Mice, Inbred BALB CImmunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Bronchial Provocation Tests: Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Mice, Inbred C57BLAsthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Nasal Provocation Tests: Application of allergens to the nasal mucosa. Interpretation includes observation of nasal symptoms, rhinoscopy, and rhinomanometry. Nasal provocation tests are used in the diagnosis of nasal hypersensitivity, including RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.United StatesAerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Bronchoconstriction: Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Immunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.SAIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent SAIDS; (SIMIAN ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME); and containing inactivated SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS or type D retroviruses or some of their component antigens.Orthomyxoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Vaccines, Inactivated: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Simian immunodeficiency virus: Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Skin Tests: Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.Immunity: Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs naturally in macaques infected with SRV serotypes, experimentally in monkeys inoculated with SRV or MASON-PFIZER MONKEY VIRUS; (MPMV), or in monkeys infected with SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Protozoan Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed protozoa administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious protozoan disease.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Influenza Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Immunity, Active: Resistance to a disease agent resulting from the production of specific antibodies by the host, either after exposure to the disease or after vaccination.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Cross Protection: Protection conferred on a host by inoculation with one strain or component of a microorganism that prevents infection when later challenged with a similar strain. Most commonly the microorganism is a virus.Immunity, Mucosal: Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Hypersensitivity: Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Anaphylaxis: An acute hypersensitivity reaction due to exposure to a previously encountered ANTIGEN. The reaction may include rapidly progressing URTICARIA, respiratory distress, vascular collapse, systemic SHOCK, and death.Translational Medical Research: The application of discoveries generated by laboratory research and preclinical studies to the development of clinical trials and studies in humans. A second area of translational research concerns enhancing the adoption of best practices.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Nasal Mucosa: The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Food Hypersensitivity: Gastrointestinal disturbances, skin eruptions, or shock due to allergic reactions to allergens in food.Asthma, Exercise-Induced: Asthma attacks following a period of exercise. Usually the induced attack is short-lived and regresses spontaneously. The magnitude of postexertional airway obstruction is strongly influenced by the environment in which exercise is performed (i.e. inhalation of cold air during physical exertion markedly augments the severity of the airway obstruction; conversely, warm humid air blunts or abolishes it).Lethal Dose 50: The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Immunity, Humoral: Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Immunity, Maternally-Acquired: Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Injections, Subcutaneous: Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Plague: An acute infectious disease caused by YERSINIA PESTIS that affects humans, wild rodents, and their ectoparasites. This condition persists due to its firm entrenchment in sylvatic rodent-flea ecosystems throughout the world. Bubonic plague is the most common form.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Mice, Inbred C3HSensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Milk Hypersensitivity: Allergic reaction to milk (usually cow's milk) or milk products. MILK HYPERSENSITIVITY should be differentiated from LACTOSE INTOLERANCE, an intolerance to milk as a result of congenital deficiency of lactase.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Anthrax: An acute infection caused by the spore-forming bacteria BACILLUS ANTHRACIS. It commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats. Infection in humans often involves the skin (cutaneous anthrax), the lungs (inhalation anthrax), or the gastrointestinal tract. Anthrax is not contagious and can be treated with antibiotics.Interdisciplinary Communication: Communication, in the sense of cross-fertilization of ideas, involving two or more academic disciplines (such as the disciplines that comprise the cross-disciplinary field of bioethics, including the health and biological sciences, the humanities, and the social sciences and law). Also includes problems in communication stemming from differences in patterns of language usage in different academic or medical disciplines.Individualized Medicine: Therapeutic approach tailoring therapy for genetically defined subgroups of patients.Pulmonary Eosinophilia: A condition characterized by infiltration of the lung with EOSINOPHILS due to inflammation or other disease processes. Major eosinophilic lung diseases are the eosinophilic pneumonias caused by infections, allergens, or toxic agents.