Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Employment, Supported: Paid work for mentally or physically disabled persons, taking place in regular or normal work settings. It may be competitive employment (work that pays minimum wage) or employment with subminimal wages in individualized or group placement situations. It is intended for persons with severe disabilities who require a range of support services to maintain employment. Supported employment differs from SHELTERED WORKSHOPS in that work in the latter takes place in a controlled working environment. Federal regulations are authorized and administered by the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services.Rehabilitation, Vocational: Training of the mentally or physically disabled in work skills so they may be returned to regular employment utilizing these skills.Unemployment: The state of not being engaged in a gainful occupation.Self Care: Performance of activities or tasks traditionally performed by professional health care providers. The concept includes care of oneself or one's family and friends.Women, Working: Women who are engaged in gainful activities usually outside the home.Self Concept: A person's view of himself.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Occupations: Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Self Tolerance: The normal lack of the ability to produce an immunological response to autologous (self) antigens. A breakdown of self tolerance leads to autoimmune diseases. The ability to recognize the difference between self and non-self is the prime function of the immune system.Vocational Education: Education for specific trades or occupations.Salaries and Fringe Benefits: The remuneration paid or benefits granted to an employee.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Retirement: The state of being retired from one's position or occupation.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Contracts: Agreements between two or more parties, especially those that are written and enforceable by law (American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). It is sometimes used to characterize the nature of the professional-patient relationship.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Disabled Persons: Persons with physical or mental disabilities that affect or limit their activities of daily living and that may require special accommodations.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Workplace: Place or physical location of work or employment.Social Welfare: Organized institutions which provide services to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community.United StatesQuestionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Sheltered Workshops: Protective places of employment for disabled persons which provide training and employment on a temporary or permanent basis.Job Satisfaction: Personal satisfaction relative to the work situation.Self Disclosure: A willingness to reveal information about oneself to others.Metallurgy: The science, art, or technology dealing with processes involved in the separation of metals from their ores, the technique of making or compounding the alloys, the techniques of working or heat-treating metals, and the mining of metals. It includes industrial metallurgy as well as metallurgical techniques employed in the preparation and working of metals used in dentistry, with special reference to orthodontic and prosthodontic appliances. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p494)Economic Recession: Significant decline in economic activity spread across the economy, lasting more than a few months, normally visible in real gross domestic product, real income, employment, industrial production, and wholesale-retail sales. (National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, www.nber.org/cycles.html, accessed 4/23/2009)Job Application: Process of applying for employment. It includes written application for employment or personal appearance.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Self Psychology: Psychoanalytic theory focusing on interpretation of behavior in reference to self. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Terms, 1994) This elaboration of the psychoanalytic concepts of narcissism and the self, was developed by Heinz Kohut, and stresses the importance of the self-awareness of excessive needs for approval and self-gratification.Sick Leave: An absence from work permitted because of illness or the number of days per year for which an employer agrees to pay employees who are sick. (Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)Civil Rights: Legal guarantee protecting the individual from attack on personal liberties, right to fair trial, right to vote, and freedom from discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin. (from http://www.usccr.gov/ accessed 1/31/2003)Career Mobility: The upward or downward mobility in an occupation or the change from one occupation to another.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Insurance, Disability: Insurance designed to compensate persons who lose wages because of illness or injury; insurance providing periodic payments that partially replace lost wages, salary, or other income when the insured is unable to work because of illness, injury, or disease. Individual and group disability insurance are two types of such coverage. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p207)Chemical Industry: The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Absenteeism: Chronic absence from work or other duty.Personnel Selection: The process of choosing employees for specific types of employment. The concept includes recruitment.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Marital Status: A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Work: Productive or purposeful activities.Parental Leave: The authorized absence from work of either parent prior to and after the birth of their child. It includes also absence because of the illness of a child or at the time of the adoption of a child. It does not include leave for care of siblings, parents, or other family members: for this FAMILY LEAVE is available.Child Care: Care of CHILDREN in the home or in an institution.Job Description: Statement of the position requirements, qualifications for the position, wage range, and any special conditions expected of the employee.Great BritainPersonnel Management: Planning, organizing, and administering all activities related to personnel.Prejudice: A preconceived judgment made without factual basis.