A variety of neuromuscular conditions resulting from MUTATIONS in ION CHANNELS manifesting as episodes of EPILEPSY; HEADACHE DISORDERS; and DYSKINESIAS.
A heterogenous group of inherited disorders characterized by recurring attacks of rapidly progressive flaccid paralysis or myotonia. These conditions have in common a mutation of the gene encoding the alpha subunit of the sodium channel in skeletal muscle. They are frequently associated with fluctuations in serum potassium levels. Periodic paralysis may also occur as a non-familial process secondary to THYROTOXICOSIS and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1481)
An autosomal dominant familial disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of skeletal muscle weakness associated with falls in serum potassium levels. The condition usually presents in the first or second decade of life with attacks of trunk and leg paresis during sleep or shortly after awakening. Symptoms may persist for hours to days and generally are precipitated by exercise or a meal high in carbohydrates. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1483)
Diseases characterized by MYOTONIA, which may be inherited or acquired. Myotonia may be restricted to certain muscles (e.g., intrinsic hand muscles) or occur as a generalized condition.
Prolonged failure of muscle relaxation after contraction. This may occur after voluntary contractions, muscle percussion, or electrical stimulation of the muscle. Myotonia is a characteristic feature of MYOTONIC DISORDERS.
An autosomal dominant familial disorder which presents in infancy or childhood and is characterized by episodes of weakness associated with hyperkalemia. During attacks, muscles of the lower extremities are initially affected, followed by the lower trunk and arms. Episodes last from 15-60 minutes and typically occur after a period of rest following exercise. A defect in skeletal muscle sodium channels has been identified as the cause of this condition. Normokalemic periodic paralysis is a closely related disorder marked by a lack of alterations in potassium levels during attacks of weakness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1481)
A rare neuromuscular disorder with onset usually in late childhood or early adulthood, characterized by intermittent or continuous widespread involuntary muscle contractions; FASCICULATION; hyporeflexia; MUSCLE CRAMP; MUSCLE WEAKNESS; HYPERHIDROSIS; TACHYCARDIA; and MYOKYMIA. Involvement of pharyngeal or laryngeal muscles may interfere with speech and breathing. The continuous motor activity persists during sleep and general anesthesia (distinguishing this condition from STIFF-PERSON SYNDROME). Familial and acquired (primarily autoimmune) forms have been reported. (From Ann NY Acad Sci 1998 May 13;841:482-496; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1491)
Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A condition that is characterized by episodes of fainting (SYNCOPE) and varying degree of ventricular arrhythmia as indicated by the prolonged QT interval. The inherited forms are caused by mutation of genes encoding cardiac ion channel proteins. The two major forms are ROMANO-WARD SYNDROME and JERVELL-LANGE NIELSEN SYNDROME.
A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that mediates the sodium ion PERMEABILITY of CARDIOMYOCYTES. Defects in the SCN5A gene, which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel, are associated with a variety of CARDIAC DISEASES that result from loss of sodium channel function.
A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that mediates the sodium ion PERMEABILITY of SKELETAL MYOCYTES. Defects in the SCN4A gene, which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel, are associated with several MYOTONIC DISORDERS.
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
An autosomal dominant defect of cardiac conduction that is characterized by an abnormal ST-segment in leads V1-V3 on the ELECTROCARDIOGRAM resembling a right BUNDLE-BRANCH BLOCK; high risk of VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA; or VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION; SYNCOPAL EPISODE; and possible sudden death. This syndrome is linked to mutations of gene encoding the cardiac SODIUM CHANNEL alpha subunit.
An inherited congenital myopathic condition characterized by weakness and hypotonia in infancy and delayed motor development. Muscle biopsy reveals a condensation of myofibrils and myofibrillar material in the central portion of each muscle fiber. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1452)
Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
The abrupt and unexplained death of an apparently healthy infant under one year of age, remaining unexplained after a thorough case investigation, including performance of a complete autopsy, examination of the death scene, and review of the clinical history. (Pediatr Pathol 1991 Sep-Oct;11(5):677-84)
Diseases that are caused by genetic mutations present during embryo or fetal development, although they may be observed later in life. The mutations may be inherited from a parent's genome or they may be acquired in utero.
Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.
Rapid and excessive rise of temperature accompanied by muscular rigidity following general anesthesia.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Potassium channels where the flow of K+ ions into the cell is greater than the outward flow.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
Potassium channel whose permeability to ions is extremely sensitive to the transmembrane potential difference. The opening of these channels is induced by the membrane depolarization of the ACTION POTENTIAL.
Unexpected rapid natural death due to cardiovascular collapse within one hour of initial symptoms. It is usually caused by the worsening of existing heart diseases. The sudden onset of symptoms, such as CHEST PAIN and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS, particularly VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA, can lead to the loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest followed by biological death. (from Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 7th ed., 2005)
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
The abrupt cessation of all vital bodily functions, manifested by the permanent loss of total cerebral, respiratory, and cardiovascular functions.
Postmortem examination of the body.
Refers to the whole process of grieving and mourning and is associated with a deep sense of loss and sadness.
Physicians appointed to investigate all cases of sudden or violent death.
The application of pathology to questions of law.
Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.