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Sneezing: The sudden, forceful, involuntary expulsion of air from the NOSE and MOUTH caused by irritation to the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Drug Discovery: The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms: Animals or humans raised in the absence of a particular disease-causing virus or other microorganism. Less frequently plants are cultivated pathogen-free.Malaria Vaccines: Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Plague Vaccine: A suspension of killed Yersinia pestis used for immunizing people in enzootic plague areas.Injections, Intradermal: The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Medical Informatics: The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of medical data through the application of computers to various aspects of health care and medicine.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Viremia: The presence of viruses in the blood.BCG Vaccine: An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Leadership: The function of directing or controlling the actions or attitudes of an individual or group with more or less willing acquiescence of the followers.Government Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Focus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola: A highly fatal, acute hemorrhagic fever, clinically very similar to MARBURG VIRUS DISEASE, caused by EBOLAVIRUS, first occurring in the Sudan and adjacent northwestern (what was then) Zaire.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Organizational Case Studies: Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.Toxoids: Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are TROPANES found in CYANOBACTERIA.Mucous Membrane: An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Research Personnel: Those individuals engaged in research.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.Alum Compounds: Aluminum metal sulfate compounds used medically as astringents and for many industrial purposes. They are used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of ulcerative stomatitis, leukorrhea, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, metritis, and minor wounds.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Ethics, Research: The moral obligations governing the conduct of research. Used for discussions of research ethics as a general topic.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Researcher-Subject Relations: Interaction between research personnel and research subjects.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
Kenworthy, Lane (2010). "Rising inequality, public policy, and America's poor". Challenge. Taylor and Francis. 53 (6): 93-109. ...
Their model has four components: confidence; challenge; control and commitment. In initially conceptualising mental toughness ...
A Celebration of Commitment...Challenge...Change: Women's Way's 10th Anniversary. By Camille Dawson "Award Made To Professor ... and continuing challenges. The organization then makes its information available to local organizations. It was first released ... sharing knowledge and building awareness to challenge social inequities and empower women." It prioritizes collaboration, ...
Challenge 1 vs. X (대결 1:X) (where X is the number of members on that episode) [Episode 11,12,14-25,28,34] - A mission where one ... Challenge! Diet Karaoke (도전! 다이어트 노래방) [Episode 28] - Three teams are weighed, and must do exercises in order to reach a ... Band Together to Live! (뭉쳐야 산다!) [Episode 29-31] - A series of challenges as part of the One Chance mission that greatly ... Fool Gary (개리를 속여라) [Episode 60] - Similar to former Challenge 1 vs. X missions, one member (Gary) believes he is fooling the ...
Challenge! 3.3.3! Three Worded Poems (도전! 3.3.3! 삼행시) [Season 8-13,15-19] - A game where two members face off using the ... Challenge! Penalty Shootout (도전! 승부차기) [Season 61,63] - In support of the 2006 FIFA World Cup, members must shoot more into ... whose main mission was to disrupt teamwork in his or her team and purposely throw challenges while keeping his or her identity ...
Challenge. The forces of law and order (usually the Vorstellen Police) confront the scientist. Chase scene. Self-explanatory. ... challenge, chase scene, and denouement, then resets and repeats if not treated. Infection. An idea for world domination occurs ...
"Challenge TV on Twitter". Twitter. "The Chase - Challenge". Challenge. Archived from the original on 12 March 2016. Retrieved ... Nicknamed "The Supernerd". Mark Labbett (2016-present)-Appeared on Mastermind, University Challenge, 15 to 1, The Syndicate and ... The Chase Australia began airing on UK TV channel Challenge, also available in Ireland. An iOS and Android version of the game ...
McCloskey, Deirdre (July-August 2009). "Rhetoric matters: Ethical standards in a humanistic science of economics". Challenge. ...
ISBN 0-945571-99-2. Barrett, Kevin (February 1992). "Challenge Reviews". Challenge. Game Designers' Workshop (57): 76-77. ... Kevin Barrett reviewed Aliens Adventure Game for Challenge #57. Barrett began by commenting: "Leading Edge Games took a great ...
Challenge! Slick tire! Hard Rain! Side by side! Final lap! Presentation! Scout! Performance! Idling! New Machine! Formula stele ...
