Charadriiformes: An order of BIRDS including over 300 species that primarily inhabit coastal waters, beaches, and marshes. They are comprised of shorebirds, gulls, and terns.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Diving: An activity in which the organism plunges into water. It includes scuba and bell diving. Diving as natural behavior of animals goes here, as well as diving in decompression experiments with humans or animals.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Water Cycle: Circulation of water among various ecological systems, in various states, on, above, and below the surface of the earth.Lakes: Inland bodies of still or slowly moving FRESH WATER or salt water, larger than a pond, and supplied by RIVERS and streams.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Palaeognathae: A superorder of large, mostly flightless birds, named for their distinctive PALATE morphology. It includes the orders Apterygiformes, Casuriiformes, Dinornithiformes, RHEIFORMES; STRUTHIONIFORMES and Tinamiformes.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Beak: In some animals, the jaws together with their horny covering. The beak usually refers to the bill of birds in which the whole varies greatly in form according of the food and habits of the bird. While the beak refers most commonly to birds, the anatomical counterpart is found also in the turtle, squid, and octopus. (From Webster, 3d ed & Storer, et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p491, 755)New Zealand: A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)MedlinePlus: NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.Pigmentation: Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.Genes, MHC Class I: Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex which encode polymorphic characteristics not related to immune responsiveness or complement activity, e.g., B loci (chicken), DLA (dog), GPLA (guinea pig), H-2 (mouse), RT-1 (rat), HLA-A, -B, and -C class I genes of man.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Sciuridae: A family of the order Rodentia which contains 49 genera. Some of the more common genera are MARMOTA, which includes the marmot and woodchuck; Sciurus, the gray squirrel, S. carolinensis, and the fox squirrel, S. niger; Tamias, the eastern and western chipmunk; and Tamiasciurus, the red squirrel. The flying squirrels, except the scaly-tailed Anomaluridae, also belong to this family.IcelandMajor Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Antigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Computer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Privacy: The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Intellectual Property: Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Snow: Frozen water crystals that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Thermotoga maritima: A rod-shaped bacterium surrounded by a sheath-like structure which protrudes balloon-like beyond the ends of the cell. It is thermophilic, with growth occurring at temperatures as high as 90 degrees C. It is isolated from geothermally heated marine sediments or hot springs. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Lichens: Any of a group of plants formed by a symbiotic combination of a fungus with an algae or CYANOBACTERIA, and sometimes both. The fungal component makes up the bulk of the lichen and forms the basis for its name.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Zoology: The study of animals - their morphology, growth, distribution, classification, and behavior.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Tongue: A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.Jaw: Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.Vertebrates: Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.Tongue Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the TONGUE.Mouth: The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.Central African Republic: A republic in central Africa south of CHAD and SUDAN, north of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, and east of CAMEROON. The capital is Bangui.Africa, Central: The geographical area of Africa comprising CAMEROON; CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC; CHAD; CONGO; EQUATORIAL GUINEA; GABON; and DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO.Africa, Western: The geographical area of Africa comprising BENIN; BURKINA FASO; COTE D'IVOIRE; GAMBIA; GHANA; GUINEA; GUINEA-BISSAU; LIBERIA; MALI; MAURITANIA; NIGER; NIGERIA; SENEGAL; SIERRA LEONE; and TOGO.Sirenia: An order of heavy-bodied, slow-moving, completely aquatic, herbivorous mammals. The body is fusiform, plump, and hairless, except for bristles on the snout. Hindlimbs are absent, the forelimbs are modified to flippers, and the tail is a horizontal fluke. (From Scott, Concise Encyclopedia Biology, 1996)Cetacea: An order of wholly aquatic MAMMALS occurring in all the OCEANS and adjoining seas of the world, as well as in certain river systems. They feed generally on FISHES, cephalopods, and crustaceans. Most are gregarious and most have a relatively long period of parental care and maturation. Included are DOLPHINS; PORPOISES; and WHALES. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, pp969-70)Otters: Fish-eating carnivores of the family MUSTELIDAE, found on both hemispheres.Atlantic Islands: Widely scattered islands in the Atlantic Ocean as far north as the AZORES and as far south as the South Sandwich Islands, with the greatest concentration found in the CARIBBEAN REGION. They include Annobon Island, Ascension, Canary Islands, Falkland Islands, Fernando Po (also called Isla de Bioko and Bioko), Gough Island, Madeira, Sao Tome and Principe, Saint Helena, and Tristan da Cunha.Sex Chromosomes: The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Y Chromosome: The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.Silene: A plant genus of the family CARYOPHYLLACEAE. The common name of campion is also used with LYCHNIS. The common name of 'pink' can be confused with other plants.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Sex Determination Processes: The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.

A supertree approach to shorebird phylogeny. (1/229)

BACKGROUND: Order Charadriiformes (shorebirds) is an ideal model group in which to study a wide range of behavioural, ecological and macroevolutionary processes across species. However, comparative studies depend on phylogeny to control for the effects of shared evolutionary history. Although numerous hypotheses have been presented for subsets of the Charadriiformes none to date include all recognised species. Here we use the matrix representation with parsimony method to produce the first fully inclusive supertree of Charadriiformes. We also provide preliminary estimates of ages for all nodes in the tree. RESULTS: Three main lineages are revealed: i) the plovers and allies; ii) the gulls and allies; and iii) the sandpipers and allies. The relative position of these clades is unresolved in the strict consensus tree but a 50% majority-rule consensus tree indicates that the sandpiper clade is sister group to the gulls and allies whilst the plover group is placed at the base of the tree. The overall topology is highly consistent with recent molecular hypotheses of shorebird phylogeny. CONCLUSION: The supertree hypothesis presented herein is (to our knowledge) the only complete phylogenetic hypothesis of all extant shorebirds. Despite concerns over the robustness of supertrees (see Discussion), we believe that it provides a valuable framework for testing numerous evolutionary hypotheses relating to the diversity of behaviour, ecology and life-history of the Charadriiformes.  (+info)

Molecular sexing of prey remains permits a test of sex-biased predation in a wintering population of western sandpipers. (2/229)

Population sex ratios in monogamous birds are often male biased. One factor that can affect population sex ratios is sex-biased predation. However, most estimates of sex-biased predation in birds have focused on species with obvious sexual colour dimorphism or body size dimorphism. Data on sexually monomorphic birds are generally lacking. In the present study, we adopt a PCR-based sexing procedure to help test for sex-biased predation in a wintering population of western sandpipers (Calidris mauri), a shorebird that shows only subtle sexual size dimorphism. Specifically, by comparing the a priori determined sex ratio of live birds wintering at a site in western Mexico to the molecular estimate obtained from depredated birds at this same site, we were able to perform a population-specific test for sex bias in predator-induced mortality. The proportion of females estimated from living (ca. 25%) versus dead (ca. 24%) individuals was in fact not significantly different, indicating that the strong male bias in this population is not due to differential predation. However, molecular sexing of prey remains is a hitherto unexploited test of sex-biased predation in birds, and is potentially applicable to any species for which prey remains can be gathered. We discuss our results in the context of alternate ecological hypotheses for population sex biases.  (+info)

Stroke patterns and regulation of swim speed and energy cost in free-ranging Brunnich's guillemots. (3/229)

Loggers were attached to free-ranging Brunnich's guillemots Uria lomvia during dives, to measure swim speeds, body angles, stroke rates, stroke and glide durations, and acceleration patterns within strokes, and the data were used to model the mechanical costs of propelling the body fuselage (head and trunk excluding wings). During vertical dives to 102-135 m, guillemots regulated their speed during descent and much of ascent to about 1.6+/-0.2 m s(-1). Stroke rate declined very gradually with depth, with little or no gliding between strokes. Entire strokes from 2 m to 20 m depth had similar forward thrust on upstroke vs downstroke, whereas at deeper depths and during horizontal swimming there was much greater thrust on the downstroke. Despite this distinct transition, these differences had small effect (<6%) on our estimates of mechanical cost to propel the body fuselage, which did not include drag of the wings. Work stroke(-1) was quite high as speed increased dramatically in the first 5 m of descent against high buoyancy. Thereafter, speed and associated drag increased gradually as buoyancy slowly declined, so that mechanical work stroke(-1) during the rest of descent stayed relatively constant. Similar work stroke(-1) was maintained during non-pursuit swimming at the bottom, and during powered ascent to the depth of neutral buoyancy (about 71 m). Even with adjustments in respiratory air volume of +/-60%, modeled work against buoyancy was important mainly in the top 15 m of descent, after which almost all work was against drag. Drag was in fact underestimated, as our values did not include enhancement of drag by altered flow around active swimmers. With increasing buoyancy during ascent above 71 m, stroke rate, glide periods, stroke acceleration patterns, body angle and work stroke(-1) were far more variable than during descent; however, mean speed remained fairly constant until buoyancy increased rapidly near the surface. For dives to depths >20 m, drag is by far the main component of mechanical work for these diving birds, and speed may be regulated to keep work against drag within a relatively narrow range.  (+info)

Energetics of a long-distance migrant shorebird (Philomachus pugnax) during cold exposure and running. (4/229)

The metabolic consequences of cold exposure and exercise are not well characterized in birds. Ruff sandpipers Philomachus pugnax are migrant shorebirds traveling between Africa and Siberia for up to 30,000 km annually. Our goal was to quantify the fuel selection pattern of these remarkable athletes during shivering and terrestrial locomotion. We used indirect calorimetry and nitrogen excretion analysis to measure their rates of lipid, carbohydrate and protein oxidation at different temperatures (22, 15, 10 or 5 degrees C) and different treadmill speeds (15, 20, 25, 30, 35 or 40 m min(-1)). Results show that lipid oxidation supplies nearly all the energy necessary to support shivering and running, and that the pattern of oxidative fuel selection is independent of shivering or running intensity. During shivering, total ATP production is unequally shared between lipids (82%), carbohydrates (12%) and proteins (6%). During running, lipids remain the dominant substrate (66%), with carbohydrates (29%) and proteins (5%) playing more minor roles. The prevailing use of lipids during intense shivering and high-speed running is not consistent with the fuel selection pattern observed in exercising and cold-exposed mammals. The exact mechanisms allowing birds to use lipids at extremely high rates are still largely unexplored, and quantifying the relative importance of different fuels during long-distance flight remains a major challenge for future research.  (+info)

Effects of physiological state, mass change and diet on plasma metabolite profiles in the western sandpiper Calidris mauri. (5/229)

