Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Molecular Motor Proteins: Proteins that are involved in or cause CELL MOVEMENT such as the rotary structures (flagellar motor) or the structures whose movement is directed along cytoskeletal filaments (MYOSIN; KINESIN; and DYNEIN motor families).Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Energy Transfer: The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Phosphocreatine: An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Basal Metabolism: Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.Oxidative Phosphorylation: Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Metabolism: The chemical reactions that occur within the cells, tissues, or an organism. These processes include both the biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) and the breakdown (CATABOLISM) of organic materials utilized by the living organism.Calorimetry, Indirect: Calculation of the energy expenditure in the form of heat production of the whole body or individual organs based on respiratory gas exchange.Citric Acid Cycle: A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Pyruvic Acid: An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer: A type of FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY using two FLUORESCENT DYES with overlapping emission and absorption spectra, which is used to indicate proximity of labeled molecules. This technique is useful for studying interactions of molecules and PROTEIN FOLDING.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Adenine NucleotidesMetabolome: The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Thermogenesis: The generation of heat in order to maintain body temperature. The uncoupled oxidation of fatty acids contained within brown adipose tissue and SHIVERING are examples of thermogenesis in MAMMALS.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Mitochondrial Proteins: Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.AMP-Activated Protein Kinases: Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.PyruvatesBody Temperature Regulation: The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Metabolomics: The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.Hexokinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.1.Mice, Inbred C57BLCell Respiration: The metabolic process of all living cells (animal and plant) in which oxygen is used to provide a source of energy for the cell.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Solar Energy: Energy transmitted from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Deoxyglucose: 2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.Metabolism, Inborn Errors: Errors in metabolic processes resulting from inborn genetic mutations that are inherited or acquired in utero.Conservation of Energy Resources: Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.GlycogenCitrate (si)-Synthase: Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.7.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.TriglyceridesDose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Caloric Restriction: Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Adenylate Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of AMP to ADP in the presence of ATP or inorganic triphosphate. EC 2.7.4.3.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).3-Hydroxybutyric Acid: BUTYRIC ACID substituted in the beta or 3 position. It is one of the ketone bodies produced in the liver.Enzymes: Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.Adenosine Monophosphate: Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Renewable Energy: Forms of energy that are constantly and rapidly renewed by natural processes such as solar, ocean wave, and wind energy. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Creatine: An amino acid that occurs in vertebrate tissues and in urine. In muscle tissue, creatine generally occurs as phosphocreatine. Creatine is excreted as CREATININE in the urine.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional: Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Phosphorus Isotopes: Stable phosphorus atoms that have the same atomic number as the element phosphorus, but differ in atomic weight. P-31 is a stable phosphorus isotope.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Electron Transport Complex IV: A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Calorimetry: The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie (4.184 joules). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Mitochondria, Heart: The mitochondria of the myocardium.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Multiple Chemical Sensitivity: An acquired disorder characterized by recurrent symptoms, referable to multiple organ systems, occurring in response to demonstrable exposure to many chemically unrelated compounds at doses below those established in the general population to cause harmful effects. (Cullen MR. The worker with multiple chemical sensitivities: an overview. Occup Med 1987;2(4):655-61)Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Ketone Bodies: The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Metabolic Diseases: Generic term for diseases caused by an abnormal metabolic process. It can be congenital due to inherited enzyme abnormality (METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS) or acquired due to disease of an endocrine organ or failure of a metabolically important organ such as the liver. (Stedman, 26th ed)Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Succinic Acid: A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Meclizine: A histamine H1 antagonist used in the treatment of motion sickness, vertigo, and nausea during pregnancy and radiation sickness.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Adipose Tissue, Brown: A thermogenic form of adipose tissue composed of BROWN ADIPOCYTES. It is found in newborns of many species including humans, and in hibernating mammals. Brown fat is richly vascularized, innervated, and densely packed with MITOCHONDRIA which can generate heat directly from the stored lipids.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Chemical Industry: The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Succinate Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of SUCCINATE to fumarate. In most eukaryotic organisms this enzyme is a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex II.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Hydroxybutyrates: Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Lipolysis: The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.Sirtuin 3: A sirtuin family member found primarily in MITOCHONDRIA. It is a multifunctional enzyme that contains a NAD-dependent deacetylase activity that is specific for HISTONES and a mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase activity.Xenobiotics: Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Mitochondria, Muscle: Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.Energy Drinks: Beverages consumed as stimulants and tonics. They usually contain a combination of CAFFEINE with other substances such as herbal supplements; VITAMINS; AMINO ACIDS; and sugar or sugar derivatives.Propionates: Derivatives of propionic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxyethane structure.Fats: The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Dinitrophenols: Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Acetyl Coenzyme A: Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
Hoyer, Siegfried (1992). "Oxidative energy metabolism in Alzheimer brain". Molecular and Chemical Neuropathology. 16 (3): 207- ... While glucose is the brain's chief energy source, ketones normally serve as the "backup" energy source. Ketones act as an ... Its use is based on the idea that the brain's ability to use its normal energy source, glucose, is impaired in Alzheimer's ... Meier-Ruge, W.; Bertoni-Freddari, C.; Iwangoff, P. (1994). "Changes in Brain Glucose Metabolism as a Key to the Pathogenesis of ...