Molecular basis of inherited calcium channelopathies: role of mutations in pore-forming subunits. (1/102)

The pore-forming alpha subunits of voltage-gated calcium channels contain the essential biophysical machinery that underlies calcium influx in response to cell depolarization. In combination with requisite auxiliary subunits, these pore subunits form calcium channel complexes that are pivotal to the physiology and pharmacology of diverse cells ranging from sperm to neurons. Not surprisingly, mutations in the pore subunits generate diverse pathologies, termed channelopathies, that range from failures in excitation-contraction coupling to night blindness. Over the last decade, major insights into the mechanisms of pathogenesis have been derived from animals showing spontaneous or induced mutations. In parallel, there has been considerable growth in our understanding of the workings of voltage-gated ion channels from a structure-function, regulation and cell biology perspective. Here we document our current understanding of the mutations underlying channelopathies involving the voltage-gated calcium channel alpha subunits in humans and other species.  (+info)

Voltage-gated calcium channels in genetic diseases. (2/102)

Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) mediate calcium entry into excitable cells in response to membrane depolarization. During the past decade, our understanding of the gating and functions of VGCCs has been illuminated by the analysis of mutations linked to a heterogeneous group of genetic diseases called "calcium channelopathies". Calcium channelopathies include muscular, neurological, cardiac and vision syndromes. Recent data suggest that calcium channelopathies result not only from electrophysiological defects but also from altered alpha(1)/Ca(V) subunit protein processing, including folding, posttranslational modifications, quality control and trafficking abnormalities. Overall, functional analyses of VGCC mutations provide a more comprehensive view of the corresponding human disorders and offer important new insights into VGCC function. Ultimately, the understanding of these pathogenic channel mutations should lead to improved treatments of such hereditary diseases in humans.  (+info)

Emerging perspectives in store-operated Ca2+ entry: roles of Orai, Stim and TRP. (3/102)

Depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores induces Ca2+ influx across the plasma membrane through store-operated channels (SOCs). This store-operated Ca2+ influx is important for the replenishment of the Ca2+ stores, and is also involved in many signaling processes by virtue of the ability of intracellular Ca2+ to act as a second messenger. For many years, the molecular identities of particular SOCs, as well as the signaling mechanisms by which these channels are activated, have been elusive. Recently, however, the mammalian proteins STIM1 and Orai1 were shown to be necessary for the activation of store-operated Ca2+ entry in a variety of mammalian cells. Here we present molecular, pharmacological, and electrophysiological properties of SOCs, with particular focus on the roles that STIM1 and Orai1 may play in the signaling processes that regulate various pathways of store-operated entry.  (+info)

Chloride channelopathy in myotonic dystrophy resulting from loss of posttranscriptional regulation for CLCN1. (4/102)

Transmembrane chloride ion conductance in skeletal muscle increases during early postnatal development. A transgenic mouse model of myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) displays decreased sarcolemmal chloride conductance. Both effects result from modulation of chloride channel 1 (CLCN1) expression, but the respective contributions of transcriptional vs. posttranscriptional regulation are unknown. Here we show that alternative splicing of CLCN1 undergoes a physiological splicing transition during the first 3 wk of postnatal life in mice. During this interval, there is a switch to production of CLCN1 splice products having an intact reading frame, an upregulation of CLCN1 mRNA encoding full-length channel protein, and an increase of CLCN1 function, as determined by patch-clamp analysis of single muscle fibers. In a transgenic mouse model of DM1, however, the splicing transition does not occur, CLCN1 channel function remains low throughout the postnatal interval, and muscle fibers display myotonic discharges. Thus alternative splicing is a posttranscriptional mechanism regulating chloride conductance during muscle development, and the chloride channelopathy in a transgenic mouse model of DM1 results from a failure to execute a splicing transition for CLCN1.  (+info)

TRPpathies. (5/102)

