Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.7.
A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.
Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.
Europium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Eu, atomic number 63, and atomic weight 152. Europium is used in the form of its salts as coatings for cathode ray tubes and in the form of its organic derivatives as shift reagents in NMR spectroscopy.
A powder that dissolves in water, which is administered orally, and is used as a diuretic, expectorant, systemic alkalizer, and electrolyte replenisher.
Elements of the lanthanoid series including atomic number 57 (LANTHANUM) through atomic number 71 (LUTETIUM).
Organic chemicals that form two or more coordination links with an iron ion. Once coordination has occurred, the complex formed is called a chelate. The iron-binding porphyrin group of hemoglobin is an example of a metal chelate found in biological systems.
A class of organic compounds containing a ring structure made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The ring structure can be aromatic or nonaromatic.
A derivative of acetic acid, N(CH2COOH)3. It is a complexing (sequestering) agent that forms stable complexes with Zn2+. (From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed.)
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond of a 3-hydroxy acid. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 4.1.3.
A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Unstable isotopes of gallium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ga atoms with atomic weights 63-68, 70 and 72-76 are radioactive gallium isotopes.
A colorless crystalline or white powdery organic, tricarboxylic acid occurring in plants, especially citrus fruits, and used as a flavoring agent, as an antioxidant in foods, and as a sequestrating agent. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.
Gadolinium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Gd, atomic number 64, and atomic weight 157.25. Its oxide is used in the control rods of some nuclear reactors.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
An iron chelating agent with properties like EDETIC ACID. DTPA has also been used as a chelator for other metals, such as plutonium.
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
A triphenyl ethylene stilbene derivative which is an estrogen agonist or antagonist depending on the target tissue. Note that ENCLOMIPHENE and ZUCLOMIPHENE are the (E) and (Z) isomers of Clomiphene respectively.
Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The use of fluorescence spectrometry to obtain quantitative results for the FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE. One advantage over the other methods (e.g., radioimmunoassay) is its extreme sensitivity, with a detection limit on the order of tenths of microgram/liter.
An enzyme that utilizes NADH or NADPH to reduce FLAVINS. It is involved in a number of biological processes that require reduced flavin for their functions such as bacterial bioluminescence. Formerly listed as EC 1.6.8.1 and EC 1.5.1.29.
Terbium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Tb, atomic number 65, and atomic weight 158.92.
Organic compounds that are acyclic and contain three acid groups. A member of this class is citric acid which is the first product formed by reaction of pyruvate and oxaloacetate. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p443)
Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.
A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.
Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Derivatives of OXALOACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include a 2-keto-1,4-carboxy aliphatic structure.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Bi, atomic number 83 and atomic weight 208.98.
Use of radiolabeled antibodies for diagnostic imaging of neoplasms. Antitumor antibodies are labeled with diverse radionuclides including iodine-131, iodine-123, indium-111, or technetium-99m and injected into the patient. Images are obtained by a scintillation camera.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.
An antiseptic with mild fungistatic, bacteriostatic, anthelmintic, and amebicidal action. It is also used as a reagent and metal chelator, as a carrier for radio-indium for diagnostic purposes, and its halogenated derivatives are used in addition as topical anti-infective agents and oral antiamebics.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Stable iron atoms that have the same atomic number as the element iron, but differ in atomic weight. Fe-54, 57, and 58 are stable iron isotopes.
Samarium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sm, atomic number 62, and atomic weight 150.36. The oxide is used in the control rods of some nuclear reactors.
Unstable isotopes of indium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. In atoms with atomic weights 106-112, 113m, 114, and 116-124 are radioactive indium isotopes.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.
Unstable isotopes of copper that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cu atoms with atomic weights 58-62, 64, and 66-68 are radioactive copper isotopes.
Rhenium. A metal, atomic number 75, atomic weight 186.2, symbol Re. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Neutral or negatively charged ligands bonded to metal cations or neutral atoms. The number of ligand atoms to which the metal center is directly bonded is the metal cation's coordination number, and this number is always greater than the regular valence or oxidation number of the metal. A coordination complex can be negative, neutral, or positively charged.
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
A rare, metallic element designated by the symbol, Ga, atomic number 31, and atomic weight 69.72.
