Chaperonin Containing TCP-1: A group II chaperonin found in eukaryotic CYTOSOL. It is comprised of eight subunits with each subunit encoded by a separate gene. This chaperonin is named after one of its subunits which is a T-COMPLEX REGION-encoded polypeptide.Chaperonin 10: A group I chaperonin protein that forms a lid-like structure which encloses the non-polar cavity of the chaperonin complex. The protein was originally studied in BACTERIA where it is commonly referred to as GroES protein.Chaperonin 60: A group I chaperonin protein that forms the barrel-like structure of the chaperonin complex. It is an oligomeric protein with a distinctive structure of fourteen subunits, arranged in two rings of seven subunits each. The protein was originally studied in BACTERIA where it is commonly referred to as GroEL protein.Chaperonins: A family of multisubunit protein complexes that form into large cylindrical structures which bind to and encapsulate non-native proteins. Chaperonins utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis to enhance the efficiency of PROTEIN FOLDING reactions and thereby help proteins reach their functional conformation. The family of chaperonins is split into GROUP I CHAPERONINS, and GROUP II CHAPERONINS, with each group having its own repertoire of protein subunits and subcellular preferences.t-Complex Genome Region: A 20 cM region of mouse chromosome 17 that is represented by a least two HAPLOTYPES. One of the haplotypes is referred to as the t-haplotype and contains an unusual array of mutations that affect embryonic development and male fertility. The t-haplotype is maintained in the gene pool by the presence of unusual features that prevent its recombination.Group II Chaperonins: A subcategory of chaperonins found in ARCHAEA and the CYTOSOL of eukaryotic cells. Group II chaperonins form a barrel-shaped macromolecular structure that is distinct from GROUP I CHAPERONINS in that it does not utilize a separate lid like structure to enclose proteins.Thiosulfate Sulfurtransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of the planetary sulfur atom of thiosulfate ion to cyanide ion to form thiocyanate ion. EC Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Thermosomes: Group II chaperonins found in species of ARCHAEA.Group I Chaperonins: A subcategory of chaperonins found in MITOCHONDRIA; CHLOROPLASTS; and BACTERIA. Group I chaperonins form into a barrel-shaped macromolecular structure that is enclosed by a separate lid-like protein component.Malate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC Asporogenous Rods, Irregular: A group of irregular rod-shaped bacteria that stain gram-positive and do not produce endospores.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Archaeal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of archaeon.Protein Refolding: Conformational transitions of a protein from unfolded states to a more folded state.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Heat-Shock Proteins: Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Molecular Chaperones: A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.Chlorophenols: Phenols substituted with one or more chlorine atoms in any position.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Ribulose-Bisphosphate Carboxylase: A carboxy-lyase that plays a key role in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the CALVIN-BENSON CYCLE by catalyzing the formation of 3-phosphoglycerate from ribulose 1,5-biphosphate and CARBON DIOXIDE. It can also utilize OXYGEN as a substrate to catalyze the synthesis of 2-phosphoglycolate and 3-phosphoglycerate in a process referred to as photorespiration.Methanococcus: A genus of anaerobic coccoid METHANOCOCCACEAE whose organisms are motile by means of polar tufts of flagella. These methanogens are found in salt marshes, marine and estuarine sediments, and the intestinal tract of animals.Thermococcus: A genus of extremely thermophilic heterotrophic archaea, in the family THERMOCOCCACEAE, occurring in heated sea flows. They are anaerobic chemoorganotropic sulfidogens.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Protein Denaturation: Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.Sulfolobus: A genus of aerobic, chemolithotrophic, coccoid ARCHAEA whose organisms are thermoacidophilic. Its cells are highly irregular in shape, often lobed, but occasionally spherical. It has worldwide distribution with organisms isolated from hot acidic soils and water. Sulfur is used as an energy source.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.Cryoelectron Microscopy: Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Eukaryotic Cells: Cells of the higher organisms, containing a true nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane.Adenylyl Imidodiphosphate: 5'-Adenylic acid, monoanhydride with imidodiphosphoric acid. An analog of ATP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It is a potent competitive inhibitor of soluble and membrane-bound mitochondrial ATPase and also inhibits ATP-dependent reactions of oxidative phosphorylation.Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Alcohol Dehydrogenase: A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.3-Isopropylmalate Dehydrogenase: An NAD+ dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of 3-carboxy-2-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoate to 3-carboxy-4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate. It is involved in the biosynthesis of VALINE; LEUCINE; and ISOLEUCINE.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Thermus thermophilus: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in hot springs of neutral to alkaline pH, as well as in hot-water heaters.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Protein Renaturation: The reconstitution of a protein's activity following denaturation.Aeropyrum: A genus of anaerobic, chemolithotropic coccoid ARCHAEA, in the family DESULFUROCOCCACEAE. They live in marine environments.Vibrio cholerae: The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.Citrate (si)-Synthase: Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Calcium Phosphates: Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Tranylcypromine: A propylamine formed from the cyclization of the side chain of amphetamine. This monoamine oxidase inhibitor is effective in the treatment of major depression, dysthymic disorder, and atypical depression. It also is useful in panic and phobic disorders. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p311)Substrate Cycling: A set of opposing, nonequilibrium reactions catalyzed by different enzymes which act simultaneously, with at least one of the reactions driven by ATP hydrolysis. The results of the cycle are that ATP energy is depleted, heat is produced and no net substrate-to-product conversion is achieved. Examples of substrate cycling are cycling of gluconeogenesis and glycolysis pathways and cycling of the triglycerides and fatty acid pathways. Rates of substrate cycling may be increased many-fold in association with hypermetabolic states resulting from severe burns, cold exposure, hyperthyroidism, or acute exercise.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Methanobacterium: A genus of anaerobic, rod-shaped METHANOBACTERIACEAE. Its organisms are nonmotile and use ammonia as the sole source of nitrogen. These methanogens are found in aquatic sediments, soil, sewage, and the gastrointestinal tract of animals.Multiprotein Complexes: Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.Anilino Naphthalenesulfonates: A class of organic compounds which contain an anilino (phenylamino) group linked to a salt or ester of naphthalenesulfonic acid. They are frequently used as fluorescent dyes and sulfhydryl reagents.Guanidine: A strong organic base existing primarily as guanidium ions at physiological pH. It is found in the urine as a normal product of protein metabolism. It is also used in laboratory research as a protein denaturant. (From Martindale, the Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed and Merck Index, 12th ed) It is also used in the treatment of myasthenia and as a fluorescent probe in HPLC.Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Thermoplasma: A genus of facultatively anaerobic heterotrophic archaea, in the order THERMOPLASMALES, isolated from self-heating coal refuse piles and acid hot springs. They are thermophilic and can grow both with and without sulfur.PropaneEnzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Tritolyl Phosphates: A mixture of isomeric tritolyl phosphates. Used in the sterilization of certain surgical instruments and in many industrial processes.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins: A class of MOLECULAR CHAPERONES found in both prokaryotes and in several compartments of eukaryotic cells. These proteins can interact with polypeptides during a variety of assembly processes in such a way as to prevent the formation of nonfunctional structures.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Isocitrate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate and NAD+ to yield 2-ketoglutarate, carbon dioxide, and NADH. It occurs in cell mitochondria. The enzyme requires Mg2+, Mn2+; it is activated by ADP, citrate, and Ca2+, and inhibited by NADH, NADPH, and ATP. The reaction is the key rate-limiting step of the citric acid (tricarboxylic) cycle. (From Dorland, 27th ed) (The NADP+ enzyme is EC EC Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Tetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction 7,8-dihyrofolate and NADPH to yield 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate and NADPH+, producing reduced folate for amino acid metabolism, purine ring synthesis, and the formation of deoxythymidine monophosphate. Methotrexate and other folic acid antagonists used as chemotherapeutic drugs act by inhibiting this enzyme. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Allosteric Regulation: The modification of the reactivity of ENZYMES by the binding of effectors to sites (ALLOSTERIC SITES) on the enzymes other than the substrate BINDING SITES.

