The primary sore of syphilis, a painless indurated, eroded papule, occurring at the site of entry of the infection.
A contagious venereal disease caused by the spirochete TREPONEMA PALLIDUM.
Semisynthetic antibiotic prepared by combining the sodium salt of penicillin G with N,N'-dibenzylethylenediamine.
The causative agent of venereal and non-venereal syphilis as well as yaws.
Materials or substances used in the composition of traditional medical remedies. The use of this term in MeSH was formerly restricted to historical articles or those concerned with traditional medicine, but it can also refer to homeopathic remedies. Nosodes are specific types of homeopathic remedies prepared from causal agents or disease products.
Pain in the ear.
A narrow passageway that connects the upper part of the throat to the TYMPANIC CAVITY.
A plant genus of the family CHENOPODIACEAE. The extract may be called lochein. Tumbleweed may occasionally refer to AMARANTHUS.
A localized infection of mucous membranes or skin caused by toxigenic strains of CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE. It is characterized by the presence of a pseudomembrane at the site of infection. DIPHTHERIA TOXIN, produced by C. diphtheriae, can cause myocarditis, polyneuritis, and other systemic toxic effects.
A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the Chinese culture.
The space and structures directly internal to the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE and external to the inner ear (LABYRINTH). Its major components include the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE that connects the cavity of middle ear (tympanic cavity) to the upper part of the throat.
Syphilis acquired in utero and manifested by any of several characteristic tooth (Hutchinson's teeth) or bone malformations and by active mucocutaneous syphilis at birth or shortly thereafter. Ocular and neurologic changes may also occur.
Serologic tests for syphilis.
Cutaneous lesions arising from infection with Treponema pallidum. In the primary stage, 18-21 days following infection, one or more chancres appear. If untreated, the subsequent stages of the disease appear as syphilids. These eruptions are superficial, nondestructive, exanthematic, transient, macular roseolas that may later be maculopapular or papular polymorphous or scaly, pustular, pigmented eruptions.(Arnold, Odom, and James, Andrew's Diseases of the Skin, 8th ed, p409)
Latent syphilis is a stage of the sexually transmitted infection Syphilis, characterized by the absence of symptoms, but with positive serological tests, which can be further divided into early and late latency, depending on the duration and the potential for progression to tertiary syphilis.
Sexual behavior that prevents or reduces the spread of SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or PREGNANCY.
Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.
Fixed drug combinations administered orally for contraceptive purposes.
The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Chemical substances that prevent or reduce the probability of CONCEPTION.
Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.
Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in females. Use for female contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.

Superimposed primary chancre in a patient with Adamantiades-Behcet's disease. (1/23)

Adamantiades-Behcet's disease was diagnosed in a 42 year old Turkish patient with recurrent oral aphthae, genital ulcerations, papules, and sterile pustules, histologically presenting as cutaneous vasculitis, and intermittent arthritis with joint effusion particularly of the knees. Six months after initial improvement under treatment with colchicine 2 mg/day, a solitary genital ulcer with enlarged inguinal lymph nodes appeared and persisted for 7 weeks despite the continuation of colchicine treatment and the introduction of clindamycin 2 mg/day intravenously. The unusual persistence of the ulcer and the failure of clindamycin therapy led to further differential diagnostic considerations and the identification of primary syphilis. The genital lesion healed 4 weeks after initiation of treatment with tetracycline 2 mg/day by mouth for 15 days.  (+info)

Syphilitic balanitis of Follmann developing after the appearance of the primary chancre. A case report. (2/23)

A case of primary syphilitic chancre of the coronal sulcus with subsequent development of syphilitic balanitis of Follmann is described. The histopathological picture and preponderantly intraepidermal localization of T. pallidum in the lesions is discussed.  (+info)

Inability of spleen cells from chancre-immune rabbits to confer immunity to challenge with Treponema pallidum. (3/23)

Although several lines of evidence suggest that cellular immune mechanisms play a role in controlling infection due to Treponema pallidum, recent studies have shown that induction of acquired cellular resistance by antigenically unrelated organisms fails to protect rabbits against syphilitic infection, thereby casting doubt on this hypothesis. In the present paper we describe attempts to transfer immunity to syphilis by using spleen cells from chancre-immune rabbits. Intravenous infusion of 2 X 10(8) spleen lymphocytes was capable of transferring acquired cellular resistance to Listeria and delayed hypersensitivity to tuberculin. However, in eight separate experiments using outbred or inbred rabbits, 2 X 10(8) spleen cells from syphilis-immune animals failed to confer resistance to T. pallidum whether by intravenous or intradermal challenge. Mixing immune lymphocytes with treponemes immediately before intradermal inoculation also failed to confer resistance. Despite the fact that syphilitic infection stimulates cellular immune mechanisms and induces acquired cellular resistance to antigenically unrelated organisms, cellular immunity may not play an important role in immunity to syphilis.  (+info)

Sequence diversity of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum tprK in human syphilis lesions and rabbit-propagated isolates. (4/23)

The tprK gene of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, the causative agent of venereal syphilis, belongs to a 12-member gene family and encodes a protein with a predicted cleavable signal sequence and predicted transmembrane domains. Except for the Nichols type strain, all rabbit-propagated isolates of T. pallidum examined thus far are comprised of mixed populations of organisms with heterogeneous tprK sequences. We show that tprK sequences in treponemes obtained directly from syphilis patients are also heterogeneous. Clustering analysis demonstrates that primary chancre tprK sequences are more likely to cluster within a sample than among samples and that tighter clustering is seen within chancre samples than within rabbit-propagated isolates. Closer analysis of tprK sequences from a rabbit-propagated isolate reveals that individual variable regions have different levels of diversity, suggesting that variable regions may have different intrinsic rates of sequence change or may be under different levels of selection. Most variable regions show increased sequence diversity upon passage. We speculate that the diversification of tprK during infection allows organisms to evade the host immune response, contributing to reinfection and persistent infection.  (+info)