Many chemicals damage mitochondria, an intracellular organelle that produces energy. Its dysfunction releases excessive amount ... Drug metabolism in liver[edit]. Drug metabolism in liver: transferases are : glutathione, sulfate, acetate, glucoronic acid. P- ... Other chemical agents, such as those used in laboratories and industries, natural chemicals (e.g., microcystins) and herbal ... metabolism) to make them suitable for elimination. This involves chemical transformations to (a) reduce fat solubility and (b) ...
Energy. metabolism. Aerobic respiration. *Glycolysis → Pyruvate decarboxylation → Citric acid cycle → Oxidative phosphorylation ... The creation of these wastes is usually an oxidation process involving a release of chemical free energy, some of which is lost ... Catabolism is seen as destructive metabolism and anabolism as constructive metabolism). Catabolism therefore provides the ... This molecule acts as a way for the cell to transfer the energy released by catabolism to the energy-requiring reactions that ...
It reclaims the energy to power chemical reactions in cells. In so doing the carbon atoms and their electrons are combined with ... Plants use both processes, photosynthesis to capture the energy and oxidative metabolism to use it. ... The chemical equation of photosynthesis is 6 CO2 (carbon dioxide) and 6 H2O (water), which in the presence of sunlight makes C6 ... Most plants require some oxygen for catabolic processes (break-down reactions that release energy). But the quantity of O2 used ...
Monod reminds us that this reaction comes at the expense of chemical potential energy. In chapter four ("Microscopic ... The rest of the chapter is a discussion of the principles that cell metabolism works by. Monod first brings up allosteric ... Since the activation energy of a covalent bond is high the reaction will have a slower speed than that of a non-covalent bond ( ... This spontaneity is due to the fact that the chemical potential needed to form the oligomer is present in the solution of ...
... new biological metabolisms to make these chemicals and have driven the evolution of new metabolisms to use those chemicals. ... Life harnesses chemical reactions to generate energy, perform biosynthesis, and eliminate waste. Different organisms use very ... Many organisms can perform multiple metabolisms to achieve the same end goal; these are called mixotrophs. Biotic metabolism is ... But several decades passed before the tools were available to begin to search in earnest for chemical marks of life in the ...
Elaborate Cellular metabolism is the set of chemical reactions representing the flow of matter and energy through the cell. ... SEE the concept "cellular metabolism". State Cellular metabolism is the set of chemical reactions inside a cell that maintain ... Exemplify The citric acid cycle is a part of cellular metabolism. Cellular respiration is another part of cellular metabolism. ... Illustration Cellular metabolism is like the activity of the bees in a beehive. The worker bees, drones, and queen perform ...
This reaction releases energy that can be used to drive metabolism. Chemotrophs are further divided by the types of compounds ... Bacteria either derive energy from light using photosynthesis (called phototrophy), or by breaking down chemical compounds ... Nutritional types in bacterial metabolism Nutritional type Source of energy Source of carbon Examples ... Endospores show no detectable metabolism and can survive extreme physical and chemical stresses, such as high levels of UV ...
Bioluminescence, like other forms of metabolism, releases energy derived from the chemical energy of food. A pigment, luciferin ... Pigments are coloured chemicals (such as melanin) in animal tissues. For example, the Arctic fox has a white coat in winter ( ... Shimomura, Osamu (2012) [2006]. Bioluminescence: chemical principles and methods. World Scientific. ISBN 9789812568014. ... chemicals, etc., Colour change helps individuals in becoming more or less visible and is important in agonistic displays and in ...