Origin of gene overlap: the case of TCP1 and ACAT2. (1/158)

The human acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 2 gene, ACAT2, codes for a thiolase, an enzyme involved in lipid metabolism. The human T-complex protein 1 gene, TCP1, encodes a molecular chaperone of the chaperonin family. The two genes overlap by their 3'-untranslated regions, their coding sequences being located on opposite DNA strands in a tail-to-tail orientation. To find out how the overlap might have arisen in evolution, the homologous genes of the zebrafish, the African toad, caiman, platypus, opossum, and wallaby were identified. In each species, standard or long polymerase chain reactions were used to determine whether the ACAT2 and TCP1 homologs are closely linked and, if so, whether they overlap. The results reveal that the overlap apparently arose during the transition from therapsid reptiles to mammals and has been retained for >200 million years. Part of the overlapping untranslated region shows remarkable sequence conservation. The overlap presumably arose during the chromosomal rearrangement that brought the two unrelated and previously separated genes together. One or both of the transposed genes found by chance signals that are necessary for the processing of their transcripts to be present on the noncoding strand of the partner gene.  (+info)

Disassembly of the cytosolic chaperonin in mammalian cell extracts at intracellular levels of K+ and ATP. (2/158)

The eukaryotic, cytoplasmic chaperonin, CCT, is essential for the biogenesis of actin- and tubulin-based cytoskeletal structures. CCT purifies as a doubly toroidal particle containing two eight-membered rings of approximately 60-kDa ATPase subunits, each encoded by an essential and highly conserved gene. However, immunofluorescence detection with subunit-specific antibodies has indicated that in cells CCT subunits do not always co-localize. We report here that CCT ATPase activity is highly dependent on K+ ion concentration and that in cell extracts, at physiological levels of K+ and ATP, there is considerable dissociation of CCT to a smaller oligomeric structure and free subunits. This dissociation is consequent to ATP hydrolysis and is readily reversed on removal of ATP. The ranking order for ease with which subunits can exit the chaperonin particle correlates well with the length of a loop structure, identified by homology modeling, in the intermediate domain of CCT subunits. K+-ATP-induced disassembly is not an intrinsic property of purified CCT over a 40-fold concentration range and requires the presence of additional factor(s) present in cell extracts.  (+info)

Structure of Tetrahymena CCT theta gene and its expression under colchicine treatment. (3/158)

We report here the cloning and the characterization of the Tetrahymena pyriformis chaperonin-containing-TCP1 theta gene (TpCCT theta), an orthologue of the mouse chaperonin gene CCT theta. TpCCT theta gene is interrupted by eight introns, ranging in size between 91 and 419 nucleotides, and encodes a protein consisting of 540 amino acid residues (59.1 kDa), with a putative pI of 5.73. The amino acid sequence of TpCCT theta reveals 39.4-46.0% identity with the sequences of Candida albicans and mouse CCT theta subunits and 28.0-32.6% identity with the other TpCCT subunits known so far. We have studied the expression of this gene in exponentially growing Tetrahymena cells and in cells treated with colchicine for different times. The steady-state levels of CCT theta mRNA rapidly decrease in the first 30 min of colchicine treatment. Interestingly, treatment for subsequent 60 min gives expression levels higher than those found in exponentially growing cells.  (+info)

Transcriptional activation of mouse cytosolic chaperonin CCT subunit genes by heat shock factors HSF1 and HSF2. (4/158)

The chaperonin containing TCP-1 (CCT) is a eukaryotic molecular chaperone consisting of eight subunit species and assists in the folding of cytosolic proteins. We show here that all eight mouse CCT subunit genes contain sequences called heat shock elements for binding heat shock transcription factors (HSFs) by electrophoretic mobility shift assays and that these genes are transcriptionally activated by HSFs in reporter gene assays using HeLa cells transiently overexpressing HSFs. These results suggest that HSF1 and/or HSF2 play a role in Cct gene expression.  (+info)

Cytosolic chaperonin is up-regulated during cell growth. Preferential expression and binding to tubulin at G(1)/S transition through early S phase. (5/158)

The chaperonin containing t-complex polypeptide 1 (CCT) is a heterooligomeric molecular chaperone assisting in the folding of actin, tubulin, and other cytosolic proteins. The expression levels of CCT subunits varied among seven mouse cell lines tested but showed a close correlation with growth rate. Both the CCT protein and mRNA levels in the human promyelolytic cell HL60 decreased concomitant with growth arrest during differentiation. More rapid decrease in CCT level occurred when the mouse interleukin (IL)-3-dependent myeloid DA3 cells were starved for IL-3. Readdition of IL-3 caused rapid resumption of CCT synthesis during synchronous growth: the maximum CCT protein and mRNA levels were observed at G(1)/S transition through early S phase. The turnover rate of CCT was nearly constant regardless of growth. Gel filtration and immunoprecipitation analyses indicated that CCT in vivo is associated with tubulin at early S phase, but not at G(0)/G(1) phase. These results demonstrated that CCT expression is strongly up-regulated during cell growth especially from G(1)/S transition to early S phase and is primarily controlled at the mRNA level. CCT appears to play important roles for cell growth by assisting in the folding of tubulin and other proteins.  (+info)