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Occupational Medicine: Medical specialty concerned with the promotion and maintenance of the physical and mental health of employees in occupational settings.Public Assistance: Financial assistance to impoverished persons for the essentials of living through federal, state or local government programs.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Personnel Turnover: A change or shift in personnel due to reorganization, resignation, or discharge.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Self Mutilation: The act of injuring one's own body to the extent of cutting off or permanently destroying a limb or other essential part of a body.Ego: The conscious portion of the personality structure which serves to mediate between the demands of the primitive instinctual drives, (the id), of internalized parental and social prohibitions or the conscience, (the superego), and of reality.Healthy Worker Effect: Phenomenon of workers' usually exhibiting overall death rates lower than those of the general population due to the fact that the severely ill and disabled are ordinarily excluded from employment.Workers' Compensation: Insurance coverage providing compensation and medical benefits to individuals because of work-connected injuries or disease.Self Efficacy: Cognitive mechanism based on expectations or beliefs about one's ability to perform actions necessary to produce a given effect. It is also a theoretical component of behavior change in various therapeutic treatments. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Efficiency: Ratio of output to effort, or the ratio of effort produced to energy expended.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Return to Work: Resumption of normal work routine following a hiatus or period of absence due to injury, disability, or other reasons.Extraction and Processing Industry: The industry concerned with the removal of raw materials from the Earth's crust and with their conversion into refined products.Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Self Report: Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.Accidents, Occupational: Unforeseen occurrences, especially injuries in the course of work-related activities.Rubber: A high-molecular-weight polymeric elastomer derived from the milk juice (LATEX) of HEVEA brasiliensis and other trees and plants. It is a substance that can be stretched at room temperature to at least twice its original length and after releasing the stress, retract rapidly, and recover its original dimensions fully.Health Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Workload: The total amount of work to be performed by an individual, a department, or other group of workers in a period of time.EnglandTextile Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of manufacturing textiles. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Self Medication: The self administration of medication not prescribed by a physician or in a manner not directed by a physician.Marriage: The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Single Parent: A natural, adoptive, or substitute parent of a dependent child, who lives with only one parent. The single parent may live with or visit the child. The concept includes the never-married, as well as the divorced and widowed.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Steel: A tough, malleable, iron-based alloy containing up to, but no more than, two percent carbon and often other metals. It is used in medicine and dentistry in implants and instrumentation.Work Capacity Evaluation: Assessment of physiological capacities in relation to job requirements. It is usually done by measuring certain physiological (e.g., circulatory and respiratory) variables during a gradually increasing workload until specific limitations occur with respect to those variables.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Housekeeping: The care and management of property.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Vocational Guidance: Systematic efforts to assist individuals in selecting an occupation or suitable employment on the basis of aptitude, education, etc.Personnel, Hospital: The individuals employed by the hospital.Personnel Downsizing: Reducing staff to cut costs or to achieve greater efficiency.LondonSwedenSocial Security: Government sponsored social insurance programs.Pensions: Fixed sums paid regularly to individuals.FinlandEducation: Acquisition of knowledge as a result of instruction in a formal course of study.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Self-Assessment: Appraisal of one's own personal qualities or traits.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Government: The complex of political institutions, laws, and customs through which the function of governing is carried out in a specific political unit.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.MiningInterpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Power Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.Labor Unions: Organizations comprising wage and salary workers in health-related fields for the purpose of improving their status and conditions. The concept includes labor union activities toward providing health services to members.Recycling: The extraction and recovery of usable or valuable material from scrap or other discarded materials. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed.)Mentally Ill Persons: Persons with psychiatric illnesses or diseases, particularly psychotic and severe mood disorders.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Musculoskeletal Diseases: Diseases of the muscles and their associated ligaments and other connective tissue and of the bones and cartilage viewed collectively.Nursing Staff: Personnel who provide nursing service to patients in an organized facility, institution, or agency.Survivors: Persons who have experienced a prolonged survival after serious disease or who continue to live with a usually life-threatening condition as well as family members, significant others, or individuals surviving traumatic life events.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Self-Injurious Behavior: Behavior in which persons hurt or harm themselves without the motive of suicide or of sexual deviation.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Health Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.Work Schedule Tolerance: Physiological or psychological effects of periods of work which may be fixed or flexible such as flexitime, work shifts, and rotating shifts.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Foreign Professional Personnel: Persons who have acquired academic or specialized training in countries other than that in which they are working. The concept excludes physicians for which FOREIGN MEDICAL GRADUATES is the likely heading.