The advantage of MFCs over conventional electricity generation is the direct conversion of chemical energy into electricity, ... When connected to a cathode, the bacterial metabolism of the reduced compound generates electricity and CO2. ... Rabaey, Korneel; Verstraete, Willy (2005). "Microbial fuel cells: novel biotechnology for energy generation". Trends in ... improving energy conversion efficiency. A unique feature of using R. ferrireducens over other bacteria is that many other ...
They regulate metabolism. Metabolism is all of the chemical and energy reactions that happen in a living thing. Hormones cause ... Chemical classes[change , change source]. Hormones are defined functionally, not structurally. They may have various chemical ... They are grouped by the chemicals from which they are made. *Steroid hormones - these are made from cholesterol. Examples of ... Hormones are the chemical messengers of the endocrine system. Hormones are the signals which adjust the body's internal working ...
By metabolism he meant a cycle of chemical reactions that release energy in a form that can be harnessed by other processes. It ... The chemical and thermal dynamics in hydrothermal vents makes such environments highly suitable thermodynamically for chemical ... Life has traditionally been seen as driven by energy from the sun, but deep-sea organisms have no access to sunlight, so they ... Therefore, thermal energy flux is a permanent agent and contributed to the evolution of the planet, including prebiotic ...
This dephosphorylation reaction releases energy, which the enzyme (in most cases) harnesses to drive other chemical reactions ... Transmembrane ATPases import many of the metabolites necessary for cell metabolism and export toxins, wastes, and solutes that ... Transmembrane ATPases harness the chemical potential energy of ATP, because they perform mechanical work: they transport ... The coupling between ATP hydrolysis and transport is more or less a strict chemical reaction, in which a fixed number of solute ...
... exhibit a great variety of chemical reactions in their metabolism and use many sources of energy. These reactions are ... Phototrophic archaea use light to produce chemical energy in the form of ATP. In the Halobacteria, light-activated ion pumps ... Carbon-fixation is powered by inorganic energy sources. No known archaea carry out photosynthesis. Archaeal energy sources are ... This form of metabolism evolved early, and it is even possible that the first free-living organism was a methanogen. A common ...
Metabolism here means a cycle of chemical reactions that produce energy in a form that can be harnessed by other processes. The ... One of the key ideas advanced by Wächtershäuser is that an early form of metabolism predated genetics. ...
The mechanisms by which cells harness energy from their environment via chemical reactions are known as metabolism. The ... By controlling information flow through biochemical signaling and the flow of chemical energy through metabolism, biochemical ... The energy released from transferring the electrons from high-energy states in NADH and quinol is conserved first as proton ... which presented a chemical theory of metabolism, or even earlier to the 18th century studies on fermentation and respiration by ...
Metabolism metabolism is the sum of all the processes involved in using food to produce chemical energy for cell functions. It ... is processed aerobically to produce high energy chemicals (ATP) which are used throughout the cell to power energy consuming ... Calorie a measure of the chemical energy in a specific amount of material. The food Calorie (resulting from combustion with ... See acidosis Ketone bodies commonly called ketones-Three chemicals produced during ketosis (i.e., fat metabolism) and which are ...
ATP is one of the major currencies of chemical energy within cells. Compound C00631 at KEGG Pathway Database. Enzyme 4.2.1.11 ... Metabolism of PEP to pyruvic acid by pyruvate kinase (PK) generates adenosine triphosphate (ATP) via substrate-level ... It has the highest-energy phosphate bond found (−61.9 kJ/mol) in living organisms, and is involved in glycolysis and ... The chemical equation, as catalyzed by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEP carboxylase), is: PEP + HCO3− → oxaloacetate " ...
ATP transports chemical energy within cells for metabolism. Every cell uses ATP for energy. It consists of a base (adenine) and ... Energy is stored in its chemical bonds. When ATP binds with another phosphate, energy is stored that can be used later. In ... When ATP breaks a bond with a phosphate group and becomes ADP, energy is released. In other words, when a bond is broken energy ... It was proposed to be the intermediary between energy-yielding and energy-requiring reactions in cells by Fritz Albert Lipmann ...
Archaea exhibit a great variety of chemical reactions in their metabolism and use many sources of energy. These reactions are ... Phototrophic archaea use light to produce chemical energy in the form of ATP. In the Halobacteria, light-activated ion pumps ... Nutritional types in archaeal metabolism. Nutritional type. Source of energy. Source of carbon. Examples. ... Carbon-fixation is powered by inorganic energy sources. No known archaea carry out photosynthesis.[123] Archaeal energy sources ...