Partial occlusion of both cavities of the eukaryotic chaperonin with antibody has no effect upon the rates of beta-actin or alpha-tubulin folding. (6/158)

The eukaryotic chaperonin containing T-complex polypeptide 1 (CCT) is required in vivo for the production of native actin and tubulin. It is a 900-kDa oligomer formed from two back-to-back rings, each containing eight different subunits surrounding a central cavity in which interactions with substrates are thought to occur. Here, we show that a monoclonal antibody recognizing the C terminus of the CCTalpha subunit can bind inside, and partially occlude, both cavities of apo-CCT. Rabbit reticulocyte lysate was programmed to synthesize beta-actin and alpha-tubulin in the presence and absence of anti-CCTalpha antibody. The binding of the antibody inside the cavity and its occupancy of a large part of it does not prevent the folding of beta-actin and alpha-tubulin by CCT, despite the fact that all the CCT in the in vitro translation reactions was continuously bound by two antibody molecules. Furthermore, no differences in the protease susceptibility of actin bound to CCT in the presence and absence of the monoclonal antibody were detected, indicating that the antibody molecules do not perturb the conformation of actin folding intermediates substantially. These data indicate that complete sequestration of substrate by CCT may not be required for productive folding, suggesting that there are differences in its folding mechanism compared with the Group I chaperonins.  (+info)

Upregulation of cytosolic chaperonin CCT subunits during recovery from chemical stress that causes accumulation of unfolded proteins. (7/158)

The chaperonin containing TCP-1 (CCT) is a molecular chaperone consisting of eight subunit species and assists in the folding of actin, tubulin and some other cytosolic proteins. We examined the stress response of CCT subunit proteins in mammalian cultured cells using chemical stressors that cause accumulation of unfolded proteins. Levels of CCT subunit proteins in HeLa cells were coordinately and transiently upregulated under continuous chemical stress with sodium arsenite. CCT subunit levels in several mammalian cell lines were also upregulated during recovery from chemical stress caused by sodium arsenite or a proline analogue, L-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid. Several unidentified proteins that were newly synthesized and associated with CCT were found to increase concomitantly with CCT subunits themselves and known substrates during recovery from the stress. These results suggest that CCT plays important roles in the recovery of cells from protein damage by assisting in the folding of proteins that are actively synthesized and/or renatured during this period.  (+info)

Individual subunits of the eukaryotic cytosolic chaperonin mediate interactions with binding sites located on subdomains of beta-actin. (8/158)

The chaperonin containing TCP-1 (CCT) of eukaryotic cytosol is composed of eight different subunit species that are proposed to have independent functions in folding its in vivo substrates, the actins and tubulins. CCT has been loaded with (35)S-beta-actin by in vitro translation in reticulocyte lysate and then subjected to immunoprecipitation with all eight anti-CCT subunit antibodies in mixed micelle buffers, conditions that disrupt CCT into its constituent monomers. Interactions between (35)S-beta-actin and isolated CCTalpha, CCTbeta, CCTepsilon, or CCTtheta subunits are observed, suggesting that polar and electrostatic interactions may mediate actin binding to these four CCT subunits. Additionally, a beta-actin peptide array was screened for CCT-binding sequences. Three regions rich in charged and polar amino acid residues, which map to the surface of native beta-actin, are implicated in interactions between actin and CCT. Several of these biochemical results are consistent with the recent cryo-electron microscopy three-dimensional structure of apo-CCT-alpha-actin, in which alpha-actin is bound by the apical domains of specific CCT subunits. A model is proposed in which actin interacts with several CCT subunits during its CCT-mediated folding cycle.  (+info)