Challenge. Roberts, David (2006). British Hit Singles & Albums (19th ed.). London: Guinness World Records Limited. p. 172. ISBN ... Dunn met bassist Herbie Flowers at a party and on learning he was a songwriter challenged him to write a song for him. Flowers ...
In early 2009, Challenge! Memorize Song was removed to save time. Only Don't Laugh in the Sauna! remains, and follows Star Quiz ... Now, the show is simply known as Happy Together Season 3 which the corners are Challenge! Memorize Song, and That's You! (그건 너 ... Slogan: "함께하면 더욱 행복한 목요일 밤, 해피투게더!" (A Thursday night that will be happier if spent together, Happy Together!) Challenge! ...
others; challenge". talkchess.com. Retrieved 8 March 2014. Kislik, Erik (6 June 2014). "IM Erik Kislik analyzes the TCEC ...
Tobin, James (Nov-Dec 1987). "A Case for Preserving Regulatory Distinctions" (PDF). Challenge. 30 (5): 10-17. Retrieved 2 April ...
As in all FTC challenges, the winner of the top judged award (the Inspire Award) ranked higher than the winner of the ... Ring It Up! is the eighth FTC challenge. More than 2400 teams competed worldwide, surpassing the number of competitors in the ... For the Ring It Up! challenge, a new format for qualifying competitions was introduced in the United States regions for Florida ... "FIRST Tech Challenge Inspire Award". FIRST. Retrieved 2012-10-27. "Judged Awards". FIRST. Retrieved 2012-10-27. Frascella, ...
This challenge can only be addressed as part of an international cooperation between USA, Canada, Japan, Australia, Europe and ... "Challenge". Igfagcr.org. Retrieved 2014-02-14. "Coopeus". Coopeus.eu. Retrieved 2014-02-14. Ruhl, Henry A., et al. "Societal ... As underlined in recent policy documents such as the Galway Statement and Belmont Challenge, in order to understand the changes ...
"AT HOME: The feminization of poverty: causes and remedies". Challenge. M. E. Sharpe via JSTOR. 31 (2): 57-61. March 1988. JSTOR ... "The $1000 Question: A Tax Credit to End Child Poverty?", Challenge, Vol. 35, #1 (January-February 1992), pp. 49-52. "The Myths ... "The Economics of Grade Inflation", Challenge (July/August 2007), pp. 93-102. "Curriculum Vitae" (pdf). Monmouth University. ...
Review (in French) Sheeley, Craig (November 1992). "Challenge Reviews". Challenge. Game Designers' Workshop (66): 84-85. ... Craig Sheeley reviewed GURPS Illuminati for Challenge #66. Sheeley comments in his conclusion: "GURPS Illuminati is one of this ...
ISBN 0-87975-653-5. "Reviews". Challenge. Game Designers' Workshop (#75): 80-83. 1994. Curtis M. Scott :: Pen & Paper RPG ...
... challenge. The band performed "What Makes You Beautiful" and its B-side, "Na Na Na", at the BBC Radio 1 Teen Awards on 9 ...
"A very convincing and most readable book." - Challenge. "A really good detective story." - Tatler. "A capital story, cleverly ...
Burtless, Gary (September 1995). "North-South Trade: Employment and Inequality". Challenge. Armonk: 158-. Retrieved 24 October ...
"Mohamed Guessous n'est plus". Challenge. 7 February 2014. Retrieved 21 March 2014. ...
Juniors and seniors who are capable of succeeding at the college level and who are not challenged by traditional high school ... challenge; and a head start for the future. (from the GMCHS website) San Diego County portal Schools portal Middle College ...
"Today's Splat! Challenge". Nick.com. Archived from the original on June 12, 2005. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link) "Splish Splat! ...
"Public Service - Are You Really Lovin' It?". Challenge. PS21 Office, Public Service Division, Prime Minister's Office. "PSD - ... is accountable for ensuring that the civil service is equipped with the skills and capability to meet the everyday challenges ...