Many human diseases are caused by mutations in ion channels. Dissecting the pathogenesis of these 'channelopathies' has yielded important insights into the regulation of vital biological processes by ions and has become a productive tool of modern ion channel biology. One of the best examples of a synergism between the clinical and basic science aspects of a modern biological topic is cystic fibrosis. Not only did the identification of the ion channel mutated in cystic fibrosis pinpoint the root cause of this disease, but it also has significantly advanced our understanding of basic biological processes as diverse as protein folding and epithelial fluid and electrolyte secretion. The list of confirmed 'channelopathies' is growing and several members of the TRP family of ion channels have been implicated in human diseases such as mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV), autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), familial focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSG), hypomagnesemia with secondary hypocalcaemia (HSH), and several forms of cancer. Analysing pathogenesis of the diseases linked to TRP dysregulation provides an exciting means of identifying novel functions of TRP channels.  (+info)

Transient receptor potential cation channels in disease. (6/102)

The transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily consists of a large number of cation channels that are mostly permeable to both monovalent and divalent cations. The 28 mammalian TRP channels can be subdivided into six main subfamilies: the TRPC (canonical), TRPV (vanilloid), TRPM (melastatin), TRPP (polycystin), TRPML (mucolipin), and the TRPA (ankyrin) groups. TRP channels are expressed in almost every tissue and cell type and play an important role in the regulation of various cell functions. Currently, significant scientific effort is being devoted to understanding the physiology of TRP channels and their relationship to human diseases. At this point, only a few channelopathies in which defects in TRP genes are the direct cause of cellular dysfunction have been identified. In addition, mapping of TRP genes to susceptible chromosome regions (e.g., translocations, breakpoint intervals, increased frequency of polymorphisms) has been considered suggestive of the involvement of these channels in hereditary diseases. Moreover, strong indications of the involvement of TRP channels in several diseases come from correlations between levels of channel expression and disease symptoms. Finally, TRP channels are involved in some systemic diseases due to their role as targets for irritants, inflammation products, and xenobiotic toxins. The analysis of transgenic models allows further extrapolations of TRP channel deficiency to human physiology and disease. In this review, we provide an overview of the impact of TRP channels on the pathogenesis of several diseases and identify several TRPs for which a causal pathogenic role might be anticipated.  (+info)

KATP channel mutation confers risk for vein of Marshall adrenergic atrial fibrillation. (7/102)

BACKGROUND: A 53-year-old female presented with a 10-year history of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF), precipitated by activity and refractory to medical therapy. In the absence of traditional risk factors for disease, a genetic defect in electrical homeostasis underlying stress-induced AF was explored. INVESTIGATIONS: Echocardiography, cardiac perfusion stress imaging, invasive electrophysiology with isoproterenol provocation, genomic DNA sequencing of K(ATP) channel genes, exclusion of mutation in 2,000 individuals free of AF, reconstitution of channel defect with molecular phenotyping, and verification of pathogenic link in targeted knockout. DIAGNOSIS: K(ATP) channelopathy caused by missense mutation (Thr1547Ile) of the ABCC9 gene conferring predisposition to adrenergic AF originating from the vein of Marshall. MANAGEMENT: Disruption of arrhythmogenic gene-environment substrate at the vein of Marshall by radiofrequency ablation.  (+info)

TRP channels in disease. (8/102)

"Transient receptor potential" cation channels (TRP channels) play a unique role as cell sensors, are involved in a plethora of Ca(2+)-mediated cell functions, and play a role as "gate-keepers" in many homeostatic processes such as Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) reabsorption. The variety of functions to which TRP channels contribute and the polymodal character of their activation predict that failures in correct channel gating or permeation will likely contribute to complex pathophysiological mechanisms. Dysfunctions of TRPs cause human diseases but are also involved in a complex manner to contribute and determine the progress of several diseases. Contributions to this special issue discuss channelopathias for which mutations in TRP channels that induce "loss-" or "gain-of-function" of the channel and can be considered "disease-causing" have been identified. The role of TRPs will be further elucidated in complex diseases of the intestinal, renal, urogenital, respiratory, and cardiovascular systems. Finally, the role of TRPs will be discussed in neuronal diseases and neurodegenerative disorders.  (+info)

There are several types of channelopathies, including:

1. Long QT syndrome: This is a condition that affects the ion channels in the heart, leading to abnormal heart rhythms and increased risk of sudden death.
2. Short QT syndrome: This is a rare condition that has the opposite effect of long QT syndrome, causing the heart to beat too quickly.
3. Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT): This is a rare disorder that affects the ion channels in the heart, leading to abnormal heart rhythms and increased risk of sudden death.
4. Brugada syndrome: This is a condition that affects the ion channels in the heart, leading to abnormal heart rhythms and increased risk of sudden death.
5. Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome: This is a condition that affects the ion channels in the heart, leading to abnormal heart rhythms and increased risk of sudden death.
6. Neuromuscular disorders: These are disorders that affect the nerve-muscle junction, leading to muscle weakness and wasting. Examples include muscular dystrophy and myasthenia gravis.
7. Dystrophinopathies: These are a group of disorders that affect the structure of muscle cells, leading to muscle weakness and wasting. Examples include Duchenne muscular dystrophy and Becker muscular dystrophy.
8. Myotonia: This is a condition that affects the muscles, causing them to become stiff and rigid.
9. Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis: This is a rare condition that causes muscle weakness and paralysis due to abnormal potassium levels in the body.
10. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis: This is a rare condition that causes muscle weakness and paralysis due to low potassium levels in the body.
11. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis: This is a rare condition that causes muscle weakness and paralysis due to an overactive thyroid gland.
12. Hyperthyroidism: This is a condition where the thyroid gland becomes overactive, leading to increased heart rate, weight loss, and muscle weakness.
13. Hypothyroidism: This is a condition where the thyroid gland becomes underactive, leading to fatigue, weight gain, and muscle weakness.
14. Pituitary tumors: These are tumors that affect the pituitary gland, which regulates hormone production in the body.
15. Adrenal tumors: These are tumors that affect the adrenal glands, which produce hormones such as cortisol and aldosterone.
16. Carcinoid syndrome: This is a condition where cancer cells in the digestive system produce hormones that can cause muscle weakness and wasting.
17. Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN): This is a genetic disorder that affects the endocrine system and can cause tumors to grow in the thyroid, adrenal, and parathyroid glands.

These are just some of the many potential causes of muscle weakness. It's important to see a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

* Type 1: Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis (Hyperkalemia-induced muscle weakness)
* Type 2: Hyperkalemic Periodic Paralysis (K+ channels dysfunction, leading to muscle weakness)
* Type 3: Peripheral nerve damage causing FPPA
* Type 4: Central nervous system damage causing FPPA

Slide 3: Causes of Familial Periodic Paralysis (FPPA)

* Genetic mutations in SCN4A, KCNA1, and other genes involved in ion channel function
* Abnormalities in the expression and function of ion channels
* Autosomal dominant or recessive inheritance pattern

Slide 4: Symptoms of Familial Periodic Paralysis (FPPA)

* Muscle weakness or paralysis, often triggered by changes in diet, physical activity, or other environmental factors
* Weakness of the lower extremities more pronounced than the upper extremities
* Muscle cramps and twitching
* Abdominal pain
* Nausea and vomiting

Slide 5: Diagnosis of Familial Periodal Paralysis (FPPA)

* Clinical evaluation, including patient history and physical examination
* Electromyography (EMG) to assess muscle activity and diagnose FPPA
* Genetic testing to identify genetic mutations associated with FPPA
* Blood tests to measure potassium levels and rule out other conditions

Slide 6: Treatment of Familial Periodic Paralysis (FPPA)

* Potassium supplements to maintain normal potassium levels
* Avoiding triggers such as stress, cold temperature, and certain medications
* Physical therapy to improve muscle strength and function
* Pain management with analgesics and other medications as needed

Slide 7: Prognosis of Familial Periodic Paralysis (FPPA)

* FPPA is a chronic condition with no cure, but with proper management, patients can lead relatively normal lives
* The prognosis varies depending on the severity and frequency of attacks, as well as the presence of any complications
* Early diagnosis and treatment can improve the quality of life for patients with FPPA

Slide 8: Current Research in Familial Periodic Paralysis (FPPA)

* Genetic research to better understand the underlying causes of FPPA and develop new treatments
* Studies on the effectiveness of new medications and therapies for FPPA
* Investigation into the potential use of stem cells for treating FPPA

Slide 9: Current Challenges in Familial Periodic Paralysis (FPPA)

* Limited awareness and understanding of FPPA among healthcare professionals and the general public
* Lack of effective treatments for severe cases of FPPA
* Limited availability of specialized care and support for patients with FPPA

Slide 10: Conclusion

* Familial periodic paralysis (FPPA) is a rare and complex condition that affects both children and adults
* Early diagnosis and proper management are critical to improving the quality of life for patients with FPPA
* Ongoing research offers hope for new treatments and therapies, but more work needs to be done to increase awareness and understanding of this condition.

The symptoms of hypokalemic periodic paralysis can vary in severity and may include:

* Muscle weakness or paralysis, typically affecting the legs but sometimes affecting the arms or face as well
* Muscle cramps and twitching
* Abnormal heart rhythms
* Weakness or paralysis of the respiratory muscles, which can lead to breathing difficulties
* Vision problems, such as blurred vision or double vision
* Dizziness and fainting

The exact cause of hypokalemic periodic paralysis is not known, but it is thought to be related to mutations in certain genes that affect the way potassium ions are regulated in the body. The disorder is usually diagnosed through a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, and genetic analysis.