Natural product isolated from Streptomyces pilosus. It forms iron complexes and is used as a chelating agent, particularly in the mesylate form.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of cis-aconitate to yield citrate or isocitrate. It is one of the citric acid cycle enzymes. EC 4.2.1.3.
Unstable isotopes of iron that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Fe atoms with atomic weights 52, 53, 55, and 59-61 are radioactive iron isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of yttrium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Y atoms with atomic weights 82-88 and 90-96 are radioactive yttrium isotopes.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
A metallic element, atomic number 49, atomic weight 114.82, symbol In. It is named from its blue line in the spectrum. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The first artificially produced element and a radioactive fission product of URANIUM. Technetium has the atomic symbol Tc, atomic number 43, and atomic weight 98.91. All technetium isotopes are radioactive. Technetium 99m (m=metastable) which is the decay product of Molybdenum 99, has a half-life of about 6 hours and is used diagnostically as a radioactive imaging agent. Technetium 99 which is a decay product of technetium 99m, has a half-life of 210,000 years.
Compounds which increase the capacity to conceive in females.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate and NAD+ to yield 2-ketoglutarate, carbon dioxide, and NADH. It occurs in cell mitochondria. The enzyme requires Mg2+, Mn2+; it is activated by ADP, citrate, and Ca2+, and inhibited by NADH, NADPH, and ATP. The reaction is the key rate-limiting step of the citric acid (tricarboxylic) cycle. (From Dorland, 27th ed) (The NADP+ enzyme is EC 1.1.1.42.) EC 1.1.1.41.
Low-molecular-weight compounds produced by microorganisms that aid in the transport and sequestration of ferric iron. (The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
Compounds consisting of benzene rings linked to each other in either ortho, meta or para positions. Permitted are any substitutions, but ring fusion to any of the benzene rings is not allowed.
A group of elements that include SCANDIUM; YTTRIUM; and the LANTHANOID SERIES ELEMENTS. Historically, the rare earth metals got their name from the fact that they were never found in their pure elemental form, but as an oxide. In addition they were very difficult to purify. They are not truly rare and comprise about 25% of the metals in the earth's crust.
Ytterbium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Yb, atomic number 70, and atomic weight 173. Ytterbium has been used in lasers and as a portable x-ray source.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).
Elements with partially filled d orbitals. They constitute groups 3-12 of the periodic table of elements.
A dicarboxylic acid ketone that is an important metabolic intermediate of the CITRIC ACID CYCLE. It can be converted to ASPARTIC ACID by ASPARTATE TRANSAMINASE.
A species of bacteria whose spores vary from round to elongate. It is a common soil saprophyte.
A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Gram-negative gas-producing rods found in feces of humans and other animals, sewage, soil, water, and dairy products.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain piperidine alkaloids (PIPERIDINES).
Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC 1.1.1.37.
Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.
A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
Compound such as LUMINESCENT PROTEINS that cause or emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE).
A family of organic anion transporters that specifically transport DICARBOXYLIC ACIDS such as alpha-ketoglutaric acid across cellular membranes.
Hydroxylated benzoic acid derivatives that contain mercury. Some of these are used as sulfhydryl reagents in biochemical studies.
A seven-membered aromatic ring compound. It is structurally related to a number of naturally occurring antifungal compounds (ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS).
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.
An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
The production of an image obtained by cameras that detect the radioactive emissions of an injected radionuclide as it has distributed differentially throughout tissues in the body. The image obtained from a moving detector is called a scan, while the image obtained from a stationary camera device is called a scintiphotograph.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A trace element that is a component of vitamin B12. It has the atomic symbol Co, atomic number 27, and atomic weight 58.93. It is used in nuclear weapons, alloys, and pigments. Deficiency in animals leads to anemia; its excess in humans can lead to erythrocytosis.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Zirconium. A rather rare metallic element, atomic number 40, atomic weight 91.22, symbol Zr. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A non-imidazole blocker of those histamine receptors that mediate gastric secretion (H2 receptors). It is used to treat gastrointestinal ulcers.