Schoemaker AA, Sprikkelman AB, Grimshaw KE, Roberts G, Grabenhenrich L et al: Incidence and natural history of challenge-proven ... ESPGHAN - Diagnostic delays of cows milk protein allergy (CMPA) caused by challenges interpreting non-specific symptoms. 15 ... including food challenge procedures, there is a high risk of over and under-diagnosis and thus over and under-treatment. A ... due to the genuine challenges facing primary healthcare professionals interpreting the mix of symptoms, there can be a ...
... www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/issue/current Personal View Urgent challenges in implementing live attenuated influenza ... Urgent challenges in implementing live attenuated influenza vaccine. Posted on 7 January 2018. by davidrcurry ... Urgent challenges in implementing live attenuated influenza vaccine. Anika Singanayagam, Maria Zambon, Ajit Lalvani, Wendy ...
Grand Challenge Cancer Research UKs Grand Challenge is the most ambitious cancer research grant in the world - a series of £ ... Grand Challenge: Cancer Causes Countries: UK and USA. Professor Lis team want to scrutinise peoples DNA in supreme detail to ... Grand Challenge: Cancer Causes Countries: Canada, Israel, UK and USA. Professor Tlstys team want to find novel ways of ... Grand Challenge: Dormancy Countries: Australia, Israel, UK and USA Professor Crouchers team want to create a map of the ...
Ice Bucket Challenge Progress. The ALS Ice Bucket Challenge was a tremendous event in our Associations history, raising $115 ... Ice Bucket Challenge Progress. The ALS Ice Bucket Challenge was a tremendous event in our Associations history, raising $115 ... Impact of ALS Ice Bucket Challenge. When you participated in the ALS Ice Bucket Challenge, you contributed to a phenomenon that ... History of the ALS Ice Bucket Challenge. In August 2014, three young men living with ALS inspired the world to dump buckets of ...
Challenging process of adaptation of a wide range of polymers needs to be evaluated. The modification in wax matrix composition ... The challenges in SLA application are similar to photopolymerization DOD method and are related to stability and safety issues ... Filament - The Major Challenge. The fused deposition modelling is based on extrusion of molten thermoplastic material. ... Although the viability of cells and control of motility still remains a challenge, some ideas to improve those factors have ...
An early 1980s "Pepsi Challenge" 12 oz. (355 ml.) promotional can, and a metal tab button publicizing the challenge. ... Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (August 2007) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) ... The Pepsi Challenge is an ongoing marketing promotion run by PepsiCo since 1975. It is also the name of a cross country ski ... The challenge originally took the form of a single blind taste test. At malls, shopping centers, and other public locations, a ...
City Challenge (2008 - 2011)[edit]. The 2008 extension of the London Challenge initiative also expanded it to include two new ... The programme was renamed for those areas as the City Challenge, but continued to be known as the London Challenge in the ... The reports assessment of the City Challenge was more mixed "in part because [the City Challenge areas] had less time for ... The UKs national media has shown a strong interest in the success of the London Challenge and its legacy.[16] [17] [18][19][20 ...
The Norwegian Challenge is a golf tournament on the Challenge Tour, played in Norway. It was founded in 1994 and is the leading ... Coverage on the Challenge Tours official site. ...
The Challenge 67 is a steel-hulled yacht. It is 67 ft (20 m) from bow to stern, and this is where it gets its name. There were ... 14 of these yachts built, for the purpose of racing in the BT Global Challenge. The yachts were designed by David Thomas and ...
"Challenge Tour Road To Oman". PGA European Tour. "Challenge Tour Schedule". PGA European Tour. "The Challenge Tour in numbers ... The Challenge Tour also has an annual qualifying school. The Challenge Tour Rankings have been calculated in Euros since 1999. ... List of golfers with most Challenge Tour wins List of golfers to achieve a three-win promotion from the Challenge Tour "OWGR ... The following year the tour was renamed the Challenge Tour. Up to 1993 the Challenge Tour rankings were based on each players ...
ICME Grand Challenge on HFR. Polarimetric Thermal to Visible Face Matching 2018 IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and ... Challenge Evaluation. The organizers will use a sequestered dataset, similar to the provided training dataset, presenting pairs ... This grand challenge is focused on Heterogeneous Face Recognition (HFR), specifically on polarimetric thermal-to-visible ... The challenge organizers will provide a polarimetric thermal and visible face database for algorithm development. Participants ...