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Family Leave: The authorized absence from work of a family member to attend the illness or participate in the care of a parent, a sibling, or other family member. For the care of a parent for a child or for pre- or postnatal leave of a parent, PARENTAL LEAVE is available.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Construction Materials: Supplies used in building.Career Choice: Selection of a type of occupation or profession.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Respiratory Tract NeoplasmsOccupational Health Services: Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Architecture as Topic: The art and science of designing buildings and structures. More generally, it is the design of the total built environment, including town planning, urban design, and landscape architecture.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Nuclear Reactors: Devices containing fissionable material in sufficient quantity and so arranged as to be capable of maintaining a controlled, self-sustaining NUCLEAR FISSION chain reaction. They are also known as atomic piles, atomic reactors, fission reactors, and nuclear piles, although such names are deprecated. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain located in the posterior regions of the THORAX; LUMBOSACRAL REGION; or the adjacent regions.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Organizational Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by an organization, institution, university, society, etc., from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions and positions on matters of public interest or social concern. It does not include internal policy relating to organization and administration within the corporate body, for which ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION is available.Asbestos: Asbestos. Fibrous incombustible mineral composed of magnesium and calcium silicates with or without other elements. It is relatively inert chemically and used in thermal insulation and fireproofing. Inhalation of dust causes asbestosis and later lung and gastrointestinal neoplasms.Social Determinants of Health: The circumstances in which people are born, grow up, live, work, and age, as well as the systems put in place to deal with illness. These circumstances are in turn shaped by a wider set of forces: economics, social policies, and politics (http://www.cdc.gov/socialdeterminants/).Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.DenmarkAustralia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Aid to Families with Dependent Children: Financial assistance provided by the government to indigent families with dependent children who meet certain requirements as defined by the Social Security Act, Title IV, in the U.S.Personnel Staffing and Scheduling: The selection, appointing, and scheduling of personnel.Social Adjustment: Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)Community Mental Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.Insurance, Life: Insurance providing for payment of a stipulated sum to a designated beneficiary upon death of the insured.Housing: Living facilities for humans.Personal Satisfaction: The individual's experience of a sense of fulfillment of a need or want and the quality or state of being satisfied.CaliforniaPublic Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.ScotlandSexism: Prejudice or discrimination based on gender or behavior or attitudes that foster stereotyped social roles based on gender.Substance Abuse Treatment Centers: Health facilities providing therapy and/or rehabilitation for substance-dependent individuals. Methadone distribution centers are included.Insurance Coverage: Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.Single Person: The unmarried man or woman.Economic Development: Mobilization of human, financial, capital, physical and or natural resources to generate goods and services.Nurses: Professionals qualified by graduation from an accredited school of nursing and by passage of a national licensing examination to practice nursing. They provide services to patients requiring assistance in recovering or maintaining their physical or mental health.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Crime: A violation of the criminal law, i.e., a breach of the conduct code specifically sanctioned by the state, which through its administrative agencies prosecutes offenders and imposes and administers punishments. The concept includes unacceptable actions whether prosecuted or going unpunished.Fatigue: The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.WeldingSeverity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Single-Parent Family: A household that includes children and is headed by one adult.Respiration Disorders: Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Ontario: A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Capital Expenditures: Those funds disbursed for facilities and equipment, particularly those related to the delivery of health care.NorwayCase-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Psychology, Social: The branch of psychology concerned with the effects of group membership upon the behavior, attitudes, and beliefs of an individual.
Agency relationships are common in many professional areas. employment. financial advice (insurance agency, stock brokerage, ... In tort, a claimant may not recover from the principal unless the agent is acting within the scope of employment. Express ... Agency law is primarily governed by the Common law and to a lesser extent by statutory instruments. In 1986, the European ... Thus, agent and principals in a commercial agency relationship are subject both to the Common law and the Commercial Agents ...
... was a special duty placed upon the employee such as a common carrier or innkeeper? Common sense. Scope of employment. ... as the agent's/employee's actions will not be considered so far beyond the scope of employment as to absolve the employer/ ... was the place where the incident occurred within the scope of the employee's employment? Authorization: was the employee a ...
... the typical verb has more than twelve common meanings, or senses. The typical noun from this set has more than eight common ... For example, the word fire can mean: a combustion activity; to terminate employment; to launch, or to excite (as in fire up). ... For the 2000 most-polysemous terms in English, the typical verb has more than eight common senses and the typical noun has more ... In English, most frequently used terms have several common meanings. ...