Evaluation of syphilis in patients with HIV infection in Nigeria. (5/23)

OBJECTIVE: To document the manifestations of syphilis among patients with concurrent HIV infection over a 12-month period. METHOD: Descriptive, cross-sectional, hospital-based study of all adult patients with syphilis and HIV infection who attended the skin clinic of the University of Nigeria, Teaching Hospital, Enugu, between July 2000 and June 2001. A standardized questionnaire was used to record age, sex, marital status, occupation and risk factor for HIV infection; initial site of onset of rash/ulcers, duration of the illness, any concomitant affection of mucosa, hair and nails as well as treatments received by each patient prior to presentation. Morphological distribution of lesions, mucosal surface (conjuctival, vulval and rectal) examinations and documentation of concomitant disorders with HIV were noted by the examining dermatologist. Lesional biopsy and dark-field microscopy were undertaken to confirm diagnosis where serologic (non-treponemal and treponemal specific) tests for syphilis were inconsistent with clinical suspicion. Each patient had a routine chest x-ray, mantoux and purified protein derivative (PPD) status taken. RESULTS: Thirty-one patients (21 males) with concurrent syphilis and HIV were seen during the study period. Primary syphilis was diagnosed in nine (29%), secondary syphilis in 20 (64.5%) and latent syphilis in two (6.5%). Neurosyphilis was not observed. Prevalence of syphilis for these patients with concurrent HIV was 2.1%. Mean duration of syphilis was 3.9 months +/- 1.4 and lesions of greatest concern occurred mainly on the genitalia. The glans penis was affected in 10 (32.3%) cases, the penile shaft in seven (22.6%), the oral cavity in five (16.1%), the rectum in six (19.4%) and the vulva in three (0.9%) cases. Nine (29.1%) patients had a history of primary syphilitic chancre, 19 (61.3%) had a past history of sexually transmitted disease (STD)--particularly genital ulcers--while three (9.7%) could not recall any past history of STD. Eighteen (59.3%) had a history of unprotected sex, 16 (51.7%) had multiple sexual partners, four (13.3%) had had oral sex, and one anal sex (3.3%); none admitted to being bisexual. Other relevant risk factors for HIV transmission were blood transfusion within 5 years for three (9.7%) and intravenous drug use in two (6.5%). Some patients had more than one condition as a potential source of exposure. Serological tests were weakly reactive in 17 (48.4%), strongly reactive in nine (29%) and non-reactive in five (16.1%) patients. Three patients exhibited prozone phenomenon. Treatment comprised the syndromic approach, which currently is advocated for use in primary healthcare centres without facilities for aetiological diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections. CONCLUSION: Our cases with concurrent syphilis and HIV/AIDS had unusual manifestations, responded to treatment more slowly and died sooner than cases described in Western literature due to generally lower levels of health.  (+info)

Assessment of cell-surface exposure and vaccinogenic potentials of Treponema pallidum candidate outer membrane proteins. (6/23)

Syphilis, a sexually transmitted infection caused by the spirochetal bacterium Treponema pallidum, remains a global public health problem. T. pallidum is believed to be an extracellular pathogen and, as such, the identification of T. pallidum outer membrane proteins that could serve as targets for opsonic or bactericidal antibodies has remained a high research priority for vaccine development. However, the identification of T. pallidum outer membrane proteins has remained highly elusive. Recent studies and bioinformatics have implicated four treponemal proteins as potential outer membrane proteins (TP0155, TP0326, TP0483 and TP0956). Indirect immunofluorescence assays performed on treponemes encapsulated within agarose gel microdroplets failed to provide evidence that any of these four molecules were surface-exposed in T. pallidum. Second, recombinant fusion proteins corresponding to all four candidate outer membrane proteins were used separately, or in combination, to vaccinate New Zealand White rabbits. Despite achieving high titers (>1:50,000) of serum antibodies, none of the rabbits displayed chancre immunity after intradermal challenge with viable T. pallidum.  (+info)

MRI of neurosyphilis presenting as mesiotemporal abnormalities: a case report. (7/23)

 (+info)

Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense infection in a German traveller returning from the Masai Mara area, Kenya, January 2012. (8/23)

In January 2012, a case of Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) has been identified in Germany in a traveller returning from the Masai Mara area in Kenya. The 62-year-old man had travelled to the Masai Mara game park from 18 to 19 January 2012 and developed fever on 28 January. The infection with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense was confirmed by laboratory testing three days hereafter.  (+info)

A chancre is a medical term that refers to a hard, painless skin ulcer that is typically the first stage of certain bacterial infections, most commonly syphilis. It is usually round or oval in shape and can appear as a sore or lesion on the skin or mucous membranes, such as the genitals, anus, or mouth. The chancre is caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum and is typically accompanied by swollen lymph nodes in the nearby area.

The chancre usually develops about 3 weeks after exposure to the bacteria and can last for several weeks. While it may heal on its own, it's important to seek medical attention if you suspect you have a chancre, as syphilis is a serious infection that can cause long-term health problems if left untreated. Treatment with antibiotics, such as penicillin, can cure syphilis and prevent further complications.

Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. It progresses in several stages if left untreated, with symptoms varying in each stage. The primary stage involves the appearance of a single, painless sore or multiple sores at the site where the bacteria entered the body, often on the genitals or around the mouth. During the secondary stage, individuals may experience rashes, fever, swollen lymph nodes, and other flu-like symptoms. In later stages, syphilis can lead to severe complications affecting the heart, brain, and other organs, known as tertiary syphilis. Neurosyphilis is a form of tertiary syphilis that affects the nervous system, causing various neurological problems. Congenital syphilis occurs when a pregnant woman with syphilis transmits the infection to her unborn child, which can result in serious birth defects and health issues for the infant. Early detection and appropriate antibiotic treatment can cure syphilis and prevent further complications.