A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate to yield fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. D-tagatose- 6-phosphate and sedoheptulose-7-phosphate also are acceptors. UTP, CTP, and ITP also are donors. In human phosphofructokinase-1, three types of subunits have been identified. They are PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, MUSCLE TYPE; PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, LIVER TYPE; and PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, TYPE C; found in platelets, brain, and other tissues.
A ferroin compound that forms a stable magenta-colored solution with the ferrous ion. The complex has an absorption peak at 562 nm and is used as a reagent and indicator for iron.
An analytical method for detecting and measuring FLUORESCENCE in compounds or targets such as cells, proteins, or nucleotides, or targets previously labeled with FLUORESCENCE AGENTS.
A trace element that is required in bone formation. It has the atomic symbol Sn, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 118.71.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Tree-like, highly branched, polymeric compounds. They grow three-dimensionally by the addition of shells of branched molecules to a central core. The overall globular shape and presence of cavities gives potential as drug carriers and CONTRAST AGENTS.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria whose growth is dependent on the presence of a fermentable carbohydrate. It is nonpathogenic to plants and animals, including humans.
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
A glycoprotein albumin from hen's egg white with strong iron-binding affinity.
Inorganic compounds that contain the OH- group.
A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)
A complex of gadolinium with a chelating agent, diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA see PENTETIC ACID), that is given to enhance the image in cranial and spinal MRIs. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p706)
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
Therapy of heavy metal poisoning using agents which sequester the metal from organs or tissues and bind it firmly within the ring structure of a new compound which can be eliminated from the body.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Lutetium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Lu, atomic number 71, and atomic weight 175.
A cyclic peptide consisting of three residues of delta-N-hydroxy-delta-N-acetylornithine. It acts as an iron transport agent in Ustilago sphaerogena.
A potentially neurotoxic 8-hydroxyquinoline derivative long used as a topical anti-infective, intestinal antiamebic, and vaginal trichomonacide. The oral preparation has been shown to cause subacute myelo-optic neuropathy and has been banned worldwide.
Solution titration in which the end point is read from the electrode-potential variations with the concentrations of potential determining ions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Monocytes made cytotoxic by IN VITRO incubation with CYTOKINES, especially INTERFERON-GAMMA. The cells are used for ADOPTIVE IMMUNOTHERAPY in cancer patients.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
A 60-kDa extracellular protein of Streptomyces avidinii with four high-affinity biotin binding sites. Unlike AVIDIN, streptavidin has a near neutral isoelectric point and is free of carbohydrate side chains.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
The study of the chemical and physical phenomena of radioactive substances.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Emission of LIGHT when ELECTRONS return to the electronic ground state from an excited state and lose the energy as PHOTONS. It is sometimes called cool light in contrast to INCANDESCENCE. LUMINESCENT MEASUREMENTS take advantage of this type of light emitted from LUMINESCENT AGENTS.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Condensation products of aromatic amines and aldehydes forming azomethines substituted on the N atom, containing the general formula R-N:CHR. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Cyclic compounds with a ring size of approximately 1-4 dozen atoms.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A plant genus of the family ERICACEAE known for species with edible fruits.
Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
The univalent radical OH. Hydroxyl radical is a potent oxidizing agent.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Unstable isotopes of cobalt that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Co atoms with atomic weights of 54-64, except 59, are radioactive cobalt isotopes.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
A carboxylating enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, acetyl-CoA, and HCO3- to ADP, orthophosphate, and malonyl-CoA. It is a biotinyl-protein that also catalyzes transcarboxylation. The plant enzyme also carboxylates propanoyl-CoA and butanoyl-CoA (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.4.1.2.
An iron-binding protein that was originally characterized as a milk protein. It is widely distributed in secretory fluids and is found in the neutrophilic granules of LEUKOCYTES. The N-terminal part of lactoferrin possesses a serine protease which functions to inactivate the TYPE III SECRETION SYSTEM used by bacteria to export virulence proteins for host cell invasion.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Stones in the KIDNEY, usually formed in the urine-collecting area of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS). Their sizes vary and most contains CALCIUM OXALATE.
A chronic, acquired, idiopathic, progressive eruption of the skin that occurs in the context of RENAL FAILURE. It is sometimes accompanied by systemic fibrosis. The pathogenesis seems to be multifactorial, with postulated involvement of circulating fibrocytes. There is a strong association between this disorder and the use of gadolinium-based contrast agents.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Formation of stones in the KIDNEY.