We used a food restriction/refeeding protocol to put birds through a controlled cycle of mass loss and mass gain to investigate the effects of rate and phase of mass change on plasma metabolite levels in relation to diet. Despite marked differences in fat content of the two diets (18% vs 4%) mean rate of mass loss or mass gain was independent of diet. There was also no effect of diet on plasma levels of any of the four measured metabolite (triglyceride, glycerol, uric acid and beta-OH-butyrate) during mass loss. However, during mass gain birds on the low fat diet had higher plasma levels of triglyceride and uric acid and lower beta-OH-butyrate than birds gaining mass on the high-fat diet. Thus, diet composition can affect plasma metabolite profiles independently of differences in rates of mass change. Nevertheless, certain plasma metabolites were related to variation in rates of mass change across physiological states. Glycerol levels were negatively related to the rate of mass change (independent of diet), and butyrate was negatively related to the rate of mass change on both diets (though the slope of this relationship was diet dependent). Uric acid was positively related to the rate of mass change but only for birds on the low-fat diet. Our study therefore confirms that measurement of plasma metabolites can provide robust information on physiological state (gain, loss) and the rate of mass change (e.g. in free-living birds caught only once) although researchers should be cogniscent of potential confounding effects of diet composition for certain metabolites, both for field studies and for future experimental validations of this technique.  (+info)

Metabolic profile of long-distance migratory flight and stopover in a shorebird. (6/229)

Migrating birds often complete long non-stop flights during which body energy stores exclusively support energetic demands. The metabolic correlates of such long-distance travel in free-living migrants are as yet poorly studied. Bar-tailed godwits, Limosa lapponica taymyrensis, undertake a 4500 km flight to their single spring stopover site and thus provide an excellent model in which to determine the energy fuels associated with endurance travel. To this end, we evaluated plasma concentrations of six key metabolites in arriving godwits caught immediately upon landing near their stopover site. Initial metabolite levels were compared with levels after 5 h of inactive rest to determine how flight per se affects energy metabolism. Birds refuelling on the stopover site were also examined. Arriving godwits displayed elevated plasma free fatty acids, glycerol and butyrate, confirming the importance of lipid fuel in the support of extended migratory activity. Further-more, elevated plasma triglycerides in these birds suggest that fatty acid provisioning is facilitated through hepatic synthesis and release of neutral lipids, as previously hypothesized for small migrants with high mass-specific metabolic rates. Finally, elevations in plasma uric acid suggest that protein breakdown contributes to the support of long-distance movement, to possibly maintain citric acid cycle intermediates, gluconeogenesis and/or water balance.  (+info)

Characterization of a novel influenza A virus hemagglutinin subtype (H16) obtained from black-headed gulls. (7/229)

In wild aquatic birds and poultry around the world, influenza A viruses carrying 15 antigenic subtypes of hemagglutinin (HA) and 9 antigenic subtypes of neuraminidase (NA) have been described. Here we describe a previously unidentified antigenic subtype of HA (H16), detected in viruses circulating in black-headed gulls in Sweden. In agreement with established criteria for the definition of antigenic subtypes, hemagglutination inhibition assays and immunodiffusion assays failed to detect specific reactivity between H16 and the previously described subtypes H1 to H15. Genetically, H16 HA was found to be distantly related to H13 HA, a subtype also detected exclusively in shorebirds, and the amino acid composition of the putative receptor-binding site of H13 and H16 HAs was found to be distinct from that in HA subtypes circulating in ducks and geese. The H16 viruses contained NA genes that were similar to those of other Eurasian shorebirds but genetically distinct from N3 genes detected in other birds and geographical locations. The European gull viruses were further distinguishable from other influenza A viruses based on their PB2, NP, and NS genes. Gaining information on the full spectrum of avian influenza A viruses and creating reagents for their detection and identification will remain an important task for influenza surveillance, outbreak control, and animal and public health. We propose that sequence analyses of HA and NA genes of influenza A viruses be used for the rapid identification of existing and novel HA and NA subtypes.  (+info)

Highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus infection in migratory birds. (8/229)

H5N1 avian influenza virus (AIV) has emerged as a pathogenic entity for a variety of species, including humans, in recent years. Here we report an outbreak among migratory birds on Lake Qinghaihu, China, in May and June 2005, in which more than a thousand birds were affected. Pancreatic necrosis and abnormal neurological symptoms were the major clinical features. Sequencing of the complete genomes of four H5N1 AIV strains revealed them to be reassortants related to a peregrine falcon isolate from Hong Kong and to have known highly pathogenic characteristics. Experimental animal infections reproduced typical highly pathogenic AIV infection symptoms and pathology.  (+info)

*Charadriiformes

... is a diverse order of small to medium-large birds. It includes about 350 species and has members in all parts ... 2016) That the Charadriiformes are an ancient group is also borne out by the fossil record. Much of the Neornithes' fossil ... List of Charadriiformes by population Fain & Houde (2004) Ericson et al. (2003), Paton et al. (2003), Thomas et al. (2004a,b), ... Most Charadriiformes live near water and eat invertebrates or other small animals; however, some are pelagic (seabirds), some ...

*List of Charadriiformes by population

Charadriiformes (Charadrius being Latin for "plover") is the taxonomic order to which the waders, gulls, and auks belong. ... The Charadriiformes, for example, are grouped with the Ciconiiformes in the Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy. In the interest of ... This is a list of Charadriiformes species by global population. While numbers are estimates, they have been made by the experts ... A variety of methods are used for counting Charadriiformes. For example, the piping plover is subject to the quinquennial ...

*List of birds of North America (Charadriiformes)

Order: Charadriiformes Family: Burhinidae The thick-knees are a group of largely tropical waders in the family Burhinidae. They ... The birds listed below all belong to the biological order Charadriiformes, and are native to North America. ... Northern jacana, Jacana spinosa LC Wattled jacana, Jacana jacana LC Order: Charadriiformes Family: Scolopacidae Scolopacidae is ... Double-striped thick-knee, Burhinus bistriatus LC Order: Charadriiformes Family: Charadriidae The family Charadriidae includes ...

*Saint Helena plover

CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) Coomber, Richard (1991). "Charadriiformes: Plovers". Birds of the World. Godalming, ...

*Semipalmated plover

Editor). CRC Press (1992), ISBN 978-0-8493-4258-5. Coomber, Richard (1991). "Charadriiformes: Plovers". Birds of the World. ...

*Shore plover

Coomber, Richard (1991). "Charadriiformes: Plovers". Birds of the World. Godalming, Surrey: Colour Library Books Ltd. pp. 97- ...

*List of fossil bird genera

Charadriiformes gen. et spp. indet. (Early/Middle Miocene) - several species, 1 probably larid Charadriiformes gen. et sp. ... shorebirds Basal and unresolved taxa Charadriiformes gen. et sp. indet. (Late Cretaceous) - burhinid? basal? "Morsoravis" (Late ...

*Sterna milne-edwardsii

"Fossil record of the Charadriiformes". Palaeobiology and Biodiversity Research Group, University of Bristol. Retrieved 13 May ...

*Tern

The Charadriiformes order of birds contains 18 coastal seabird and wader families. Within the order, the terns form a lineage ... de Pietri, Vanesa L; Costeur, Loïc; Güntert, Marcel; Mayr, Gerald (2011). "A revision of the Lari (Aves, Charadriiformes) from ... Relationships between various tern species, and between the terns and the other Charadriiformes, were formerly difficult to ... "Fossil record of the Charadriiformes". Palaeobiology and Biodiversity Research Group, University of Bristol. Retrieved 13 May ...

*1979 in paleontology

Anseriformes, Gruiformes, Charadriiformes, Passeriformes" (PDF). Aquila. 85: 11-39. Federico L. Agnolin (2006). "Dos Nuevos ...

*Navesink Formation

Charadriiformes?) Gallagher, William B. (1997). When dinosaurs roamed New Jersey. Rutgers University Press. p. 122. ISBN 978-0- ...

*Northern bald ibis

Charadriiformes-Strigiformes). London: Taylor and Francis. p. 100. (Arabic and English) Hulme, Diana; Tabbaa, Darem; Bright, ...

*1967 in paleontology

Part 3 (Ralliformes, Ichthyornithiformes, Charadriiformes)" (PDF). Bulletin of the Florida State Museum, Biological Sciences. ...

*Seabird

Phaethontidae tropicbirds Charadriiformes (Worldwide; 305 species, but only the families listed are classed as seabirds.) ... and some of the Charadriiformes (the skuas, gulls, terns, auks and skimmers) are classified as seabirds. The phalaropes are ...

*Bird ichnology

Charadriiformes, Ciconiiformes, Rallidae?) †Roepichnus (Caños Late Miocene of Almería, Spain) Web impressions present; Avian † ...

*Burhinus

The Condor 97:174-196 Strauch J (1978) The phylogeny of the Charadriiformes (Aves): a new estimate using the method of ... Fain MG and Houde P (2007) Multilocus perspectives on the monophyly and phylogeny of the order Charadriiformes (Aves). BMC ... Ericson PGP, Envall I, Irested M and Norman JA (2003) Inter-familial relationships of the shorebirds (Aves: Charadriiformes) ... Burhinus are best placed in Charadriiformes. They resemble bustards (family: Otididae) and have been previously classified with ...

*Taxonomy of the vertebrates (Young, 1962)

Charadriiformes [waders and gulls] (e.g., Numenius [curlew], Capella [snipe], Calidris [sandpiper], Vanellus [lapwing], ...

*Miguel Telles Antunes

... extinct bird of Charadriiformes order Echinolampus antunesi; extinct echinoderm Gyraulus antunesi; extinct mollusk Equus ...

*Quadraceps

They are ectoparasites of birds in the order Charadriiformes, and the genus was circumscribed in 1939 by Theresa Clay and ... "Three new genera of Mallophaga from Charadriiformes". Annals and Magazine of Natural History. Series 11. 4 (22): 453-454. doi: ...

*Øvre Pasvik National Park

Several species of sparrow and charadriiformes are also common. There are also three species of Falconiformes-rough-legged ...

*Psilopterus

Charadriiformes)". Bulletin of Florida State Museum. 2: 99-220. Taxonomic opinions tied to S. Bertelli et al. 2007 at ...

*Tahiti sandpiper

1970). "The systematic relationships of Aechmorhynchus, Prosobonia and Phegornis (Charadriiformes; Charadrii)" (PDF). Auk. 87 ( ...

*Kiritimati

Charadriiformes; Charadrii)" (PDF). Auk. 87 (4): 760-780. doi:10.2307/4083710. BirdLife International (2007): Tuamotu Sandpiper ... fewer than 3,000 in 1984 Charadriiformes Micronesian black noddy (Anous minutus marcusi) - 20,000 birds before the 1982/83 ...

*Richard C. Banks

Banks, Richard C. (1986). "Subspecies of the Glaucous Gull, Larus-Hyperboreus", (Aves, Charadriiformes). Proceedings of the ...