4): 193-226 - via University of Maryland Digital Commons. Anthony, William J.; Lewis, Jackson (n.d.). "Employment law update" ( ...
In 1990, the House of Commons Select Committee on Employment took evidence from the Economic League about its blacklist. At ... to the "Blacklisting in employment" inquiry of the House of Commons Scottish Affairs Select Committee The Economic League - The ... Institute of Employment Rights. IER. Retrieved 25 August 2016. Blacklisting in Employment: Interim Report, Ninth Report of ... Employment Committee Second Report "Recruitment Practices", Session 1990-91, ISBN 0 10 273691 X, cited in Spies at Work, ...
71, Stabilizing Industrial Employment. Reducing the Labor Turnover (May, 1917), p. 226 Attribution This article incorporates ... Media related to Frank E. Webner at Wikimedia Commons. ...
UTC comprises ten clusters of facilities and services, namely: common governmental services; health services; security services ... education, training and employment services; financial services; business and entrepreneurial development services; utility ...
"Set 1: Employment, A*CENSUS Data Tabulated by State". Society of American Archivists. Archived from the original on 13 July ... Subject-area specialization becomes more common in higher ranking positions. Archives located in for-profit institutions are ... Qualifications for employment may vary. Entry-level positions usually require an undergraduate diploma, but typically ...
"Employment: Sex Establishments (written question)". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). United Kingdom: House of Commons. col. ... Esther McVey, the Minister of State for Employment, stated that "The Welfare Reform Act 2012 ensured that vacancies which ... The controversy continued in January 2009 with MacTaggart told the House of Commons that she regarded all women prostitutes as ... treatment of different types of employment (pdf), HM Government, pp. 4-5 "Fiona Mactaggart MP". UK Parliament. Retrieved 15 ...
Australian Institute of Employment Rights. (AIER webpage). ISBN 9781862875906. Retrieved 12 February 2013. Professor Joellen ... Riley, Joellen (2005). Employee Protection at Common Law. Canberra: Federation Press. Joellen Riley (14 April 2011). Outlawing ... in employment, equity, and commercial law. Riley also attended the Macquarie Graduate School of Management, where she earned a ...
Canada, Employment and Social Development. "Red Seal : Appendix F - Task Profile Chart". www.red-seal.ca. Retrieved 2016-10-27 ... Media related to Glaziers at Wikimedia Commons. ... Canada, Employment and Social Development. "Red Seal : Glazier ... Glaziers (profile in the Occupational Employment Statistics of the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the United States Department ...
The company claims following things on their website: personal finance company for common man; ensures timely maturity payment ... employment opportunity through Smart Rojgar; service at customers' doorstep; security; confidence and trust of millions of ...
Thomas Estep" (PDF). National Center for Education Statistics (2013). "Common Core of Data - Northern Cambria High School". PDE ... Northern Cambria School Board (2007). "Employment contract Dr. ... National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core Data - ... 4". Pennsylvania Department of Education, State Board of Education Finalizes Adoption of Pennsylvania Common Core State ...
"Tent Hill Lower State School". Department of Education, Training and Employment. Retrieved 15 October 2014. Media related to ... Tenthill, Queensland at Wikimedia Commons. ...
All family members had to exchange their common shares for shares with limited rights that could not be sold. Since Kohler is ... U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. November 21, 2009. Retrieved December 10, 2016. China Labor Watch (June 1, 2005 ... Cornell Digital Commons. Retrieved January 17, 2018. "2015 BUILDER BRAND USE STUDY RESULTS". Builder. Retrieved 19 June 2015. " ...
Common Cents' Cost-Saving". Pennsylvania Department of Education, Common Cents program - Making Every Dollar Count, 2007 PA ... The school board enters into individual employment contracts for these positions. In Pennsylvania, public school districts are ... Northern Cambria School Board elected to not participate in the Pennsylvania Department of Education Common Cents program. The ... Thomas Estep" (PDF). National Center for Education Statistics (2015). "Common Core of Data -Northern Cambria School District". ...
at c307 of "Employment in Workhouses". Hansard House of Commons Debates. 77: cc304-13. 11 February 1845. Retrieved 19 September ... p. 3. letter of July 3 1844 from Mr Westlake to Poor Law Commission - read into evidence of Mr Nicholls to Commons Select ... p. 2. Evidence of Mr Munday to Commons select committee as reported in "Andover Union: Parliamentary Committee: Second Day". ... p. 6. at c1051 of "Poor-Law". Hansard House of Commons Debates. 76: cc1049-60. 18 July 1844. Retrieved 19 September 2017. ...
