Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Chronic Pain: Aching sensation that persists for more than a few months. It may or may not be associated with trauma or disease, and may persist after the initial injury has healed. Its localization, character, and timing are more vague than with acute pain.Pain Management: A form of therapy that employs a coordinated and interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those experiencing pain.Pain Threshold: Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.Pain, Postoperative: Pain during the period after surgery.Low Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain in the lumbar or sacral regions, which may be associated with musculo-ligamentous SPRAINS AND STRAINS; INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; and other conditions.Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain located in the posterior regions of the THORAX; LUMBOSACRAL REGION; or the adjacent regions.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Abdominal Pain: Sensation of discomfort, distress, or agony in the abdominal region.Neck Pain: Discomfort or more intense forms of pain that are localized to the cervical region. This term generally refers to pain in the posterior or lateral regions of the neck.Pain, Intractable: Persistent pain that is refractory to some or all forms of treatment.Pelvic Pain: Pain in the pelvic region of genital and non-genital origin and of organic or psychogenic etiology. Frequent causes of pain are distension or contraction of hollow viscera, rapid stretching of the capsule of a solid organ, chemical irritation, tissue ischemia, and neuritis secondary to inflammatory, neoplastic, or fibrotic processes in adjacent organs. (Kase, Weingold & Gershenson: Principles and Practice of Clinical Gynecology, 2d ed, pp479-508)Pain Perception: The process by which PAIN is recognized and interpreted by the brain.Facial Pain: Pain in the facial region including orofacial pain and craniofacial pain. Associated conditions include local inflammatory and neoplastic disorders and neuralgic syndromes involving the trigeminal, facial, and glossopharyngeal nerves. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent facial pain as the primary manifestation of disease are referred to as FACIAL PAIN SYNDROMES.Acute Pain: Intensely discomforting, distressful, or agonizing sensation associated with trauma or disease, with well-defined location, character, and timing.Pain, Referred: A type of pain that is perceived in an area away from the site where the pain arises, such as facial pain caused by lesion of the VAGUS NERVE, or throat problem generating referred pain in the ear.Shoulder Pain: Unilateral or bilateral pain of the shoulder. It is often caused by physical activities such as work or sports participation, but may also be pathologic in origin.Musculoskeletal Pain: Discomfort stemming from muscles, LIGAMENTS, tendons, and bones.Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Nociceptive Pain: Dull or sharp aching pain caused by stimulated NOCICEPTORS due to tissue injury, inflammation or diseases. It can be divided into somatic or tissue pain and VISCERAL PAIN.Neuralgia: Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Myofascial Pain Syndromes: Muscular pain in numerous body regions that can be reproduced by pressure on TRIGGER POINTS, localized hardenings in skeletal muscle tissue. Pain is referred to a location distant from the trigger points. A prime example is the TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT DYSFUNCTION SYNDROME.Hyperalgesia: An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.Complex Regional Pain Syndromes: Conditions characterized by pain involving an extremity or other body region, HYPERESTHESIA, and localized autonomic dysfunction following injury to soft tissue or nerve. The pain is usually associated with ERYTHEMA; SKIN TEMPERATURE changes, abnormal sudomotor activity (i.e., changes in sweating due to altered sympathetic innervation) or edema. The degree of pain and other manifestations is out of proportion to that expected from the inciting event. Two subtypes of this condition have been described: type I; (REFLEX SYMPATHETIC DYSTROPHY) and type II; (CAUSALGIA). (From Pain 1995 Oct;63(1):127-33)Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Visceral Pain: Pain originating from internal organs (VISCERA) associated with autonomic phenomena (PALLOR; SWEATING; NAUSEA; and VOMITING). It often becomes a REFERRED PAIN.Arthralgia: Pain in the joint.Analgesia: Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.Labor Pain: Pain associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR in CHILDBIRTH. It is caused primarily by UTERINE CONTRACTION as well as pressure on the CERVIX; BLADDER; and the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. Labor pain mostly occurs in the ABDOMEN; the GROIN; and the BACK.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Nociceptors: Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Fibromyalgia: A common nonarticular rheumatic syndrome characterized by myalgia and multiple points of focal muscle tenderness to palpation (trigger points). Muscle pain is typically aggravated by inactivity or exposure to cold. This condition is often associated with general symptoms, such as sleep disturbances, fatigue, stiffness, HEADACHES, and occasionally DEPRESSION. There is significant overlap between fibromyalgia and the chronic fatigue syndrome (FATIGUE SYNDROME, CHRONIC). Fibromyalgia may arise as a primary or secondary disease process. It is most frequent in females aged 20 to 50 years. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1494-95)Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Catastrophization: Cognitive and emotional processes encompassing magnification of pain-related stimuli, feelings of helplessness, and a generally pessimistic orientation.Flank Pain: Pain emanating from below the RIBS and above the ILIUM.Eye Pain: A dull or sharp painful sensation associated with the outer or inner structures of the eyeball, having different causes.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Analgesics, Non-Narcotic: A subclass of analgesic agents that typically do not bind to OPIOID RECEPTORS and are not addictive. Many non-narcotic analgesics are offered as NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Sciatica: A condition characterized by pain radiating from the back into the buttock and posterior/lateral aspects of the leg. Sciatica may be a manifestation of SCIATIC NEUROPATHY; RADICULOPATHY (involving the SPINAL NERVE ROOTS; L4, L5, S1, or S2, often associated with INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT); or lesions of the CAUDA EQUINA.Toothache: Pain in the adjacent areas of the teeth.Lidocaine: A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Osteoarthritis, Knee: Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Nociception: Sensing of noxious mechanical, thermal or chemical stimuli by NOCICEPTORS. It is the sensory component of visceral and tissue pain (NOCICEPTIVE PAIN).Physical Therapy Modalities: Therapeutic modalities frequently used in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY by PHYSICAL THERAPISTS or physiotherapists to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.Spinal Nerves: The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.Phantom Limb: Perception of painful and nonpainful phantom sensations that occur following the complete or partial loss of a limb. The majority of individuals with an amputated extremity will experience the impression that the limb is still present, and in many cases, painful. (From Neurol Clin 1998 Nov;16(4):919-36; Brain 1998 Sep;121(Pt 9):1603-30)Musculoskeletal Diseases: Diseases of the muscles and their associated ligaments and other connective tissue and of the bones and cartilage viewed collectively.Trigeminal Neuralgia: A syndrome characterized by recurrent episodes of excruciating pain lasting several seconds or longer in the sensory distribution of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE. Pain may be initiated by stimulation of trigger points on the face, lips, or gums or by movement of facial muscles or chewing. Associated conditions include MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, vascular anomalies, ANEURYSMS, and neoplasms. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p187)Temporomandibular Joint Disorders: A variety of conditions affecting the anatomic and functional characteristics of the temporomandibular joint. Factors contributing to the complexity of temporomandibular diseases are its relation to dentition and mastication and the symptomatic effects in other areas which account for referred pain to the joint and the difficulties in applying traditional diagnostic procedures to temporomandibular joint pathology where tissue is rarely obtained and x-rays are often inadequate or nonspecific. Common diseases are developmental abnormalities, trauma, subluxation, luxation, arthritis, and neoplasia. (From Thoma's Oral Pathology, 6th ed, pp577-600)Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Radiculopathy: Disease involving a spinal nerve root (see SPINAL NERVE ROOTS) which may result from compression related to INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; SPINAL CORD INJURIES; SPINAL DISEASES; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations include radicular pain, weakness, and sensory loss referable to structures innervated by the involved nerve root.Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Peripheral Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation: The use of specifically placed small electrodes to deliver electrical impulses across the SKIN to relieve PAIN. It is used less frequently to produce ANESTHESIA.Acupuncture Analgesia: Analgesia produced by the insertion of ACUPUNCTURE needles at certain ACUPUNCTURE POINTS on the body. This activates small myelinated nerve fibers in the muscle which transmit impulses to the spinal cord and then activate three centers - the spinal cord, midbrain and pituitary/hypothalamus - to produce analgesia.Tramadol: A narcotic analgesic proposed for severe pain. It may be habituating.Intervertebral Disc Displacement: An INTERVERTEBRAL DISC in which the nucleus pulposus has protruded through surrounding fibrocartilage. This occurs most frequently in the lower lumbar region.Lumbosacral Region: Region of the back including the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, SACRUM, and nearby structures.Oxycodone: A semisynthetic derivative of CODEINE.Cyclohexanecarboxylic AcidsBupivacaine: A widely used local anesthetic agent.Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Osteoarthritis: A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.Headache: The symptom of PAIN in the cranial region. It may be an isolated benign occurrence or manifestation of a wide variety of HEADACHE DISORDERS.Injections, Intra-Articular: Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Analgesia, Patient-Controlled: Relief of PAIN, without loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, through ANALGESIC AGENTS administered by the patients. It has been used successfully to control POSTOPERATIVE PAIN, during OBSTETRIC LABOR, after BURNS, and in TERMINAL CARE. The choice of agent, dose, and lockout interval greatly influence effectiveness. The potential for overdose can be minimized by combining small bolus doses with a mandatory interval between successive doses (lockout interval).Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Facial Neuralgia: Neuralgic syndromes which feature chronic or recurrent FACIAL PAIN as the primary manifestation of disease. Disorders of the trigeminal and facial nerves are frequently associated with these conditions.Exercise Therapy: A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.Acupuncture Therapy: Treatment of disease by inserting needles along specific pathways or meridians. The placement varies with the disease being treated. It is sometimes used in conjunction with heat, moxibustion, acupressure, or electric stimulation.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Ganglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.Palliative Care: Care alleviating symptoms without curing the underlying disease. (Stedman, 25th ed)Injections, Epidural: The injection of drugs, most often analgesics, into the spinal canal without puncturing the dura mater.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Fentanyl: A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Zygapophyseal Joint: The joint that occurs between facets of the interior and superior articular processes of adjacent VERTEBRAE.Anesthesia, Local: A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.Posterior Horn Cells: Neurons in the SPINAL CORD DORSAL HORN whose cell bodies and processes are confined entirely to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They receive collateral or direct terminations of dorsal root fibers. They send their axons either directly to ANTERIOR HORN CELLS or to the WHITE MATTER ascending and descending longitudinal fibers.Hypesthesia: Absent or reduced sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction Syndrome: A symptom complex consisting of pain, muscle tenderness, clicking in the joint, and limitation or alteration of mandibular movement. The symptoms are subjective and manifested primarily in the masticatory muscles rather than the temporomandibular joint itself. Etiologic factors are uncertain but include occlusal dysharmony and psychophysiologic factors.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Analgesia, Epidural: The relief of pain without loss of consciousness through the introduction of an analgesic agent into the epidural space of the vertebral canal. It is differentiated from ANESTHESIA, EPIDURAL which refers to the state of insensitivity to sensation.Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy: A syndrome characterized by severe burning pain in an extremity accompanied by sudomotor, vasomotor, and trophic changes in bone without an associated specific nerve injury. This condition is most often precipitated by trauma to soft tissue or nerve complexes. The skin over the affected region is usually erythematous and demonstrates hypersensitivity to tactile stimuli and erythema. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1360; Pain 1995 Oct;63(1):127-33)Spinal DiseasesElectric Stimulation Therapy: Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Dysmenorrhea: Painful menstruation.Paresthesia: Subjective cutaneous sensations (e.g., cold, warmth, tingling, pressure, etc.) that are experienced spontaneously in the absence of stimulation.Causalgia: A complex regional pain syndrome characterized by burning pain and marked sensitivity to touch (HYPERESTHESIA) in the distribution of an injured peripheral nerve. Autonomic dysfunction in the form of sudomotor (i.e., sympathetic innervation to sweat glands), vasomotor, and trophic skin changes may also occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1359)Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Manipulation, Spinal: Adjustment and manipulation of the vertebral column.Single-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.Hyperesthesia: Increased sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation due to a diminished threshold or an increased response to stimuli.Thermosensing: The sensation of cold, heat, coolness, and warmth as detected by THERMORECEPTORS.Illness Behavior: Coordinate set of non-specific behavioral responses to non-psychiatric illness. These may include loss of APPETITE or LIBIDO; disinterest in ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING; or withdrawal from social interaction.Pelvic Girdle Pain: Discomfort associated with the bones that make up the pelvic girdle. It occurs frequently during pregnancy.Massage: The systematic and methodical manipulations of body tissues best performed with the hands for the purpose of affecting the nervous and muscular systems and the general circulation.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Joint DiseasesRisk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Neuralgia, Postherpetic: Pain in nerves, frequently involving facial SKIN, resulting from the activation the latent varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN). The two forms of the condition preceding the pain are HERPES ZOSTER OTICUS; and HERPES ZOSTER OPHTHALMICUS. Following the healing of the rashes and blisters, the pain sometimes persists.Sensory Receptor Cells: Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.Ketorolac: A pyrrolizine carboxylic acid derivative structurally related to INDOMETHACIN. It is an NSAID and is used principally for its analgesic activity. (From Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)Opioid-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from abuse or mis-use of opioids.Intervertebral Disc: Any of the 23 plates of fibrocartilage found between the bodies of adjacent VERTEBRAE.Whiplash Injuries: Hyperextension injury to the neck, often the result of being struck from behind by a fast-moving vehicle, in an automobile accident. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Sciatic Neuropathy: Disease or damage involving the SCIATIC NERVE, which divides into the PERONEAL NERVE and TIBIAL NERVE (see also PERONEAL NEUROPATHIES and TIBIAL NEUROPATHY). Clinical manifestations may include SCIATICA or pain localized to the hip, PARESIS or PARALYSIS of posterior thigh muscles and muscles innervated by the peroneal and tibial nerves, and sensory loss involving the lateral and posterior thigh, posterior and lateral leg, and sole of the foot. The sciatic nerve may be affected by trauma; ISCHEMIA; COLLAGEN DISEASES; and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1363)Amines: A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Osteoarthritis, Hip: Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the hip joint which usually appears in late middle or old age. It is characterized by growth or maturational disturbances in the femoral neck and head, as well as acetabular dysplasia. A dominant symptom is pain on weight-bearing or motion.Capsaicin: An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.Spine: The spinal or vertebral column.Cervical Vertebrae: The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Physical Examination: Systematic and thorough inspection of the patient for physical signs of disease or abnormality.Freund's Adjuvant: An antigen solution emulsified in mineral oil. The complete form is made up of killed, dried mycobacteria, usually M. tuberculosis, suspended in the oil phase. It is effective in stimulating cell-mediated immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and potentiates the production of certain IMMUNOGLOBULINS in some animals. The incomplete form does not contain mycobacteria.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Acetaminophen: Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Sacroiliac Joint: The immovable joint formed by the lateral surfaces of the SACRUM and ILIUM.Heel: The back (or posterior) of the FOOT in PRIMATES, found behind the ANKLE and distal to the TOES.Cold Temperature: An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.Central Nervous System Sensitization: An increased response to stimulation that is mediated by amplification of signaling in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS).Formaldehyde: A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Musculoskeletal Manipulations: Various manipulations of body tissues, muscles and bones by hands or equipment to improve health and circulation, relieve fatigue, promote healing.Abdomen, Acute: A clinical syndrome with acute abdominal pain that is severe, localized, and rapid in onset. Acute abdomen may be caused by a variety of disorders, injuries, or diseases.Breakthrough Pain: Acute pain that comes on rapidly despite the use of pain medication.Spinal Nerve Roots: Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.Cumulative Trauma Disorders: Harmful and painful condition caused by overuse or overexertion of some part of the musculoskeletal system, often resulting from work-related physical activities. It is characterized by inflammation, pain, or dysfunction of the involved joints, bones, ligaments, and nerves.