... The First Year Challenge is a multimedia assignment designed to introduce first year ... The motivation behind the First Year Challenge was to introduce students to research-based education as a prelude to the ...
The Living Building Challenge is Once Again a Buckminster Fuller Challenge Finalist. *by Tafline Laylin ... The Living Building Challenge Wins the 2012 Buckminster Fuller Challenge!. *by Yuka Yoneda ... Living Building Challenge. The net-zero Frick Environmental Center is officially one of the worlds greenest buildings. *by ... Living Building Challenge founder Jason McLennan What if every single act of design and construction made the... ...
Bush wont be challenging this consensus with any kind of serious effort because he knows that overturning Roe would be a ...
The will, hopefully, be a comprehensive list of challenge caches in the state of Minnesota. If you know of a cache (past, ...
... almost 28 hours after they had started climbing Ben Nevis at the start of their challenge. This led to some of the intrepid ... has returned from conquering the National 3 Peaks Challenge over 29th and 30th June. Ten team members, plus a dedicated driver ... We are very proud to have completed the challenge despite gruelling circumstances. It was an amazing achievement. Our company ... completing the whole challenge in a very creditable time of just under 33 hours. ...
Yes, sign me up for this lap challenge! I understand I must write my own laps in the log book, which will be kept in the music ...
How can students at Auburn University contribute to the Leadership Challenge?. One of the main goals of the Challenge Fellows ... What global challenge(s) are you most interested in and why? Im passionate about the education disparity domestically and ... Challenge Fellows LeaderShape Institute Knowledge Institute TEDx Auburn University Social Innovation Network Research/Resources ... Office of Student Affairs , Auburn University Leadership Challenge , LeaderShape Institute. Kathlina (Katy) Roat Interview. ...
Challenge Goals. * One goal of this Challenge is to create a reproducible picture of the state-of-the-art in the area of graph ... Jan 23, 2012: The challenge instances have been announced. Happy computing!. *Dec 27, 2011: Tim Mattson (Intel) has joined the ... 10th DIMACS Implementation Challenge - Graph Partitioning and Graph Clustering -. Co-sponsored by DIMACS and by the Command, ... Most contributions to the 10th Challenge can be found in the book (to be) published by AMS in Q1/2013 (see cover on the right ...
Uribes Constitutional Challenge. The heroic Colombian president is putting his gains at risk by trying for a third term.. ...
Ride Wisconsin Challenge• The Five Ws• How to Log your Rides• Challenge Points an… ... Welcome to the 2012 National Bike Challenge!• 2011 Get Up & ... Great Challenge. Had a fun time in the Wisconsin challenge last ... 2012 national bike challenge * 1. • Welcome to the 2012 National Bike Challenge!• 2011 Get Up & Ride Wisconsin Challenge• The ... Challenge and are awarded in the following two ways: • 20 Challenge points are awarded for each day you ride • 1 Challenge ...
EY Challenge is a three day Canada-wide challenge for university students interested in a career in professional services. ... EY Challenge Welcome to the EY Challenge. A three day Canada-wide challenge for university students interested in a career in ... About EY Challenge. More Information. Key Dates Individual campus info session dates are now available on our Key Dates & ... Participating in EY Challenge was one of the highlights of my year. From the campus competition to the national finals, EY ...
Through the Students Rebuild Ocean Challenge, students are joining in the global fight to save coral reefs and protect the ... Through the Ocean Challenge, we aim to help the next generation understand and embrace the role they can play in saving the ... The Students Rebuild Ocean Challenge provides students and educators with the opportunity to support ocean and coral reef ... The Ocean Challenge will run through June 8, 2019-World Oceans Day. ...
In this Image Challenge, Dr. Li and Dr. Kim present two peripheral blood smears and a bone marrow biopsy you can use to ... Take this Image Challenge by Drs. Shiraz Fiday and Geoffrey Wool to learn the diagnosis of a 73-year-old woman with hemolytic ... Take this Image Challenge by Dr. Lyndsey Runaas and Dr. Steven Kroft to determine the diagnosis for a 34-year-old woman with ... Take this image challenge to determine the diagnosis for a 65-year-old man who presented to clinic with one week of recurrent ...
