compounds dimethyl ...
Use models to describe phenomena. (5-PS3-1). Disciplinary Core Ideas. PS3.D: Energy in Chemical Processes and Everyday Life. * ... Use models to describe phenomena. (5-PS3-1). Disciplinary Core Ideas. PS3.D: Energy in Chemical Processes and Everyday Life. * ... Use models to describe phenomena. (5-PS3-1). Disciplinary Core Ideas. PS3.D: Energy in Chemical Processes and Everyday Life. * ... The energy released [from] food was once energy from the sun that was captured by plants in the chemical process that forms ...
Electrochemistry, Thermodynamics, Transport phenomena, physical pharmacy, 116 Chemical sciences, Physical chemistry Honors and ... Schools School of Arts, Design and Architecture School of Business School of Chemical Engineering School of Electrical ... Kuldeep Kuldeep, Pertti Kauranen, Heikki Pajari, Risto Pajarre, Lasse Murtomäki 2021 Chemical Engineering Journal Advances ... Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Chemistry and Materials Science Civil Engineering Computer Science Design Economics ...
Listing of Chemical-related topic pages on the NIOSH Web site. ... to the applications to probe the nanoscale phenomena, based on ... Chemical synthesis; Nanoscale; Author Keywords: Single Particle Mass Spectrometry; Nano-scale Phenomena; Aerosol; Health Effect ... Understanding nanoscale phenomena using single particle mass spectrometry and improvement of its performance - a review. ... Chemical analysis; Aerosols; Aerosol particles; Health effects; Quantitative analysis; ...
Lecturer, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Leeds, UK. 1994-1995. Post-Doctoral Research Fellow, School of ... Visiting Scientist, Center for Nonlinear Phenomena and Complex Systems, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium.. ... Research scholar with the Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering and the Programme in Applied and Computational ... Visiting Professor, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Stanford, USA. 1995-2001. ...
Their semantic groups are Chemicals & Drugs for IC 1 and 3, and Phenomena for IC 2 and 4. Based on the extracted features, the ... "Chemicals & Drugs", and "Chemical Viewed Structurally". Figure 4 lists the top-20 most important features. The binary feature ... We encountered this phenomenon when we prioritized drug candidates for ADPKD. The top-ranked drug candidate, mozavaptan, was ... DrugRepo: a novel approach to repurposing drugs based on chemical and genomic features. 07 December 2022 ...
That is why hunger today is a rural phenomenon. Wherever chemicals and commercial seeds have spread, farmers are in debt. They ... We are repeatedly told that we will starve without chemical fertilisers. However, chemical fertilisers, which are essentially ... If we grow food by using chemicals, we are growing monocultures - this means that we will have less nutrition per acre, per ... In poor countries, farmers trapped in debt for buying costly chemicals and non-renewable seeds, sell the food they grow to pay ...
Chemical Phenomena Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ...
MeSH Terms: Albumins; Animals; Chemical Phenomena; Chemistry; Cysteine/metabolism; Glutathione Transferase/metabolism*; ...
Chemical Phenomena Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ...
Find physical chemical analysis books and publications , the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace and information ... Focuses on probes of the chemical microenvironment, coupled phenomena, and computer-assisted luminescence ... ... A Manual for the Chemical Analysis of Metals MNL 25 is a practical laboratory reference that summarizes useful solutions to a ... of the region, to the present physical, chemical and biological state of the sea, and the analysis of ... ...
Chemical Processes [‎1]‎. Chemical Safety [‎3]‎. Child Health [‎5]‎. Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena [‎1]‎. ...
This phenomenon is called adsorption. At the same time the gel (or tissue) binds the particles together. Accordingly, myriad ... They used genetically modified mice to enable them to increase levels of this protein using chemical signals. By doing so, they ... Hormesis is a phenomenon by which the body benefits from moderate stress of various kinds which at high doses are harmful. ... Horvaths clock emerges from epigenetics, the study of chemical and structural modifications made to the genome that do not ...