"Creating a Common Good Balance Sheet". Economy for the Common Good. Archived from the original on April 26, 2013. Retrieved ... E.g., some jurisdictions forbid women from driving, while others require women to be treated equally in employment decisions. A ... Global Reporting Initiative's Sustainability Reporting Guidelines Economy for the Common Good's Common Good Balance Sheet ... A more common approach to CSR is corporate philanthropy. This includes monetary donations and aid given to nonprofit ...
"Amaroo Environmental Education Centre: History". Department of Education, Training and Employment. Retrieved 4 November 2014. ... Media related to Kleinton, Queensland at Wikimedia Commons. ...
The data also shows that very few women worked; 260 women had no known employment. In 1881 the most common industry for women ... In Norbury today farming is not as common. The 2011 census data shows that there has been an increase in education as the ... In Norbury at this time agricultural labourer was the most common occupation. This helps to explain why there is a lot of ...
This includes common tasks such as climbing and jumping, common knowledge, and basic social skills. Family skills, determined ... Occupational skills, derived from the character's employment. These skills can be entirely distinct from family skills (if the ... In addition to the common qualities of Strength, Stamina, and Intelligence, etc., Hârnmaster attributes independently measure a ... and common spells for which a version exists in each convocation. Eventually a mage can become a grey mage, losing both the ...
... later Education and Employment, 1994-1997; Shadow Leader of the House of Commons, 1997; Opposition front bench spokesman on the ... 1994-1995 and Shadow Leader of the House of Commons, 1994-1997; President of the Council and Leader of the House of Commons, ... Department for Education and Employment, 1997-1998; Minister of State, Department of Education and Employment, 1998-2001; ... Parliamentary Private Secretary to the Secretary of State for Education and Employment, 1997-2001; Chair of the Parliamentary ...
Noise also presents a fairly common workplace hazard: occupational hearing loss is the most common work-related injury in the ... Employment of children may pose special problems. An engineering workshop specialising in the fabrication and welding of ... Falls are a common cause of occupational injuries and fatalities, especially in construction, extraction, transportation, ... Physical hazards are a common source of injuries in many industries. They are perhaps unavoidable in certain industries, such ...
He edited the first and second editions of The Common Law of the Workplace: The Views of Arbitrators. He serves on the internal ... Antoine was the official draftsperson for the Model Employment Termination Act (META). He also authored a defense of that act, ... Antoine, Theodore J., editor (2005). The Common Law of the Workplace: The Views of Arbitrators (2nd ed.). Washington, D.C.: ... Antoine, Theodore J. (November 1994). "Model Employment Termination Act: A Fair Compromise". Annals of the American Academy of ...
Raboteau describes a common style of black preaching first developed in the early nineteenth century, and common throughout the ... Until the late twentieth century, few of them were paid; most were farmers or had other employment. They became spokesman for ... Few were well-educated until the mid-twentieth century, when Bible Colleges became common. ...
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, ... employment sectors[32] Construction. 20% Manufacturing. 14% Retail trade. 14% Education/health/. social services. 12% ...
Employment rates and most common occupations by highest level of qualification.png 1000 × 1046; 77 Кб. ... employment (sco); ansettelse (nb); Pakasaban (su); employment (en); وظيفة (ar); 僱傭 (yue); munkavállalás (hu); નોકરી (gu); ... Rises in both employment and unemployment as the UK labour force increases, Nov 2012 - Jan 2013.png 635 × 750; 80 Кб. ... empleo (es); Atvinna (is); employment (en-gb); Angajare (ro); 僱傭 (zh-hk); Pracovný pomer (sk); Роботодавець (uk); 僱傭 (zh-hant ...
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Black Friday and Cyber Monday have come and gone and the holiday season is in full swing which, in the employment law context, ... For example, if no end date is specified, a contract of employment is of indefinite duration and can only be terminated with ... While employers sometimes use seasonal employment to "test out" candidates, they must properly compensate them for their work. ... Unfortunately, the "simple" seasonal employment can often raise complex legal issues. Usually, these relate to things like ...
Towards a Common Understanding? Employment and Decent Work in Fragile .... Towards a Common Understanding? Employment and ... Employment promotion * Work, peace and resilience * Resource page on Recommendation no. 205 * Awareness raising and advocacy ... Employment and decent work tools are therefore part and parcel of the necessary solutions and require approaches that include ... on-going consultation phase of the ILO-CCDP joint initiative and to contribute to finding a common understanding of employment ...
