Lanthanoid Series Elements
Iron Chelating Agents
Heterocyclic Compounds, 1-Ring
An antiseptic with mild fungistatic, bacteriostatic, anthelmintic, and amebicidal action. It is also used as a reagent and metal chelator, as a carrier for radio-indium for diagnostic purposes, and its halogenated derivatives are used in addition as topical anti-infective agents and oral antiamebics.
Neutral or negatively charged ligands bonded to metal cations or neutral atoms. The number of ligand atoms to which the metal center is directly bonded is the metal cation's coordination number, and this number is always greater than the regular valence or oxidation number of the metal. A coordination complex can be negative, neutral, or positively charged.
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
The first artificially produced element and a radioactive fission product of URANIUM. Technetium has the atomic symbol Tc, atomic number 43, and atomic weight 98.91. All technetium isotopes are radioactive. Technetium 99m (m=metastable) which is the decay product of Molybdenum 99, has a half-life of about 6 hours and is used diagnostically as a radioactive imaging agent. Technetium 99 which is a decay product of technetium 99m, has a half-life of 210,000 years.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate and NAD+ to yield 2-ketoglutarate, carbon dioxide, and NADH. It occurs in cell mitochondria. The enzyme requires Mg2+, Mn2+; it is activated by ADP, citrate, and Ca2+, and inhibited by NADH, NADPH, and ATP. The reaction is the key rate-limiting step of the citric acid (tricarboxylic) cycle. (From Dorland, 27th ed) (The NADP+ enzyme is EC 184.108.40.206.) EC 220.127.116.11.
Metals, Rare Earth
A group of elements that include SCANDIUM; YTTRIUM; and the LANTHANOID SERIES ELEMENTS. Historically, the rare earth metals got their name from the fact that they were never found in their pure elemental form, but as an oxide. In addition they were very difficult to purify. They are not truly rare and comprise about 25% of the metals in the earth's crust.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Acetyl Coenzyme A
Dicarboxylic Acid Transporters
Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.
The production of an image obtained by cameras that detect the radioactive emissions of an injected radionuclide as it has distributed differentially throughout tissues in the body. The image obtained from a moving detector is called a scan, while the image obtained from a stationary camera device is called a scintiphotograph.
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Amino Acid Sequence
An allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate to yield fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. D-tagatose- 6-phosphate and sedoheptulose-7-phosphate also are acceptors. UTP, CTP, and ITP also are donors. In human phosphofructokinase-1, three types of subunits have been identified. They are PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, MUSCLE TYPE; PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, LIVER TYPE; and PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, TYPE C; found in platelets, brain, and other tissues.
A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)
Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
Monocytes, Activated Killer
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Indicators and Reagents
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
An iron-binding protein that was originally characterized as a milk protein. It is widely distributed in secretory fluids and is found in the neutrophilic granules of LEUKOCYTES. The N-terminal part of lactoferrin possesses a serine protease which functions to inactivate the TYPE III SECRETION SYSTEM used by bacteria to export virulence proteins for host cell invasion.
Nephrogenic Fibrosing Dermopathy
A chronic, acquired, idiopathic, progressive eruption of the skin that occurs in the context of RENAL FAILURE. It is sometimes accompanied by systemic fibrosis. The pathogenesis seems to be multifactorial, with postulated involvement of circulating fibrocytes. There is a strong association between this disorder and the use of gadolinium-based contrast agents.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
Biological Transport, Active
Inflammation of the spinal cord. Relatively common etiologies include infections; AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES; SPINAL CORD; and ischemia (see also SPINAL CORD VASCULAR DISEASES). Clinical features generally include weakness, sensory loss, localized pain, incontinence, and other signs of autonomic dysfunction.