An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Suspension or cessation of OVULATION in animals or humans with follicle-containing ovaries (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). Depending on the etiology, OVULATION may be induced with appropriate therapy.
An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
The 8-hydroxy derivatives inhibit various enzymes and their halogenated derivatives, though neurotoxic, are used as topical anti-infective agents, among other uses.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
A proline analog that acts as a stoichiometric replacement of proline. It causes the production of abnormal proteins with impaired biological activity.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Derivatives of OXALIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are derived from the ethanedioic acid structure.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-sulfur bond. EC 6.2.
Inflammation of the spinal cord. Relatively common etiologies include infections; AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES; SPINAL CORD; and ischemia (see also SPINAL CORD VASCULAR DISEASES). Clinical features generally include weakness, sensory loss, localized pain, incontinence, and other signs of autonomic dysfunction.
Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
Enzymes that catalyze the addition of a carboxyl group to a compound (carboxylases) or the removal of a carboxyl group from a compound (decarboxylases). EC 4.1.1.
A naturally occurring dipeptide neuropeptide found in muscles.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A biotin-dependent enzyme belonging to the ligase family that catalyzes the addition of CARBON DIOXIDE to pyruvate. It is occurs in both plants and animals. Deficiency of this enzyme causes severe psychomotor retardation and ACIDOSIS, LACTIC in infants. EC 6.4.1.1.
The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Spherical particles of nanometer dimensions.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Organic compounds with the general formula R-NCS.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Agents that prevent clotting.
Zinc (as zinc citrate, zinc picolinate and zinc amino aid chelate). 25 mg. 167%. ...
Try calcium citrate. If you go with coral calcium, you may want to grind it into a powder first and then chelate it with the ... AS FF stated it is best to chelate the calcium with a weak acid. ... calcium citrate production finallyfaith 14 years ago 4,852 * Re ... Try calcium citrate. If you go with coral calcium, you may want to grind it into a powder first and then chelate it with the ... AS FF stated it is best to chelate the calcium with a weak acid.. ...
... as zinc citrate) 2.5 mg / 15 mg Selenium (as selenomethionine) 33 mcg / 200 mcg Copper (as copper chelate) 0.2 mg / 1 mg ... as molybdenum citrate) 67 mcg / 400 mcg Potassium (as potassium citrate) 7 mg / 41 mg Betaine (as betaine hydrochloride) 17 mg ... sodium citrate), magnesium stearate (vegetable grade). Suggested Usage: 1 tablet 6 times per day or as directed by a health ... as vanadium citrate) 2.5 mcg / 15 mcg Other ingredients: Cellulose, croscarmellose sodium, coating (sodium carboxymethyl- ...
Magnesium (as citrate/oxide) 125 mg 31%. Zinc (as amino acid chelate) 15 mg 100%. Selenium (as L-selenomethionine) 70 mcg 100% ... Copper (as amino acid chelate) 2 mg 100%. Manganese (as amino acid chelate) 4 mg 200%. Chromium (as polynicotinate) 120 mcg 100 ... Calcium (as citrate/carbonate) 250 mg 25%. Iron (from pea protein, spirulina) 3 mg 18%. Iodine (from kelp powder) 150 mcg 100% ... Potassium (as amino acid chelate and from pea protein/spirulina) 110 mg 3%. Pea Protein (from pea protein isolate) 14 g Green ...
Copper (citrate). 0.6 mg. 30%. Manganese (citrate). 2.5 mg. 125%. Chromium (AA chelate). 75 mcg. 63%. ...
Calcium citrate tetrahydrate (Calcium 63.3mg) 300mg. Colecalciferol (Vitamin D3 200IU) 5mcg,. Potassium iodide (Iodine 150mcg) ... Zinc amino acid chelate (Zinc 10mg) 50mg. Cyanocobalamin (Vitamin B12) 70mcg. Taurine 50mg ...
Chromium (as chromium citrate). 200 mcg. 167%. Molybdenum (as molybdenum amino acid chelate). 10 mcg. 13%. ...
