Fractionation, Field Flow
Molecular Sequence Data
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Amino Acid Sequence
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
Multiple Chemical Sensitivity
Induction of AT-specific DNA-interstrand crosslinks by bizelesin in genomic and simian virus 40 DNA. (1/999)Bizelesin is a bifunctional AT-specific DNA alkylating drug. Our study characterized the ability of bizelesin to induce interstrand crosslinks, a potential lethal lesion. In genomic DNA of BSC-1 cells, bizelesin formed from approx. 0.3 to 6.03+/-0.85 interstrand crosslinks per 106 base pairs, at 5-100 nM drug concentration, respectively, comparable to the number of total adducts previously determined in the same system (J.M. Woynarowski, M.M. McHugh, L.S. Gawron, T.A. Beerman, Biochemistry 34 (1995) 13042-13050). Bizelesin did not induce DNA-protein crosslinks or strand breaks. A model defined target, intracellular simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA, was employed to map at the nucleotide level sites of bizelesin adducts, including potential interstrand crosslinks. Preferential adduct formation was observed at AT tracts which are abundant in the SV40 matrix associated region and the origin of replication. Many sites, including each occurrence of 5'-T(A/T)4A-3', co-mapped on both DNA strands suggesting interstrand crosslinks, although monoadducts were also formed. Bizelesin adducts in naked SV40 DNA were found at similar sites. The localization of bizelesin-induced crosslinks in AT-rich tracts of replication-related regions is consistent with the potent anti-replicative properties of bizelesin. Given the apparent lack of other types of lesions in genomic DNA, interstrand crosslinks localized in AT-rich tracts, and to some extent perhaps also monoadducts, are likely to be lethal effects of bizelesin. (+info)
Separation and properties of two acetylacetoin reductases from Bacillus cereus YUF-4. (2/999)The separation and purification of two kinds of acetylacetoin reductases (AACRs) from Bacillus cereus YUF-4 were examined. NADPH-linked AACR (AACR I) and NADH-linked AACR (AACR II) were separated from each other by ammonium sulfate fractionation, DEAE-cellulose chromatography, and hydroxyapatite chromatography. The former was purified 3.4-fold with a yield of 10.0%, and the latter was purified 29-fold with a yield of 15.6%. The two enzymes differ from each other in some enzymic properties such as substrate specificity. (+info)
Two types of HTLV-1 particles are released from MT-2 cells. (3/999)The MT-2 cell line transformed by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) contains one complete provirus and seven defective proviruses. Four defective genomes have an identical structure (LTR-MA-deltaCA-pX-LTR) with an open reading frame that spans from MA to pX, giving rise to a 3.4-kb (24S) RNA transcript encoding a chimeric Gag-pX protein, p28. MT-2 cells release two distinct types of virions. The major "classic" type of particle has a buoyant density of 1.155-1.16 g/cm3 and contains the standard HTLV-I structural proteins and reverse transcriptase (RT). In addition, about 5% of particles are "light," approximately 1.12 g/cm3, and contain p28, RT activity, and the 3.4-kb RNA transcript. RT-PCR and in vitro translation indicate that some of the classic HTLV-1 particles package 3.4-kb RNA as well as full-length 8.5-kb RNA. In addition to matrix features, the p28 protein has a motif resembling a zinc finger at the C-terminal, pX0 region, which may play a role in the assembly of the defective light virions. (+info)
Localization of a candidate surfactant convertase to type II cells, macrophages, and surfactant subfractions. (4/999)Pulmonary surfactant exists in the alveolus in several distinct subtypes that differ in their morphology, composition, and surface activity. Experiments by others have implicated a serine hydrolase in the production of the inactive small vesicular subtype of surfactant (N. J. Gross and R. M. Schultz. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1044: 222-230, 1990). Our laboratory recently identified this enzyme in the rat as the serine carboxylesterase ES-2 [F. Barr, H. Clark, and S. Hawgood. Am. J. Physiol. 274 (Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol. 18): L404-L410, 1998]. In the present study, we determined the cellular sites of expression of ES-2 in rat lung using a digoxygenin-labeled ES-2 riboprobe. ES-2 mRNA was localized to type II cells and alveolar macrophages but not to Clara cells. Using a specific ES-2 antibody, we determined the protein distribution of ES-2 in the lung by immunohistochemistry, and it was found to be consistent with the sites of mRNA expression. Most of the ES-2 in rat bronchoalveolar lavage is in the surfactant-depleted supernatant, but ES-2 was also consistently localized to the small vesicular surfactant subfraction presumed to form as a consequence of conversion activity. These results are consistent with a role for endogenous lung ES-2 in surfactant metabolism. (+info)