Penicillin G Benzathine is a type of antibiotic that is used to treat various bacterial infections. According to the International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, Penicillin G Benzathine is a "water-soluble salt of penicillin G, which has a very high degree of stability and provides prolonged low-level serum concentrations after intramuscular injection."

It is often used to treat infections caused by streptococci and treponema pallidum, the bacterium that causes syphilis. Penicillin G Benzathine works by interfering with the ability of these bacteria to form a cell wall, which is essential for their survival. Without a functional cell wall, the bacteria are unable to grow and multiply, and are eventually destroyed by the body's immune system.

Penicillin G Benzathine is typically administered via intramuscular injection, and its prolonged release allows for less frequent dosing compared to other forms of penicillin. However, it may not be suitable for all patients, particularly those with a history of allergic reactions to penicillin or other antibiotics. As with any medication, Penicillin G Benzathine should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider.

"Treponema pallidum" is a species of spiral-shaped bacteria (a spirochete) that is the causative agent of syphilis, a sexually transmitted infection. The bacterium is very thin and difficult to culture in the laboratory, which has made it challenging for researchers to study its biology and develop new treatments for syphilis.

The bacterium can infect various tissues and organs in the body, leading to a wide range of symptoms that can affect multiple systems, including the skin, bones, joints, cardiovascular system, and nervous system. The infection can be transmitted through sexual contact, from mother to fetus during pregnancy or childbirth, or through blood transfusions or shared needles.

Syphilis is a serious disease that can have long-term health consequences if left untreated. However, it is also curable with appropriate antibiotic therapy, such as penicillin. It is important to diagnose and treat syphilis early to prevent the spread of the infection and avoid potential complications.

"Materia Medica" is a term that comes from the Latin language, where "materia" means "substance" or "material," and "medica" refers to "medical." In a medical context, Materia Medica historically refers to a collection of detailed descriptions of substances that are used for medicinal purposes.

It is essentially a comprehensive reference book that describes the properties, actions, uses, dosages, potential side effects, and contraindications of various drugs or medicinal agents. The information in a Materia Medica is typically based on historical use, experimental pharmacological data, clinical trials, and other scientific research.

Modern Materia Medica has evolved to become more specialized, with separate references for different types of medicinal substances, such as botanical (herbal) medicine, homeopathic remedies, or conventional pharmaceuticals. These resources are often used by healthcare professionals, including physicians, pharmacists, and nurses, to guide their prescribing decisions and ensure the safe and effective use of medications for their patients.

An earache is defined as a pain or discomfort in the ear. It can occur in either the outer, middle, or inner ear. The pain may be sharp, dull, constant, or intermittent and can vary in intensity from mild to severe. Earaches are often accompanied by other symptoms such as hearing loss, ringing in the ears (tinnitus), and feelings of pressure or fullness in the ear. In some cases, an earache may be a symptom of an underlying medical condition, such as an ear infection, swimmer's ear, or a ruptured eardrum. If you are experiencing an earache that is severe or persistent, it is important to seek medical attention from a healthcare professional.

The Eustachian tube, also known as the auditory tube or pharyngotympanic tube, is a narrow canal that connects the middle ear cavity to the back of the nasopharynx (the upper part of the throat behind the nose). Its function is to maintain equal air pressure on both sides of the eardrum and to drain any fluid accumulation from the middle ear. The Eustachian tube is lined with mucous membrane and contains tiny hair-like structures called cilia that help to move mucus and fluid out of the middle ear. It opens and closes to regulate air pressure and drainage, which typically occurs during swallowing or yawning.

"Salsola" is a term that refers to a genus of plants, rather than a medical concept. The plants in this genus are commonly known as Russell or Prickly Pear cactuses, and they are native to Asia, Africa, and Europe. They are not typically associated with medical definitions or conditions. If you have any questions about a specific medical term or condition, I would be happy to help you with that instead!

Diphtheria is a serious bacterial infection caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It typically affects the respiratory system, including the nose, throat, and windpipe (trachea), causing a thick gray or white membrane to form over the lining of these areas. This can lead to breathing difficulties, heart complications, and neurological problems if left untreated.

The bacteria can also produce a powerful toxin that can cause damage to other organs in the body. Diphtheria is usually spread through respiratory droplets from an infected person's cough or sneeze, or by contact with contaminated objects or surfaces. The disease is preventable through vaccination.

Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is a system of medicine that has been developed in China over thousands of years. It is based on the philosophy that the body's vital energy (Qi) circulates through a network of channels called meridians, and that disease results from an imbalance or blockage in this flow of Qi.

TCM uses a variety of treatments to restore balance and promote health, including acupuncture, herbal medicine, moxibustion (the burning of herbs near the skin), cupping, dietary therapy, and tuina (Chinese massage). The use of Chinese herbal medicines is a major component of TCM, with formulas often consisting of combinations of several different herbs tailored to the individual patient's needs.

In addition to these treatments, TCM practitioners may also use diagnostic techniques such as pulse diagnosis and tongue examination to assess a person's overall health and determine the underlying cause of their symptoms. The goal of TCM is not only to treat specific symptoms or diseases but to address the root causes of illness and promote overall wellness.

The middle ear is the middle of the three parts of the ear, located between the outer ear and inner ear. It contains three small bones called ossicles (the malleus, incus, and stapes) that transmit and amplify sound vibrations from the eardrum to the inner ear. The middle ear also contains the Eustachian tube, which helps regulate air pressure in the middle ear and protects against infection by allowing fluid to drain from the middle ear into the back of the throat.