Manganese (as Chelate) 2mg Molybdenum (as Sodium Molybdate dihydrate) 25µg Selenium (as Selenomethionine) 25µg Zinc (as Citrate ...
Sources of the mineral chelates include:. *Aspartate: synthetic *Citrate: corn dextrose fermentation *Glycinate: synthetic * ...
Ultra Zinc+ contains three forms of zinc, including chelate, citrate dihydrate and gluconate, to ensure optimal absorption and ...
Chelate Copper Tablets is one of Solgars premium-quality mineral products. Ingredients Serving Size: 100 Tablets Each tablet ... Solgars Magnesium Citrate offers a high potency source of the mineral magnesium in a highly... ... Chelate Copper Tablets is one of Solgars premium-quality mineral products.. Ingredients. Serving Size: 100 Tablets. Each ...
Magnesium Creatine Chelate (Creatine MagnaPower®), Tri-Creatine Malate, Creatine Anhydrous, Creapure® (Creatine Monohydrate), ... Creatine Citrate, Creatine Pyruvate, Creatine Ethyl Ester, Creatine AKG, Creatine Ethyl Ester Malate, Creatine Gluconate ... Magnesium Creatine Chelate (Creatine MagnaPower®), Tri-Creatine Malate, Creatine Anhydrous, Creapure® (Creatine Monohydrate), ... Creatine Citrate, Creatine Pyruvate, Creatine Ethyl Ester, Creatine AKG, Creatine Ethyl Ester Malate, Creatine Gluconate ...
Ingredients: Carbonated water, high fructose corn syrup, citric acid, mango puree, peach juice from concentrate, sodium citrate ... selenium amino acid chelate, riboflavin, thiamin HCL and cyanocobalamin. ...
Chromium (Citrate). 33.3 mcg. Selenium (HVP Chelate) 33.3 mcg. Molybdenum (Citrate). 8.3 mcg. ...
Selenium (HVP Chelate) 50 mcg. Molybdenum (Citrate) 12.5 mcg. Vanadium (Citrate) 12.5 mcg. ...
Iron supplements are available in a number of different forms, including ferrous sulfate, ferric citrate and amino acid chelate ...
manganese (as manganese citrate)2 mg chromium (as chromium picolinate)200 mcg molybdenum (as TRAACS® molybdenum glycinate ... chelate)100 mcg boron (as boron glycinate)1 mg vanadium (as bis-glycinato oxo vanadium)250 mcg silica (from bamboo)10 mg other ...
Selenium Chelate, not Selenium Energy. Stop getting creative. Zinc Sulfate Mono ... ... Copper Citrate (1-2) 2mg used to keep zinc balance,. BioCitrate Copper 2 mg Solaray P#04596 / or Copper Chelate (2) 2 mg Twin ... Selenium Chelate, not Selenium Energy. Stop getting creative.. Zinc Sulfate Monohydrate by Rising.. Prostate formula?. You have ... Magnesium CITRATE - (1) AM 133mg Source Naturals Product#02100 Swanson SN536. Magnesium Sulfate (1) AM 1030mg CAPSULE ( Epsom ...
Zinc Amino Acid Chelate, Iron Amino Acid Chelate, Salt, Vitamin E Supplement, Copper Amino Acid Chelate, Manganese Amino Acid ... Potassium Citrate, Carrageenan, Cassia Gum, Calcium Carbonate, Blueberries, Cranberries, Choline Chloride, ... Chelate, Sodium Selenite, Thiamine Mononitrate (Vitamin B1), Cobalt Amino Acid Chelate, Niacin Supplement (Vitamin B3), Calcium ...
Iron Chelate, Vitamin B-1 Thiamine, Vitamin B-2 Riboflavin, Manganese Chelate, Copper Chelate, Vitamin B-9 Folic Acid, Natural ... Potassium Citrate, Mixed Tocopherols, Magnesium (as Magnesium Oxide), Vitamin K-1, Vitamin A (as Beta Carotene), Zinc (as Zinc ... Sulfate), Vitamin B3 (as Niacinamide), Vitamin E, Vitamin D3, Vitamin B-5 Pantothenic Acid, Selenium (Chelate), Biotin, Vitamin ...