  • Group I chaperonins, includeing E. coli GroEL and mitochondrial HSP60, consist of 14 subunits and require ring-shaped cofactor GroES for their chaperone activities [3, (
  • Although CCT has some features common to that of the type I chaperonin GroEL and roles of nucleotide binding and hydrolysis is well documented, CCT lacks the concerted action with co-chaperonin like GroES and uses built-in lid [16, (
  • However, the group II chapronins have several characters distinct from the group I chaperonins: the former consists of 16 or 18 subunits and uses a built-in lid called helical protrusion to close the cylindrical structure [8, (
  • Here, three‐dimensional reconstructions generated by cryoelectron microscopy of complexes between CCT and either of two different monoclonal antibodies that react specifically with the CCTε and CCTδ subunits have been used to determine the phasing between the two chaperonin rings. (
  • However, the group II chapronins have several characters distinct from the group I chaperonins: the former consists of 16 or 18 subunits and uses a built-in lid called helical protrusion to close the cylindrical structure [8, (
  • G α i 1 Q204L) or GTP-bound G α subunits, prompting investigation of Ric-8 influence on G protein guanine nucleotide-cycle kinetics. (
  • Thus, two chaperoning systems that are designed to interact with a compatible partner, e.g. , the bacterial chaperone machine physiologically interacts with the bacterial but not with the eucaryal chaperonins, coexist in archaeal cells in spite of their apparent functional incompatibility. (
  • Chaperone_TCP-1. (
  • Chaperonins are key components of the cellular chaperone machinery. (
  • A certain level of protein aggregation does occur in cells despite the presence of an exclusive chaperone machinery and, in special cases, can lead to the formation of structured, fibrillar aggregates, known as amyloid, that are associated with diseases such as Alzheimer's or Huntington's disease ( 6 , 7 ) ( Fig. 1 ). (
  • Binding and release of unfolded polypeptides are nucleotide‐dependent events that may result in folding, rebinding to Hsc70 or transfer to other chaperone systems, such as the chaperonins, for final folding (see below). (
  • CCT duplicated from a precursor, thermosome-like chaperonin, while also coming into contact with at least two novel protein folds derived by lateral gene transfer from a eubacterial symbiote, probably the donor of the mitochondrion. (
  • The protein encoded by this gene is likely not a ciliary protein but rather has distant sequence homology to type II chaperonins. (
  • Moreover, we predict the histidine kinases Mak1/2/3 to be vital hubs in the fission yeast stress response network, and we suggest interactors of argonaute 1, the principal component of the siRNA-mediated gene silencing pathway, lost in budding yeast but preserved in S. pombe . (
  • Cri-du-chat syndrome (CdCs) is one of the most common contiguous gene syndromes, with an incidence of 1:15,000 to 1:50,000 live births. (
  • Molecular cytogenetic analysis consistently identifies translocations involving chromosomes 1, 2 and 15 in five embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines and a PAX-FOXO1A fusion gene negative alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma cell line. (
  • This product includes 3 vials: 1 vial of gene-specific cell lysate, 1 vial of control vector cell lysate, and 1 vial of loading buffer. (
  • They are required for normal cell growth (as demonstrated by the fact that no temperature sensitive mutants for the chaperonin genes can be found in the temperature range 20 to 43 degrees Celsius) and are stress-induced, acting to stabilise or protect disassembled polypeptides under heat-shock conditions. (
  • Likewise, RNAi silencing of B's unrelated genes - snr-1 , the small nuclear RNA involved in pre-mRNA splicing and clr-1 , a regulator of FGF signaling - produces dissimilar phenotypes. (
  • RESULTADOS: Se identificaron secuencias polimórficas útiles como marcadores genéticos de las poblaciones de P. falciparum, con los genes de las proteínas de superficie del merozoíto 1 y 2 (MSP-1, MSP-2) y el gen de la proteína rica en glutamato (GLURP), que producen variantes resistentes a medicamentos y a vacunas. (
  • Los documentos se consultaron entre agosto y diciembre de 2019 a través del acceso en Internet y bibliotecas del Academic Search Complete del gestor de búsquedas Medline, Science Direct, Scopus, Redalyc y Psicodoc. (
  • The 60 kDa form of chaperonin is the immunodominant antigen of patients with Legionnaire's disease, and is thought to play a role in the protection of the Legionella bacteria from oxygen radicals within macrophages. (
  • Cellular chaperonin CCTγ contributes to rabies virus replication during infection. (
  • Sphingosine kinase 1 (SK1) catalyses the generation of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), a bioactive phospholipid that influences a diverse range of cellular processes, including proliferation, survival, adhesion, migration, morphogenesis and differentiation. (