Congenital Syphilis is a medical condition that occurs when a mother with active syphilis infects her fetus through the placenta during pregnancy. If left untreated, congenital syphilis can lead to serious health problems in the newborn and can even cause death. The symptoms of congenital syphilis can appear at any time during the first two years of life, and they may include:

* Skin rashes or sores on the body, including the hands and feet
* Deformities of the bones and teeth
* Vision problems or blindness
* Hearing loss
* Developmental delays
* Neurological issues, such as seizures or difficulty coordinating movements
* Anemia
* Jaundice
* Enlarged liver and spleen

If congenital syphilis is diagnosed early, it can be treated with antibiotics, which can help to prevent serious health problems and reduce the risk of transmission to others. However, if left untreated, congenital syphilis can lead to long-term complications, such as developmental delays, neurological damage, and blindness. It is important for pregnant women to be screened for syphilis early in pregnancy and receive appropriate treatment to prevent the transmission of this serious infection to their unborn child.

Syphilis serodiagnosis is a laboratory testing method used to diagnose syphilis, a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. It involves detecting specific antibodies produced by the immune system in response to the infection, rather than directly detecting the bacteria itself.

There are two main types of serological tests used for syphilis serodiagnosis: treponemal and nontreponemal tests.

1. Treponemal tests: These tests detect antibodies that specifically target Treponema pallidum. Examples include the fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-ABS) test, T. pallidum particle agglutination (TP-PA) assay, and enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) or chemiluminescence immunoassays (CIAs) for Treponema pallidum antibodies. These tests are highly specific but may remain reactive even after successful treatment, indicating past exposure or infection rather than a current active infection.

2. Nontreponemal tests: These tests detect antibodies produced against cardiolipin, a lipid found in the membranes of Treponema pallidum and other bacteria. Examples include the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test and the Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) test. These tests are less specific than treponemal tests but can be used to monitor disease progression and treatment response, as their results often correlate with disease activity. Nontreponemal test titers usually decrease or become nonreactive after successful treatment.

Syphilis serodiagnosis typically involves a two-step process, starting with a nontreponemal test followed by a treponemal test for confirmation. This approach helps distinguish between current and past infections while minimizing false positives. It is essential to interpret serological test results in conjunction with the patient's clinical history, physical examination findings, and any additional diagnostic tests.

Cutaneous syphilis refers to the manifestation of the sexually transmitted infection syphilis on the skin. This can occur in various stages of the disease. In the primary stage, it may appear as a painless chancre (ulcer) at the site of infection, usually appearing 3 weeks after exposure. In the secondary stage, a widespread rash can develop, often affecting the palms and soles, along with other symptoms such as fever, swollen lymph nodes, and hair loss. Later stages of syphilis can also cause skin issues, including condylomata lata (broad, flat warts) and gummatous lesions (large, destructive ulcers). It's important to note that if left untreated, syphilis can lead to serious complications affecting the heart, brain, and other organs.

Latent syphilis is a stage of the sexually transmitted infection (STI) syphilis, which is caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. In this stage, individuals who have been infected with syphilis do not show any symptoms of the disease. However, the bacteria remain in their body and can be passed on to others through sexual contact.

Latent syphilis is typically divided into two stages: early latent syphilis and late latent syphilis. Early latent syphilis is defined as occurring within the first year of infection, while late latent syphilis occurs more than a year after the initial infection. During the early latent stage, individuals may still have a positive blood test for syphilis and can still transmit the disease to others through sexual contact. In contrast, during the late latent stage, the risk of transmitting the disease is much lower, but it is still possible.

It's important to note that if left untreated, latent syphilis can progress to more serious stages of the disease, including tertiary syphilis, which can cause severe damage to the heart, brain, and other organs. Therefore, it's essential for individuals who have been diagnosed with latent syphilis to receive appropriate treatment and follow-up care from a healthcare provider.

"Safe sex" is a term used to describe sexual activities that reduce the risk of transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unwanted pregnancies. It typically involves the use of protective measures, such as condoms, dental dams, or other barriers, during sexual contact.

However, it's important to note that "safe" doesn't mean "risk-free." Even with protection, there is still a chance, though significantly reduced, of STI transmission or pregnancy. The term "safer sex" is sometimes used to more accurately reflect this concept.

Furthermore, regular testing for STIs and open communication with sexual partners about sexual health are also important components of safe sex practices.

Oral contraceptives, also known as "birth control pills," are medications taken by mouth to prevent pregnancy. They contain synthetic hormones that mimic the effects of natural hormones estrogen and progesterone in a woman's body, thereby preventing ovulation, fertilization, or implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus.

There are two main types of oral contraceptives: combined pills, which contain both estrogen and progestin, and mini-pills, which contain only progestin. Combined pills work by preventing ovulation, thickening cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and thinning the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant. Mini-pills work mainly by thickening cervical mucus and changing the lining of the uterus.

Oral contraceptives are highly effective when used correctly, but they do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). It is important to use them consistently and as directed by a healthcare provider. Side effects may include nausea, breast tenderness, headaches, mood changes, and irregular menstrual bleeding. In rare cases, oral contraceptives may increase the risk of serious health problems such as blood clots, stroke, or liver tumors. However, for most women, the benefits of using oral contraceptives outweigh the risks.

Oral combined contraceptives, also known as "the pill," are a type of hormonal birth control that contain a combination of synthetic estrogen and progestin. These hormones work together to prevent ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries), thicken cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and thin the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.

Combined oral contraceptives come in various brands and forms, such as monophasic, biphasic, and triphasic pills. Monophasic pills contain the same amount of hormones in each active pill, while biphasic and triphasic pills have varying amounts of hormones in different phases of the cycle.