There is no cure for hypokalemic periodic paralysis, but treatment options may include:

* Potassium supplements to maintain normal potassium levels in the blood
* Medications to regulate heart rhythms and prevent abnormal heartbeats
* Physical therapy to improve muscle strength and function
* Avoiding triggers such as stress, certain medications, or changes in potassium levels
* In severe cases, a pacemaker may be implanted to regulate the heartbeat.

It is important to note that hypokalemic periodic paralysis can be a challenging disorder to manage and may have a significant impact on quality of life. However, with proper treatment and management, many individuals with this condition are able to lead active and fulfilling lives.

There are several types of myotonic disorders, including:

1. Myotonia congenita: This is the most common form of myotonia and affects about 1 in 250,000 people worldwide. It is caused by mutations in the DMPK gene and typically affects the muscles of the face, neck, and limbs.
2. Myotonic dystrophy: This is a more severe form of myotonia that affects about 1 in 8,000 people worldwide. It is caused by mutations in the CNBP or PTPN1 genes and can lead to progressive muscle weakness and wasting.
3. Myotonic syndrome: This is a rare condition that affects about 1 in 100,000 people worldwide. It is caused by mutations in the SCN5A or CAV3 genes and can lead to muscle stiffness, spasms, and weakness, as well as other symptoms such as heart problems and vision loss.

Myotonic disorders can be diagnosed through a combination of clinical evaluation, electromyography (EMG), and genetic testing. Treatment for myotonic disorders is focused on managing symptoms and improving quality of life. This may include physical therapy, muscle relaxants, and other medications to help manage muscle stiffness and spasms. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to relieve compression on nerves or to correct deformities.

Overall, myotonic disorders are a group of rare genetic conditions that can have a significant impact on quality of life. While there is currently no cure for these disorders, advances in medical research and technology are helping to improve diagnosis and treatment options for those affected.

There are two main types of myotonia:

1. Thomsen's disease: This is an inherited form of myotonia that affects the muscles of the face, neck, and limbs. It is caused by mutations in the CLCN1 gene and can be severe, causing difficulty with speaking, swallowing, and breathing.
2. Becker's muscular dystrophy: This is a form of muscular dystrophy that affects both the skeletal and cardiac muscles. It is caused by mutations in the DMPK gene and can cause myotonia, muscle weakness, and heart problems.

The symptoms of myotonia can vary depending on the severity of the condition and may include:

* Muscle stiffness and rigidity
* Spasms or twitches
* Difficulty with movement and mobility
* Fatigue and weakness
* Cramps
* Muscle wasting

Myotonia can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as electromyography (EMG) and muscle biopsy. There is no cure for myotonia, but treatment options may include:

* Physical therapy to improve movement and mobility
* Medications to relax muscles and reduce spasms
* Lifestyle modifications such as avoiding triggers and taking regular breaks to rest
* Surgery in severe cases to release or lengthen affected muscles.

It is important to note that myotonia can be a symptom of other underlying conditions, so proper diagnosis and management by a healthcare professional is essential to determine the best course of treatment.

The main symptoms of HyperKPP are recurrent episodes of muscle weakness or paralysis, usually triggered by changes in potassium levels or other factors such as stress, exercise, or certain medications. These episodes can last from a few minutes to several hours and can affect any part of the body, including the legs, arms, face, and respiratory muscles.

During an episode, patients may experience muscle weakness, paralysis, and twitching, as well as abnormal heart rhythms and palpitations. They may also have difficulty speaking, swallowing, or breathing. In severe cases, HyperKPP can lead to respiratory failure and other complications.

There is no cure for HyperKPP, but medications such as acetazolamide and sodium citrate can help manage symptoms and prevent episodes. Patients with HyperKPP must avoid triggers such as stress, exercise, and certain medications, and maintain a balanced diet and regular potassium intake to control symptoms. In severe cases, a pacemaker or an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) may be necessary to regulate the heart rhythm.

HyperKPP is a rare disorder that affects approximately 1 in 100,000 people worldwide. It can be difficult to diagnose, as the symptoms can be similar to other conditions such as hypokalemic periodic paralysis or other muscle disorders. However, genetic testing and a thorough medical history can help confirm the diagnosis.

Overall, HyperKPP is a rare and complex disorder that requires careful management and monitoring to prevent complications and improve quality of life. With proper treatment and lifestyle modifications, many patients with HyperKPP are able to lead active and fulfilling lives.

Word origin: Named after Dr. Martin Isaacs, a British neurologist who first described the condition in 1980.

Isaac's syndrome: A rare genetic disorder that affects the development of the nervous system. It is caused by mutations in the ISCA1 gene and is usually inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, which means that a single copy of the mutated gene is enough to cause the condition. The symptoms of Isaac's syndrome can vary in severity but may include intellectual disability, seizures, vision loss, and physical abnormalities such as joint deformities or growth delays. Treatment for Isaac's syndrome is focused on managing the symptoms and may include medication, therapy, and supportive care. With appropriate treatment and support, many individuals with Isaac's syndrome are able to lead fulfilling lives.