*Juncitarsus

stutz die Ableitung der Flamingos von Regenpfeifervogeln (Aves: Charadriiformes: Phoenicopteridae). Courier Forchungsinstitut ...
We sampled 7,511 black-headed gulls for influenza virus in the Netherlands during 2006-2010 and found that subtypes H13 and H16 caused annual epidemics in fledglings on colony sites. Our findings validate targeted surveillance of wild waterbirds and clarify underlying factors for influenza virus emergence in other species ...
charadriiformes: large diverse order of aquatic birds found along seacoasts and inland waters; shorebirds and coastal diving birds; most feed on animal life.
We provide evidence of a positive correlation between North Sea SST, the abundance of swimming crabs and changes in the abundance of lesser black-backed gulls at 21 major North Sea breeding colonies. In particular, the cross-correlation analyses (table 1) revealed a propagation of a climate signal from SST through decapod larvae, adult crabs and lesser black-backed gulls with lags that match the biology of each trophic group. Many biological changes have been observed among different trophic levels of the North Sea from phytoplankton to fish, as the North Sea has warmed [1]. Here, we suggest that climate-induced changes in the marine fauna extend to the avian fauna, and so also to the terrestrial food web around seabird colonies.. Seabird breeding success is controlled partially by the abundance, composition and nutritional quality of the prey the parents feed to their chicks on the nest [18]. Pelagic swimming crabs are an important component of the diet of seabirds such as the related ...
In recent years, a number of zoonotic flaviviruses have emerged worldwide, and wild birds serve as their major reservoirs. Epidemiological surveys of bird populations at various geographical scales can clarify key aspects of the eco-epidemiology of these viruses. In this study, we aimed at exploring the presence of flaviviruses in the western Mediterranean by sampling breeding populations of the yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis), a widely distributed, anthropophilic, and abundant seabird species. For 3 years, we sampled eggs from 19 breeding colonies in Spain, France, Algeria, and Tunisia. First, ELISAs were used to determine if the eggs contained antibodies against flaviviruses. Second, neutralization assays were used to identify the specific flaviviruses present. Finally, for colonies in which ELISA-positive eggs had been found, chick serum samples and potential vectors, culicid mosquitoes and soft ticks (Ornithodoros maritimus), were collected and analyzed using serology and PCR, ...
Black-legged Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) species account - latest update of status, international importance, population size and trends in breeding abundance, productivity, survival rates, phenology and diet in the UK, Scotland, England, Wales, Northern Ireland, Republic of Ireland, Channel Islands and the Isle of Man.
Egg composition varies both within and between clutches, and mothers are expected to alter their deposition of resources to the egg depending on environmental conditions and breeding strategies. Within-clutch variation in egg composition has been proposed to reflect an adaptive maternal strategy influencing sibling competition. In species with brood reduction, mothers should reinforce brood hierarchies due to hatching asynchrony and favour senior chicks by making first-laid eggs larger, richer in nutrients, with higher testosterone and carotenoid levels and lower corticosterone concentrations than last-laid eggs [parental favouritism hypothesis (PFH)]. Moreover, mothers that are of better quality and/or experience better feeding conditions during laying are expected to increase their deposition of resources to the egg, resulting in differences between clutches [investment hypothesis (IH)]. Several components may act together to provide an optimal reproductive strategy, but studies of variation ...
Binds to sialic acid-containing receptors on the cell surface, bringing about the attachment of the virus particle to the cell. This attachment induces virion internalization either through clathrin-dependent endocytosis or through clathrin- and caveolin-independent pathway. Plays a major role in the determination of host range restriction and virulence. Class I viral fusion protein. Responsible for penetration of the virus into the cell cytoplasm by mediating the fusion of the membrane of the endocytosed virus particle with the endosomal membrane. Low pH in endosomes induces an irreversible conformational change in HA2, releasing the fusion hydrophobic peptide. Several trimers are required to form a competent fusion pore.
Oystercatchers (Haematopus sp.) are shorebirds that inhabit most continental sea coasts. There are thirteen species of Oystercatcher worldwide and nine of these species occur in the Southern Hemisphere. The Northern Hemisphere species have been recorded to fly great distances between breeding and non-breeding areas whereas the African Black Oystercatcher is largely resident, migrating only short distances to nursary areas in Namibia after fledging and then returning to their natal sites to breed.. The African Black Oystercatcher is the largest of all the species. Adults have jet black plumage, pinkish legs and a long, dagger-like orange-red bill. In addition its eye and eye ring are red. There is sexual dimorphism, females being larger and heavier with longer bills; a male weighing an average of about 660g and a female about 720g when fully grown.. African Black Oystercatchers can be found on both rocky and sandy shores throughout the year and they attempt to breed in varied habitat types. They ...
The royal tern belongs to the class Aves and the order Charadriiformes. Charadriiformes are mainly seabirds of small to medium-large size. The royal tern is also in the family Sternidae because of its white plumage, black cap on its head, long bill, webbed feet, and bodies that are more streamlined than those of gulls.. The taxonomy of the royal tern has been debated, whether the correct scientific name was Thalasseus maximus or Sterna maxima. It is presently classified as Thalasseus maximus, which places it with five other seabirds from the tern family. The royal tern was originally placed in the genus Sterna; however, a 2005 study suggest that it is actually part of the genus Thalasseus.[3] Before 2017 the royal tern was divided into two subspecies: Thalasseus maximus maximus and Thalasseus maximus albididorsalis. T. m. maximus is found on the east coast of North America and is referred to as the "New World" species. T. m. albidorsalis, referred to as the "Old World" species, is found on the ...
Word Scramble - English word OYSTERCATCHERS: words that start with oystercatchers, words that end with oystercatchers, anagrams of oystercatchers, how to spell oystercatchers!, Words with Friends, Scrabble
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In southern California, USFWS (2006) concluded that Rana muscosa requires the following habitat elements: (1) Water source(s) found between 1,214 to 7,546 feet (370 to 2,300 meter) in elevation that are permanent. Water sources include, but are not limited to, streams, rivers, perennial creeks (or permanent plunge pools within intermittent creeks), pools (i.e., a body of impounded water that is contained above a natural dam) and other forms of aquatic habitat. The water source should maintain a natural flow pattern including periodic natural flooding. Aquatic habitats that are used by mountain yellow-legged frog for breeding purposes must maintain water during the entire tadpole growth phase, which can last for up to 2 years. During periods of drought, or less than average rainfall, these breeding sites may not hold water long enough for individuals to complete metamorphosis, but they would still be considered essential breeding habitat in wetter years. Further, the aquatic includes: a. Bank and ...
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Curlew sandpipers in remnants of coastal habitat, being destroyed for development - View amazing Curlew sandpiper photos - Calidris ferruginea - on Arkive
Common Guillemot (Uria aalge) species account - latest update of status, international importance, population size and trends in breeding abundance, productivity, survival rates, phenology and diet in the UK, Scotland, England, Wales, Northern Ireland, Republic of Ireland, Channel Islands and the Isle of Man.
23-26 (58-66 cm). Adult white with light gray back and wings; wing tip black with white spots; bill yellow with red spot on lower mandible; feet pink or flesh colored. First-year birds brownish. Acquires adult plumage in 4 years. See California Gull.
There are several terns of a similar size and general appearance to the common tern. A traditionally difficult species to separate is the Arctic tern, and until the key characteristics were clarified, distant or flying birds of the two species were often jointly recorded as "commic terns". Although similar in size, the two terns differ in structure and flight. The common tern has a larger head, thicker neck, longer legs, and more triangular and stiffer wings than its relative, and has a more powerful, direct flight.[25] The Arctic tern has greyer underparts than the common, which make its white cheeks more obvious, whereas the rump of the common tern can be greyish in non-breeding plumage, compared to the white of its relative. The common tern develops a dark wedge on the wings as the breeding season progresses, but the wings of Arctic stay white throughout the northern summer. All the flight feathers of the Arctic tern are translucent against a bright sky, only the four innermost wing feathers ...
We used 8 years of live recapture data (1998-2005) to estimate apparent annual survival for male (n = 237) and female (n = 296) Western Sandpipers (Calidris mauri) breeding on a 36-ha plot on the Yukon-Kuskokwim River Delta, western Alaska. Apparent annual survival (Φ) is the product of true survival and site fidelity, and estimates of Φ were corrected for the probability of encounter. Overall return rates (individual returned to the study site in a subsequent season) were lower for females (40%) than males (65%), as was Φ (± SE, females = 0.65 ± 0.05, males = 0.78 ± 0.03), and encounter rate (females = 0.51 ± 0.07, males = 0.74 ± 0.04). Results differed from previous estimates of Φ for this species as our estimates of Φ were higher for both males and females compared to estimates from another breeding site and two nonbreeding locations. Disparity among Φ estimates from breeding and nonbreeding areas highlights the need to delineate site-specific factors throughout the annual cycle that
It has been suggested that I may like contribute to the blogs on this site, which is surprising as this year I have been learning How to be a Bad Bird Watcher by following the advice of Simon Barnes in his book of that title. Ive kept no lists and just concentrated on watching and enjoying the birds I happen to see. For instance, consider gulls. I live in a wee house in a cul-de-sac in Alnwick with a very small back garden half of which is garage. On 5th December I was cooking a chicken casserole and threw the cut up chicken skin on to the roof of the garage into the snow. Within a couple of minutes the black-headed gulls were there swooping and calling and picking up the courage to dive down to gobble up their lunch. A brave carrion crow managed to sneak one piece while a magpie fluttered between the gulls but in no time at all the food was gone and so were the gulls. How do they discover the skins in the snow in the first place? On two occasions recently Ive heard gulls crying above our ...
Order: CHARADRIIFORMES - Plovers, Sandpipers, and Allies Family: LARIDAE - Gulls, Terns, and Skimmers Generally absent December through February
Camouflage may enable snipe to remain undetected by hunters in marshland. If the snipe flies, hunters have difficulty wing-shooting due to the birds erratic flight pattern. The difficulties involved in hunting snipes gave rise to the term sniper, meaning a hunter highly skilled in marksmanship and camouflaging, which later evolved to mean a sharpshooter or someone who shoots from a concealed location.[3][4] "Going on a snipe hunt" is a phrase suggesting a fools errand, or an impossible task.[citation needed] As an American rite of passage, it is often associated with summer camps and groups such as the Boy Scouts.[5] ...
The Black Hills population of black-backed woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) was petitioned, but deemed not warranted, to be listed as a threatened or endangered species under the Endangered Species Act and more information on their population size in the region is needed. Our objective was to map abundance and provide a population estimate of black-backed woodpeckers in the Black Hills and Bear Lodge Mountains of South Dakota and Wyoming, USA ...
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Imagine a world with no frogs. No longer would you hear frog melodies in the evening, algae would flourish, and entire ecosystems could change dramatically. This is a possibility in the Sierra Nevada because 90 percent of the Mountain yellow-legged frogs have been disappearing due to an amphibian pathogen and loss of habitat from fish introductions in our lakes. An ambitious and promising effort is underway to recover these frogs, and this approach may be applied to conserving other threatened amphibians globally. Join Dr. Roland Knapp from the Sierra Nevada Aquatic Research Laboratory to learn more about the recovery effort ...
ID A0A0A0A5L2_CHAVO Unreviewed; 873 AA. AC A0A0A0A5L2; DT 07-JAN-2015, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 07-JAN-2015, sequence version 1. DT 20-DEC-2017, entry version 13. DE SubName: Full=Bifunctional heparan sulfate N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase 4 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KGL88295.1}; GN ORFNames=N301_01195 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KGL88295.1}; OS Charadrius vociferus (Killdeer) (Aegialitis vocifera). OC Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; OC Archelosauria; Archosauria; Dinosauria; Saurischia; Theropoda; OC Coelurosauria; Aves; Neognathae; Charadriiformes; Charadriidae; OC Charadrius. OX NCBI_TaxID=50402 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KGL88295.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000053858}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KGL88295.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000053858} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=BGI_N301 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KGL88295.1}; RA Zhang G., Li C.; RT "Genome evolution of avian class."; RL Submitted (JUN-2014) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases. CC ...