It is important to note that oral combined contraceptives do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and should be used in conjunction with condoms for safer sex practices. Additionally, there are potential risks and side effects associated with oral combined contraceptives, including an increased risk of blood clots, stroke, and heart attack, especially in women who smoke or have certain medical conditions. It is essential to consult a healthcare provider before starting any hormonal birth control method to determine if it is safe and appropriate for individual use.

Advertising is a form of communication used to promote or sell products, services, or ideas. In the medical field, advertising is often used by healthcare providers, hospitals, and pharmaceutical companies to reach potential patients or customers. Advertisements may appear in various media formats, such as television, radio, print, online platforms, and outdoor displays.

In the context of medical advertising, it is essential to ensure that all information presented is accurate, balanced, and not misleading. The advertising of prescription medications directly to consumers is regulated by government agencies, such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the United States, to ensure that the benefits and risks of the medication are clearly communicated.

Healthcare providers may also engage in advertising to promote their services or expertise. This can include listing their qualifications, areas of specialization, and patient testimonials. However, healthcare providers must adhere to ethical guidelines and avoid making exaggerated claims about their abilities or the outcomes that patients can expect.

Overall, medical advertising plays an essential role in informing the public about available healthcare options and promoting healthy behaviors. Still, it is crucial to ensure that all advertisements are truthful, transparent, and adhere to ethical standards.

Contraceptive agents are substances or medications that are used to prevent pregnancy by interfering with the normal process of conception and fertilization or the development and implantation of the fertilized egg. They can be divided into two main categories: hormonal and non-hormonal methods.

Hormonal contraceptive agents include combined oral contraceptives (COCs), progestin-only pills, patches, rings, injections, and implants. These methods work by releasing synthetic hormones that mimic the natural hormones estrogen and progesterone in a woman's body. By doing so, they prevent ovulation, thicken cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and thin the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.

Non-hormonal contraceptive agents include barrier methods such as condoms, diaphragms, cervical caps, and sponges, which prevent sperm from reaching the egg by creating a physical barrier. Other non-hormonal methods include intrauterine devices (IUDs), which are inserted into the uterus to prevent pregnancy, and fertility awareness-based methods, which involve tracking ovulation and avoiding intercourse during fertile periods.

Emergency contraceptive agents, such as Plan B or ella, can also be used to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sex or contraceptive failure. These methods work by preventing or delaying ovulation, preventing fertilization, or preventing implantation of a fertilized egg.

It's important to note that while contraceptive agents are effective at preventing pregnancy, they do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Using condoms in addition to other forms of contraception can help reduce the risk of STIs.

Oral hormonal contraceptives, also known as "birth control pills," are a type of medication that contains synthetic hormones (estrogen and/or progestin) that are taken by mouth to prevent pregnancy. They work by preventing ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries), thickening cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and thinning the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.

There are several different types of oral hormonal contraceptives, including combined pills that contain both estrogen and progestin, and mini-pills that only contain progestin. These medications are usually taken daily for 21 days, followed by a seven-day break during which menstruation occurs. Some newer formulations may be taken continuously with no break.

It's important to note that while oral hormonal contraceptives are highly effective at preventing pregnancy when used correctly, they do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Therefore, it is still important to use barrier methods of protection, such as condoms, during sexual activity to reduce the risk of STIs.

As with any medication, oral hormonal contraceptives can have side effects and may not be suitable for everyone. It's important to discuss any medical conditions, allergies, or medications you are taking with your healthcare provider before starting to take oral hormonal contraceptives.

Contraceptive agents, female, are medications or devices specifically designed to prevent pregnancy in women. They work by interfering with the normal process of ovulation, fertilization, or implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus. Some common examples of female contraceptive agents include:

1. Hormonal methods: These include combined oral contraceptives (COCs), progestin-only pills, patches, vaginal rings, and hormonal implants. They contain synthetic forms of the female hormones estrogen and/or progesterone, which work by preventing ovulation, thickening cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, or thinning the lining of the uterus to prevent implantation of a fertilized egg.
2. Intrauterine devices (IUDs): These are small, T-shaped devices made of plastic or copper that are inserted into the uterus by a healthcare provider. They release hormones or copper ions that interfere with sperm movement and prevent fertilization or implantation.
3. Barrier methods: These include condoms, diaphragms, cervical caps, and sponges. They work by physically preventing sperm from reaching the egg.
4. Emergency contraception: This includes medications such as Plan B or Ella, which can be taken up to 5 days after unprotected sex to prevent pregnancy. They work by delaying ovulation or preventing fertilization of the egg.
5. Fertility awareness-based methods (FABMs): These involve tracking a woman's menstrual cycle and avoiding sexual intercourse during her fertile window. Some FABMs also involve using barrier methods during this time.

It is important to note that different contraceptive agents have varying levels of effectiveness, side effects, and risks. Women should consult with their healthcare provider to determine the best method for their individual needs and circumstances.

Oral contraceptives, also known as "birth control pills," are synthetic hormonal medications that are taken by mouth to prevent pregnancy. They typically contain a combination of synthetic versions of the female hormones estrogen and progesterone, which work together to inhibit ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries), thicken cervical mucus (making it harder for sperm to reach the egg), and thin the lining of the uterus (making it less likely that a fertilized egg will implant).

There are several different types of oral contraceptives, including combination pills, progestin-only pills, and extended-cycle pills. Combination pills contain both estrogen and progestin, while progestin-only pills contain only progestin. Extended-cycle pills are a type of combination pill that are taken for 12 weeks followed by one week of placebo pills, which can help reduce the frequency of menstrual periods.

It's important to note that oral contraceptives do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), so it's still important to use barrier methods like condoms if you are at risk for STIs. Additionally, oral contraceptives can have side effects and may not be suitable for everyone, so it's important to talk to your healthcare provider about the potential risks and benefits before starting to take them.