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- Iron supplements are available in a number of different forms, including ferrous sulfate, ferric citrate and amino acid chelate. (sfgate.com)
- Zinc amino acid chelate (equiv. (compoundlabs.co.nz)
- OsteoSheath®4 contains 1,221 mg of elemental calcium made up of the three most bioavailable forms of calcium available: MCHC, Calcium Amino Acid Chelate, and Calcium Citrate. (yourholisticdoc.com)
- to Magnesium 20mg), Magnesium amino acid chelate 100mg (equiv. (healthnewzealand.co.nz)
- to Magnesium 50mg) 309mg , Magnesium amino acid chelate (equiv. (lifepharmacystlukes.co.nz)
- The magnesium is provided in more readily absorbed forms - amino acid chelate & citrate. (harmoniawellness.com)
- Amino acid chelates and citrates are provided to improve absorption and and improve gastrointestinal tolerance. (theleeclinic.com)
- Magnesium Advanced contains the following ingredients: Magnesium glycinate (491mg), Magnesium citrate (389mg), Magnesium amino acid chelate (300mg), Magnesium aspartate (150mg). (brainreference.com)
- Mineral chelates and citrates are made by "cooking" the minerals with amino acids from rice protein to form easily absorbable forms of the minerals. (naturalhealthprotocol.com)
- A well-absorbed, high quality kind of calcium citrate and high quality kinds of magnesium contain calcium citrate and calcium amino acid chelate. (toptentopic.xyz)
- The Krebs Cycle Complex consists of five main Krebs Cycle group compounds: (citrate, fumarate, malate, succinate & alpha-ketoglutarate). (swanson.cz)
- Magnesium-You can take 400mg daily in citrate, malate, chelate or chloride form. (healthyjourneycafe.com)
- This supplement has a blend of different types of magnesium (magnesium glycinate, malate and citrate). (vegfaqs.com)
- This magnesium supplement contains a blend of chelated magnesium citrate, glycinate, and malate to support relaxation and stress relief. (velillum.com)
- Bisglycinate (Chelate), Fumarate und Citrate. (bariatricadvantage.eu)
- Selenium Chelate, not Selenium Energy. (curezone.org)
- There's not too much else to say other than it contains magnesium in multiple forms (magnesium oxide, magnesium citrate and magnesium aspartate). (vegfaqs.com)
- Take a balanced high potency multivitamin and mineral complex daily (without iron if you are male) plus 500 mgs of magnesium daily (preferably a chelated form such as magnesium citrate or another bio-available form - avoid magnesium oxide, it is not well absorbed by the body) to help balance electrolytes, smooth muscle tissue and protect your heart. (costaricayogaspa.com)
- Each capsule contains a 100-mg blend of chelated magnesium glycinate and magnesium oxide. (velillum.com)
- Nutrient 950 provides fully chelated minerals for optimal absorption and activated vitamins, including Metafolin®, the naturally occurring universally metabolized form of folate. (pureprescriptions.com)
- This unique form of chelated iron (iron bisglycinate) is formulated for enhanced absorption and is gentle on your system. (urvitamins.com)
- Ultra Zinc+ contains three forms of zinc, including chelate, citrate dihydrate and gluconate, to ensure optimal absorption and increased effectiveness. (sportyshealth.com.au)
- The Endomet Laboratories Paramin product contains 250 mg of elemental calcium from calcium chelate and calcium citrate. (naturalhealthprotocol.com)
- Chelate Copper Tablets is one of Solgar's premium-quality mineral products. (simplyvits.co.uk)
- Solgar's Magnesium Citrate offers a high potency source of the mineral magnesium in a highly. (simplyvits.co.uk)
- Calcium Citrate is a readily digested and absorbed form of Calcium, a mineral that is necessary for the maintenance of bone health. (supplement-store.co.uk)
- Chelated magnesium is the result of bonding this essential mineral to a negatively charged group (also known as an anion) in two or more places. (supplement-store.co.uk)
- In a world where Magnesium deficiency is on the rise, even in younger people, Swanson Ultra Albion Chelated Magnesium Glycinate is the most dynamic and bioavailable form of this mineral supplement available today. (supplement-store.co.uk)
- Chelated Mineral diformulasikan menggunakan bahan-bahan yang mudah diserap tubuh. (minumankesehatan.biz)
- Chelated Mineral menyediakan mineral penting dalam bentuk sangat bioavailable pada dosis yang aman dan efektif. (minumankesehatan.biz)
- Dirancang untuk dikonsumsi bersama Chelated Mineral untuk manfaat maksimal. (minumankesehatan.biz)
- Calcium & Magnesium Mineral Complex from Nature's Way is an advanced chelate complex, which enhances absorption of calcium through the intestine. (amarilloeatsorganic.com)
- Calcium (Citrate, Sulfate, Dicalcium Phosphate Dihydrate). (fullscript.com)
- When we gave them various chelates of Magnesium (Glycinate, Taurate, Citrate, and even Orotate) it agitated their sleep making it worse. (atplab.com)