Word origin: Named after Dr. Martin Isaacs, a British neurologist who first described the condition in 1980.

1. Muscular dystrophy: A group of genetic disorders characterized by progressive muscle weakness and degeneration.
2. Myopathy: A condition where the muscles become damaged or diseased, leading to muscle weakness and wasting.
3. Fibromyalgia: A chronic condition characterized by widespread pain, fatigue, and muscle stiffness.
4. Rhabdomyolysis: A condition where the muscle tissue is damaged, leading to the release of myoglobin into the bloodstream and potentially causing kidney damage.
5. Polymyositis/dermatomyositis: Inflammatory conditions that affect the muscles and skin.
6. Muscle strain: A common injury caused by overstretching or tearing of muscle fibers.
7. Cervical dystonia: A movement disorder characterized by involuntary contractions of the neck muscles.
8. Myasthenia gravis: An autoimmune disorder that affects the nerve-muscle connection, leading to muscle weakness and fatigue.
9. Oculopharyngeal myopathy: A condition characterized by weakness of the muscles used for swallowing and eye movements.
10. Inclusion body myositis: An inflammatory condition that affects the muscles, leading to progressive muscle weakness and wasting.

These are just a few examples of the many different types of muscular diseases that can affect individuals. Each condition has its unique set of symptoms, causes, and treatment options. It's important for individuals experiencing muscle weakness or wasting to seek medical attention to receive an accurate diagnosis and appropriate care.

The QT interval is a measure of the time it takes for the ventricles to recover from each heartbeat and prepare for the next one. In people with LQTS, this recovery time is prolonged, which can disrupt the normal rhythm of the heart and increase the risk of arrhythmias.

LQTS is caused by mutations in genes that encode proteins involved in the cardiac ion channels, which regulate the flow of ions into and out of the heart muscle cells. These mutations can affect the normal functioning of the ion channels, leading to abnormalities in the electrical activity of the heart.

Symptoms of LQTS can include palpitations, fainting spells, and seizures. In some cases, LQTS can be diagnosed based on a family history of the condition or after a sudden death in an otherwise healthy individual. Other tests, such as an electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiogram, and stress test, may also be used to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment for LQTS typically involves medications that regulate the heart's rhythm and reduce the risk of arrhythmias. In some cases, an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) may be recommended to monitor the heart's activity and deliver an electric shock if a potentially life-threatening arrhythmia is detected. Lifestyle modifications, such as avoiding stimuli that trigger symptoms and taking precautions during exercise and stress, may also be recommended.

In summary, Long QT syndrome is a rare inherited disorder that affects the electrical activity of the heart, leading to an abnormal prolongation of the QT interval and an increased risk of irregular and potentially life-threatening heart rhythms. It is important for individuals with LQTS to be closely monitored by a healthcare provider and to take precautions to manage their condition and reduce the risk of complications.

The syndrome is caused by abnormal electrical activity in the heart, which can lead to a potentially life-threatening arrhythmia called ventricular fibrillation. This occurs when the ventricles of the heart beat irregularly and rapidly, leading to a loss of effective cardiac function.

Individuals with Brugada syndrome may experience palpitations, shortness of breath, and dizziness, and in some cases, the condition can lead to sudden cardiac death. The diagnosis of Brugada syndrome is based on the presence of a specific ECG pattern, known as a coved-type ST segment elevation, which is characterized by a rounded notch in the ST segment of the ECG tracing.

There is no cure for Brugada syndrome, but medications and implantable devices such as an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) can be used to manage the condition and prevent complications. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove any underlying causes of the arrhythmia.

Overall, Brugada syndrome is a rare and potentially life-threatening cardiac disorder that requires careful monitoring and management to prevent complications and improve quality of life for affected individuals.

Source: Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD), the National Institutes of Health (NIH)

Examples of Nervous System Diseases include:

1. Alzheimer's disease: A progressive neurological disorder that affects memory and cognitive function.
2. Parkinson's disease: A degenerative disorder that affects movement, balance and coordination.
3. Multiple sclerosis: An autoimmune disease that affects the protective covering of nerve fibers.
4. Stroke: A condition where blood flow to the brain is interrupted, leading to brain cell death.
5. Brain tumors: Abnormal growth of tissue in the brain.
6. Neuropathy: Damage to peripheral nerves that can cause pain, numbness and weakness in hands and feet.
7. Epilepsy: A disorder characterized by recurrent seizures.
8. Motor neuron disease: Diseases that affect the nerve cells responsible for controlling voluntary muscle movement.
9. Chronic pain syndrome: Persistent pain that lasts more than 3 months.
10. Neurodevelopmental disorders: Conditions such as autism, ADHD and learning disabilities that affect the development of the brain and nervous system.