... whereas chancroid are typically painful Chancres are typically single, whereas chancroid are typically multiple Chancres cause ... A chancre (/ˈʃæŋkər/ SHANG-kər) is a painless genital ulcer most commonly formed during the primary stage of syphilis. This ... Chancres transmit syphilis through direct physical contact. These ulcers usually form on or around the anus, mouth, penis and ... Chancres are also associated with the African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), surrounding the area of the tsetse fly bite ...
Vasquez now uses Chancre Scolex as a pen name for Everything Can Be Beaten and his LiveJournal. Like many alternative comics, ... Scolex, Chancre; Crab Scrambly (August 2002). Everything Can Be Beaten. Slave Labor Graphics. ISBN 978-0-943151-65-6. " ...
"Chancre and Canker". Douglas Harper. Retrieved September 1, 2013. Tricarico A, Molteni G, Mattioli F, Guerra A, Mordini B, ... chancre, now more usually applied to syphilis, is also thought to be involved. Despite this etymology, aphthous stomatitis is ...
Robert, Francois (10 July 2009). "Un " sacré " chancre en voie de disparition". Le Soir (in French). Robert, Francois (9 July ...
Ricord's chancre is the parchment-like initial lesion of syphilis. In 1862 Ricord was appointed physician in ordinary to Prince ... Monographie du chancre (1837) Théorie sur la nature et le traitement de l'épididymite (1838) Traite des maladies vénériennes (8 ... Leçons sur le chancre (1858; second edition, 1860; English translation, 1859) Oriel, J D (December 1989). "Eminent ...
ISBN 978-93-5152-748-0. Gladstein J (July 2005). "Hunter's chancre: did the surgeon give himself syphilis?". Clinical ...
Gladstein, Jay (2005). "Hunter's chancre: did the surgeon give himself syphilis?". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 41 (1): 128, ...
Fréquence et intensité du chancre cytosporéen dans les plantations d'épinette du Québec. For. Chron. 41(4):444-453. Index ...
Vasquez, credited as Chancre Scolex, wrote the story and Crab Scrambly illustrated it. Everything Can Be Beaten is about a ...
Commonly, these chancres are visible on the penis, anus, rectum, vagina, and cervix; however, they are usually difficult to ... Usually within two to twelve weeks, a red, circular sore (which is known as a chancre) is present where the bacteria first ... Many treponemes are present in chancres in the primary stage; however, condylomata lata is usually present in the secondary ...
Le Chancre mou, symptomatologie, complications, diagnostic, traitement, 1931 - The chancroid, symptoms, complications, ...
Chancre, a hallucinatory tour de force, was Porterfield's final offering at the Corner Theatre. In 1987 The Yippie Book, ...
Bacterial infections include: chancroid - characterised by genital ulcers known as chancres; granuloma inguinale showing as ... inflammatory granulomas often described as nodules; syphilis -the primary stage classically presents with a single chancre, a ...
He suspected that a chancre on his penis was from a Maronite or a Turkish girl. He also engaged in intercourse with male ...
Approximately 2-6 weeks after contact (with a range of 10-90 days) a skin lesion, called a chancre, appears at the site and ... Dark field microscopy of serous fluid from a chancre may be used to make an immediate diagnosis. Hospitals do not always have ... Two other tests can be carried out on a sample from the chancre: direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) and polymerase chain ... occurring seven to 10 days after chancre formation. The lesion may persist for three to six weeks if left untreated. Secondary ...
The practice consisted of repeated inoculations of secretion from "soft chancre", until inoculation caused no further reaction ...
Mays also appeared as an actor in Porterfield's Wolves, as well as Porterfield's final Corner Theatre production, Chancre. ... Gordon Porterfield Dungbeetle by Gordon Porterfield Dirty Pictures by Gordon Porterfield Bubble by Gordon Porterfield Chancre ...
Hill additionally published literature on lip chancres caused by the oral-transmission of congenital syphilis. Ancestry.com. ...
... is a rare skin condition, reported on the penis, characterized by a chancre-type lesion with ...
Primary tuberculosis chancre, on the other hand, often presents as a painless ulcer with well defined edges that appears rather ... or a primary tuberculosis chancre at the site of inoculation via direct genital contact with infected sputum. Cutaneous ...
Newborns will typically not develop a primary syphilitic chancre but may present with signs of secondary syphilis (i.e. ...
He was the first to separate chancroid and indurated syphilitic chancre and established that the incubation period for syphilis ...
The initial ulcer may be mistaken as a "hard" chancre, the typical sore of primary syphilis, as opposed to the "soft chancre" ...
Cichorium intybus, decoction of the roots is used as a wash and applied as a poultice to chancres and fever sores. Solidago ...
... was first microscopically identified in syphilitic chancres by Fritz Schaudinn and Erich Hoffmann at the ... Preliminary report on the occurrence of Spirochaetes in syphilitic chancres and papillomas]. Arbeiten aus dem Kaiserlichen ...
... who found a bacillus with the staining appearance of tubercle bacilli in syphilitic chancres. Subsequent to this, Alvarez and ...
... chancre blando). A Ministry of Health report showed that the office needed over 3 million units of penicillin at any given time ...
The appellation 'Shanker' appears to be an insult as this word is a variant of 'chancre' which is the name for a sore or ulcer ...
... and Muhtar presented a paper on syphilitic chancre without lymphadenopathy. Muhtar studied histology in Louis-Charles ...
... chancres, bubes venéreens, & de leurs accidens, avec une guerison véritable et solide (1688), published by Cornelis Blankaart, ...