Magnesium Enhanced Citrate/ Rice Protein Chelate combination 200 mg Vcaps Size 100 Veg Caps ... Calcium Magnesium Citrates- Bone Health support, with added Vitamin K & D and Boron ...
Zinc as zinc citrate. 30 mg. 200%. Selenium as selenium chelate. 100 mcg. 140%. ...
... copper chelate, molybdenum citrate, selenium chelate, manganese citrate, calcium pantothenate, folic acid, thiamin ... potassium citrate, magnesium citrate, sodium chloride, calcium citrate, ascorbic acid, zinc citrate, niacinamide, biotin, ... hydrochloride, pyridoxine hydrochloride, riboflavin, cyanocobalamin, potassium iodide, chromium chelate, ergocalciferol.. Key ...
dicalcium phosphate, sodium citrate, sodium succinate, silica. Suggested Use: As a dietary supplement, take one veggie capsule ... Swanson 100% Pure Calcium Citrate Powder - Dairy Free & Unflavored 350 mg 8 oz Pwdr. ... Swanson 100% Pure Magnesium Citrate Powder - Unflavored 630 mg 8.6 oz Pwdr. ...
Zinc (zinc citrate) 4.5 mg Biotin 1 mg Manganese (manganese citrate) 0.6 mg Copper (HVP† chelate) 0.38 mg Chromium (chromium ...
... preferably a chelated form such as magnesium citrate or another bio-available form - avoid magnesium oxide, it is not well ...
Calcium (as calcium citrate-malate). 100 mg. Iron (as Ferrochel® ferrous bisglycinate chelate‡) ...
Chromium (HVP* Chelate)...................................................................... 50 mcg. Molybdenum (Citrate ... Calcium (Citrate, Sulfate, Dicalcium Phosphate Dihydrate)....................208 mg. Magnesium (Citrate ... Calcium (Citrate, Sulfate, Dicalcium Phosphate).......................273 mg. Phosphorus (Dicalcium Phosphate Dihydrate ... Selenium (HVP* Chelate)......................................................... 40 mcg. Chromium (HVP* Chelate ...
Chelated Iron 100 Tablets Chelated Iron Tablets Iron is an important component of hemoglobin, the protein that carries oxygen ... Solgar Zinc Citrate 30 mg 100 VCaps Solgar Zinc Citrate 30 mg 100 VCaps Zinc Citrate 30 mg Vegetable Capsules Zinc promotes ... Solgar - Chelated Zinc 250 Tablets Solgar - Chelated Zinc 250 Tablets Chelated Zinc Tablets Zinc contributes to healthy skin. ... Solgar - Chelated Copper 100 Tablets Solgar - Chelated Copper 100 Tablets Chelated Copper Tablets Copper is an essential trace ...
Calcium Citrate is a readily digested and absorbed form of Calcium, a mineral that is necessary for the maintenance of bone ... Now Foods, Calcium Citrate with Minerals & Vitamin D-2 - 250 tabs. £25.99 ...
  • Iron supplements are available in a number of different forms, including ferrous sulfate, ferric citrate and amino acid chelate. (sfgate.com)
  • Zinc amino acid chelate (equiv. (compoundlabs.co.nz)
  • OsteoSheath®4 contains 1,221 mg of elemental calcium made up of the three most bioavailable forms of calcium available: MCHC, Calcium Amino Acid Chelate, and Calcium Citrate. (yourholisticdoc.com)
  • to Magnesium 20mg), Magnesium amino acid chelate 100mg (equiv. (healthnewzealand.co.nz)
  • to Magnesium 50mg) 309mg , Magnesium amino acid chelate (equiv. (lifepharmacystlukes.co.nz)
  • The magnesium is provided in more readily absorbed forms - amino acid chelate & citrate. (harmoniawellness.com)
  • Amino acid chelates and citrates are provided to improve absorption and and improve gastrointestinal tolerance. (theleeclinic.com)
  • Magnesium Advanced contains the following ingredients: Magnesium glycinate (491mg), Magnesium citrate (389mg), Magnesium amino acid chelate (300mg), Magnesium aspartate (150mg). (brainreference.com)
  • Mineral chelates and citrates are made by "cooking" the minerals with amino acids from rice protein to form easily absorbable forms of the minerals. (naturalhealthprotocol.com)
  • A well-absorbed, high quality kind of calcium citrate and high quality kinds of magnesium contain calcium citrate and calcium amino acid chelate. (toptentopic.xyz)