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Student Employment. Wilson Commons Student Activities (WCSA) provides opportunities for undergraduate student employment. WCSA ... Wilson Commons Student Activities 201 Wilson Commons University of Rochester PO Box 270281 Rochester, NY 14627 ... Tutorials for using JobLink can be found on the University Student Employment site: visit University Student Employment. ... Student Employment Awards. Fall 2019 WCSA Student Employee Training. Our mandatory training for all WCSA student employees will ...
Common employment was an historical defence in English tort law that said workers implicitly undertook the risks of being ... "common employment". The US labor law terminology was the "fellow servant rule". The operation of the doctrine was seen first in ...
Reward Strategy: Ten Common Mistakes. Bevan S , HR Network Paper MP2 , Institute for Employment Studies , Aug 2000 ... Email: [email protected]employment-studies.co.uk * Registered in England no. 931547.. IES is a charitable company limited by guarantee. ... This paper identifies ten of the most common mistakes made by employers as they seek to formulate and implement reward strategy ... institute for employment studies. * City Gate, 185 Dyke Road, Brighton, BN3 1TL ...
Working with arthritis: more common than you think. Blog posts. 21 Aug 2017. Stephen Bevan, Head of HR Research Development. ... It most frequently affects the hips and the knees but is common in the hands too. It can result from wear and tear, genetic ... Email: [email protected]employment-studies.co.uk * Registered in England no. 931547.. IES is a charitable company limited by guarantee. ... Having run a major multi-country study between 2007 and 2016 looking at the impact of arthritis on employment, and given my ...
... There are a lot of companies that drug test their employees and potential new job ... The Most Common Drug Tests. Urinalysis Drug Testing. Urinalysis screening is the most common drug test that companies utilize ... Drug Testing Employment Facts. Drug testing for pre-employment is the analysis of blood, urine and other types of biological ... US Employment Drug Testing. US Employment drug testing is often conducted when applying for state and federal jobs such as ...
7 thoughts on "Commons motion to annul the Employment and Support Allowance regulations , 21 January 2013" * Stephen January ... Commons motion to annul the Employment and Support Allowance regulations , 21 January 2013. Caroline Lucas (Green Party MP for ... These Regulations are about to significantly alter the way in which some claimants of Employment Support Allowance (ESA) will ... Regulations 2012 and the House of Commons Early Day Motion (EDM) 947 calling for the regulations to be annulled. ...
Association between employment status and risk of a high level of common symptoms in middle aged women, presented as adjusted ... as the health consequences of part-time employment seems more similar to full time employment than to non-employment.16 ... Common symptoms in middle aged women: their relation to employment status, psychosocial work conditions and social support in a ... Common symptoms in middle aged women: their relation to employment status, psychosocial work conditions and social support in a ...
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Education and Employment , Education and Employment. Select Committee on Education and Employment Appendices to the Minutes of ... Not only does this work reduce time for study but often the employment hours will clash with scheduled classes and therefore ... 2.1.3.2 This does not however always support them sufficiently to avoid the need to seek additional employment elsewhere and ... If employers provide the part-time work (both vacation and term-time employment), then universities can provide the semi- ...
Socioeconomic status, employment, migration and common mental disorders in Olinda, northeast Brazil ... Ludemir, Ana Bernarda; (1998) Socioeconomic status, employment, migration and common mental disorders in Olinda, northeast ... After adjustment for all measures of SES, gender, age and marital status, CMD was more common in those with less education (X: ... However, employment status and income showed an association with CMD independent to that of education. ...
Common terms and phrases. .cloud9 {color: #7777cc;font-size: 10px;}.cloud8 {color: #6963CC;font-size: 10.5px;}.cloud7 {color: # ... annual Annual Average Annual average employment Annual Average weekly Annual Total annual average employment Total Average ... gb-gplus-shareEmployment and Wages, Annual Averages. ... District of Columbia employee Average weekly employment Total ... books.google.comhttps://books.google.com/books/about/Employment_and_Wages_Annual_Averages.html?id=-uC6AAAAIAAJ&utm_source= ...
Common terms and phrases. .cloud9 {color: #7777cc;font-size: 10px;}.cloud8 {color: #6963CC;font-size: 10.5px;}.cloud7 {color: # ... United States Employment Service. Department of Labor, U.S. Employment Service, Occupational Analysis Branch, 1947 - Job ...