Adenosine triphosphate is used in cellular metabolism as one of the basic methods of transferring chemical energy between ... Purine metabolism involves the formation of adenine and guanine. Both adenine and guanine are derived from the nucleotide ... Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 2011; doi:10.1039/C1CP21350D -- a University of Georgia physicist and a collaborator in ... In 2011, physicists reported that adenine has an "unexpectedly variable range of ionization energies along its reaction ...
Amino acid transporters play essential roles in the uptake of nutrients, production of energy, chemical metabolism, ...
... exhibit a great variety of chemical reactions in their metabolism and use many sources of energy. These reactions are ... Phototrophic archaea use light to produce chemical energy in the form of ATP. In the Halobacteria, light-activated ion pumps ... Nutritional types in archaeal metabolism. Nutritional type. Source of energy. Source of carbon. Examples. ... Carbon-fixation is powered by inorganic energy sources. No known archaea carry out photosynthesis.[125] Archaeal energy sources ...
... to couple energy from the environment into usable chemical forms. These would foster subsequent cellular evolution and ... Benner SA, Ellington AD, Tauer A; Ellington; Tauer (1989). "Modern metabolism as a palimpsest of the RNA world". Proc Natl Acad ... Other biologists dispute this conception and emphasize the community metabolism theme, the idea that early living communities ... chemical problem, it was effectively ignored. Scientific interest in cellular evolution started to pick up once the universal ...
Originally they depended on hydrothermal vents for energy and chemical "food", but the development of photosynthesis allow mats ... Microbial mats use all of the types of metabolism and feeding strategy that have evolved on Earth-anoxygenic and oxygenic ... Such interfaces form vertical chemical gradients, i.e. vertical variations in chemical composition, which make different levels ... single-species biofilms of chemotrophs that relied on hydrothermal vents to supply both energy and chemical "food". Within a ...
For some common chemicals (mainly in biochemistry), keto or oxo refer to the ketone functional group. The term oxo is used ... Representative ketones, from the left: acetone, a common solvent; oxaloacetate, an intermediate in the metabolism of sugars; ... Acetoacetate is an intermediate in the Krebs cycle which releases energy from sugars and carbohydrates.[22] ... Mendham, J.; Denney, R. C.; Barnes, J. D.; Thomas, M. J. K. (2000), Vogel's Quantitative Chemical Analysis (6th ed.), New York ...
Molecule of Adenosine Triphosphate ATP transports chemical energy within cells for metabolism - B5R0WK from Alamys library of ... In this role, ATP transports chemical energy within cells for metabolism. It is produced as an energy source during the ... adenosine, adp, atp, bond, bonds, cell, cells, cellular, chemical, cycle, electrical, energy, glycolysis, glycosome, krebs, ... Molecule of Adenosine Triphosphate ATP transports chemical energy within cells for metabolism - Image ID: B5R0WK ...
Metabolism and energy. Metabolism: chemical reactions in cells. Countless chemical reactions take place in cells and are ... Metabolism: chemical reactions in cells , Anabolism and catabolism , How chemical reactions occur , Molecules move and collide ... However, this energy costs money. Catalysts make chemical reactions go more quickly and their use in the chemical industry ... How chemical reactions occur. Chemical reactions that occur during metabolism are affected by temperature. Many animals ...
Metabolism is the total of all the chemical reactions an organism needs to survive, either plant or animal. Photosynthesis and ... Cell Metabolism. We all use energy to survive. Metabolism is the total of all the chemical reactions an organism needs to ... What hormone plays a vital role in metabolism and regulates metabolic processes? ...
3. Energy, Chemical Reactions, and Glucose Metabolism 4. Biology of the Cell 5. Tissue Organization 6. Integumentary System 7. ... 3. Energy, Chemical Reactions, and Glucose Metabolism 4. Biology of the Cell 5. Tissue Organization 6. Integumentary System 7. ... Nutrition, Regulation of Metabolism, Energy, and Heat 28. Reproductive System 29. Development,Pregnancy, and Heredity ... Nutrition, Regulation of Metabolism, Energy, and Heat 28. Reproductive System 29. Development,Pregnancy, and Heredity ...
... the energy produced by ATP is generated by breaking chemical bonds. ATP transports chemical energy within cells for metabolism ... Is the energy produced by ATP generated by breaking chemical bonds?. Yes, ...