Inhibition of protein denaturation by fatty acids, bile salts and other natural substances: a new hypothesis for the mechanism of action of fish oil in rheumatic diseases. (5/999)Natural hydrophobic substances like bile salts (cholate, deoxycholate, chenodeoxycholate, lithocholate and their conjugates with glycine and taurine), fatty acids (caprylic, capric, lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid) were much more active (EC50 approximately 10(-4)-10(-5) M) than selected amino acids (EC50 > 10(-2) M) and inorganic salts (EC50 approximately 10(-1) M) in inhibiting heat-induced denaturation of human serum albumin in vitro. Fish oil, rich in n-3-polyunsaturated acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, administered p.o. (1 ml/kg) in the rat, protected ex vivo (after 2 hr) serum against heat-induced denaturation more than bendazac, a known antidenaturant drug. Thus, we speculated that the antidenaturant activity of fish oil may be partly (in addition to the known effect on endogenous eicosanoid composition) responsible for its beneficial effects in rheumatoid arthritis and other rheumatic conditions. In this connection, it is of note that the in vitro antidenaturant activity of fish oil fatty acids was higher than that of known antidenaturant drugs such as bendazac and bindarit and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like phenylbutazone and indomethacin which could exert beneficial effects in chronic inflammatory conditions by stabilizing endogenous proteins. (+info)
European interlaboratory comparison of breath 13CO2 analysis. (6/999)The BIOMED I programme Stable Isotopes in Gastroenterology and Nutrition (SIGN) has focused upon evaluation and standardisation of stable isotope breath tests using 13C labelled substrates. The programme dealt with comparison of 13C substrates, test meals, test conditions, analysis techniques, and calculation procedures. Analytical techniques applied for 13CO2 analysis were evaluated by taking an inventory of instrumentation, calibration protocols, and analysis procedures. Two ring tests were initiated measuring 13C abundances of carbonate materials. Evaluating the data it was found that seven different models of isotope ratio mass spectrometers (IRMS) were used by the participants applying both the dual inlet system and the continuous flow configuration. Eight different brands of certified 13C reference materials were used with a 13C abundance varying from delta 13CPDB -37.2 to +2.0/1000. CO2 was liberated from certified material by three techniques and different working standards were used varying from -47.4 to +0.4/1000 in their delta 13CPDB value. The standard deviations (SDs) found for all measurements by all participants were 0.25/1000 and 0.50/1000 for two carbonates used in the ring tests. The individual variation for the single participants varied from 0.02 /1000 (dual inlet system) to 0.14/1000 (continuous flow system). The measurement of the difference between two carbonates showed a SD of 0.33/1000 calculated for all participants. Internal precision of IRMS as indicated by the specifications of the different instrument suppliers is < 0.3/1000 for continuous flow systems. In this respect it can be concluded that all participants are working well within the instrument specifications even including sample preparation. Increased overall interlaboratory variation is therefore likely to be due to non-instrumental conditions. It is possible that consistent differences in sample handling leading to isotope fractionation are the causes for interlaboratory variation. Breath analysis does not require sample preparation. As such, interlaboratory variation will be less than observed for the carbonate samples and within the range indicated as internal precision for continuous flow instruments. From this it is concluded that pure analytical interlaboratory variation is acceptable despite the many differences in instrumentation and analytical protocols. Coordinated metabolic studies appear possible, in which different European laboratories perform 13CO2 analysis. Evaluation of compatibility of the analytical systems remains advisable, however. (+info)
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of oral black-pigmented bacteria induce tumor necrosis factor production by LPS-refractory C3H/HeJ macrophages in a way different from that of Salmonella LPS. (7/999)Some lipopolysaccharide (LPS) preparations from S- or R-form members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and oral black-pigmented bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia) are known to activate LPS-refractory C3H/HeJ macrophages. When contaminating proteins are removed from R-form LPS of Enterobacteriaceae by repurification, however, this ability is lost. In the present study, we investigated the capacity of LPS from P. gingivalis, P. intermedia, Salmonella minnesota, and Salmonella abortusequi to induce production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in gamma interferon-primed C3H/HeJ macrophages before and after repurification. P. abortusequi S-LPS was fractionated by centrifugal partition chromatography into two LPS forms: SL-LPS, having homologous long O-polysaccharide chains, and SS-LPS having short oligosaccharide chains. Prior to repurification, all LPS forms except SL-LPS induced TNF production in both C3H/HeJ and C3H/HeN macrophages. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that repurification removed contaminating protein from the preparations, and repurified SS-LPS and S. minnesota Ra-LPS no longer stimulated TNF production in C3H/HeJ macrophages, although C3H/HeN macrophages remained responsive. In contrast, repurified oral bacterial LPS retained the capacity to induce TNF production in C3H/HeJ macrophages. Oral bacterial LPS preparations also were not antagonized by excess inactive, repurified SL-LPS; Ra-LPS; Rhodobacter sphaeroides lipid A, a competitive LPS antagonist, or paclitaxel, an LPS agonist, and they were comparatively resistant to polymyxin B treatment. Nevertheless, oral bacterial LPS was less toxic to D-galactosamine-treated C3H/HeN mice than was LPS from Salmonella. These findings indicate that the active molecule(s) and mode of action of LPS from P. gingivalis and P. intermedia are quite different from those of LPS from Salmonella. (+info)
Characterization of a novel trypanosome lytic factor from human serum. (8/999)Natural resistance of humans to the cattle pathogen Trypanosoma brucei brucei has been attributed to the presence in human serum of nonimmune factors that lyse the parasite. Normal human serum contains two trypanosome lytic factors (TLFs). TLF1 is a 500-kDa lipoprotein, which is reported to contain apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), haptoglobin-related protein (Hpr), hemoglobin, paraoxonase, and apoA-II, whereas TLF2 is a larger, poorly characterized particle. We report here a new immunoaffinity-based purification procedure for TLF2 and TLF1, as well as further characterization of the components of each purified TLF. Immunoaffinity-purified TLF1 has a specific activity 10-fold higher than that of TLF1 purified by previously described methods. Moreover, we find that TLF1 is a lipoprotein particle that contains mainly apoA-I and Hpr, trace amounts of paraoxonase, apoA-II, and haptoglobin, but no detectable hemoglobin. Characterization of TLF2 reveals that it is a 1,000-kDa protein complex containing mainly immunoglobulin M, apoA-I, and Hpr but less than 1% detectable lipid. (+info)
The diagnosis of MCS is based on a combination of medical history, physical examination, and laboratory tests. There is no specific diagnostic test for MCS, and the condition can be difficult to diagnose because its symptoms are similar to those of other conditions. Treatment for MCS typically involves avoiding exposure to chemicals and managing symptoms through lifestyle changes, stress reduction techniques, and medication.
MCS is a controversial condition, and some researchers question whether it is a valid medical diagnosis. However, many health professionals recognize MCS as a legitimate condition that affects thousands of people worldwide.
There are several types of chemical sensitivity, including:
* Irritant-induced sensitivity: This type of sensitivity occurs when an individual becomes sensitive to a specific chemical after repeated exposure to it.
* Allergic contact sensitivity: This type of sensitivity occurs when an individual develops an allergic reaction to a specific chemical.
* Idiopathic environmental intolerance: This type of sensitivity occurs when an individual experiences adverse reactions to multiple chemicals, without any known cause.
There are several risk factors for developing MCS, including:
* Previous exposure to toxic chemicals
* Genetic predisposition
* Age (MCS is more common in younger adults)
* Gender (women are more likely to develop MCS than men)
* Stress and psychological factors
There are several ways to prevent or reduce the risk of developing MCS, including:
* Avoiding exposure to toxic chemicals
* Using protective gear and equipment when working with chemicals
* Properly disposing of chemical waste
* Following safety protocols when handling chemicals
* Reducing stress and managing psychological factors.
There are several ways to diagnose MCS, including:
* Medical history and physical examination
* Allergy testing (such as skin prick testing or blood tests)
* Environmental exposure assessment
* Physiological testing (such as heart rate and blood pressure monitoring)
* Neuropsychological testing (such as cognitive function and mood assessment).
There are several treatment options for MCS, including:
* Avoiding exposure to triggers
* Medications (such as antihistamines or antidepressants)
* Immunotherapy (such as allergy shots)
* Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)
* Alternative therapies (such as acupuncture or herbal supplements).