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  • Country-Specific Preferences and Employment Rates in Europe ," Working Papers 2019-EQM-04, IESEG School of Management. (repec.org)
  • The current study therefore aimed to examine the relationships in urban Tanzania between the rates of common mental disorder (CMD), such as depression and anxiety, and socio-economic factors, demographic characteristics and social functioning. (mdpi.com)
  • The aim of this study is to investigate the association between employment status and common mental disorder (CMD) in 50-64-year old residents in England and its stability over time, taking advantage of three national mental health surveys carried out over a 14-year period. (supsi.ch)
  • It is around this time each year when retailers, restaurants, hotels and recreational companies hire part-time workers for a brief bump in consumer activity, while opportunistic individuals search for seasonal employment in order to supplement their income or as a foot-in-the-door to a possible full-time job. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • All businesses engaged in child performer recruitment are required to have a licence from the Employment Standards Branch before they can audition, scout or recruit a child. (manitoba.ca)
  • By April 1, 2009, all businesses engaged in promoting child performers are required to have a licence from the Employment Standards Branch. (manitoba.ca)
  • Having run a major multi-country study between 2007 and 2016 looking at the impact of arthritis on employment, and given my association with the Centre for Musculoskeletal Health and Work at Southampton University, I do not need to be convinced of its significance, especially as the workforce ages. (employment-studies.co.uk)
  • These might include your company's Employee Assistance Program (EAP), financial counseling, your human resource office, and other resources that may be available at your place of employment. (va.gov)
  • For any business operating as a partnership, especially large professional firms, the Court's decision that even a liberal interpretation of the definition of "employment" in the British Columbia Human Rights Code 2 could not make Mr. McCormick an "employee" on the facts of his case will be of primary interest. (lexology.com)
  • In Mr. McCormick's case, the Supreme Court found that his rights under the partnership agreement, and his partners' duties towards him and under the agreement and under the law of partnership, meant that he was engaged "in a common enterprise with his partners for profit and was therefore working for his own benefit", and not for the benefit of a separate entity as in the case of an employee. (lexology.com)
  • The Employment Policy division regularly interacts with Congressional staff, numerous Federal agencies and many national coalitions (some of which are chaired by the Chamber) to help define and shape national labor, immigration and employee benefit policy. (uschamber.com)
  • Whether you are dealing with discrimination, harassment or a wage dispute, speak with an experienced employment attorney to ensure you understand the rights as an employee. (lawinfo.com)
  • Before we consider the ways in which we can deal with a potential increase in employee claims, we have to first take a look at a brief definition of the Employment litigation section as described in the United States constitution. (thewashingtonnote.com)
  • Fully updated to align with the latest versions of these challenging exams, this guide provides detailed coverage of key topics, including strategic management, workforce planning and employment, compensation and benefits, employee and labor relations, and OSHA regulations. (wiley.com)
  • It can be easier to tailor self-employment directly to your own interests, skills, and values than it is to match those qualities as an employee. (careeronestop.org)
  • To help advance comprehensive reform that includes border security, the Chamber's Employment Policy division provides leadership to a broad coalition including businesses, labor, law enforcement, the faith-based community, and various immigrant-advocacy organizations. (uschamber.com)
  • In research published in 2011, my colleagues and I found that Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common cause of disability in the UK, incurring considerable societal costs . (employment-studies.co.uk)
  • The Court of Appeals reversed the trial court order, opining that Starkey had alleged the same medical condition, degenerative osteoarthritis, both administratively and in common pleas court. (lexology.com)
  • The Court further opined that by arguing aggravation of degenerative osteoarthritis in common pleas court, he merely changed the type of causation. (lexology.com)
  • For this reason, the University designates significant funding each year for student employment. (up.edu)
  • The Employment Equity Act designates four groups as the beneficiaries of employment equity: Women People with disabilities Aboriginal people, a category consisting of Status Indians, Non-status Indians, Métis (people of mixed French-Aboriginal ancestry in western Canada), and Inuit (the Aboriginal people of the Arctic). (wikipedia.org)
  • 1000-1300 word blog posts the describe and explain the answers to common questions about kettlebell training. (freelancer.com)
  • In this collection of bite-sized videos, get expert tips that can help you confidently tackle these and other common questions-and, ultimately, ace your next job interview. (lynda.com)
  • Individuals are entitled to fair treatment during the course of their employment. (lawinfo.com)