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Status Assessment and Conservation Action Plan for the Long-billed Curlew (Numenius americanus) Biological Technical Publication BTP-R6012-2009 Bob Gress© U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Status Assessment and Conservation Action Plan for the Long-billed Curlew (Numenius americanus) Biological Technical Publication BTP-R6012-2009 Suzanne D. Fellows Stephanie L. Jones U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Region 6, Nongame Migratory Bird Coordinators Office, Denver, CO Cover image: Long-billed Curlew Photo credit: Bob Gress© ii Status Assessment and Conservation Action Plan for the Long-billed Curlew (Numenius americanus) Author contact information: Suzanne D. Fellows U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Region 6 Nongame Migratory Birds P. O. Box 25486 DFC Denver, CO 80225-0486 Phone: 303-236-4417 Email: [email protected] Stephanie L. Jones U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Region 6 Nongame Migratory Birds P. O. Box 25486 DFC Denver, CO 80225-0486 Phone: 303-236-4409 Email: ...
Adults occur in caves and other dimly lit biotopes. Active during daytime. They feed mainly on small sessile invertebrates and algae, to a lesser extent on harpacticoids (Ref. 5981). Oviparous. Eggs are demersal and adhesive (Ref. 205), and are attached to the substrate via a filamentous, adhesive pad or pedestal (Ref. 94114). Larvae are planktonic, often found in shallow, coastal waters (Ref. 94114). ...
Murrelet: Murrelet, any of six species of small diving birds belonging to the auk family, Alcidae (order Charadriiformes). Murrelets are about 20 cm (8 inches) long, thin billed and,
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Image by George C. West Copyright ©1995 Birds from left to right: Black Turnstone, Surfbird, Short-billed Dowitcher, Dunlin, Western Sandpiper All materials contained within this guide are for educational purposes only. Illustrations contained within this volume are copyrighted by the respective artist and may not be reproduced without written permission unless otherwise noted. Permission to use these images within this guide was granted to the Shorebird Sister Schools Program to encourage shorebird habitat protection in our nations school children. Explore the World with Shorebirds! 3 SHOREBIRDSISTER SCHOOLSPROGRAM Introduction Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Why Teach About Shorebirds? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 How to Use This Education Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Thumbing Through Explore the World ...
IOC Classification: Domain: Eukaryota • Regnum: Animalia • Phylum: Chordata • Subphylum: Vertebrata • Infraphylum: Gnathostomata • Superclassis: Tetrapoda • Classis: Aves • Superordo: Neognathae • Ordo: Charadriiformes • Familia: Scolopacidae • Genus: Arenaria (Scolopacidae) (Brisson, 1760) ...
skimmer: Any of three species of water birds that constitute the family Rynchopidae in the order Charadriiformes. The skimmer is distinguished by a unique bladelike bill, the lower mandible...
IOC Classification: Domain: Eukaryota • Regnum: Animalia • Phylum: Chordata • Subphylum: Vertebrata • Infraphylum: Gnathostomata • Superclassis: Tetrapoda • Classis: Aves • Superordo: Neognathae • Ordo: Charadriiformes • Familia: Glareolidae • Genus: Cursorius • Species: Cursorius cursor (Latham, 1787) ...
After an excited chase, the falcon departed the hot waters sans kittiwake, and rocketed out towards the gulls roosting further out on the ice. Its progressive was marked by clouds of gulls swirling aloft, and eventually the falcon singled out one of the few Bonapartes Gulls in the area. The raptor harried the small gull and eventually snatched it and headed back to shore. Through our optics, we watched as the gull struggled valiantly, its wings flapping wildly. The wildly struggling gull eventually proved too much for the falcon to grasp, and it dropped it. As if upset by this failure, the falcon raced around the gulls like a fighter jet, creating a massive uproar, before eventually soaring back to its lofty perch atop the power plants tower ...
The pool by the visitor centre had around 50 Red-crested Pochard each morning but most left the pool during the day. There were plenty of Coot but I didnt managed to find any Crested Coots. Yellow-legged Gulls were regular visitors to the pool but the only terns I saw were Sandwich Terns feeding along the estuary channels ...
The last week of our holiday in the north ended up with one good bird. On a trip to visit relatives we passed the very bird rich fjord west of Fauske. Armed with only bins many of the birds had to remain unidentified but I did clock up Slavonian Grebe (horndykker), Red-throated Diver (smålom), Velvet Scoter (sjøorre) and Long-tailed Duck (havelle). When we got to the vast mudflats at the end of the fjord I was hoping for some waders especially as it was close to high tide which would make my job in locating them easier. I was very disappointed to only find Oystercatcher (tjeld) and a single Redshank (rødstilk) but kept searching and finally found a couple of roosting Ringed Plovers (sandlot) together with a calidris wader. I assumed it was going to be a juvenile Dunlin (myrsnipe) but something didnt click and I moved in closer and was very happy to find an adult Broad-billed Sandpiper (fjellmyrløper). This species is recorded less than annually in Nordland county although it most likely ...
In the next hour and a half apart from a few Lesser Black-backed Gulls (sildemåke) making their way south I had 2 Guillemots (lomvi), a single Black Guillemot (teist) and a single Velvet Scoter (sjøorre) for my troubles and was thinking that it was time to be sensible and move on. Then at 11am I picked up a bird at distance to the north of Bastøy island. It was a bit smaller than a Common Gull with brown upperparts and head and a clearly visible pale belly. It was flying low over the water on stiff wings with a few flaps and then gliding and occasionally banking when it showed it underparts. It was making its way slowly but purposefully south and landed for a short period of time during which I lost sight of it before picking it up again in flight. Although the views were (very) distant, the light was good and there was no doubt this was a Balearic Shearwater (balearlire). This is a real rarity in Norway but a bird was seen further south in the Oslofjord at the end of July and it was high on ...
The Inca Tern (Larosterna inca) is a seabird in the family Sternidae and the only member of the genus Larosterna.. This unique bird breeds on the coasts of Peru and Chile, and is restricted to the Humboldt Current.. The Inca Tern breeds on rocky cliffs, nesting in a hollow or burrow or sometimes the old nest of a Humboldt Penguin. The female lays one or two eggs which are incubated for about 4 weeks. Chicks leave the nest after approximately 7 weeks.. This is a large tern, 41cm long and the sexes are similar; the adult is mostly slate-grey with white restricted to the facial plumes and the trailing edges of the wings. The large bill and legs are dark red. Juvenile birds are purple-brown, and gradually develop the facial plumes.. The Inca Tern feeds by plunge diving for fish like a Sterna tern. Its call is a cat-like mew.. ...
Rick Wright, Managing Director of WINGS Birding Tours Worldwide, writes:. A pretty picture, and well composed; with the birds head turned haughtily towards the observer, we cant see the exact length and shape of the bill or the precise pattern of dark feathers on the head. So lets start with what we can see.. Compare the overall shape of this Forsters Tern with that of a Common Tern. Theyre both "classic" Sterna terns, but Forsters is noticeably more attenuated - not just the foreshortened bill, but the tail and legs are longer than those of Common Tern. In this view, note that the tail, just barely visible beneath the folded primaries, nearly reaches their tips; Im not certain whether I can truly see a white outer vane or not, but if I could, that would distinguish this bird from Common with its dark-margined tail. What strikes me most of all in this image is the length of the tarsus. Just for fun, take this photo and the photo of Common Tern, and ask yourself which bird could straddle ...
The purple sandpiper (Calidris maritima) is a stocky wader that breeds in the northeastern parts of Arctic Canada, in Greenland, Iceland, the Faroes, Svalbard, in Northern Scandinavia and the western parts of the Russian Arctic. It has a dark brown plumage and an elongate, slightly downcurved, bill. It is a very hardy bird that does not migrate as far south during winter as most of the other small waders.
In the aviary study, from 14 May to 23 June 2004, we witnessed 25 copulatory attempts involving faeders, in 13 of which faeders were mounted by independent males (including the single case with clear cloacal contact). In seven cases, a faeder mounted an independent male, in four cases a satellite and once a female was mounted. Females never mounted males. The feminine behavioural ploys of female mimics were confirmed in the field, with observations in northern Norway of an individually colour-banded faeder (molecularly sexed as male; figure 1a,c). This bird visited a lek from 16 to 19 June 2004, and was mounted by an independent male on 17 June and by a satellite on 19 June (figure 1c; J. Champion and T. Champion 2005, personal communication).. That faeders were as often on top in homosexual mountings as true males, suggests that their identity is known by the other males; they may appear to be female mimics to us, but not necessarily to the ruffs themselves. The present observations may ...
There were 28 species of wader present last week in Mai Po.. 3 of them were lifers for me: Greater Sand Plover, Nordmanns Greenshank and Asian Dowitcher. The latter 2 are of course pretty rare and were my 2 target species for the trip. I could only get decent views of them through a scope and neither species came close enough to photograph. Most of the common species of east Asian shorebirds were present. The above photo shows mainly Black-tailed Godwit and Curlew Sandpiper with a few Marsh Sandpiper and Common Redshank mixed in.. Curlew Sandpiper were especially common. Ive only ever seen 3 lone individuals in Hokkaido but in Mai Po they were abundant. Some were in summer plumage as you can see.. ...
Brown thrashers, grackles, robins, cardinals, sparrows, scrub jays and pinyon jays are known to feed on monarchs. Some of these birds avoid the body parts with higher concentrations of cardenolides by eating only the abdomens or by eating this kind of food in moderation. When monarchs arrive in their wintering grounds in Mexico they are plump with stored fats that will keep them through the winter. A whole new set of predators is eagerly awaiting them. Mice feast mostly on dead and dying butterflies that have fallen to the ground. Several species of birds, especially black-backed orioles and black-headed grosbeaks take a heavy toll on the millions of wintering butterflies. A few months after their arrival in Mexico, the monarchs may have lost a fair amount of toxins, making them more appetizing. It is estimated that between 7 and 40% of them fall victims to predation in their roosting grounds ...
Looking for guillemot? Find out information about guillemot. northern sea bird, genus Cephas, of the auk auk , common name for a member of the family Alcidae , swimming and diving birds of the N Atlantic and Pacific,... Explanation of guillemot
Alyeska Pipeline Service Co. has a serious bird problem on its hands. It seems a multitude of black-legged kittiwakes has taken a shine to the Valdez oil terminal as a place to nest. Specifically, the kittiwakes like the tanker loading berths that extend out into the waters of Port Valdez. The birds...
The sanderling is a circumpolar breeder in high arctic regions in Alaska, arctic Canada, north and east Greenland, Svalbard and western and central Siberia. The sandlerling is a small wading bird that is often seen running rapidly in the tidal zone. They are migratory, wintering along the coast southwards to South America, South Africa and Australia. Considerable numbers pass along the coast of Norway during their migrations in the spring and autumn.
Linda and I had agreed to meet Jane & Jason, two of our oldest and best chums, at Minsmere. This was more of a social event than anything else, but the walk around the reserve produced a few interesting bits and pieces: several pairs of Stonechats, an elusive Dartford Warbler and a Yellow-legged Gull being about the best. The short drive to Dunwich Cliffs added a few groups of Brent flying north and a Red Deer doe trotted across the road as we were leaving. After our friends departed, Linda and I moved to Eastbridge, where we managed to connect with the reported Cattle Egret just before it flew off to roost (and before the heavens opened ...
Egg quality is a phenotype of, and can profoundly influence fitness in, both mother and offspring. However, the physiological mechanisms that underlie this maternal effect are poorly understood. Carotenoids are hypothesized to enhance antioxidant act
Gulls are sociable and often found in groups at rest or when feeding.. Most gulls, particularly Larus species, are ground nesting carnivores, which will take live food or scavenge opportunistically. Live food often includes crabs and small fish. Gulls have prophylactic unhinging jaws which allow them to consume large prey. Apart from the kittiwakes, gulls are typically coastal or inland species, rarely venturing far out to sea.[citation needed] The large species take up to four years to attain full adult plumage, but two years is typical for small gulls. Large White-Headed Gulls are typically long-lived birds, with a maximum age of 49 years recorded for the Herring Gull.[2]. Gulls nest in large, densely packed noisy colonies. They lay two to three speckled eggs in nests composed of vegetation. The young are precocial, being born with dark mottled down, and mobile upon hatching.[3]. Gulls-the larger species in particular-are resourceful, inquisitive and intelligent[4] birds, demonstrating complex ...
About halfway through, we paused to eat the bread wed brought along and have some of the wine. We were joined by a young gull, who seemed hardly the least bit afraid of people. He landed inside our circle, and Spooky fed him. A Great Black-backed Gull (Larus marinus), the largest species in the North Atlantic, with wingspans up to 65". This fellow was no more than three winters old. As the breakers crashed over the craggy black and grey rocks (Jamestown Formation, Middle Cambrian age) and rushed noisily into deep places between the rocks, the lone gull added a note of humour to the whole affair. Soon, though, a second, larger gull arrived and swooped over us a couple of times, then sat a short distance away, seeming to caw angrily at our visitor. The two finally left together, and we continued. I finished the ritual and opened the circle. It was getting dark by then, and we had to pick our way carefully along the cliffs back to the ravine. Within sight of the path leading back up the to car, we ...