  • Exposure to cold or certain chemicals may also cause this type of Raynaud's. (
  • This funding opportunity announcement (FOA), issued by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, is intended to encourage grant applications that use mouse or rat models to investigate whether exposure to environmental toxicants can induce adverse phenotypic outcomes that are transmitted to subsequent, unexposed generations, a phenomenon known as transgenerational inheritance. (
  • There is strong evidence that early life exposure to environmental chemicals can lead to disease outcomes much later in life. (
  • Exposure to specific diets or nutritional factors, maternal stress, and certain environmental chemicals have all been reported to induce phenotypic changes observed at least two generations after exposure. (
  • Techniques for experimentally determining rate laws for simple and complex chemical reactions, the mechanisms and theories of chemical reactions, the function of catalysts, and the design of isothermal, adiabatic, batch and flow reactors. (
  • The course is intended to provide chemists and chemical engineers with the conceptual base needed to study reactions and perform in the design and analysis of reactors. (
  • This course is an introduction to the chemical engineering principles involved in modern applications of biological engineering. (
  • Assistant to the Secretary of Defense for Nuclear and Chemical and Biological Defense Programs, Washington, DC. (
  • The goal of biochemistry is to explain a biological function on the basis of chemical structure. (
  • Introduction to the structural, biophysical and chemical principles of biological macromolecules in living organisms. (
  • biological or chemical work done in the test tube, instead of in living systems. (
  • biological or chemical work done in living systems. (
  • It may be a foreign substance from the environment, such as chemicals, or formed within the body, such as bacterial or viral toxins. (
  • Autoimmune disorders with which Raynaud phenomenon can be associated include systemic lupus erythematosus , scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis , and Sjögren syndrome . (
  • The course covers fundamental concepts and organizing principles of chemistry that provide the foundation for many aspects of chemical science and related fields. (
  • the chemistry of immunologic phenomena. (
  • Raynaud phenomenon is a condition in which the body's normal response to cold or emotional stress is exaggerated, resulting in abnormal spasms (vasospasms) in small blood vessels called arterioles. (
  • Secondary Raynaud phenomenon is often associated with autoimmune disorders, which occur when the immune system malfunctions and attacks the body's own tissues and organs. (
  • The Resistance Phenomenon in Microbes and Infectious Disease Vectors: Implications for Human Health and Strategies for Containment: Workshop Summary. (
  • Threshold limit values for chemical substances and physical agents. (
  • Pneumonia -- An acute or chronic disease marked by inflammation of the lungs and caused by viruses, bacteria, and/or other microorganisms or physical and chemical irritants. (
  • Physicists are scientists who study physical phenomena such as light or electricity. (
  • abstract = "Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is potentially the technology best suited for capturing CO2 at low cost and efficiently providing a low energy option for the separation of CO2 from flue gases. (
  • Raynaud phenomenon sometimes runs in families, but the inheritance pattern is unknown. (
  • Although there are numerous examples of transgenerational inheritance in non-mammalian systems, it still remains rather controversial whether this phenomenon occurs in mammals, though several published examples do exist. (
  • Primary Raynaud phenomenon is much more common and usually less severe than secondary Raynaud phenomenon. (
  • The signs and symptoms of Raynaud phenomenon are related to excessive narrowing (constriction) of small blood vessels in response to cold or stress. (
  • For many people, especially those with the primary form of Raynaud's phenomenon, the symptoms are mild. (
  • Pure chemical substances can often be obtained in the form of crystals, in which the position of the constituent atoms and molecules is repeated in a periodic fashion, and in this case there is a general method available for determination of structure. (
  • Raynaud phenomenon is categorized as primary when there is no underlying disorder that accounts for the exaggerated response of the blood vessels. (
  • Raynaud's phenomenon causes blood vessels to narrow, leading to decreased blood flow, usually in the fingers and toes. (
  • Raynaud's phenomenon is a condition that causes the blood vessels in the hands and feet to narrow, decreasing blood flow. (
  • This course aims to build a strong foundation in analysis of chemical processes via a project-based approach. (
  • Topics covered include analysis and design of stagewise separation processes such as distillation, 1st and 2nd law (of thermodynamics) analysis of power and refrigeration cycles, and application of material and energy balances in industrial chemical processes, including those with recycle and non-ideal systems. (