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Hydromorphone: An opioid analgesic made from MORPHINE and used mainly as an analgesic. It has a shorter duration of action than morphine.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Hip Joint: The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.Shoulder: Part of the body in humans and primates where the arms connect to the trunk. The shoulder has five joints; ACROMIOCLAVICULAR joint, CORACOCLAVICULAR joint, GLENOHUMERAL joint, scapulathoracic joint, and STERNOCLAVICULAR joint.Foot Diseases: Anatomical and functional disorders affecting the foot.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Fatigue: The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.Somatosensory Disorders: Disorders of sensory information received from superficial and deep regions of the body. The somatosensory system conveys neural impulses which pertain to proprioception, tactile sensation, thermal sensation, pressure sensation, and pain. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; and BRAIN DISEASES may be associated with impaired or abnormal somatic sensation.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Prilocaine: A local anesthetic that is similar pharmacologically to LIDOCAINE. Currently, it is used most often for infiltration anesthesia in dentistry.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.TRPV Cation Channels: A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after vanilloid receptor. They are very sensitive to TEMPERATURE and hot spicy food and CAPSAICIN. They have the TRP domain and ANKYRIN repeats. Selectivity for CALCIUM over SODIUM ranges from 3 to 100 fold.Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.Hypnosis: A state of increased receptivity to suggestion and direction, initially induced by the influence of another person.Sensation: The process in which specialized SENSORY RECEPTOR CELLS transduce peripheral stimuli (physical or chemical) into NERVE IMPULSES which are then transmitted to the various sensory centers in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.ArthritisSpinal Stenosis: Narrowing of the spinal canal.Dyspareunia: Recurrent genital pain occurring during, before, or after SEXUAL INTERCOURSE in either the male or the female.Autonomic Nerve Block: Interruption of sympathetic pathways, by local injection of an anesthetic agent, at any of four levels: peripheral nerve block, sympathetic ganglion block, extradural block, and subarachnoid block.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Knee: A region of the lower extremity immediately surrounding and including the KNEE JOINT.Pancreatitis, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS that is characterized by recurring or persistent ABDOMINAL PAIN with or without STEATORRHEA or DIABETES MELLITUS. It is characterized by the irregular destruction of the pancreatic parenchyma which may be focal, segmental, or diffuse.Chiropractic: An occupational discipline founded by D.D. Palmer in the 1890's based on the relationship of the spine to health and disease.Nerve Fibers, Unmyelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the unmyelinated nerve fibers are small in diameter and usually several are surrounded by a single MYELIN SHEATH. They conduct low-velocity impulses, and represent the majority of peripheral sensory and autonomic fibers, but are also found in the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Migraine Disorders: A class of disabling primary headache disorders, characterized by recurrent unilateral pulsatile headaches. The two major subtypes are common migraine (without aura) and classic migraine (with aura or neurological symptoms). (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A disorder with chronic or recurrent colonic symptoms without a clearcut etiology. This condition is characterized by chronic or recurrent ABDOMINAL PAIN, bloating, MUCUS in FECES, and an erratic disturbance of DEFECATION.Shoulder Joint: The articulation between the head of the HUMERUS and the glenoid cavity of the SCAPULA.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Lifting: Moving or bringing something from a lower level to a higher one. The concept encompasses biomechanic stresses resulting from work done in transferring objects from one plane to another as well as the effects of varying techniques of patient handling and transfer.Analgesia, Obstetrical: The elimination of PAIN, without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, during OBSTETRIC LABOR; OBSTETRIC DELIVERY; or the POSTPARTUM PERIOD, usually through the administration of ANALGESICS.Needles: Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.Trigeminal Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the trigeminal nerve or its nuclei, which are located in the pons and medulla. The nerve is composed of three divisions: ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular, which provide sensory innervation to structures of the face, sinuses, and portions of the cranial vault. The mandibular nerve also innervates muscles of mastication. Clinical features include loss of facial and intra-oral sensation and weakness of jaw closure. Common conditions affecting the nerve include brain stem ischemia, INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS, and TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA.Amitriptyline: Tricyclic antidepressant with anticholinergic and sedative properties. It appears to prevent the re-uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin at nerve terminals, thus potentiating the action of these neurotransmitters. Amitriptyline also appears to antagonize cholinergic and alpha-1 adrenergic responses to bioactive amines.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Trigeminal Nerve: The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.Diskectomy: Excision, in part or whole, of an INTERVERTEBRAL DISC. The most common indication is disk displacement or herniation. In addition to standard surgical removal, it can be performed by percutaneous diskectomy (DISKECTOMY, PERCUTANEOUS) or by laparoscopic diskectomy, the former being the more common.Touch: Sensation of making physical contact with objects, animate or inanimate. Tactile stimuli are detected by MECHANORECEPTORS in the skin and mucous membranes.Orthopedic Procedures: Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.Foot: The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.Tooth Extraction: The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.
Wet tobacco leaves can be applied to stings in order to relieve the pain. They are also a certain cure for painful piles. A ...
... pain, unsatisfactoriness) and anatta (non-self, non-soul, no essence).[6][5][8] It appears in Pali texts as, "sabbe sankhara ...
Fever or pain. *Certain substances found in drugs or poisons. *Problems with metabolism. If a substance is transformed into ...
... stomach pain), and respiratory conditions (asthma, bronchitis, catarrh, chest pain, fever, pneumonia, whooping cough).[8] ...
Bigal ME, Lipton RB (2008). «Obesity and chronic daily headache». Curr Pain Headache Rep. 12 (1): 56-61. PMID 18417025. doi: ... Harney D, Patijn J (2007). «Meralgia paresthetica: diagnosis and management strategies». Pain Med. 8 (8): 669-77. PMID 18028045 ... Tukker A, Visscher T, Picavet H (2008). «Overweight and health problems of the lower extremities: osteoarthritis, pain and ...
De Quincey also suffered neuralgic facial pain, "trigeminal neuralgia" - "attacks of piercing pain in the face, of such ...
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Diagnostic signs - Ascites (Talk), Headache (T), Hematuria (T), Itch, Kayser-Fleischer ring, Mees' lines, Pain (T), Rigler's ... Meningitis (T / featured since 9 March 2009), Metabolic syndrome (T), Middle back pain (T), Motor neurone disease, Multiple ... International Association for the Study of Pain, International Society of Nephrology, International Society on Thrombosis and ...
Due to his frail condition, he began to use narcotics again to dull the pain. ...
Bacterial throat pain is often characterized by more pain on one side of the throat. An ear infection is more likely to be ... One of the hallmarks of a bacterial infection is local pain, pain that is in a specific part of the body. For example, if a cut ... The pain of viral infections is often described as itchy or burning.[9] The classic symptoms of a bacterial infection are ... aches and pains. Others are specific to individual body parts, such as skin rashes, coughing, or a runny nose. ...
The crew once sang the "Sandy Frank Song", which said that Frank was "the source of all our pain", "thinks that people come ... "the source of all our pain"), particularly those in the Gamera series.[16] ...
... who is of an advanced age and in considerable pain. They knock each other down before Tully is declared the winner. His ...
These euphoric feelings were sometimes strong enough to overcome physical pain and depression.[2] ...
Burning or other destruction of their homes before the transfer was prohibited on pain of death.[20] ...
"Growing Pains". Francis Megahy. Nicholas Palmer. 4 October 1980 (1980-10-04). ...
... introduced various safeguards for animals such as not permitting the causing of pain, injury, or suffering to an animal without ...