Spotted sandpipers are diurnal. They can sleep anytime, day or night, but generally sleep whenever it is dark. During the day, spotted sandpipers spend some time on self-maintenance, which involves preening, head scratching, stretching, and bathing.. Spotted sandpipers are fully migratory, with the exception of populations that breed and winter along the west coast of the United States and in some areas in California. Spotted sandpipers migrate during the day and at night. Unlike most shorebirds, they migrate singly or in small groups.. Spotted sandpipers are territorial during the breeding season and in winter. During the breeding season, males and females independently defend territories. For monogamous breeding pairs, the male and female territories are essentially identical. For polyandrous females, the males territories are subsets within the females territory. Spotted sandpipers defend their territories aggressively. Territorial disputes typically involve pecking at the head and eyes of ...
Display detailed information about the Roseate Tern, Juvenile Roseate Tern (Species=Sterna dougallii / Standard Name=Roseate Tern); including photos and information on age, sex, colouring, voice, feeding, nesting, size, weight, length, lifespan and wingspan.
Description: Largest of the North American shorebirds, this species is crow-sized with long, dark legs and a long, decurved bill. Adult males and young have shorter bills than adult females. The bills may be pink to orange at the base of the lower mandible. Look for reddish-brown plumage with dark barring, streaking on upper and lower body parts and fine, even streaking on the head. Markings are more prominent during the breeding season. Cinnamon underwings are seen in flight.. Similar Species: Whimbrels are smaller, have distinctive crown stripes and are grayer with lighter bellies. Eskimo Curlews, although probably extinct, are smaller and have shorter, decurved bills. Godwits have straighter, slightly upcurved bills.. Comments: This species is found in large tracts of native prairie throughout the western Great Plains. They frequently feed in agricultural fields by probing in the soil or running after grasshoppers and other invertebrates. They also eat eggs and the young of grassland nesting ...
Digital Morphology account of the razorbill, Alca torda, featuring CT-generated animations of the skull and expert commentary by Dr. N. Adam Smith
Small and plain in appearance, this sandpiper is important in terms of sheer numbers. It often gathers by the thousands at stopover points during migration. Semipalmated Sandpipers winter mostly in South America, and studies have shown that they may make a non-stop flight of nearly 2000 miles from New England or eastern Canada to the South American coast. The name Semipalmated refers to slight webbing between the toes, visible only at extremely close range.
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there is lucky to have a large Common Tern colony that also hosts breeding Black Skimmers and Least Terns, to say nothing of the Piping Plovers and American Oystercatchers that breed out on the barrier beaches as well. May is a great time to visit, before all of the birds have completely finished pairing off and getting down to the business of nesting, not only because this reduces the likelihood of disturbance but also because other species often stop by on their way north, something I learned a couple of years ago while doing a Queens big day.. You can imagine, then, why I have managed to find time to make two visits out to Breezy Point this May, when you consider that I have as a goal increasing my Queens life list. I have only managed to add one new bird, a Parasitic Jaeger that was busy harassing Common Terns, but any visit to a tern colony is going to be cool regardless of additions to a checklist. You have no idea how happy I am to live within twenty minutes of, say, this:. ...
OVER the past couple of months we’ve seen a handful of very odd, but related, neurological cases in animals as diverse as a black-headed caique, cats and a bulldog.
Common terns nest in large colonies and invading diurnal predators are mobbed by all adults in a colony. Elsewhere in their range, other species, such as black skimmers (Rynchops niger), often nest in tern colonies, presumably because the cooperative mobbing of predators by the terns protects the skimmer nests as well. In Lake of the Woods in northern Minnesota, piping plovers (Charadrius melodus) and common terns have nested in proximity to one another. Common tern nests are shallow indentations in the sand or wracks of dead vegetation on beaches. An average clutch contains 3 eggs. Both parents incubate the eggs during the day, but at several island sites in Minnesota, the parents fly to the mainland during the night, leaving the eggs or chicks unguarded. Parents who incubate their nests during the night are especially vulnerable to predators, as they are on the ground and in the open. It is thought that night desertion of nests may be a way for parents to escape predation. However, it ...
On the tail of the satellite tracking project PhD student Jesse Conklin is using tiny data loggers attached to the legs of godwits to track their annual cycles of movement, and he is also collecting as much information about their moulting and other life cycle events using digital photos and observations. He is studying a small population of birds that are summer residents in the Manawatu River estuary, at Foxton Beach. In the first week of November Alison Ballance joined Jesse Conklin and a large team of shorebird experts that included Phil Battley, David Melville, Adrian Riegen, Graham Taylor and Dick Veitch in a cannon netting mission to retrieve 24 data loggers from the Foxton Beach birds.. To find out everything you want to know about godwits check out Keith Woodleys new book Godwits: long haul champions (Penguin Books). The Asia Pacific Shorebird Network encourages international co-operation in the study and conservation of shorebirds.. ...
less than record shots -- it spent most of its time hiding behind a distant gate post and only jumped up onto the post at 18: 15 when it was ...
an evening visit to Killingholme saw the godwits leaving as I arrived -- good timing -- but a flock of 16 Common Sandpipers kept me amused for an hour as they trilled and flew around perching on islands and deciding when to set off -- eventually after many false starts at 20:14 15 of the 16 started to gain height and circled up to about 200m before heading off south leaving one lone bird still roosting on the island -- not that often that I see a flock of Common Sands of this magnitude but always at the end of July ...
Ever since Kurt Sanderlings 1984 debut with the Los Angeles Philharmonic, local critics have described his musical relationship with the orchestra in such terms as love affair and romance .
The Sandwich Tern (Sterna sandvicensis) is a common coastal tern of eastern North America as well as the Gulf Coast region. The species also occurs along the Gulf coast of Mexico, all the way to South America. Adults show a yellow-tipped bill, but many young birds do not develop this yellow tip until their first winter. The shots of various plumages and ages of Sandwich Terns on this pager were taken on Sanibel Island, Lee Co., Florida, in November, 2006, with a Canon EOS 1D Mark II and EF 500mm F/4 L IS lens ...
Lethal control, which has been used to reduce local abundances of animals in conflict with humans or with endangered species, may not achieve management goals if animal movement is not considered. In populations with emigration and immigration, lethal control may induce compensatory immigration, if the source of attraction remains unchanged. Within the Columbia River Basin (Washington, U.S.A.), avian predators forage at dams because dams tend to reduce rates of emigration of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.), artificially concentrating these prey. We used differences in fatty acid profiles between Caspian Terns (Hydroprogne caspia) at coastal and inland breeding colonies and terns culled by a lethal control program at a mid-Columbia River dam to infer dispersal patterns. We modeled the rate of loss of fatty acid biomarkers, which are fatty acids that can be traced to a single prey species or groups of species, to infer whether and when terns foraging at dams had emigrated from the coast. Nonmetric
... definition, a tern, Sterna paradisaea, resembling the common tern, that breeds in arctic and north temperate regions and winters in antarctic regions. See more.
Our smallest tern. Often seen flying low over the water, with quick deep wingbeats and shrill cries. Usually hovers before plunging into water for tiny prey; does more hovering than most terns. Populations are endangered in many areas because of human impacts on nesting areas, especially competition for use of beaches. However, Least Terns in some parts of the east are now nesting successfully on gravel roofs near the coast.
With over 800km² of intertidal sand and mud flats, the King Sound (where KMRS is located) is the most extensive area of mudflats in the Kimberley. This intertidal area represents a globally significant foraging habitat for migratory sea and shorebirds. Roebuck Bay has the greatest diversity of shorebird species of any site on the planet and around 150,000 of these birds visit every year. Accordingly, Roebuck Bay and 80 Mile Beach are two of the worlds most significant waterbird sites and are protected accordingly under the RAMSAR convention. The intertidal mudflats of King Sound are also a crucial foraging habitat for sea birds and shorebirds as the high quality estuarine feeding habitat and adjacent undisturbed roosts are essential to the viability of these populations. ...
March 5, 2013-Researchers with the Cornell Lab of Ornithology capture video of newborn Spoon Billed Sandpiper chicks. This critically endangered Asian shorebird could go extinct within ten years.
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Our conversation went along the lines that neither of us had any objections - business woman aside - to people or their dogs, but perhaps we should pursue some way of drawing attention to the fact that Plover Scar is the haunt of many birds, sometimes in their several hundreds, and that its not a good idea to wander off onto the scar to cause unnecessary disturbance to these birds. In this regard this person told me he had thought of contacting a society with a view that they may agree a sign to this effect could perhaps be erected by them, what a thoughtful and very good idea I agreed, but with the society he named we wont hold our breath, but we have an issue here about people, dogs, and places like Plover Scar which I think needs to be addressed.... well see! ...
From New Zealand.com. The Motu Manawa Marine Reserve protects around 500 hectares of the inner reaches of Aucklands Waitemata Harbour. It includes the mudflats, tidal channels, mangrove swamp, saltmarsh and shellbanks surrounding Pollen and Traherne Islands. Aucklands northwestern motorway passes through the reserve (shortly after the Waterview exit if you are driving northwest). The best way to access this reserve is by sea kayak. Stopping on the side of the motorway is illegal.. The reserves mudflats are an important feeding ground for wading birds. Some (godwits, knots and sandpipers) are international migrants that breed in the north Asian wetlands during the northern spring and summer. To avoid the winter they fly south to enjoy New Zealands spring and summer. Most return to the northern hemisphere in March but a few birds, too young to breed, stay over.. Two mudflat feeders, the South Island pied oystercatcher and the wrybill, are internal or national migrants. They breed on the ...
Define -uria. -uria synonyms, -uria pronunciation, -uria translation, English dictionary definition of -uria. suff. 1. The condition of having a specified substance in the urine: aciduria. 2. The condition of having a specified kind of urine: polyuria.
BLACK-BELLIED PLOVER, Charadrius helveticus, Aud. Orn. Biog., vol. iv.p. 250. Male, 11 3/4, 25. From Texas along the coast to the northern extremity of the Continent. Breeds from Virginia northward. Not abundant. Adult Male in summer. Bill as long as the head, straight, somewhat compressed, stout. Upper mandible with the dorsal line straight and slightly sloping for more than half its length, then bulging a little and arched to the tip, which is rather acute, the sides flat and sloping at the base, convex towards the end, where the edges are sharp and inclinate. Nasal groove extended to a little more than half the length of the mandible; nostrils sub-basal, linear, open and pervious. Lower mandible with the angle rather long and narrow, the sides at the base erect and nearly flat, the dorsal line ascending and slightly convex, the edges sharp and involute towards the narrow tip. Head of moderate size, roundish, the forehead much rounded. Eyes large. Neck rather short. Body ovate, rather full. ...
Eurasian curlew (Numenius arquata). Plate 17 from Watercolour drawings of British Animals (1831-1841) by Scottish naturalist William MacGillivray. - Stock Image C013/6303
Hidden in the hardscrabble margins near Heart Mountain and on Polecat Bench is a special bird: the long-billed curlew. And one man has dedicated his life to unlocking the secrets of this threatened species.
The Curlew Restaurant: A well deserved member of the Michelin Club ! - See 735 traveller reviews, 105 candid photos, and great deals for Bodiam, UK, at TripAdvisor.
Den här ekorren har räknat ut att den kan få något gott hos min mormor. This squirrel has figured out that it can get something good to ea ...
Behaviour This species is fully migratory (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Snow and Perrins 1998). It arrives on the breeding grounds from mid-May to mid-June where it nests in solitary pairs (del Hoyo et al. 1996) and forages in small loose groups (Snow and Perrins 1998). From July to August the adults undergo a flightless moulting period on the coast close to the nesting areas before travelling to the wintering grounds in September and November (Hayman et al. 1986). During the non-breeding season the species is gregarious and usually forms small flocks of up to 250 individuals (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Habitat Breeding The species breeds on Arctic coasts (Hayman et al. 1986) and in upland areas (Johnsgard 1981, Flint et al. 1984, Hayman et al. 1986), nesting close to the fringes of snow and ice (del Hoyo et al. 1996) on wet moss or barren rocky tundra with patches of lichen and Dryas spp., on rocky islands and islets or on shingle beaches (del Hoyo et al. 1996). It forages on dry tundra or along the moist ...
An endangered shorebird is having a record year in Wisconsin. Federal, state and tribal partners working on the recovery of piping plover saw a record number of chicks take flight.