These diseases can be caused by a variety of factors such as genetics, infections, injuries, toxins and ageing. Treatment options for Nervous System Diseases range from medications, surgery, rehabilitation therapy to lifestyle changes.

The exact cause of SID is not known, but researchers believe that it may be related to defects in the baby's brain that affect the baby's ability to regulate their breathing, heart rate, and temperature. These defects may be inherited or caused by environmental factors such as exposure to tobacco smoke, overheating, or exposure to soft bedding or loose bedding in the crib.

There are no specific signs or symptoms of SID, and it can occur suddenly and without warning. It is important for parents and caregivers to be aware of the risk factors and take steps to reduce the risk of SID, such as:

1. Placing the baby on their back to sleep
2. Using a firm mattress and tight-fitting bedding
3. Keeping the crib free of soft objects and toys
4. Avoiding overheating or overdressing the baby
5. Breastfeeding and offering a pacifier
6. Ensuring that the baby is sleeping in a safe sleep environment, such as a crib or bassinet, and not on a sofa or other soft surface.

There is no specific treatment for SID, and it is often diagnosed by ruling out other causes of death. If you suspect that your infant has died from SID, it is important to contact the authorities and seek medical attention immediately.

These disorders are caused by changes in specific genes that fail to function properly, leading to a cascade of effects that can damage cells and tissues throughout the body. Some inherited diseases are the result of single gene mutations, while others are caused by multiple genetic changes.

Inherited diseases can be diagnosed through various methods, including:

1. Genetic testing: This involves analyzing a person's DNA to identify specific genetic changes that may be causing the disease.
2. Blood tests: These can help identify certain inherited diseases by measuring enzyme levels or identifying specific proteins in the blood.
3. Imaging studies: X-rays, CT scans, and MRI scans can help identify structural changes in the body that may be indicative of an inherited disease.
4. Physical examination: A healthcare provider may perform a physical examination to look for signs of an inherited disease, such as unusual physical features or abnormalities.

Inherited diseases can be treated in various ways, depending on the specific condition and its causes. Some treatments include:

1. Medications: These can help manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease.
2. Surgery: In some cases, surgery may be necessary to correct physical abnormalities or repair damaged tissues.
3. Gene therapy: This involves using genes to treat or prevent inherited diseases.
4. Rehabilitation: Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and other forms of rehabilitation can help individuals with inherited diseases manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.

Inherited diseases are a significant public health concern, as they affect millions of people worldwide. However, advances in genetic research and medical technology have led to the development of new treatments and management strategies for these conditions. By working with healthcare providers and advocacy groups, individuals with inherited diseases can access the resources and support they need to manage their conditions and improve their quality of life.

There are many different types of cardiac arrhythmias, including:

1. Tachycardias: These are fast heart rhythms that can be too fast for the body's needs. Examples include atrial fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia.
2. Bradycardias: These are slow heart rhythms that can cause symptoms like fatigue, dizziness, and fainting. Examples include sinus bradycardia and heart block.
3. Premature beats: These are extra beats that occur before the next regular beat should come in. They can be benign but can also indicate an underlying arrhythmia.
4. Supraventricular arrhythmias: These are arrhythmias that originate above the ventricles, such as atrial fibrillation and paroxysmal atrial tachycardia.
5. Ventricular arrhythmias: These are arrhythmias that originate in the ventricles, such as ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation.

Cardiac arrhythmias can be diagnosed through a variety of tests including electrocardiograms (ECGs), stress tests, and holter monitors. Treatment options for cardiac arrhythmias vary depending on the type and severity of the condition and may include medications, cardioversion, catheter ablation, or implantable devices like pacemakers or defibrillators.

The exact cause of malignant hyperthermia is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to a genetic predisposition and exposure to certain anesthetic agents. The condition can be triggered by a variety of factors, including the use of certain anesthetics, stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system, and changes in blood sugar levels.

Symptoms of malignant hyperthermia can include:

* Elevated body temperature (usually above 104°F/40°C)
* Muscle rigidity and stiffness
* Heart arrhythmias and palpitations
* Shivering or tremors
* Confusion, agitation, or other neurological symptoms
* Shortness of breath or respiratory failure

If left untreated, malignant hyperthermia can lead to serious complications such as seizures, brain damage, and even death. Treatment typically involves the immediate discontinuation of any triggering anesthetic agents, cooling measures such as ice packs or cold compresses, and medications to help regulate body temperature and reduce muscle rigidity. In severe cases, mechanical ventilation may be necessary to support breathing.