Elisabeth revived somewhat and Sztáray asked her if she was in pain, and she replied, "No". She then asked, "What has happened ...
This redness, heat, and pain are signs of inflammation. This shows that WBCs are fighting the infection and killing the ...
It is now accepted that the precursors of the jawed vertebrates are the long extinct bony (armoured) jawless fish, the so-called ostracoderms.[59][60] The earliest known fish with jaws are the now extinct placoderms[61] and spiny sharks.[62] Placoderms were a class of fish, heavily armoured at the front of their body, which first appeared in the fossil records during the Silurian about 430 million years ago. Initially they were very successful, diversifying remarkably during the Devonian. They became extinct by the end of that period, about 360 million years ago.[63] Their largest species, Dunkleosteus terrelli, measured up to 10 m (33 ft)[64][65] and weighed 3.6 t (4.0 short tons).[66] It possessed a four bar linkage mechanism for jaw opening that incorporated connections between the skull, the thoracic shield, the lower jaw and the jaw muscles joined together by movable joints.[67][68] This mechanism allowed Dunkleosteus terrelli to achieve a high speed of jaw opening, opening their jaws in 20 ...
Sarveh-ye Pain. *Seh Juy. *Seyfabad. *Seyfabad-e Allah Yar. *Siyavashabad-e Chendar ...
... or chest pain.[2] Ventricular tachycardia may result in ventricular fibrillation and turn into sudden death.[2][3] It is found ... or chest pain.[2] Ventricular tachycardia may result in cardiac arrest and turn into ventricular fibrillation.[2][3] ...
... or causes a constant pain. Cysts can be removed without removing an ovary. Women who do not take birth control produce small ...
Medicines for pain and palliative care[edit]. Non-opioids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medicines (NSAIMs)[edit]. ... 2 Medicines for pain and palliative care *2.1 Non-opioids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medicines (NSAIMs) ...
"Fourth, I advise that their rabbis be forbidden to teach henceforth on pain of loss of life and limb …" ... "We who bear his name and heritage must acknowledge with pain the anti-Judaic diatribes contained in Luther's later writings. We ...
Elbow pain due to tendonitis, bursitis, and ulnar nerve entrapment can occur as a result of excessive pull ups and improper ...
The treatment approach for people who have advanced NSCLC is first aimed at relieving pain and distress (palliative), however a ... Some of the symptoms of less advanced cancer include chronic cough, coughing up blood, chest pain, hoarseness, shortness of ... Signs of more advanced cases include bone pain, nervous system changes (headache, weakness, dizziness, balance problems, ... breath, wheezing, chest pain, weight loss, and loss of appetite.[14] A few more symptoms associated with the early progression ...
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain condition that is thought to be the ... Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (or Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy) ... Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain ... Complex Regional Pain syndrome nydadmin 2016-02-15T18:39:16+00:00 Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (or Reflex Sympathetic ... The pain may spread to affect the entire arm or leg, even though the triggering injury may have been only to a finger or toe. ...
... and the Neck Disability Index to evaluate the subjective pain intensity, objective pain intensity, ranges of motion, and ... and the Neck Disability Index to evaluate the subjective pain intensity, objective pain intensity, ranges of motion, and ... and the Neck Disability Index to evaluate the subjective pain intensity, objective pain intensity, ranges of motion, and ... and the Neck Disability Index to evaluate the subjective pain intensity, objective pain intensity, ranges of motion, and ...
... joint pain, and nerve pain (neuralgia). Get facts on lower back pain, knee pain, chest pain, gallbladder pain, pain management ... Take the quiz to learn about muscle pain, ... Imaginary pain. Sheer pain. Invisible pain. Phantom pain. Pain ... Long-term pain. Dull pain. All of the above. Pain in an area where a limb has been amputated is referred to as.... Phantom pain ... home/chronic pain center/chronic pain a-z list/quizzes a-z list/pain quiz: test your iq of pain ...
Treatment for abdominal pain depends on the cause. ... Abdominal pain can be caused by a variety of problems and ... Abdominal Pain Causes. Abdominal pain is a common symptom, and most people have experienced some sort of abdominal pain (belly ... Functional pain may show this same pattern of periodicity.. What makes the pain worse?. *Pain due to inflammation (appendicitis ... What health conditions make abdominal pain worse or better?. What relieves the pain?. *The pain of IBS and constipation often ...
Cramps after your period arent typically serious, but persistent pain could be a sign of an underlying disorder. Persistent ... My Endometriosis Journey: Learning That Through Pain Is Purpose. Endometriosis is invisible and extremely painful. One woman ... Along with feeling more tired, you may also experience weight gain and joint pain. ...
Antidepressants are a staple in the treatment of many chronic pain conditions, including arthritis, nerve damage, headache and ... may help relieve chronic pain. People with chronic pain often develop depression along with their chronic pain. Venlafaxine and ... Treating chronic pain with SSRIs: What do we know? Pain Research and Management. 2016;2016:2020915. ... Although not specifically intended to treat chronic pain, antidepressants are a mainstay in the treatment of many chronic pain ...
Pain reduction [ Time Frame: Years 2 and 3 ]. Secondary Outcome Measures : *Reduction in loading of the medial knee [ Time ... even with recent advances in pain relievers. Analgesic treatment may relieve the pain but does not improve biomechanics and may ... A Study of Orthotic Shoe Inserts for Controlling Osteoarthritic Knee Pain. The safety and scientific validity of this study is ... This study will evaluate the effectiveness of customized shoe inserts in controlling and relieving the pain of knee ...
Palmitoylethanolamide for the treatment of pain: pharmacokinetics, safety and efficacy. Gabrielsson, Linda Umeå universitet, ... adverse drug reactions, clinical trials, inflammation, pain, pharmacokinetics, Palmitoylethanolamide Nationell ämneskategori ...
For any woman who has experienced illness, chronic pain, or endometriosis comes an inspiring memoir advocating for recognition ... In Ask Me About My Uterus, Norman describes what it was like to have her pain dismissed, to be told it was all in her head, ... "A fresh, honest, and startling look at what it means to exist in a womans body, in all of its beauty and pain. Abbys voice is ... She was repeatedly hospitalized in excruciating pain, but the doctors insisted it was a urinary tract infection and sent her ...
Pain as a reason to visit the doctor: a study in Finnish primary health care. Pain 2001;89:175-80. ... The minimum clinically significant difference in visual analogue scale pain score does not differ with severity of pain. Emerg ... acceptability of pain in the past 48 h determined by asking Thinking only of the pain you felt in your knee during the last 48 ... at non-prescription doses gave some modest improvement in pain relief for knee pain/osteoarthritis, but at the expense of an ...
... provides recommendations for primary care clinicians who are prescribing opioids for chronic pain outside of active cancer ... provides recommendations for primary care clinicians who are prescribing opioids for chronic pain outside of active cancer ... Pain Res Manag 2011;16:337-51. PubMedexternal icon *American Pain Society, American Academy of Pain Medicine Opioids Guidelines ... Classification of chronic pain. Descriptions of chronic pain syndromes and definitions of pain terms. Prepared by the ...
Main article: Pain § Classification. The International Association for the study of pain defines chronic pain as pain with no ... Chronic visceral pain: pain originating in an internal organ.. *Chronic musculoskeletal pain: pain originating in the bones, ... Bogduk, N; Merskey, H (1994). Classification of chronic pain: descriptions of chronic pain syndromes and definitions of pain ... May A (2009). "Chronic pain may change the structure of the brain". Pain. 137 (1): 7-15. doi:10.1016/j.pain.2008.02.034. PMID ...