Cell Metabolism. * Aging Research * Assays under Hypoxic Conditions * Cancer Research * Cardiovascular Research ...
Metabolism - Part 1. Glycolysis & Respiration. Cells harvest chemical energy from foodstuffs in a series of. exergonic ... to power energy demanding processes including endergonic. reactions.. Metabolism - the sum of all chemical processes carried ... use gglucose and yyield energy:. gy. C6H12O6 + 6 O2 + 6 H2O 6 CO2 + 12 H2O + chemical. energy ... Complete aerobic metabolism of glucose produces water and. carbon dioxide as products.. C6H12O6 + 6 O2 6 CO2 + 6 H2O. Energy is ...
Chemical Energy Trapped in Photosynthesis Is Used to Synthesize Carbohydrates - 10.3 Recap - Learning Outcomes - Page 205 3 ... 10.5 - Photosynthesis Is an Integral Part of Plant Metabolism - 10.5 Recap - Learning Outcomes ... Chapter 10 - Photosynthesis: Energy from Sunlight - 10.3 - Chemical Energy Trapped in Photosynthesis Is Used to Synthesize ... Chapter 10 - Photosynthesis: Energy from Sunlight - 10.3 - Chemical Energy Trapped in Photosynthesis Is Used to Synthesize ...
... operations can act as endocrine disrupting chemicals and metabolic disruptors. Our lab has reported altered energy expenditure ... operations can act as endocrine disrupting chemicals and metabolic disruptors. Our lab has reported altered energy expenditure ... Developmental exposure to the 23 UOG mixture was associated with increased activity and non-resting energy expenditure in the ... Developmental exposure to the 23 UOG mixture was associated with increased activity and non-resting energy expenditure in the ...
Does your metabolism completely stop when youre sleeping? Separate myth from fact here. ... What does it really mean to have a fast metabolism or a slow metabolism? ... All these chemical reactions need energy. The amount of energy needed to keep your body going while youre at rest is called ... Metabolism is the word used for all the chemical reactions that occur inside your body to keep you alive and your body working ...
6. Ground Rules of Metabolism. 7. Where It Starts?Photosynthesis. 8. How Cells Release Chemical Energy. Unit II: PRINCIPLES OF ... 2. Lifes Chemical Basis. 3. Molecules of Life. 4. Cell Structure and Function. 5. A Closer Look at Cell Membranes. ...
4: Energy and Matter 5: Chemical Reactions 6: Gases 7: Solutions 8: Acids and Bases 9: Nuclear Chemistry 10: Introduction to ... 4: Energy and Matter 5: Chemical Reactions 6: Gases 7: Solutions 8: Acids and Bases 9: Nuclear Chemistry 10: Introduction to ...
Energy currency. ATP of adenosine triphosphate is the energy currency in most animal cells. It carries chemical energy. In ... Uses of energy in cells. The body utilizes energy for a variety of functions. Energy is needed to carry out mechanical work ... Anabolism requires energy that is provided by catabolic processes.. Overall, both processes of metabolism must occur ... The energy flow. The breakdown of complex organic molecules to yield simple molecules releases energy and the process is called ...
To quantify the effects of CP clothing on energy cost and to test the hypothesis tha … ... While chemical protective (CP) clothing is known to adversely affect physical performance, few data exist regarding the ... Energy cost of wearing chemical protective clothing during progressive treadmill walking Aviat Space Environ Med. 1995 Mar;66(3 ... While chemical protective (CP) clothing is known to adversely affect physical performance, few data exist regarding the ...
Many chemicals damage mitochondria, an intracellular organelle that produces energy. Its dysfunction releases excessive amount ... Drug metabolism in liver[edit]. Drug metabolism in liver: transferases are : glutathione, sulfate, acetate, glucoronic acid. P- ... Other chemical agents, such as those used in laboratories and industries, natural chemicals (e.g., microcystins) and herbal ... metabolism) to make them suitable for elimination. This involves chemical transformations to (a) reduce fat solubility and (b) ...
Chapter 8 - Energy, Enzymes, and Metabolism * Chapter 9 - Pathways That Harvest Chemical Energy ... 3.4 - Lipids Are Defined by Their Solubility Rather Than by Chemical Structure - 3.4 Recap - Learning Outcomes ...