Daily exercises challenge you to increase your mental capacity: they never repeat, and the better you do, the harder they get! ... Daily exercises challenge you to increase your mental capacity: they never repeat, and the better you do, the harder they get! ... Each challenging question is a perfect example of the entertaining brain exercise youll get while improving your Memory, ... Challenge your brain, monitor your progress, and watch your mental capacity grow! This game requires the Xbox 360 hard drive or ...
  • Without an appropriate diagnostic work-up, including food challenge procedures, there is a high risk of over and under-diagnosis and thus over and under-treatment. (nestlehealthscience.com)
  • but in the majority of cases, due to the genuine challenges facing primary healthcare professionals interpreting the mix of symptoms, there can be a considerable time lag before diagnosis by a specialist and application of a therapeutic diet. (nestlehealthscience.com)
  • There is no reliable biomarker for CMPA, and diagnosis must in most cases be confirmed by an elimination diet and food challenge. (nestlehealthscience.com)
  • There have been few steps forward in the management approach since the EuroPrevall study that showed that the time lag between the occurrence of symptoms and a food challenge can be 2 to 7 months. (nestlehealthscience.com)
  • In 2017 an independent advisory panel set eight new Grand Challenges inviting the world's top scientists to come together to propose novel ways to tackle them. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • The Challenge is part of a new partnership under the umbrella of Global Urbis, an ambitious global initiative announced during the One Planet Summit in Paris in December 2017 that provides cities and local governments around the globe with technical assistance and financing for climate action. (eib.org)
  • Regional winners from this campus finals travelled to our EY Toronto office in February 2016 for a 3-day business challenge unlike anything of its kind. (ey.com)
  • CME Group's 2016 Trading Challenge included ten contracts from six asset classes: Corn, Soybeans, Live Cattle, Bursa Malaysia Derivatives (BMD) Crude Palm Oil Futures, Crude Oil, Natural Gas, Gold, E-mini S&P 500, 10-Year U.S. Treasury Note, and EUR/USD Futures. (cmegroup.com)
  • June 29, 2016 -- Vice President Joe Biden challenged American researchers Wednesday to cram 10 years of work against cancer into 5 years by boosting clinical trials , enlisting big data, and making life-saving drugs cheaper. (webmd.com)
  • Winning teams from each region will be selected during the Campus Finals to travel to Toronto for the EY Challenge National Finals held on February 22nd - 24th 2018. (ey.com)
  • U.S. Secretary of Health and Human Services Alex Azar speaking at the 2018 AMR Challenge. (cdc.gov)
  • The Challenge kicked off and concluded at United Nations (UN) General Assembly side events in 2018 and 2019. (cdc.gov)
  • If your city/local government applies for the 2018 Transformative Actions Program managed by ICLEI, the Carbon Disclosure Project Matchmaker, or similar call for proposals and your project meets the eligibility criteria for the Challenge, you can also submit your existing application to [email protected] . (eib.org)
  • The Ocean Challenge will run through June 8, 2019-World Oceans Day. (nature.org)
  • Looking for a new challenge in 2019? (law.com)
  • RT Web Page DB /z-wcorg/ DS http://worldcat.org ID 1098173636 LA English UL https://public.ebookcentral.proquest.com/choice/publicfullrecord.aspx?p=5788968 T1 Blended cognition : the robotic challenge A1 Vallverdú, Jordi,, Müller, Vincent C.,, YR 2019 SN 9783030031046 3030031047 9783030031053 3030031055 AB This edited volume is about how unprejudiced approaches to real human cognition can improve the design of AI. (worldcat.org)
  • Thirteen students used their scientific know-how about our planet, along with their skills working with GIS technology and ArcGIS content, to win prizes in the Esri Global Content Challenge . (esri.com)
  • Global Water Challenge (GWC) describes itself as "a diverse coalition of leading organizations providing creative and sustainable solutions for universal access to safe drinking water and sanitation. (sourcewatch.org)