  • This course uses a project-based approach to build confidence and competence in the use of chemical engineering thermodynamics for the analysis and design of chemical processes. (
  • This course builds on prior work in material and energy balances, chemical engineering thermodynamics, and stagewise separation processes to facilitate student mastery and design of more complex processes. (
  • What about tools working for understood methods for other routes of chemicals / kinetic processes? (
  • Primary Raynaud phenomenon often begins between the ages of 15 and 25, while secondary Raynaud phenomenon usually starts after age 30. (
  • regardless of which comes first, these cases are classified as secondary Raynaud phenomenon. (
  • There are many causes of secondary Raynaud phenomenon. (
  • Raynaud's Phenomenon: A Brief Review of the Underlying Mechanisms. (
  • Demonstrator consisting of a functional 4.7-inch OLCD including PHENOmenon light management sheet, and report on its performance. (
  • An introduction is provided to the first principles of chemical engineering, as well as environmental, health, safety and ethical issues in chemical engineering practice. (
  • Structural relaxation phenomena in binary and multicomponent lithium silicate glasses were studied upon irradiation with femtosecond (fs) laser pulses (800 nm central wavelength, 130 fs pulse duration) and subsequent thermal annealing experiments. (
  • Several approaches have been employed to study fs-laser induced structural and/or chemical modifications. (
  • Titration -- A procedure for causing two solutions to react by the controlled addition of one to the other via a burette, a type of uniform-bore glass tube used in chemical experimentation. (
  • A toxicologist is a specialized type of biologist who investigates chemicals to see if they act as toxins (poisons). (
  • This course provides an introduction to the broad and vital discipline of chemical engineering including conventional and developing chemical technologies. (
  • This first course in chemical engineering is designed to give students the ability to use techniques and solve problems of interest to chemical engineers. (
  • and chemical engineering aspects of biomedical devices. (
  • Chemical Engineering Research and Design , 90 (10), 1625-1631. (
  • Chemical Research Development and Engineering Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. (
  • But the first approach, which has typically involved developing slightly different chemical derivatives, has provided only marginal gains, and the second approach has in recent decades produced only a single new chemical class of antibiotics. (
  • In this article, we therefore offer a broad review for single particle mass spectrometry, from its working principle and several concerns for interpretation of the data, to the applications to probe the nanoscale phenomena, based on our previous publications on the SPMS. (
  • What are the types of Raynaud's phenomenon? (
  • There are two types of Raynaud's phenomenon. (
  • Understanding nanoscale phenomena using single particle mass spectrometry and improvement of its performance - a review. (
  • These phenomena are caused by single- celled organisms called bacteria. (
  • They do understand that attacks usually happen when people with Raynaud's phenomenon are exposed to cold or stress. (
  • Chemical stress caused by the chemical agent used at the reprocessing. (
  • Topics covered include chemical reaction equilibria, material and energy balances for non-steady state systems, combined material and energy balances, humidification, and batch distillation. (
  • Living organisms are the most complicated of all chemical systems in the universe. (
  • In this feature article, we give an account on how we observed an opposite phenomenon termed aggregation-induced emission (AIE) and identified the restriction of intramolecular rotation as a main cause for the AIE effect. (
  • Raynaud's phenomenon happens when "attacks" affect parts of the body, especially the fingers and toes. (
  • At NIEHS in the Research Triangle Park in North Carolina, dozens of dedicated toxicologists study the effects of different chemicals on living things. (
  • The course comprises a mixture of numerical problem solving and descriptive chemical analysis. (
  • that you cannot, on the basis of a chemical analysis alone, determine what kind of fertilizer would have to be added. (
  • Studies suggest that about 30 percent of people with a first-degree relative (parent, sibling or child) who has primary Raynaud phenomenon also have the condition. (
  • Anyone can get Raynaud's phenomenon, but some people are more likely to have it than others. (
  • Doctors do not know exactly why Raynaud's phenomenon develops in some people. (
  • 16. Small-world phenomena in chemical library networks: application to fragment-based drug discovery. (
  • Raynaud phenomenon is a common condition, occurring in 3 to 5 percent of adults worldwide. (
  • Primary Raynaud's phenomenon is the more common form. (
  • Some bacteria obtain energy and perform other life functions by transforming those naturally occurring minerals to different chemical forms. (
  • It is critical to first determine how widespread and robust this phenomenon is, and the range of possible phenotypic outcomes. (