I have often spoken of the great differences as to size and colour that are observed in birds of the same species, and which have frequently given rise to mistakes, insomuch that the male, the female, and the young, have been considered as so many distinct species. The Long-legged Sandpiper has been treated in this manner, and has latterly reappeared under the name of Tringa Douglassii, in the Fauna Boreali-Americana of my friends RICHARDSON and SWAINSON. BONAPARTE was, in truth, the first who described this bird; and although some differences might be found between his specimen and the one described in the work just mentioned, they are trifling compared with those which I have observed between seven or eight individuals all procured from the same flock at a single shot. It is strange that neither BONAPARTE nor SWAINSON have mentioned the sex of their specimen. On the morning of the 4th of April, 1837, while seated among the drift wood that had accumulated on the southern shore of the island of ...
For successful breeding, good timing is of the utmost importance for birds inhabiting seasonal environments. Seasonal declines in reproductive success have been well documented in birds (e.g. Perrins...
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14-16 1/4 (36-41 cm). A slender, graceful, gull-like bird with a black cap, long, pointed wings; and a deeply forked tail. Breeding adults have pale gray back and wings with frosty tips, whitish primaries, and gray tail. Bright orange-red bill with black tip; legs orange. Winter adults and immatures only have black patch around eye; bill black. Similar Species- Common Tern, Arctic Tern Song ...
Sterna (T.) caspia. Caspian Tern. Imperial Tern. Bill dark vermilion red, growing and somewhat "diaphanous" toward the tip. Pileum and occipital crest glossy greenish-black, extending to below the lower level of the eyes, and occupying the termination of the feathers on the side of the mandible to the exclusion of the white; lower eyelid white, forming a noticeable spot on the greenish; a white streak along sides of upper mandible, not extending to the end of the feathers. mantle pearl-blue, the line of demarcation between it and the white rather indefinite, both on nape and rump; most of the tail-feathers, and especially the central ones, retaining a more or less pearly tint. Shafts of the primaries yellowish-white; primaries grayish-black, but, when new, so heavily silvered over as to appear of a light hoary gray, especially on their superior aspects. On the inner web of all there is a central light field; this is very narrow, even on the first primary, although it runs considerable distance, ...
Forsters Tern: Medium tern, pale gray upperparts, black cap, white underparts. Bill is orange, black tip. Wings are pale gray with paler primaries. Tail is pale gray, deeply forked with dark inner edge, white outer edge. Orange legs, feet. Hovers above water before diving for prey.
Buy or license direct from the photographer this stunning image of : Flock Of Little Stint ( Calidris Minuta ) Sitting On A Boulder At Jaeren , Norwa ...
Elegant Terns are...well, theyre just so elegant!, founding chapter member Abigail King used to say. They certainly are. We were recently treated to the sight of thousands of Elegant Terns dropping into Malibu Lagoon, and on April 29 Jim Kenney caught them in action. Often starting off slow, such gatherings can build over several hours,…
On the Lune estuary at Glasson Dock an adult Mediterranean Gull, 3 Greenshank, c.320 Golden Plover, and the 5 Wigeon I saw were todays first sign of winter. At Cockersands another c.70 Wigeon were off Plover Scar with 4 Eider, last Wednesdays 11 Linnet were still round, and the first record of a coastal winter Merlin was perched on the gate post in the top picture above, and thirty minutes later on my return from Plover Scar plucking at the result of a successful strike. I should really add that these are the best results I could get from my improvised photographic equipment these days. At the caravan park end of Cockersands I found another adult Mediterranean Gull which still retained a decent - albeit moulting - hood. The Mallard number seemed so large that I decided a count would be a good idea (I worry about myself sometimes) and I found them to total at least 400 with no apologies for nice round figures, c.450 Curlew were also to note, 4 Goosander (unusual here) and 2 Little Egret were ...
Here is a list of birds we saw at Basai:. 1) Long tailed Shrike. 2) Sarus Crane (3 gorgeous cranes). 3) Grey heron. 4, 5, 6) Three types of ibis, all in one place, single camera shot, I loved this! We saw the glossy ibis, the black ibis (with the red head and small white patch on shoulder) and the black headed ibis (with the white body). 7) Dunlin in flock - did you know that in this bird the female often deserts the nest and the male looks after the brood?. 8) Drongo. 9) Either Citrine Wagtail, or Yellow Wagtail, Im not sure which!. 10) White wagtail (whats the right name for this?). 11) Praticole. 12) Pied starling. 13) Ashy crowned sparrow lark (adorable). 14) Pied bushchat. 15) Asian laughing dove. 16) Common redshank. 17) Spotted sandpiper. 18) Common sandpiper. 19) Purple swamphen. 20) Spot billed duck. 21) Black winged stilt. 22) Godwit. 23) Pied Avocet. 24) Marsh harrier (gorgeous big bird, excellent sighting, we saw three of them!). 25) White breasted kingfisher. Most of the waders ...
Photo/image Arctic Tern (Sterna paradisaea), Family: Laridae. Location Kappelshamn, Gotland, Sverige. Photographer: S Drozd Lund, Photoid 82788
No other island within miles of Bay Point has the holding power to sustain our nations shorebirds while they are under our watch.. Bay Point is needed for the 5,000 to 8,000 shorebirds inhabiting the island on any given winter day.. It is needed for the more than 500 federally threatened red knots that feast on horseshoe crab eggs. Tiny red knots travel 9,300 miles between Tiera del Fuego to Artic breeding grounds, with very few stops along the way. Our coast is an important rung in the ladder of its migration journey, and Bay Point has some of highest red knot counts.. There is no doubt that development will degrade Bay Point for the diverse and abundant species that rely on it, and we will directly contribute to the declining loss of many species. You can expect significantly fewer birds on Hilton Head.. According to Hilton Head Mayor David Bennett, developing Bay Point is the "opportunity to enhance Hilton Head Islands brand and refocus us back to the early days of environmental ...
Tex, Perth and Mama, thanks very much for those comments and compliments. I, too could not get over the incredible bio mass of the birds. The sounds of their wings were really powerful, yet delicate at the same time. And, they cheep and peep on lifting off, too. That was pretty impressive with that many little voices!. ReplyDelete ...
There are no easy answers, no standard approaches that are universally helpful. There are no magic formulas that will make the pain go away. It is natural to feel helpless when the child of a friend or relative dies. Remember that showing your loving concern can be very comforting to a grieving family. Please dont avoid them because you feel inadequate. Families are more likely to reach a healthy, positive resolution of their grief if they receive continuing support and understanding. The following suggestions may help you provide that support ...
Adonis Blue (5) Arundel WWT (2) Ashtead Common (12) Avocet (7) Azure Damselfly (7) Banded Demoiselle (10) Barn Owl (5) Barnacle Goose (7) Bearded Reedling (1) Beautiful Demoiselle (9) Bee (6) Behaviour (5) Bird Song (8) Bird Sounds (10) Birds (294) Bittern (4) Black Darter (11) Black-headed Gull (35) Black-headed Yellow Wagtail (1) Black-tailed Godwit (20) Black-tailed Skimmer (8) Blackbird (21) Blackcap (18) Blue Tit (60) Blue-tailed Damselfly (3) Bluebell (10) Bookham Common (36) Brent Goose (30) Brimstone (15) Broad-bodied Chaser (16) Brood Parasitis (2) Brown Argus (6) Brown Hairstreak (2) Bugs (4) Bullfinch (3) Bushy Park (29) Butterfly (176) Butterfly Forays (22) Canada Goose (53) Carrion Crow (11) Cettis Warbler (2) Chaffinch (14) Chalkhill Blue (7) Chiffchaff (22) Clematis (7) Cley NWT (6) Clouded Border (1) Clouded Yellow (2) Coal Tit (5) Collared Dove (10) Comma (19) Common Blue (23) Common Blue Damselfly (5) Common Buzzard (18) Common Crane (1) Common Darter (17) Common Gull (2) ...
great crested grebe, cormorant, grey heron, mute swan, greylag goose, canada goose, mallard, gadwall, shoveler, teal (10sp) wigeon, pochard, tufted duck, scaup, goldeneye, smew, red kite, common buzzard, kestrel, moorhen (20 sp) coot, lapwing, black headed gull, common gull, herring gull, lesser black backed gull, greater black backed gull, collared dove, wood pigeon, dunnock (30sp) robin, blackbird, great tit, blue tit, long tailed tit, jay, magpie, jackdaw, rook, carrion crow (40 sp) house sparrow, starling, chaffinch, goldfinch, siskin, reed bunting, waxwing, fieldfare, redwing, pied wagtail (50 sp) egyptian goose, great spotted woodpecker, treecreeper, mistle thrush, wren, bullfinch, red legged partridge, yellowhammer, stock dove, pheasant (60sp) green woodpecker, nuthatch, marsh tit, song thrush, tawny owl, little grebe, barn owl, little owl, woodcock, sparrowhawk (70 sp) coal tit, little egret, red throated diver, guillemot, razorbill, common scoter, gannet, kittiwake, brent goose, ...
This thesis describes the isolation and molecular identification of a novel paramyxovirus found in Australian snakes. The virus is named Sunshine virus after the geographical origin of the first isolate: the Sunshine Coast of Queensland, Australia. For decades, Australian veterinarians have been presented with snakes displaying neurorespiratory signs. The clinical signs, pathological findings and the results of overseas diagnostic testing, have suggested that at least some of these snakes were infected with paramyxoviruses, most likely ferlaviruses. Australian veterinarians provided 463 samples to be screened for the presence of viruses and nine were found from five snakes from two collections. For all isolates, cytopathic effects consisted of extensive syncytial cell formation with minimal cell lysis. Further characterisation was performed on one of these isolates, BHP1-Lung (from a lung homogenate of a black-headed python [BHP], Aspidites melanocephalus with mild respiratory signs and ...
10000 Birds (17) Aberts Squirrel (1) Acadian Flycatcher (4) Acorn Woodpecker (3) Adak Island (2) Adelaides Warbler (1) Agattu Island (1) Agua Caliente County Park (3) albatross injuries (1) albino albatross (1) Alder Flycatcher (1) aleutian cackling goose (3) aleutians (1) Allens Hummingbird (9) Altamira Oriole (1) Amazon Kingfisher (1) american alligator (3) American Avocet (20) american birding association (2) american bittern (2) American Coot (2) American Crocodile (2) American Crow (2) american dipper (3) American Flamingo (1) American Golden-Plover (1) american goldfinch (1) American Kestrel (7) American Kestrel Partnership (1) American Ornithological Society (1) American Ornithologists Union (2) American Oystercatcher (3) American Pipit (6) american redstart (6) American Robin (7) American Tree Sparrow (2) American White Pelican (17) american wigeon (7) American X Black Oystercatcher (2) American X Black Oystercatcher hybrid (1) Amsonia tomentosa (1) Ancient Murrelet (4) anhinga (6) ...
Acorn Woodpecker (1) Agave lophantha Quaddricolor (1) Agave Salmiana (10) Alaska (2) Albino White Crowned Sparrow (1) Aloe (5) Alstroemeria (1) Amaranthus Early Splendor (1) Amaryllis belladonna (1) American Coot (3) American Crow (8) American Kestrel (2) American Robin (1) Annas Hummingbird (18) Araucania (1) Argyroderma (1) Australia (5) Australian Pelican (1) B. Microsperma (1) Bald Eagle Cam (2) Bald Eagles (3) Band-tailed Pigeon (5) Bees (3) Begonia (14) Begonia Boliviensis Hybrid (1) Begonia Hazels Front Porch (1) Begonia Show (3) Bird of Paradise (1) Birdbath (4) BirdCam (40) Black Bear (1) Black Crowned Night Heron (2) Black Phoebe (4) Black Swan (1) Black-chinned Hummingbird (1) Black-headed Grosbeak (5) Black-Necked Stilt (2) Bloggie Video Camera (2) Blue Ginger (1) Blue-gray Gnatcatcher (4) Blue-winged Teal (1) Bolga (1) Broad-winged Hawk (1) Bromeliad (8) Brown Pelican (2) Bufflehead (1) Bushtit (2) Butchart Gardens (6) Cactus (1) Calathea (1) California Poppy (1) California ...
Acorn Woodpecker (1) Agave lophantha Quaddricolor (1) Agave Salmiana (10) Alaska (2) Albino White Crowned Sparrow (1) Aloe (5) Alstroemeria (1) Amaranthus Early Splendor (1) Amaryllis belladonna (1) American Coot (3) American Crow (8) American Kestrel (2) American Robin (1) Annas Hummingbird (18) Araucania (1) Argyroderma (1) Australia (5) Australian Pelican (1) B. Microsperma (1) Bald Eagle Cam (2) Bald Eagles (3) Band-tailed Pigeon (5) Bees (3) Begonia (14) Begonia Boliviensis Hybrid (1) Begonia Hazels Front Porch (1) Begonia Show (3) Bird of Paradise (1) Birdbath (4) BirdCam (40) Black Bear (1) Black Crowned Night Heron (2) Black Phoebe (4) Black Swan (1) Black-chinned Hummingbird (1) Black-headed Grosbeak (5) Black-Necked Stilt (2) Bloggie Video Camera (2) Blue Ginger (1) Blue-gray Gnatcatcher (4) Blue-winged Teal (1) Bolga (1) Broad-winged Hawk (1) Bromeliad (8) Brown Pelican (2) Bufflehead (1) Bushtit (2) Butchart Gardens (6) Cactus (1) Calathea (1) California Poppy (1) California ...
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Migratory birds have been implicated in the long-range spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A virus (H5N1) from Asia to Europe and Africa. Although sampling of healthy wild birds representing a large number of species has not identified possible carriers of influenza virus (H5N1) into Europe, surveillance of dead and sick birds has demonstrated mute (Cygnus olor) and whooper (C. cygnus) swans as potential sentinels. Because of concerns that migratory birds could spread H5N1 subtype to the Western Hemisphere and lead to its establishment within free-living avian populations, experimental studies have addressed the susceptibility of several indigenous North American duck and gull species. We examined the susceptibility of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) to HPAI virus (H5N1). Large populations of this species can be found in periagricultural and periurban settings and thus may be of potential epidemiologic importance if H5N1 subtype were to establish itself in North American wild ...
Researchers from the Cooperative Wildlife Research Laboratory, Southern Illinois University and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) examined the chronic toxicity of two of the insecticides most commonly used in the Central Valley- chlorpyrifos and endosulfan, to larval Pacific treefrogs (Pseudacris regilla) and foothill yellow-legged frogs (Rana boylii), the amphibians with declining populations that live and breed in meadows surrounding the Sierra Nevada. The results are discussed in "Toxicity of Two Insecticides to California, USA, Anurans and Its Relevance to Declining Amphibian Populations." The study used laboratory testing to examine how the insecticides affected the two frogs at environmentally realistic concentrations. During testing, tadpoles were observed at various stages of development to see how the insecticides affected their growth and health.. The researchers found that endosulfan was more toxic than chlorpyrifos to both species, and tadpoles of both species developed abnormalities ...