It is important to note that MCS is a complex and controversial condition, and there is ongoing debate about its cause and validity. However, for those who suffer from the condition, it can have a significant impact on their quality of life, and it is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
Microbial oxidation of sulfur
Peter Reed Morrison
Trace metal stable isotope biogeochemistry
Kenneth Sims (geologist)
Hydrogen isotope biogeochemistry
George R. Rossman
History of chromatography
Fractionation of carbon isotopes in oxygenic photosynthesis
Fractionation Research Inc.
Reference materials for stable isotope analysis
Palm kernel oil
Transient kinetic isotope fractionation
Silicon isotope biogeochemistry
Joseph Edward Smadel
Fractional crystallization (geology)
Polar organic chemical integrative sampler
Mary Locke Petermann
Linear no-threshold model
Xenon isotope geochemistry
Fractional crystallization (chemistry)
Archean life in the Barberton Greenstone Belt
Cathedral Peak Granodiorite
Donald J. DePaolo
Mark S. Ghiorso
Large-scale fractionation of cigarette smoke condensate for chemical and biologic investigations - PubMed
Pharmacological characterization and chemical fractionation of a liposterolic extract of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens): effects...
Effects of fractionation and ionizing radiation dose on the chemical composition and microhardness of enamel. | Arch Oral Biol...
Unexpected side products in the conjugation of an amine-derivatized morpholino oligomer with p-isothiocyanate benzyl DTPA and...
Application of chemical fractionation methods for characterisation of biofuels, waste derived fuels and CFB co-combustion fly...
Characterization of leached phosphorus from soil, manure, and manure-amended soil by physical and chemical fractionation and...
Prevention of Hepatitis A Through Active or Passive Immunization: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization...
DailyMed - KEDBUMIN (albumin- human injection, solution
The EPA National Library Catalog | EPA National Library Network | US EPA
NIOSHTIC-2 Search Results - Basic View
Prevention of Hepatitis A Through Active or Passive Immunization: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization...
Measles and Mumps Vaccines - Adverse Events Associated with Childhood Vaccines - NCBI Bookshelf
BioEnergy Lists: Biochar Mailing Lists | Sharing technical and event information about Biochar from the Biochar email lists
Chemical process development Forum - Eng-Tips
Bioavailability Studies of Metals in Surface Water of River Challawa, Nigeria
Sludge Production | Page 3 | IWA Publishing
The origin and degassing history of the Earth's atmosphere revealed by Archean xenon | Nature Communications
HQ 962807 - Protest 2002-98-100306; Palm Fatty Acid Distillate. - United States International Trade Commision Rulings
Frontiers | Amorphous Silica Controls Water Storage Capacity and Phosphorus Mobility in Soils
EU projects - SINTEF
SciELO - Brazil - Phosphorus distribution and availability in untreated and mechanically separated biogas digestates...
Superantigens and Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome - Volume 9, Number 10-October 2003 - Emerging Infectious Diseases journal ...
Journal: Chemistry of natural compounds / Source: 2017 v.53 no.6 / Subject: spectral analysis / Subject term: chemical...
Investigation of the residual lignin in chemical pulps
Publications of the Group | Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology
- Characterization of leached phosphorus from soil, manure, and manure-amended soil by physical and chemical fractionation and Diffusive Gradients in Thin films (DGT). (illumina.com)
- Isolation, fractionation and chemical characterization. (nih.gov)
- Fractionation and chemical characterization studies on Micropolyspora faeni antigens. (cdc.gov)
- The chemical fractionation trends were found to be dominated by particulate fractions of metals studied except Zn (cool and dry season) and Cd. (hindawi.com)
- 7) Particulate COD = chemical oxygen demand of particulate compounds: estimated as the difference between total COD and soluble COD. (iwapublishing.com)
- Particulate COD of sludge can be further subdivided in fractions (sludge fractionation as COD). (iwapublishing.com)
- Fractionation of particulate COD of sludge. (iwapublishing.com)
- A more thorough comprehension of heavy metal cycling in the environment could, however, require information on the chemical speciation of metals in solution, that is, the specific physicochemical forms that are part of the total concentration of metal in solution. (hindawi.com)
- Guidelines for terms related to chemical speciation and fractionation of trace elements. (iupac.org)
- Effects of fractionation and ionizing radiation dose on the chemical composition and microhardness of enamel. (bvsalud.org)
- To evaluate the chemical and mechanical properties of enamel submitted to different in vitro radiation protocols . (bvsalud.org)
- Two-way ANOVA was performed for the fractionation and radiation dose , followed by Bonferroni's test (α = 0.05). (bvsalud.org)
- The HPG axis can be altered by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the aquatic environment which mimic endogenous hormones, alter their concentrations, or block their actions [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Physical fractionation of total solids in sludge. (iwapublishing.com)