Find out what might be the cause of your abdominal pain. ... Pain in the abdomen can come from any one of them. The pain may ... Nor does mild pain mean a problem is not serious. Call your health care provider if mild pain lasts a week or more or if you ... Abdominal Pain (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) * Abdominal Pain Syndrome (American College of ... Abdominal Pain (Stomach Pain), Long-Term (American Academy of Family Physicians) Also in Spanish ...
Flank pain is pain in one side of the body between the upper belly area (abdomen) and the back. ... Flank pain is pain in one side of the body between the upper belly area (abdomen) and the back. ... Flank pain can be a sign of a kidney problem. But, since many organs are in this area, other causes are possible. If you have ... Abdominal pain in adults. In: Seller RH, Symons AB, eds. Differential Diagnosis of Common Complaints. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA ...
Back pain is one of the most common reasons people go to the doctor. Home treatment and proper body mechanics often will heal ... Low back pain caused by spinal degeneration and injury. Click here for an infographic to learn more Back pain that comes on ... Pain that improves with reclining. When to see a doctor. Most back pain gradually improves with home treatment and self-care, ... These factors might put you at greater risk of developing back pain:. *Age. Back pain is more common as you get older, starting ...
This pain may originate in the bladder, urethra, or perineum. The urethra is the tube that carries urine outside of your body. ... Dyspareunia is the term for recurring pain in the genital area or within the pelvis during sexual intercourse. The pain can be ... This pain may originate in the bladder, urethra, or perineum. The urethra is the tube that carries urine outside of your body. ... This pain may originate in the bladder, urethra, or perineum. The urethra is the tube that carries urine outside of your body. ...
Beyond the personal pain, bone-and-joint disorders are a growing economic burden. Associated costs have increased by 45 per ... To move freely and without pain. Such a simple wish that goes unrealized for the 1.7 billion people around the world suffering ... For her, and her colleagues, it is all about helping people move and interact with the world pain free. ... Chair up to challenge of easing pain for millions. July 18, 2017. By Paul Mayne ...
The sharp needle like pain can be described like the stinging pain when your feet falls asleep.. Its weird because I have ... I recently went to the gym to work out and soon as i get a sweat i started getting the sharp needle pain. But after i sweat ... I got the needle pain while i was reading ur post :) i thought there is no treatment for this,but now i read ur post i will ... The stinging pain is caused by clogged pours on the skin. If you dont sweat regularly you will keep getting it. ...
The pain tends to be more severe at night. Temperature changes can also affect pain. The pain may extend beyond the areas of ... The individual may continue to have pain and/or itching in the area of the rash. The pain may be severe. If the rash develops ... which can either be continuous burning or aching pain, periodic piercing pain, or spasms similar to electric shock. ... This pain is due to irritation and inflammation of the nerves leading to the infected area of skin. These are signs that an ...
Chest pain chemotherapy side effect, causes, symptom management and when to contact your healthcare provider during cancer ... Coughing may also cause pain. *Musculoskeletal -Common causes of chest pain include pain as a result of injury, joint or muscle ... Chest pain can happen in adults for a variety of reasons. Some causes of chest pain may include:. *Lung - you may have ... What Is Chest Pain?. Chest pain is a painful or unpleasant sensation in your chest, which may or may not be associated with ...
Testicular pain, also known as scrotal pain, occurs when part or all of either one or both testicles hurt. Pain in the scrotum ... Chronic scrotal pain[edit]. Chronic scrotal pain (pain for greater than 3 months) may occur due to a number of underlying ... Testicular pain is when part or all of either one or both testicles hurt, the pain varies from male to male although it lasts ... See also: List of the causes of genital pain. The differential diagnosis of testicular pain is broad and involves conditions ...
For acute migraines, opioids are not recommended for regular use, or as first-line therapy.
Foot pain walking on concrete Rubber cushion feet Gaitway shoe insoles Superfeet insoles reviews Pain ball foot Foot powder ... Shoe inserts for heel pain. Author: admin. The dual layer construction of these heel cups with its shock absorbing properties ... review Heel arch supports uk How to cure heel pain naturally What causes a plantar wart on feet Orthotics for back and leg pain ... How to relieve pain in the ball of your foot. Author: admin. ... at an inexpensive engineered to assist relieve heel pain. Shoes ...
Not all headaches hurt the same - heres how to know what type of pain youre having. *Erin Brodwin and Samantha Lee ... Heres what you should know about fibromyalgia, the chronic pain disorder that forced Lady Gaga to cancel parts of her tour. * ... What you should say to your doctor if you think you need opioids for pain. *Travis N. Rieder, The Conversation ... You may feel more pain when its freezing cold - and there are some biological reasons for that. *Lindsay Dodgson ...
What I expect to happen is that the field configuration I find emerging in , the guts of the chips will be different, depending on the object, even , though the sensory measurement is identical. The different field , configurations will correspond to the different objects. That is what , subjective experience will look like from the outside. , , The chips solution to the charge cnfiguration will take up a , configuration based on the non-locality...hence the scientists will report , different objects, even when their sensory measurement is identical, and , it is the only apparent access they have to the object (to us). And is it going to be the right solution? Because then you chips are going to do better than humans. Humans presented with ambiguous sensory data make wrong perceptual judgements, or random ones (Necker cube). --~--~---------~--~----~------------~-------~--~----~ You received this message because you are subscribed to the Google Groups Everything List group. To post to this ...
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare topical 5% lidocaine patch with placebo patch in the treatment of myofascial pain syndrome of the upper trapezius. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: The application of the 5% lidocaine patch is probably superior to the placebo patch in relieving pain and in reducing associated neck disability for a period of longer than 1 wk for treating patients with myofascial pain syndrome of the upper trapezius. (
  • We used the Verbal Rating Scale (VRS), the Pressure Pain Threshold, the ranges of motion of the neck, and the Neck Disability Index to evaluate the subjective pain intensity, objective pain intensity, ranges of motion, and disability of the neck, respectively. (
  • Shave limb or apply liberal Vaseline If you're a real man and don't mind a little pain you can skip this step. (
  • A word of caution about how these findings might be misappropriated is provided in a patient's perspective by Amy Price, who lives with chronic pain ( ). (
  • Antidepressants may increase neurotransmitters in the spinal cord that reduce pain signals. (
  • Chronic pain may originate in the body, or in the brain or spinal cord. (
  • He recommends "RICE" (rest, ice, compression, elevation) for swollen joints, TENS machines (which interfere with the pain messages along the spinal cord), and keeping active with gentle stretching, plus plenty of rest. (
  • Borghi V, Przewlocka B, Labuz D, Maj M, Ilona O, Pavone F (2002) Formalin-induced pain and μ-opioid receptor density in brain and spinal cord are modulated by A 1 and A 2A adenosine agonists in mice. (
  • Spinal Cord Stimulation Low-level electrical signals can block pain signals from reaching the brain. (
  • Spinal cord stimulators are placed just under the skin and sends small electrical signals which change the way the brain receives the pain message. (
  • In extreme cases, surgeons may have to sever pain pathways by altering areas of the brain associated with pain perception -- or performing a rhizotomy (which destroys portions of peripheral nerves) or a chordotomy (destroys ascending tracts in the spinal cord). (
  • The chronic pain field now recognizes that a good deal of chronic pain has to do with a change in how the brain and spinal cord are processing the stimuli coming into the body," Walco said. (
  • A pain-related function was first suggested by the discovery of a dedicated nociceptive pathway from the spinal cord through the external lateral parabrachial (PB) nucleus to the central nucleus of the amygdala [ 13 , 14 ]. (
  • Nerve pain is caused by pressure on the nerves or spinal cord, or by damage to nerves. (
  • Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brainstem and spinal cord in 59 healthy participants indicates that autonomic regulation influences descending pain regulation and individual pain sensitivity. (
  • Dr. Brett Stacey speaks with Clinical Pain Advisor about responses after the closure of the Seattle Pain Center in 2016. (