Photosynthesis and respiration provide the chemical energy that sustains life on Earth. In eukaryotes, this essential ... this distribution of genetic material is that many of the multisubunit protein complexes that are central to energy metabolism ... Only gun mutants with deficiencies in tetrapyrrole metabolism were previously reported to exhibit gun phenotypes when treated ... Thus, GUN1 was suggested to participate in chloroplast-to-nucleus signaling by contributing to RNA metabolism in chloroplasts ...
Energy. metabolism. Aerobic respiration. *Glycolysis → Pyruvate decarboxylation → Citric acid cycle → Oxidative phosphorylation ... The creation of these wastes is usually an oxidation process involving a release of chemical free energy, some of which is lost ... Catabolism is seen as destructive metabolism and anabolism as constructive metabolism). Catabolism therefore provides the ... This molecule acts as a way for the cell to transfer the energy released by catabolism to the energy-requiring reactions that ...
What people eat, including vitamins and minerals, affects their metabolism. In this article, learn what to eat to promote a ... Metabolism is the process the body uses to break down food and nutrients for energy, as well as to support different body ... Without magnesium, the chemical reactions that produce energy in the body cannot happen. This dependency means that magnesium ... A variety of B vitamins are important for metabolism. The B vitamins play many essential roles in energy metabolism in the body ...
metabolism. The chemical processes in the body that create and use energy. It includes breaking down food and transforming it ... Hormones are substances that control many body functions, such as growth, metabolism and sexual reproduction. The hormones made ... Metabolic means referring to or having to do with metabolism, as in metabolic rate. ... into energy, eliminating wastes and toxins, breathing, circulating blood and regulating temperature. ...
metabolism. The chemical processes in the body that create and use energy. It includes breaking down food and transforming it ... They act as hormones and as neurotransmitters (chemical messengers in the nervous system). They manage the bodys response to ... Hormones are substances that regulate specific body functions, such as metabolism, growth and reproduction. The hormones are ... It also causes changes in metabolism to help the body manage stress, and it suppresses the immune system. ...
How did this perfectly balanced energy-sharing system come about? More.... Bacteria Share Metabolism through Nanowires. ... Plant leaves convert light into chemical energy for use in cells. Their biochemistry specifically absorbs the blue and red ... Plant leaves convert light into chemical energy for use in cells. Their biochemistry specifically absorbs the blue and red ... Now researchers have discovered that light-harvesting bacteria living on the surfaces of leaves gather energy from the green ...
Biochemical Principles of Energy Metabolism. Learn online and earn valuable credentials from top universities like Yale, ... Energy metabolism covers various biochemical ways of energy transformation and regulation of thousands of chemical reactions. ... Energy metabolism covers various biochemical ways of energy transformation and regulatory mechanisms of over thousands chemical ... We will first establish the concept of energy metabolism and subsequently examine biochemical steps involved in energy ...
4: Energy and Matter. 5: Chemical Reactions. 6: Gases. 7: Solutions. 8: Acids and Bases. 9: Nuclear Chemistry. 10: Introduction ...
metabolism -- n. The chemical processes within an organic body that supply the energy necessary for life. The rate of metabolic ... For example, mammals generally have a higher metabolism than reptiles and can thus sustain higher levels of activity for longer ...
  • Clearly, the remainder of the ATP must be generated indirectly from other chemical products generated during glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and the conversion of pyruvate to acetate. (visionlearning.com)
  • The ΔG 0' of a low-energy (or "inorganic") phosphate group (called P i ) is 9-20 kJ mol -1 , while the ΔG 0' of a high-energy phosphate (denoted Ⓟ) is ~30 kJ mol -1 . (wikibooks.org)
  • In order for chemosynthetic symbioses to thrive, symbionts must have access to an electron donor used as an energy source (sulfide), an electron acceptor (oxygen), and inorganic carbon. (mbari.org)
  • Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) is a multifunctional nucleotide, and plays an important role in cell biology as a coenzyme that is the 'molecular unit of currency' of intracellular energy transfer. (alamy.com)
  • Geobiology employs molecular biology, environmental microbiology, chemical analyses, and the geologic record to investigate the evolutionary interconnectedness of life and Earth. (wikipedia.org)
  • The conclusion, in short, is that microbes can putter along at extremely low rates of oxygen respiration, their numbers limited only by the paucity of energy available in the buried sediment. (washingtonpost.com)
  • However, the isolated nature of subglacial environments poses limitations upon the supply of protons for chemical weathering and energy sources (electron donors/acceptors) to support in situ microbial communities. (frontiersin.org)