... whereas chancroid are typically painful Chancres are typically single, whereas chancroid are typically multiple Chancres cause ... A chancre (/ˈʃæŋkər/ SHANG-kər) is a painless genital ulcer most commonly formed during the primary stage of syphilis. This ... Chancres transmit syphilis through direct physical contact. These ulcers usually form on or around the anus, mouth, penis and ... Chancres are also associated with the African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), surrounding the area of the tsetse fly bite ...
Brought to you by Merck & Co, Inc., Rahway, NJ, USA (known as MSD outside the US and Canada)-dedicated to using leading-edge science to save and improve lives around the world. Learn more about the MSD Manuals and our commitment to Global Medical Knowledge.. ...
Indurated cord in the penile shaft, intrameatal chancre and inguinal adenomegaly: Atypical presentation of a patient at risk ...
... (15c.), lit. cancer, from L. cancer (see CANCER (Cf. cancer)) ... chancre. chancre (n.) "venereal ulcer," c.1600, from Fr. chancre (15c.), lit. "cancer," from L. cancer (see CANCER (Cf. cancer ... chancre - CHANCRE. s. m. Espèce d ulcère malin, qui ronge la partie du corps sur laquelle il s est formé. Chancre simple, ... chancre - Chancre, Cancer, cancri, Gangraena, gangraenae. Une espece de chancre és parties superieures, Carcinoma, carcinomatis ...
The ulcer may look like the sore of primary syphilis (chancre).. About one half of the people who are infected with a chancroid ... Soft chancre; Ulcus molle; Sexually transmitted disease - chancroid; STD - chancroid; Sexually transmitted infection - ...
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infectious disease caused by Treponema pallidum. This study reports 3 cases of syphilis and highlights the importance of identifying oral lesions for its final diagnosis. Case 1: a 48-year-old male patient presented with a bleeding ulcer in the lower lip. Overall c …
hard u. SYN: chancre. healed u. an u. covered by epithelial regeneration, beneath which there may be scarring and absence of ... syphilitic u. 1. SYN: chancre. 2. any ulceration caused by a syphilitic infection. Syriac u., Syrian u. old names for ...
Humans are infected with T brucei after a fly bite, which occasionally causes a painful skin chancre at the site 5-15 days ...
Chancre 2=Other VD 3=Both ; VALUE DE0628F 1=Yes ; VALUE DE0629F 1=Psoriasis 2=Seborrheic dermatitis ; VALUE DE0630F ...
Orchitis ; gonorrh a ; gleet ; soft chancre ; chronic syphilis. ► Uterine h morrhage ; leucorrh a ; albuminuria of pregnancy ; ...
This Chancre or sore will disappear even without treatment, but this only means that the disease has gone deeper into the body ... The disease is not cured. The secondary stage of Syphilis which begins two to six months after the Chancre, can include skin ... This sore is called a Chancre (pronounced shank-er). It appears between two to six weeks after exposure to the infected person ...
A chancre is usually firm and round in shape. Sometimes, multiple chancres may be present. The chancre contains infectious ... If the chancre is located in the mouth, for example, even kissing can spread the disease. The chancre lasts for about 3 to 6 ... The use of condoms may also not prevent the spread of the illness if the chancre is located on an area of the body not covered ... The first, or primary, stage of syphilis is characterized by the formation of a painless ulcer known as a chancre. This sore ...
Hard chancres are a feature of primary syphilis; and soft chancres appear in chancroid, a disease caused by Haemophilus ducreyi ... Chancre An ulcerated lesion associated with sexually transmissible diseases. ...
"In the fever or the _berebarde_," "_Berbi_, O.F., chancre, dartre; a _boil, bubo_, or _tetter_, commonly attendant upon ...
Parasites can also be found in fluid expressed in trypanosomal chancres and in lymph node aspirates. Serologic testing is not ... Parasitologic confirmation rests upon microscopic examination of chancre fluid or lymph node aspirate. The yield in lymph node ...
Chancre 44 2 - Other VD 2 3 - Both 0 Blank 20703 Tape Control Loc. ITEM DESCRIPTION & CODES Counts HANES I Data Source 628 ...
Categories: Chancre Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 89 images ...
chancre. a hard ulcer or sore, esp. the first obvious lesion of syphilis.. ...
While the chancre is healing, the second stage begins. Within six weeks to six months, a rash appears signaling the development ... The chancre, typically a slightly elevated, round ulcer, rarely causes personal discomfort and may be so small as to go ... If it does not become secondarily infected, the chancre will heal without treatment within a month or two, leaving a scar that ... During this "first incubation period," the primary lesion of syphilis, the chancre, appears at the point of contact, usually on ...
This Chancre or sore will disappear even without treatment, but this only means that the disease has gone deeper into the body ... The disease is not cured. The secondary stage of Syphilis, which begins two to six months after the Chancre, can include skin ... This sore is called a Chancre (pronounced shank-er). It appears between two to six weeks after exposure to the infected person ...
Formation of an ulcer (chancre) is the first stage. The chancre develops any time from 10 to 90 days after infection, with an ... The sore or lesion is called a chancre (pronounced shanker). This sore usually appears as a painless craterlike lesion on the ... Secondary phase: The secondary phase may develop 4-10 weeks after the chancre. This phase has many symptoms, which is why ...
Bring the book, the cross, the chancre. Halleluiah Halleluiah. kiss the cross or they will burn you. Halleluiah Halleluiah. ...
Shakespeares chancre: did the bard have syphilis? Clin Infec Dis. 2005 Feb 1;40(1):399-404). As the saying goes, "A night with ...
It is typically seen about 6 weeks to 3 months after the chancre forms and, in some cases, can occur even though the chancre ... It rapidly erodes to become a painless ulcer called a chancre (pronounced shanker). The chancre typically clears up and heals ...
  • A chancre (/ˈʃæŋkər/ SHANG-kər) is a painless genital ulcer most commonly formed during the primary stage of syphilis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chancres transmit syphilis through direct physical contact. (wikipedia.org)