  • A 2016 paper published in the journal Children puts the number of pediatric chronic pain cases that are serious enough to warrant intensive rehabilitation at 3 percent. (
  • Pain relievers work by calming irritated nerves. (
  • He also recommends heat treatment: "Pain nerves also transmit sensations of temperature. (
  • A TENS unit works by basically overstimulating the nerves that are causing you pain, which causes them to shut down temporarily. (
  • Tumors invade healthy tissues and exert pressure on nerves or blood vessels, producing pain. (
  • These so-called "calcium channels" are thought to play an important role in stimulating the nerves that deliver pain signals, as well as in other processes such muscle contraction, heart pace-making and hormone release. (
  • Deliver as needed: home, work or on-the-go The opiate-mediated control theory is based on stimulation of the sensory nerves at 10 Hz or less which causes the body to produce endorphins and enkephalins that bind to specific receptor sites in the central and peripheral nervous system blocking the perception of pain. (
  • It numbs the nerves that carry the pain impulses from the birth canal to the brain. (
  • A very thin tube will be passed through the needle into your back near the nerves that carry pain impulses from the uterus. (
  • For example, a swollen liver can press on nerves and cause pain in the right shoulder. (
  • Surgical sympathectomy involves cutting the nerve or nerves, destroying the pain almost instantly, but surgery may also destroy other sensations as well. (
  • Common chronic pain complaints include headache, low back pain, cancer pain, arthritis pain, neurogenic pain (pain resulting from damage to the peripheral nerves or to the central nervous system itself), psychogenic pain (pain not due to past disease or injury or any visible sign of damage inside or outside the nervous system). (
  • This guideline provides recommendations for primary care clinicians who are prescribing opioids for chronic pain outside of active cancer treatment, palliative care, and end-of-life care. (
  • Kathleen Foley, who runs the pain and palliative care center at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Research Center in New York City, says for many patients the prospect of pain can be as terrifying as the disease itself. (
  • it should be all the way through," says Nessa Coyle, a registered nurse who runs the supportive care program for the pain and palliative care division at the cancer hospital. (
  • This type of pain is most common soon after surgery, and tends to lessen within 6 months, though some people still experience phantom pain for years. (
  • Along with feeling more tired, you may also experience weight gain and joint pain. (
  • Patients can experience persistent pain that is not well controlled. (
  • You may also experience pain when urinating if you have a sexually transmitted infection (STI). (
  • There is actually controversy about whether neonates experience pain. (
  • These days, proper analgesia is used, as all the evidence short of asking them suggests that neonates *do* experience pain. (
  • Pain , a complex experience consisting of a physiological and a psychological response to a noxious stimulus. (
  • Pain is both an emotional and a physical experience and is difficult to compare from one person to another. (
  • Pain experience in dementia subtypes: a systematic review. (
  • Diane Grey, a graduate of the University of Alabama and a professional with 12 years experience in the treatment of pain, will bring her expertise to the pain clinic. (
  • Her previous employment as a director of a hospital's pain clinic gave her great experience in how to make such an enterprise flourish. (
  • According to the National Center for Health Statistics, 46 million Americans undergo inpatient surgical procedures each year and experience acute surgical pain. (
  • Pain" is defined by the International Association for the Study of Pain as "an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience arising from actual or potential tissue damage or described in terms of such damage" [ 9 ] Although this is a technical description of pain, it recognizes both the physiologic and affective nature of the pain experience. (
  • Pain is a highly personal, subjective experience which can only be accurately described by the individual who is experiencing pain. (
  • [ 10 , 11 ] This definition, which has endured for more than 40 years, has allowed healthcare providers to intervene and treat patients on the basis of the self-report of the pain experience. (
  • Some women experience pain in their sides or thighs as well. (
  • Although most people in our day and age go to great lengths to avoid pain (and pursue pleasure ), pain can be a positive and transform ing experience . (
  • This kind of experience (of which pain is part but not all of) is the reason that many people get pierced or tattoo ed and immediately start wanting more. (
  • 3.3 million Americans have Chronic Migraine1, meaning they experience pain from headaches or migraines for more than half the month! (
  • While some people may experience a lot of pain, others have little or none. (
  • Fatigue -- We often experience more pain when our body is stressed from lack of sleep. (
  • Even though the pain you experience is in the head or part of the face, the actual problem in lies in the neck. (
  • You may experience more than one type of pain at the same time. (
  • You may experience pain in more than one place in your body. (
  • But regularly having poor, "non-restorative" sleep showed the strongest link, making a person almost twice as likely to experience the onset of widespread pain compared to people without sleep problems. (
  • In the United States alone, 116 million adults experience some form of chronic pain according to a 2011 survey by the Institute of Medicine . (
  • You want to experience as little fibromyalgia pain as possible. (
  • But younger people, who may be dealing with job and family stress in addition to their pain, may experience more negative effects. (
  • If you experience pain in your knees every time you bend with no improvement over time, then it warrants a visit to the doctor. (
  • But pain experts agree they will not experience withdrawal if the drug is appropriately tapered off and discontinued. (
  • The way people feel and experience pain varies. (
  • Social or work stresses can also affect how you experience pain. (
  • The International Association for the Study of Pain's widely used definition defines pain as "an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage", however, due to it being a complex, subjective phenomenon, defining pain has been a challenge. (
  • The pain may start somewhere else, such as your chest. (
  • What Is Chest Pain? (
  • Chest pain can happen in adults for a variety of reasons. (
  • Lung - you may have pneumonia, or another type of infection in your lung that may cause chest pain. (
  • Musculoskeletal -Common causes of chest pain include pain as a result of injury, joint or muscle strain. (
  • If you have had any damage to your ribs, from injuries or tumors, this can cause you to feel pain in your chest. (
  • Angina may cause your chest pain, which may be a feeling of "squeezing" in your chest. (
  • Chest pain should not be ignored for any reason. (
  • Chest pain may start in the chest, and spread to the throat, jaw, shoulder blades, or arms (left or right). (
  • You may have nausea, sweating, or dizziness associated with your chest pain. (
  • Chest pain may spread to the stomach, and feel like indigestion. (
  • The goal of chest pain is to relieve the cause. (
  • If your chest pain is due to musculoskeletal problems, such as muscle strain, there is most likely an area you can locate that is causing most of the pain. (
  • If you have chest pain due to lung problems, such as pneumonia or pleurisy, your doctor may prescribe antibiotics to treat the condition. (
  • Smoking can increase the chance of developing chest pain and heart disease. (
  • You can try to control your heart disease, high blood pressure, and diabetes to decrease your chances of developing chest pain. (
  • During breast cancer treatment, you may have different kinds of pain in your chest. (
  • After surgery, you may feel a mixture of pain and numbness in your chest in the area where surgery was done. (
  • Right after surgery, you may feel brief shooting pains in your chest. (
  • During and after radiation therapy, you also may feel brief shooting pains in your chest. (
  • If you have an implant in place and the tissues around it are stretched, you may feel more severe chest pain. (
  • If you have chest pain after surgery or during or after radiation therapy, talk to your doctor. (
  • Intermittent Chest Pain? (
  • I sometimes suffer from intermittent chest pain. (
  • Hi Aduenas, Chest pain and palpitations are very scary and potentially very dangerous. (
  • Heart Palpitation, Cortisol Release and left chest pain in the middle of the night? (
  • Aspirin - I'am 32, I get pretty bad chest pains? (
  • I don't do any exercise really, and the only thing besides this that is 'wrong' with me is a bright redness in my throat that's been there for a few months, apparently it's post nasal something, might that have something to do with the chest pain? (
  • I have chest pain every day even when I take a normal plain food. (
  • terrible chest pains sweating sick acid? (
  • Clindamycin - is it normal to get chest pains? (