Overall, malignant hyperthermia is a rare but potentially life-threatening condition that requires prompt recognition and treatment to prevent serious complications and improve outcomes.

Some examples of the use of 'Death, Sudden, Cardiac' in medical contexts include:

1. Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a major public health concern, affecting thousands of people each year in the United States alone. It is often caused by inherited heart conditions, such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or long QT syndrome.
2. The risk of sudden cardiac death is higher for individuals with a family history of heart disease or other pre-existing cardiovascular conditions.
3. Sudden cardiac death can be prevented by prompt recognition and treatment of underlying heart conditions, as well as by avoiding certain risk factors such as smoking, physical inactivity, and an unhealthy diet.
4. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and automated external defibrillators (AEDs) can be effective in restoring a normal heart rhythm during sudden cardiac death, especially when used promptly after the onset of symptoms.

Sudden death is death that occurs unexpectedly and without warning, often due to a cardiac arrest or other underlying medical condition.

In the medical field, sudden death is defined as death that occurs within one hour of the onset of symptoms, with no prior knowledge of any serious medical condition. It is often caused by a cardiac arrhythmia, such as ventricular fibrillation or tachycardia, which can lead to cardiac arrest and sudden death if not treated promptly.

Other possible causes of sudden death include:

1. Heart disease: Coronary artery disease, heart failure, and other heart conditions can increase the risk of sudden death.
2. Stroke: A stroke can cause sudden death by disrupting blood flow to the brain or other vital organs.
3. Pulmonary embolism: A blood clot in the lungs can block blood flow and cause sudden death.
4. Trauma: Sudden death can occur as a result of injuries sustained in an accident or other traumatic event.
5. Drug overdose: Taking too much of certain medications or drugs can cause sudden death due to cardiac arrest or respiratory failure.
6. Infections: Sepsis, meningitis, and other severe infections can lead to sudden death if left untreated.
7. Genetic conditions: Certain inherited disorders, such as Long QT syndrome, can increase the risk of sudden death due to cardiac arrhythmias.

The diagnosis of sudden death often requires an autopsy and a thorough investigation into the individual's medical history and circumstances surrounding their death. Treatment and prevention strategies may include defibrillation, CPR, medications to regulate heart rhythm, and lifestyle modifications to reduce risk factors such as obesity, smoking, and high blood pressure.

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Channelopathies 1 0 Note: The number of publications displayed in this table will differ from the number displayed in the HuGE ...
channelopathies. P.27 Regulation of the cardiac sodium channel by protein-protein interactions and post-. translational ... Channelopathies and sudden cardiac death Ramón Brugada Cardiovascular Genetics Center. IdIBGi-UdG, Girona. Sudden Cardiac Death ... Channelopathies and sudden cardiac death 15:45. José Ramón López-López (IBGM, Universidad de Valladolid, Spain) Role of Kv1.3 ... Mutations in Nav1.5 and β-subunits have been identified in different channelopathies such as Long QT syndrome and Brugada ...
... "water channelopathies" to a wide range of diseases. Benga propose the name of aquaporinology for the domain of biomedical and ...
A Review of catecholamine associated cardiomyopathies and channelopathies. Cureus 2020; 12: e6957-e6962.. 35. Beshel JA, Beshel ...
... understanding the complex heredity responsible for common epilepsies as it explores disease mechanisms of ion channelopathies ...
Atrial fibrillation in inherited cardiac channelopathies: from mechanisms to management. Heart Rhythm. 2016. 13: 9 1878-1884. ... The classical channelopathies, such as long QT syndrome or the Brugada syndrome, are associated with atrial fibrillation.12 The ...
Genetic basis of channelopathies and cardiomyopathies in Hong Kong Chinese patients: a 10-year regional laboratory experience. ...
  • Profiling neuronal ion channelopathies with non-invasive brain imaging and dynamic causal models: Case studies of single gene mutations. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Using dynamic causal modeling we compared electrophysiological responses from two patients with distinct monogenic ion channelopathies and a large cohort of healthy controls to demonstrate the feasibility of assaying synaptic-level channel communication non-invasively. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Genetic basis of channelopathies and cardiomyopathies in Hong Kong Chinese patients: a 10-year regional laboratory experience. (cdc.gov)
  • Cite this: Channelopathies -- Another Cause of Epilepsy - Medscape - Sep 05, 2012. (medscape.com)
  • It then explored the available evidence that individuals with channelopathies may or may not be more sensitive to effects of chemicals. (nih.gov)
  • The 'Hot Topic Keynotes: Channelopathies' session of the 26th International Neurotoxicology Conference brought together toxicologists studying interactions of environmental toxicants with ion channels, to review the state of the science of channelopathies and to discuss the potential for interactions between environmental exposures and channelopathies. (nih.gov)