  • Not to be confused with condylomata lata, which is seen in secondary syphilis The word "chancre" (French pronunciation: [ʃɑ̃kʁ]) means "little ulcer" in Old French. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ulcer may look like the sore of primary syphilis (chancre). (medlineplus.gov)
  • The first, or primary, stage of syphilis is characterized by the formation of a painless ulcer known as a chancre . (medicinenet.com)
  • Shakespeare's chancre: did the bard have syphilis? (the-hospitalist.org)
  • Secondary syphilis appears only after the symptoms of primary syphilis have passed, usually around two to ten weeks after the primary chancre has appeared. (ada.com)
  • Syphilis is highly contagious when there is an active outbreak of ulcers, sores (chancre) or a rash. (herpes-coldsores.com)
  • Primary syphilis is characterized by one or more painless superficial chancres at the site of exposure and regional lymphadenopathy. (tbdhu.com)
  • Syphilis is an STI that can be transmitted from person to person by direct contact with a syphilitic sore, called a chancre. (healthline.com)
  • Syphilis is an infection that can be acquired through oral, vaginal and anal sexual contact with a person who has infectious syphilis or skin-to-skin contact with a syphilis lesion (chancre) or rash. (bccdc.ca)
  • Chancre: The primary stage of Syphilis is usually marked by the appearance of a single sore, known as a chancre, within 10 to 90 days after contact with the bacteria at the site of infection. (gettestedchaffee.com)
  • The bacteria that cause syphilis enter the body through a cut in the skin or through contact with a syphilis sore known as a chancre . (cwcobgyndocs.com)
  • Primary stage-Syphilis first appears as a painless chancre. (cwcobgyndocs.com)
  • Syphilis is passed from person to person through direct contact with a syphilitic chancre. (cdc.gov)
  • The stage of syphilis that occurs following the primary (CHANCRE) and secondary stages. (bvsalud.org)
  • Analysis of Treponema pallidum strains from China using improved methods for whole-genome sequencing from primary syphilis chancres. (cdc.gov)
  • chancre - ► NOUN Medicine ▪ a painless ulcer, particularly one developing on the genitals in venereal disease. (en-academic.com)
  • This ulcer is called a chancre. (ada.com)
  • The chancre contains infectious bacteria and while the sore is present, the condition is highly contagious . (medicinenet.com)
  • The sore or lesion is called a chancre (pronounced shanker ). (emedicinehealth.com)
  • A painless sore (called a chancre) appears at the infection site-typically the penis, vulva, or vagina. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Syphilitic chancres may appear on or around the mouth. (msdmanuals.com)
  • skin lesion, the trypanosome chancre. (cdc.gov)
  • The primary lesion (chancre) usually appears 3 weeks after exposure. (tbdhu.com)
  • Secondary stage-The next stage begins as the chancre is healing or several weeks after the chancre has disappeared, when a rash may appear. (cwcobgyndocs.com)
  • Transmission: Any contact with the chancre can spread the infection. (medicinenet.com)
  • Chancres appear at the site of infection on external genitals or in the rectum but can also occur on the lips and in the mouth. (cdc.gov)
  • What's the Difference Between a Chancre and a Chancroid? (wikipedia.org)
  • The chancre lasts for about 3 to 6 weeks and typically then goes away on its own. (medicinenet.com)
  • It is typically seen about 6 weeks to 3 months after the chancre forms and, in some cases, can occur even though the chancre has not fully healed. (medbroadcast.com)
  • The primary stage classically appears with a single chancre, a painless and firm--and only itchy--skin ulceration, usually between 1 centimeter and 2 centimeter in diameter. (cdc.gov)
  • The chancre typically clears up and heals in a month or two whether the person is treated for the disease or not. (medbroadcast.com)
  • If the chancre is located in the mouth, for example, even kissing can spread the disease. (medicinenet.com)
  • chancres might differ considerably in clinical appearance. (cdc.gov)
  • Sometimes, multiple chancres may be present. (medicinenet.com)
  • Also, there may be multiple throat chancres. (cdc.gov)
  • The primary chancre may still be present. (cdc.gov)
  • Parasites can also be found in fluid expressed in trypanosomal chancres and in lymph node aspirates. (cdc.gov)
  • The use of condoms may also not prevent the spread of the illness if the chancre is located on an area of the body not covered by the condom . (medicinenet.com)
  • In this stage, a flat, painless ulcer known as a chancre develops at the point where the infection entered the body. (ada.com)
  • 90% of chancres are genital, the rest are mostly anal. (gpnotebook.com)
  • The chancre lasts for about three to six weeks and heals with or without treatment. (medhelp.org)
  • Even without treatment the chancre heals in four to ten weeks. (benjaminbarber.org)
  • The chancre heals spontaneously, and signs of dissemination appear after a variable quiescent period of several weeks to months. (aao.org)
  • The chancre usually appears between 10 and 90 days after infection and heals on its own after about 3 to 12 weeks. (ada.com)
  • This male patient developed a syphilitic chancre in an area on the penis, which is normally unprotected by a condom during sexual intercourse. (cdc.gov)
  • Without treatment, syphilitic chancre spontaneously resolves in two to eight weeks. (cmaj.ca)
  • On examination, generalized nontender lymphadenopathy was noted along with the rash and chancre. (cmaj.ca)
  • Secondary infections of the chancre are uncommon, and they tend to heal within three to ten weeks. (gpnotebook.com)
  • 1 , 2 Syphilitic chancre develops 3-90 days after exposure (mean 3 weeks), 1 , 2 with genitalia as the most common inoculation sites. (cmaj.ca)
  • The chancre will heal whether or not the affected person receives treatment. (ada.com)
  • Chancre Mechanic -- Medical officer who checks service members for venereal diseases. (military.com)