  • Chest pain above my left breast and very tight chest. (
  • On the other hand, it also is possible for pain from organs within the belly to be felt outside of the it. (
  • Visceral pain originates in the viscera (organs). (
  • Inflammation in any of these organs can cause pain during urination. (
  • It therefore may be mistaken for disorders such as gallstones, which cause acute pain in internal organs. (
  • I used to have pain on my right side and they claimed it was from my appendix scar, that my organs were catching on it and causing pain. (
  • Visceral pain is pain that starts in internal organs such as the intestine or bowel. (
  • Tumours can also cause pain if they block organs, tubes or blood vessels. (
  • Visceral pain starts in internal organs such as the intestine. (
  • Cancer can also cause pain if it blocks organs, tubes or blood vessels. (
  • This is pain we feel when our organs, muscles or tissues are damaged, injured or inflamed. (
  • CDC has provided a checklist for prescribing opioids for chronic pain ( ) as well as a website ( ) with additional tools to guide clinicians in implementing the recommendations. (
  • Opioids are commonly prescribed for pain. (
  • A trial of opioids is only recommended in those with non cancer pain who have no history of either mental illness or substance use disorder and should be stopped if not effective. (
  • As with other pain disorders, many patients with fibromyalgia report using opioids to manage their pain, which carries the risk of dependency and misuse. (
  • According to the new Institute of Medicine report, studies show about 3% of chronic pain patients who regularly take opioids develop abuse or addiction, and 12% develop 'aberrant drug-related behavior. (
  • This study shines a light on how poorly understood and mismanaged recurrent and chronic pain syndromes are. (
  • The 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey estimated that 14.6% of adults have current widespread or localized pain lasting at least 3 months ( 6 ). (
  • The answer has never been more important, as a new Institute of Medicine report says 116 million Americans adults have chronic pain, a number larger than many previous estimates. (
  • NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Regularly feeling tired and worn out after a night's sleep was the strongest predictor of also developing widespread pain in a new study of UK adults over the age of 50. (
  • In older adults widespread pain, that is pain that affects multiple sites in the body, is common and is associated with morbidity and disability including poor mental health and reduced physical functioning," said Ross Wilkie, the study's senior author. (
  • However, the clinical approach to managing widespread pain in older adults may need to move beyond focusing on treatment of osteoarthritis and consider combined interventions. (
  • The Journal of Pain published a study in which 74 adults completed exercises to trigger muscle pain and inflammation. (
  • HealthDayNews -- Older adults seem better able to cope with chronic pain than younger adults, say researchers at the University of Michigan and the University of South Florida. (
  • Their study of 5,823 black and white adults found those under the age of 50 appear less able to cope with chronic pain and to be more prone to depression associated with chronic pain than adults over age 50. (
  • Many chronic pain conditions affect older adults. (
  • There are clinical, psychological, and social consequences associated with chronic pain including limitations in complex activities, lost work productivity, reduced quality of life, and stigma, emphasizing the importance of appropriate and compassionate patient care ( 4 ). (
  • The Foundation for Anesthesia Education and Research (through its Pain Research Council) is encouraging research funding applications in the areas of physician education in pain medicine and in frameworks to evaluate safety, efficacy, competency, and outcomes in patient populations with pain from preclinical to clinical settings. (
  • The Journal of Pain * This journal publishes original articles related to all aspects of pain, including clinical and basic research, patient care, education, and health policy. (
  • The clinical potential for adenosine (given intravenously), or A 1 R ligands (given systemically or spinally) to produce analgesia in humans was supported by earlier trials, but more recent, larger controlled trials have generally not demonstrated analgesic activity for postoperative pain. (
  • A new study finds that rising placebo responses may play a part in the increasingly high failure rate for clinical trials of drugs designed to control chronic pain caused by nerve damage. (
  • Well, without a clinical evaluation it would be difficult to determine the cause of the hip pain. (
  • We are seeing a lot more young patients with chronic pain syndrome ," said study author Dr. Thomas A. Coffelt, assistant professor of clinical medicine and pediatrics at the Indiana University School of Medicine in Indianapolis. (
  • Preclinical and clinical studies have identified amygdala hyperactivity as well as impairment of cortical control mechanisms in pain states. (
  • Since the initial discovery of nociceptive pathways to the amygdala, preclinical [ 5 , 7 , 8 ] and clinical [ 10 , 11 , 18 , 19 ] studies have provided direct support for amygdala involvement in pain. (
  • People with chronic pain often develop depression along with their chronic pain. (
  • Epidemiological studies have found that 10.1% to 55.2% of people in various countries have chronic pain. (
  • Some people with chronic pain may benefit from opioid treatment while others are harmed. (
  • For her, and her colleagues, it is all about helping people move and interact with the world pain free. (
  • Athletes, for example, may be able to withstand or ignore pain while engaged in a sport, and certain religious practices may require participants to endure pain that seems intolerable to most people. (
  • Pain is a physiological and psychological element of human existence, and thus it has been known to humankind since the earliest eras, but the ways in which people respond to and conceive of pain vary dramatically. (
  • Spinal Drug Delivery Systems These systems help people with cancer or chronic pain. (
  • Active Denial has long been considered the " Holy Grail " of crowd control, for its ability to penetrate just a 64th of an inch underneath the skin, and inspire people to move - fast - from the pain that ensued. (
  • For people needing help managing pain of any kind, they can be assured that the pain clinic will do everything in its power to help patients out. (
  • There are many different type s of pain and some people can bear a lot more of each kind than others. (
  • Many people believe physical pain to be something which can be " cure d" and gotten rid of. (
  • Although many people might not call this a kind of "pain", I'll put it here anyway. (
  • Many people also use self-inflicted pain (in what many deem is a bad way) as a cure for other pain. (
  • For some people, physical pain is a way to control their lives. (
  • Many people live with chronic conditions that cause pain day in and day out. (
  • Pain is common in people living with HIV (HIV+). (
  • Herpes Pain -- Herpes is a family of viruses common in people living with HIV. (
  • People given placebos for pain control often report that the pain ceases or diminishes. (
  • Age -- Brain circuitry generally degenerates with age, so older people have lower pain thresholds and have more problems dealing with pain. (
  • Non-restorative sleep was the strongest predictor of new onset widespread pain," he said, and "sleep is a modifiable target," so improving it might improve the outcomes of these people, he said. (
  • It's interesting because they looked at people who were pain-free and they followed them over time" to see who developed widespread pain, Dr. Babak Mokhlesi said, "I think that's what gives (the study) so much strength. (
  • The company believes they could be used to tackle persistent acute pain where other painkillers have not worked, or cannot be used, in people with cancer or other very severe diseases. (
  • And that is just for the people experiencing pain directly. (
  • So, we can't aim to eliminate their pain the way we would with people with most other diseases. (
  • Older people may feel that pain is just something that you deal with, perhaps because they were raised in a time when pain was not addressed in the way we deal with it today, or because they feel that pain is just a normal part of getting older," Green said. (
  • For most people, pain related to cancer or its treatment can be controlled. (
  • For example, some people feel pain in an arm or leg that has been amputated or in the breast area after a mastectomy. (
  • I said, "I think some people in the United States have the mistaken idea that all pain can be treated and that we ought to be able to live pain free. (
  • I run across people who say, "I can't be addicted to narcotics, because I'm taking them for pain. (
  • I resist using long term narcotics on people with non-cancerous chronic pain for two reasons: I almost NEVER see it control the pain and I see people get addicted. (
  • The first thing we need to understand is that people with fibromyalgia have a problem processing pain correctly. (
  • People with cancer may have pain for a number of reasons. (
  • Around half of the people who have treatment for cancer have some pain. (