  • The Krebs Cycle Complex consists of five main Krebs Cycle group compounds: (citrate, fumarate, malate, succinate & alpha-ketoglutarate). (swanson.cz)
  • Magnesium-You can take 400mg daily in citrate, malate, chelate or chloride form. (healthyjourneycafe.com)
  • This supplement has a blend of different types of magnesium (magnesium glycinate, malate and citrate). (vegfaqs.com)
  • This magnesium supplement contains a blend of chelated magnesium citrate, glycinate, and malate to support relaxation and stress relief. (velillum.com)
  • Advanced Zinc Chelate is designed for optimum bioavailability. (vitacost.com)
  • Zinc (as Zinc Chelate) 15mg, Magnesium (as Magnesium Citrate) 40mg, Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) 25mg. (avianthealth.com)
  • There's not too much else to say other than it contains magnesium in multiple forms (magnesium oxide, magnesium citrate and magnesium aspartate). (vegfaqs.com)
  • Take a balanced high potency multivitamin and mineral complex daily (without iron if you are male) plus 500 mgs of magnesium daily (preferably a chelated form such as magnesium citrate or another bio-available form - avoid magnesium oxide, it is not well absorbed by the body) to help balance electrolytes, smooth muscle tissue and protect your heart. (costaricayogaspa.com)
  • Each capsule contains a 100-mg blend of chelated magnesium glycinate and magnesium oxide. (velillum.com)
  • Nutrient 950 provides fully chelated minerals for optimal absorption and activated vitamins, including Metafolin®, the naturally occurring universally metabolized form of folate. (pureprescriptions.com)
  • This unique form of chelated iron (iron bisglycinate) is formulated for enhanced absorption and is gentle on your system. (urvitamins.com)
  • Ultra Zinc+ contains three forms of zinc, including chelate, citrate dihydrate and gluconate, to ensure optimal absorption and increased effectiveness. (sportyshealth.com.au)
  • The Endomet Laboratories Paramin product contains 250 mg of elemental calcium from calcium chelate and calcium citrate. (naturalhealthprotocol.com)
  • Chelate Copper Tablets is one of Solgar's premium-quality mineral products. (simplyvits.co.uk)
  • Solgar's Magnesium Citrate offers a high potency source of the mineral magnesium in a highly. (simplyvits.co.uk)
  • Calcium Citrate is a readily digested and absorbed form of Calcium, a mineral that is necessary for the maintenance of bone health. (supplement-store.co.uk)
  • Chelated magnesium is the result of bonding this essential mineral to a negatively charged group (also known as an anion) in two or more places. (supplement-store.co.uk)
  • In a world where Magnesium deficiency is on the rise, even in younger people, Swanson Ultra Albion Chelated Magnesium Glycinate is the most dynamic and bioavailable form of this mineral supplement available today. (supplement-store.co.uk)
  • Chelated Mineral diformulasikan menggunakan bahan-bahan yang mudah diserap tubuh. (minumankesehatan.biz)
  • Chelated Mineral menyediakan mineral penting dalam bentuk sangat bioavailable pada dosis yang aman dan efektif. (minumankesehatan.biz)
  • Dirancang untuk dikonsumsi bersama Chelated Mineral untuk manfaat maksimal. (minumankesehatan.biz)
  • Calcium & Magnesium Mineral Complex from Nature's Way is an advanced chelate complex, which enhances absorption of calcium through the intestine. (amarilloeatsorganic.com)
  • This formula combines New Zealand-made StimuCal™ and Calcium citrate, along with vitamins D3 and K to support bone strength, density and calcium absorption. (pharmacyjunction.com.au)
  • Magnesium citrate provides excellent solubility for superior absorption. (amarilloeatsorganic.com)
  • Calcium (Citrate, Sulfate, Dicalcium Phosphate Dihydrate). (fullscript.com)
  • When we gave them various chelates of Magnesium (Glycinate, Taurate, Citrate, and even Orotate) it agitated their sleep making it worse. (atplab.com)

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