- Protestant claims that the original substance has not been "chemically modified" because these fatty acids are the result of steam distillation, which protestant calls a "physical refining" process, rather than "alkali refining" process in which there is a chemical reaction when the palm oil is exposed to caustic soda and mineral acids. (faqs.org)
- Its structure was determined as (25R)-5α-spirostan-3β,6β-diol-12-one 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-[β-D-fucopyranosyl-(1→3)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-galactopyranoside using chemical transformations, physical constants, and spectral data. (usda.gov)
- Physical and chemical architecture of crustal fluid flow systems. (uwindsor.ca)
- A new steroidal glycoside (1) was isolated by fractionation of total extracted substances from Allium porrum. (usda.gov)
- Because most toxicity studies and risk assessments address only single chemical exposures, the scientific community may be underestimating the effects of exposure to multiple substances on human health and disease progression. (nih.gov)
- The Chemical Methodologies and Library Development (CMLD) Centers will feature collaborations and team approaches that otherwise would not be established, including individuals from various subdisciplines within the field of chemistry and/or from cognate fields that will contribute toward the development of novel enabling methodologies. (nih.gov)
- Albumin (Human) 25%, USP (Plasbumin ® -25) is made from large pools of human venous plasma by the Cohn cold ethanol fractionation process. (nih.gov)
- This suggests that EPFRs in environmental samples are indistinguishable from molecular pollutants and are subject to misidentification as molecular adsorbates when traditional extraction and chemical analysis methods are employed. (nih.gov)
- The traditional methods used for soil remediation such as the engineering, thermal and chemical methods that involves excavation, heating and application of toxic chemicals often end up causing more harm to the environment. (copernicus.org)
- This helps to overcome the issues identified in the traditional methods mentioned above as the treatment of pollutants occurs in situ without excavation and destruction of soil nor thermal heating or application of strong oxidising and reducing chemicals. (copernicus.org)
- Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) is a useful technique that has received an increasing attention for studying the degradation mechanisms of organic contaminants based on stable isotope fractionation concepts. (ufz.de)
- The initial isotopic composition of atmospheric Xe remains unknown, as do the mechanisms involved in its depletion and isotopic fractionation compared with other reservoirs in the solar system. (nature.com)
- People are continuously exposed to mixtures of chemical and nonchemical stressors (e.g., psychosocial stress) throughout their lifetimes, and there is clear evidence that combined exposures can have cumulative effects (e.g., asbestos and tobacco smoke on lung cancer). (nih.gov)
- Second, the synthesis core will apply newly-developed chemical methodologies and strategies to the generation of chemical diversity libraries for high-throughput biological screening. (nih.gov)
- Following sonification and solvent extraction for chemical analysis, they are partially converted to molecular species. (nih.gov)
- forum995 - Professional forum and technical support for engineers for Chemical process development. (eng-tips.com)
- Simplified physico-chemical fractionation of total COD in sludge. (iwapublishing.com)
- An investigation into the effects of near-surface geochemical processes and activities on the migration of chemicals in the environment. (uwindsor.ca)
- Assessment of the Contribution of Chemical Species to the Eye Irritation Potential of Photochemical Smog. (epa.gov)
- To identify the observed SELDI-TOF-MS m/z (mass/charge) values with discriminatory expression between different sublines, we employed a combination of chemical pre-fractionation, liquid chromatography, gel electrophoresis and tandem mass spectroscopy. (nih.gov)
- A normal carbon isotope fractionation of PAC was observed under neutral and alkaline conditions (eg. (ufz.de)
- Enzymatic hydrolysis of the pulps and fractionation of the products" Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal , vol. 5, no. 1, 1990, pp. 33-37. (degruyter.com)
- Synergistic activation of estrogen receptor with combinations of environmental chemicals. (cdc.gov)
- Bichi [ 2 ] indicated that Kano is a booming industrial center in Nigeria, with over 320 industrial establishments comprising of chemical industries, tanneries, textiles, and food processing factories which release waste water into rivers. (hindawi.com)
- This RFA, "Centers of Excellence in Chemical Methodologies and Library Development," is related to one or more of the priority areas. (nih.gov)
- Pirjo Kääriäinen works as a professor at Aalto University School of Arts, Design and Architecture (ARTS) and collaborates closely with the School of Chemical Engineering (CHEM). (aalto.fi)