  • In some arguments put forth in physician-assisted suicide or euthanasia debates, pain has been used as an argument to permit people who are terminally ill to end their lives. (
  • Always with her attention focused on the well being of the patient, Ms. Grey has often relied on just plain common sense to create a plan that will most effectively treat a patient's pain. (
  • In time, he says the pills fail to truly mask the patient's pain. (
  • This can help your health care provider get a true sense of the pain you are in, and how best to treat it. (
  • Although not specifically intended to treat chronic pain, antidepressants are a mainstay in the treatment of many chronic pain conditions, even when depression isn't recognized as a factor. (
  • Pain associated with interstitial cystitis may be more challenging to treat. (
  • We always look for signs of depression in patients with chronic pain, as it is difficult to treat pain in the presence of untreated depression. (
  • Finally, other recent observations indicate that caffeine, which inhibits both A 1 - and A 2A Rs with high affinity, blocks antinociception in preclinical studies by several drugs currently used to treat pain in humans. (
  • Treating Lower Leg Pain If you're suffering from lower leg pain, you may wonder if it's serious or something you can treat at home. (
  • It's primarily used to relieve pain but also has been used to treat other conditions. (
  • Nutritional, dietary and lifestyle counselling are also used to treat patients suffering from pain. (
  • In recent years, definitions of pain have been further refined to include the fact that a person's inability to verbally communicate does not preclude the possibility that pain is present or negate the responsibility of healthcare providers to treat it. (
  • Discover the common causes of headaches and how to treat headache pain. (
  • Once the type and characteristics of pain are identified, you and your health care provider will decide how to manage or treat it. (
  • Everyone also knows that the best way to treat pain of this kind is through the regular administration of opiates. (
  • Physicians treat pain in numerous ways. (
  • When he gets to the root cause of the pain and treats it -- or finds another doctor who can treat it -- he almost always can get his patients off narcotics. (
  • It's an effort to treat chronic pain that doesn't respond to the traditional techniques doctors use to treat pain. (
  • Next, they will try to treat the underlying condition which causes the pain. (
  • Here's how to treat chronic pain. (
  • Is Marijuana Really the Best Way to Treat Chronic Pain? (
  • The first step your healthcare team will take to treat your pain is to find out more about it. (
  • Understanding the type of pain you have can help your healthcare team treat it. (
  • Treat pain, treat pain, treat pain. (
  • Physicians are conflicted about how to treat pain. (
  • If you have pain, it's important to tell your doctors and nurses (healthcare team) so they can treat it. (
  • Heckler dropped from 240 to 208 pounds, did the exercises, took the supplements and while the pain has never gone away, he says it's now tolerable enough that he doesn't have to take painkillers. (
  • It sometimes breaks through when chronic pain is being well-controlled with long-acting painkillers. (
  • Breakthrough pain is common, but it can usually be successfully managed with short-acting painkillers. (
  • Various nonopioid medicines are recommended initially, depending on whether the pain originates from tissue damage or is neuropathic . (
  • Chronic pain may be divided into " nociceptive " (caused by inflamed or damaged tissue activating specialised pain sensors called nociceptors ), and " neuropathic " (caused by damage to or malfunction of the nervous system). (
  • A controlled force is applied to the areas of the spine that have restricted movement, this causes the muscles to relax, alleviating pain and allows the tissue to heal. (
  • [ 12 ] Acute pain results from activation of the pain receptors (nociceptors) at the site of tissue damage. (
  • [ 11 ] Although pain in response to tissue damage is a normal phenomenon, it may be associated with significant, unnecessary physical, psychological, and emotional distress. (
  • The damaged tissue releases enzymes that stimulate local pain receptors. (
  • Importantly, this deficit in pain perception occurred despite an intact nociceptive system and was not accompanied by the tissue injury characteristic of pain insensitivity disorders, indicating that protective pain functions were intact. (
  • Soft tissue pain is caused by damage to an organ or muscle. (
  • Causalgia, also known as Chronic Regional Pain Syndrome, is another term for Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy Syndrome, a chronic condition characterized by severe burning pain, pathological changes in bone and skin, excessive sweating, tissue swelling, and extreme sensitivity to touch. (
  • Superficial pain is initiated by activation of nociceptors in the skin or other superficial tissue, and is sharp, well-defined and clearly located. (
  • Depending on their condition, doctors are able to prescribe the best treatment to alleviate their pain. (
  • This can alleviate pain for days or even months at a time. (
  • This helps alleviate pain for a short time and is said to decrease the amount of migraines a person experiences. (
  • Patients can be assured that the medical director and their staff will do the best job possible to help alleviate chronic pain and keep it from returning. (
  • Our new medical director truly understands that the number one goal here at the clinic is to alleviate the pain and suffering of each and every patient. (
  • Mental control techniques rely on the ability of the mind and emotions to control and alleviate pain through descending neural pathways. (
  • Laurie Jennings, Deputy Director of the Good Housekeeping Institute, and Dr. Paul G. Mathew, Assistant professor of Neurology at Harvard Medical School and Director/Founder of the Visiting Scholars Program at the John R. Graham Headache Center, will discuss Pain Awareness Month and treatment options for headaches and migraines associated with Chronic Migraine. (
  • Dr. David Tauben spoke with The Journal of Family Practice editor, Marya Ostrowski about refining care provided to patients with chronic pain. (
  • Farrar, for example, says about 75% of his patients with chronic pain take these medicines. (
  • Doctors measure pain on a scale of zero to 10. (
  • She was repeatedly hospitalized in excruciating pain, but the doctors insisted it was a urinary tract infection and sent her home with antibiotics. (
  • Chiropractic doctors and physicians specialize in providing drug-free, hands on approach to managing pain. (
  • Pain clinics in Tampa house some of the most talented and skilled chiropractic doctors and physicians in the state. (
  • Since every patient is different, the treatment recommended by doctors at the Fort Worth and Dallas pain clinics are different. (
  • The Doctors Pain Clinic is happy to announce the hiring of a new medical director. (
  • Doctors often use picture scales with children -- they show faces with varying degrees of pain expressions. (
  • His patients, whose pain is so severe it couldn't be treated by other doctors, sometimes stay on these drugs for many years. (
  • And because pain specialists have seen so many patients dealing with chronic pain, they often have a better idea than most doctors about which therapies might be effective. (
  • Some treatment centres may have pain teams that include specialized doctors and nurses. (
  • I think there is a huge myth perpetuated by pharmaceutical companies and with the medical community culpable: Doctors Can Control Your Pain. (
  • Doctors are frightened, honestly, because they are getting sued for inadequately controlling someone's pain after the someone dies, sued by the family. (
  • Doctors "need to give patients permission to talk about pain" by asking them about it, she says. (
  • Your doctors or nurses may talk about your pain in different ways. (
  • This guideline is intended to improve communication between clinicians and patients about the risks and benefits of opioid therapy for chronic pain, improve the safety and effectiveness of pain treatment, and reduce the risks associated with long-term opioid therapy, including opioid use disorder, overdose, and death. (
  • Ginger has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and pain-reducing effects in rodents, but the researchers reported that its effects in humans have not been extensively studied. (
  • Although the neuroanatomic basis of pain reception develops before birth, individual pain responses are learned in early childhood and are affected by social, cultural, psychological, cognitive , and genetic factors, among others. (
  • If pain cannot be alleviated , psychological factors such as depression and anxiety can intensify the condition. (
  • A new review published in American Psychologist presents an overview of research into the psychological underpinnings of pain. (
  • The severity of pain does not indicate how severe the damage to the heart muscle may be. (
  • It is important to contact your health care provider if the pain becomes constant, or increases in severity or frequency. (
  • You are the expert on the severity of your pain and its impact on your daily life. (
  • Degree of pain - severity is best evaluated with a familiar 1-10 scale. (