  • The coverage of these topics will give you a general awareness of a range of common health conditions and their effects on individuals. (stokecoll.ac.uk)
  • However, since this not always available -- and because the liability potential can be so serious for individuals employed by schools and other educational units -- NEA provides all eligible association members with professional liability insurance through the NEA Educators Employment Liability (EEL) Program. (nea.org)
  • What are Common Competitive Business Strategies? (wiley.com)
  • Which Business Communication Textbooks Have the Most Comprehensive Coverage of Employment Topics? (scoop.it)
  • Each outstanding share of Wabash National Corporation Common Stock (NYSE:WNC) entitles the holder of record at the close of business on April 3, 2006, to receive notice of and to vote at the Annual Meeting or any adjournment or postponement of the Annual Meeting. (sec.gov)
  • Since Express Employment Professionals is in the business of helping good people find good jobs, we'll provide advancement opportunities by teaching the right person about the interviewing and placement process with our paid training program. (careerbuilder.com)
  • The Internal Revenue Service reminds business owners how critical it is to understand the various types of employment-related taxes they may be required to deposit and report. (irs.gov)
  • For example, paid employment has been considered an important part of women's living conditions in Western societies as the number of women entering the labour market has grown constantly over the past decades. (bmj.com)
  • You may recall that when the Association appeared before the Employment Sub-committee on 13 December to give oral evidence in connection with the above inquiry, my colleague Ruth Silver (Principal of Lewisham College) described an approach which the college had developed as part of the New Deal FTET programme which sought to link the training provided to identified jobs in local companies. (parliament.uk)
  • As the pain of the economic crisis continues and millions struggle to find employment there is an obvious imperative to create jobs- any jobs. (commondreams.org)
  • total nonfarm employment (private plus government jobs) has grown by 2.1 million jobs over the same period, or 110,000 a month. (commondreams.org)
  • For more information on student employment and to explore available jobs, please visit the student employment website. (up.edu)
  • As full employment looms, can the UK create any more jobs? (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Full employment is defined as a state where there are slightly more vacant jobs than there are available workers, so people who lose jobs can find new ones immediately. (wikipedia.org)
  • Builders moved for a dismissal, arguing that a claimant may seek to participate in the workers' compensation fund in the common pleas court only for those conditions addressed in the administrative order and that, because Starkey asserted a new condition on appeal, he could not participate in the fund for that condition. (lexology.com)
  • Even if you were in your own car, you may receive workers' comp for injuries that you suffered while on the clock or in the scope of employment. (findlaw.com)
  • The cooperation of workers would be secured by the common interest in the ideal of full employment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Self-employment is an option for workers in many career fields and industries. (careeronestop.org)
  • The Voluntary Classification Settlement Program, commonly called VCSP, is a program that allows taxpayers to voluntarily reclassify their workers as employees for future tax periods for federal employment tax purposes and to obtain partial relief from the federal employment taxes due during the misclassified periods of employment. (irs.gov)
  • Thus the scope of the Employment Equity Act is quite limited, and the vast majority of employers, including nearly all retailers and manufacturing companies, fall outside its jurisdiction. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is not part of the Employment Equity Act, but rather is a non-legislated program that extends employment equity to organizations beyond the scope of the Act. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lead Counsel independently verifies Employment Law attorneys in Addison by conferring with New York bar associations and conducting annual reviews to confirm that an attorney practices in their advertised practice areas and possesses a valid bar license for the appropriate jurisdictions. (lawinfo.com)
  • If the culprit behind economic destabilization, and its catastrophic effects in terms of employment, is capital mobility, the solution will require increasing the proportion of capital held by actors with a long-term commitment to a given locality or region. (commondreams.org)
  • In the spirit of offering some practical real world advice , let's talk about employment rationality . (lesswrong.com)
  • Post Rd E / Harvest Cmns median real estate price is $1,252,300, which is more expensive than 97.6% of the neighborhoods in Connecticut and 98.1% of the neighborhoods in the U.S. (neighborhoodscout.com)
  • Post Rd E / Harvest Cmns real estate is primarily made up of large (four, five or more bedroom) to medium sized (three or four bedroom) single-family homes and townhomes. (neighborhoodscout.com)
  • Industries like dock and harbour service, which by practising casual engagement have been the main generators of chronic under-employment in the past, have been transformed in the war. (wikipedia.org)