Central African Republic | Page 4 | Western African Aquatic MammalsCentral African Republic | Page 4 | Western African Aquatic Mammals

Charadriiformes Scolopacidae - / 1979 Anas querquedula Garganey Aves Anseriformes Anatidae - / 1979 Charadrius dubius Little ...
more infohttps://www.cms.int/aquatic-mammals/fr/country/central-african-republic?page=3

Charadriiformes - WikipediaCharadriiformes - Wikipedia

Charadriiformes is a diverse order of small to medium-large birds. It includes about 350 species and has members in all parts ... 2016) That the Charadriiformes are an ancient group is also borne out by the fossil record. Much of the Neornithes fossil ... List of Charadriiformes by population Fain & Houde (2004) Ericson et al. (2003), Paton et al. (2003), Thomas et al. (2004a,b), ... Most Charadriiformes live near water and eat invertebrates or other small animals; however, some are pelagic (seabirds), some ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charadriiformes

charadriiformes - definition and meaningcharadriiformes - definition and meaning

charadriiformes: large diverse order of aquatic birds found along seacoasts and inland waters; shorebirds and coastal diving ... Do not diabolically buy computer online to any sauropodomorpha charadriiformes that asks for your built or slick bangladeshi. ...
more infohttps://www.wordnik.com/words/charadriiformes

Charadriiformes | HBW AliveCharadriiformes | HBW Alive

Order Charadriiformes contains bird families like Buttonquails, Jacanas, Painted-snipes, Crab-plover, Oystercatchers, Ibisbill ... Charadriiformes. Families overview for this order. Thick-knees (Burhinidae) * Medium-sized terrestrial waders, with long legs, ... Previously placed in Gruiformes, but now universally accepted as belonging in Charadriiformes#R#R#R. ... both belonging to the scolopacine radiation of the Charadriiformes. ...
more infohttps://www.hbw.com/order/charadriiformes

List of Charadriiformes by population - WikipediaList of Charadriiformes by population - Wikipedia

Charadriiformes (Charadrius being Latin for "plover") is the taxonomic order to which the waders, gulls, and auks belong. ... The Charadriiformes, for example, are grouped with the Ciconiiformes in the Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy. In the interest of ... This is a list of Charadriiformes species by global population. While numbers are estimates, they have been made by the experts ... A variety of methods are used for counting Charadriiformes. For example, the piping plover is subject to the quinquennial ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Charadriiformes_by_population

History, distribution, and seasonal abundance of the Least Tern Sternula antillarum (Aves: Charadriiformes: Sternidae) in BrazilHistory, distribution, and seasonal abundance of the Least Tern Sternula antillarum (Aves: Charadriiformes: Sternidae) in Brazil

History, distribution, and seasonal abundance of the Least Tern Sternula antillarum (Aves: Charadriiformes: Sternidae) in ... Registros relevantes de Charadriiformes em praias do litoral norte do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de ... Reprodução de Sternula antillarum (Charadriiformes: Sternidae) na costa amazônica do Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia ... Primer registro de Sternula antillarum Lesson, 1847 (Aves, Charadriiformes) para el estado de Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. ...
more infohttp://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1984-46702013000200003

Charadriiformes | Article about Charadriiformes by The Free DictionaryCharadriiformes | Article about Charadriiformes by The Free Dictionary

an order of birds comprising 11 families, including Jacanidae, Rostratulidae, Thinocoridae,... Explanation of Charadriiformes ... Find out information about Charadriiformes. An order of cosmopolitan birds, most of which live near water. ... Related to Charadriiformes: Anseriformes, Scolopaci, Shorebirds Charadriiformes. [kə‚rad·rē·ə′fȯr‚mēz] (vertebrate zoology) An ... Charadriiformes live along seashores, riverbanks, lakeshores, and the edges of swamps. Some live in dry steppes and deserts and ...
more infohttp://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Charadriiformes

An assessment of the diversity of early Miocene Scolopaci (Aves, Charadriiformes) from Saint-Gérand-le-Puy (Allier, France)
 |...An assessment of the diversity of early Miocene Scolopaci (Aves, Charadriiformes) from Saint-Gérand-le-Puy (Allier, France) |...

Fossil Calidridinae (Aves: Charadriiformes) from the Middle Miocene of the Nördlinger Ries. Bonner Zoologische Beitrge, 52, 101 ... A revision of the Lari (Aves, Charadriiformes) from the early Miocene of Saint-Gérand-le-Puy (Allier, France). Journal of ... Article: An assessment of the diversity of early Miocene Scolopaci (Aves, Charadriiformes) from Saint-Gérand-le-Puy (Allier, ... An assessment of the diversity of early Miocene Scolopaci (Aves, Charadriiformes) from Saint-Gérand-le-Puy (Allier, France). ...
more infohttps://www.palass.org/publications/palaeontology-journal/archive/55/6/article_pp1177-1197?view=references

ADW: Charadriiformes: PICTURESADW: Charadriiformes: PICTURES

Order Charadriiformes shorebirds and relatives Charadriiformes: pictures (830) Charadriiformes: specimens (5) Charadriiformes: ...
more infohttp://animaldiversity.org/accounts/Charadriiformes/pictures/collections/contributors/david_behrens/BlackwingedStilts/?start=270

Arboretum Birds | The ArboretumArboretum Birds | The Arboretum

Northern Cardinals are popular with new and experienced birders. Photo by Josh Crozier.. In the list below, the 87 species marked with an * have been known to breed in this site. Those marked with (*) may breed here also. The two species marked with ** are escapees. One species is marked with !; this is the extinct Passenger Pigeon. Historical records indicate that this species may have had a breeding colony along the Speed River close to The Arboretum and thus this species was likely a common sight here long ago.. ...
more infohttps://www.uoguelph.ca/arboretum/collectionsandresearch/biodiversitybirds

紐西蘭鳥類列表 - 维基百科,自由的百紐西蘭鳥類列表 - 维基百科,自由的百

鴴形目 Charadriiformes[编辑]. *彩鷸科 Rostratulidae. *彩鷸 - Rostratula benghalensis (w:Greater Painted-snipe) ※迷鳥 ...
more infohttps://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E7%B4%90%E8%A5%BF%E8%98%AD%E9%B3%A5%E9%A1%9E%E5%88%97%E8%A1%A8

Flightless bird - WikipediaFlightless bird - Wikipedia

Charadriiformes (gulls, terns, auks)Edit. Great auk. *Great auk, Pinguinus impennis †. Falconiformes (birds of prey)Edit. * ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flightless_bird

White-winged tern - WikipediaWhite-winged tern - Wikipedia

Charadriiformes. Family:. Laridae. Genus:. Chlidonias. Species:. C. leucopterus. Binomial name. Chlidonias leucopterus. ( ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chlidonias_leucopterus

Snipe - WikipediaSnipe - Wikipedia

Camouflage may enable snipe to remain undetected by hunters in marshland. If the snipe flies, hunters have difficulty wing-shooting due to the birds erratic flight pattern. The difficulties involved in hunting snipes gave rise to the term sniper, meaning a hunter highly skilled in marksmanship and camouflaging, which later evolved to mean a sharpshooter or someone who shoots from a concealed location.[3][4] "Going on a snipe hunt" is a phrase suggesting a fools errand, or an impossible task.[citation needed] As an American rite of passage, it is often associated with summer camps and groups such as the Boy Scouts.[5] ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Snipe

Characterization of MHC class I in a long distance migratory wader, the Icelandic black-tailed godwit | SpringerLinkCharacterization of MHC class I in a long distance migratory wader, the Icelandic black-tailed godwit | SpringerLink

2011). Charadriiformes species-specific neighbour-networks on exon 3 were built using SplitsTree v.4.14.4 (Huson and Bryant ... Outside the order Charadriiformes, our data on godwit MHC diversity is similar to those described for other non-passerine ... These two Charadriiformes species exhibit striking differences in MHC-I characteristics and MHC-I diversity. We therefore set ... However, in contrast to previous MHC-I data within Charadriiformes, we did not find any evidence of alleles with low sequence ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00251-017-0993-7

Chlidonias niger - Wikimedia CommonsChlidonias niger - Wikimedia Commons

Charadriiformes • Familia: Laridae • Genus: Chlidonias • Species: Chlidonias niger (Linnaeus, 1758) ...
more infohttps://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Chlidonias_niger?uselang=nl

Category:Anous albivittus - Wikimedia CommonsCategory:Anous albivittus - Wikimedia Commons

Charadriiformes • Familia: Laridae • Genus: Anous • Species: Anous albivittus (Bonaparte, 1856) ...
more infohttps://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Anous_albivittus

Regenpfeiferartige - WikipediaRegenpfeiferartige - Wikipedia

a b John Harshman, Joseph W. Brown: Charadriiformes. Shorebirds and relatives. In: The Tree of Life Web Project. 2008. ... Die Regenpfeiferartigen (Charadriiformes), auch Limikolen oder Watvögel genannt, sind eine Ordnung der Vögel. Zu ihr gehören ...
more infohttps://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Watvogel

Sexual reproductionSexual reproduction

... is characterized by processes that pass a combination of genetic material to offspring, resulting in increased genetic diversity. The two main processes are: meiosis, involving the halving of the number of chromosomes; and fertilization, involving the fusion of two gametes and the restoration of the original number of chromosomes. During meiosis, the chromosomes of each pair usually cross over to achieve homologous recombination.. The evolution of sexual reproduction is a major puzzle. The first fossilized evidence of sexually reproducing organisms is from eukaryotes of the Stenian period, about 1 to 1.2 billion years ago.[1] Sexual reproduction is the primary method of reproduction for the vast majority of macroscopic organisms, including almost all animals and plants. Bacterial conjugation, the transfer of DNA between two bacteria, is often mistakenly confused with sexual reproduction, because the mechanics are similar.. A major question is why sexual reproduction persists ...
more infohttp://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Sexual_reproduction.html

Thick-Knees (Burhinidae) | Encyclopedia.comThick-Knees (Burhinidae) | Encyclopedia.com

Order Charadriiformes. Suborder Charadrii. Family Burhinidae. Thumbnail description Medium-sized, long-legged, terrestrial ...
more infohttps://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/thick-knees-burhinidae

Allan Baker Tree of Life Contributor ProfileAllan Baker Tree of Life Contributor Profile

Charadriiformes. Email:. Contributor ID:. 736. Contribute to the ToL. ToL Contributions. Ways to Contribute. Use of ...
more infohttp://tolweb.org/onlinecontributors/app?page=ContributorDetailPage&service=external&sp=736&sp=l2499

Table A1 - Anatidae Migration in the Western Palearctic and Spread of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 Virus - Volume 12,...Table A1 - Anatidae Migration in the Western Palearctic and Spread of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 Virus - Volume 12,...

Charadriiformes Laridae Larus argentatus Herring gull (2) Larus brunnicephalus Brown-headed gull (4) Larus ichthyaetus Great ...
more infohttps://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/12/11/06-0223-ta1

Calidris maritima (Purple Sandpiper)Calidris maritima (Purple Sandpiper)

Charadriiformes. Scolopacidae. Scientific Name:. Calidris maritima (Brünnich, 1764). Regional Assessments:. Europe Common Name( ...
more infohttp://www.iucnredlist.org/details/22693420/0
  • Phylogenetic relationships and divergence times of Charadriiformes genera: multigene evidence for the Cretaceous origin of at least 14 clades of shorebirds. (palass.org)
  • Muscovy duck Cairina moschata Mallard Anas platyrhynchos Greater scaup Aythya marila Tufted duck Aythya fuligula Common merganser Mergus merganser Smew Mergus albellus Falconiformes Common buzzard Buteo buteo Rough-legged hawk Buteo lagopus Peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus Galliformes Common peafowl Pavo cristatus Domestic chicken Gallus gallus Charadriiformes (herring gull) Larus argentatus Strigiformes (eagle owl) Bubo bubo Passeriformes (Eurasian magpie) Pica pica All birds No. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Traditionally placed in Gruiformes, in close association with Turnicidae, but genetic data #R #R #R #R indicate that it is sister to Thinocoridae, both belonging to the scolopacine radiation of the Charadriiformes. (hbw.com)
  • Previously placed in Gruiformes, but now universally accepted as belonging in Charadriiformes #R #R #R . (hbw.com)
  • However, the resolution of the DNA-DNA hybridization technique used by Sibley & Ahlquist was not sufficient to properly resolve the relationships in this group, and indeed it appears as if the Charadriiformes constitute a single large and very distinctive lineage of modern birds of their own. (wikipedia.org)
  • Catalogue of fossil birds: Part 3 (Ralliformes, Ichthyornithiformes, Charadriiformes). (palass.org)