  • In 2008, the Clinton Global Initiative "announced a 'Water and Sanitation Mega-Commitment' by an alliance that includes the Global Water Challenge (GWC), WaterPartners , and the Water Supply & Sanitation Collaborative Council. (sourcewatch.org)
  • Like the 30-Day Challenge Series on FaceBook and/or Follow @skinnytinis on Twitter. (active.com)
  • The former captain of the Boston College baseball team drew inspiration from one of that club's post-game rituals and challenged some local athletes on Twitter to get iced. (mtv.com)
  • The ALS Ice Bucket Challenge was a tremendous event in our Association's history, raising $115 million in the summer of 2014. (alsa.org)
  • Since the ALS Ice Bucket Challenge soaked the world three years ago, something has become clear: August is for raising awareness and funds to fight ALS! (alsa.org)
  • Ice Bucket Mom' Nancy Frates shares her story and how she's fighting to find treatments and a cure for her son, Pete - one of the co-founders of the ALS Ice Bucket Challenge. (alsa.org)
  • When you participated in the ALS Ice Bucket Challenge, you contributed to a phenomenon that continues to fuel progress. (alsa.org)
  • There has, however, been at least one bright spot on the human frontier: the "ice-bucket challenge,'' which so far has raised more than a hundred million dollars for the A.L.S. Association, which supports research and care for those living with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, better known as Lou Gehrig's disease. (newyorker.com)
  • Are people participating in the ice-bucket challenge because it is about A.L.S. (newyorker.com)
  • Who Invented The Ice Bucket Challenge? (mtv.com)
  • By now you've sure seen one, or dozens of the videos of celebrities taking the "Strike out ALS Ice Bucket Challenge for Lou Gehrig's Disease. (mtv.com)
  • Fifteen new cases of the disease are diagnosed in the U.S. every day and the Ice Bucket Challenge -- in which the dunkee pours a bucket of ice water on their head and then challenges others to do the same within 24 hours or make a donation to fight ALS, or both -- has shined a light on the disease that currently has no cure. (mtv.com)
  • Esri sponsored the Global Content Challenge to introduce students to the Living Atlas of the World content and sharpen their GIS skills. (esri.com)
  • Wright said that the Global Content Challenge made students aware of content available from the Living Atlas of the World such as terrain, ocean, climate and weather, and population data. (esri.com)
  • Turn your time online into how you challenge MS. Playing video games, live streaming a music or comedy set, teaching art online, or creating YouTube content however you choose do it, you can ask your virtual community to support people affected by MS. (convio.net)
  • Turn your social media account into how you challenge MS. It takes less than 5 minutes to share why a world free of MS is important to you and ask your Facebook friends to donate to your campaign. (convio.net)
  • Unless you spent the summer in Antarctica, the mechanics of the challenge are no doubt familiar: dump a bucket of ice water on your head or make a donation-most people do both-and then challenge others to do it, too, and post it all on Facebook or some other social-media site. (newyorker.com)
  • Senerchia's Facebook web connected to Pat Quinn, a 31-year-old Yonkers, New York, ALS patient, who followed suit and asked his friend and family in Florida, Ireland and Greece to take the challenge. (mtv.com)
  • Keith Springer originally started doing the Springer Turkey Challenge in 1999 as a way of giving back to the Sacramento community with something that really makes a difference. (prweb.com)
  • The Challenge Tour Rankings have been calculated in Euros since 1999. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Nature Conservancy, Bezos Family Foundation and partners have joined in an exciting new partnership to launch an Ocean Challenge through Students Rebuild , a Bezos Family Foundation program that mobilizes the younger generation to take action on some of the world's most critical issues. (nature.org)
  • Upgrade to the full version of Brain Challenge™ to unlock twenty different mini-games in five brain-building categories. (xbox.com)
  • The trial version of Brain Challenge™ helps you evaluate your mental skills with five fun, adaptive mini-games. (xbox.com)
  • If players can handle the somewhat discouraging nature of Brain Challenge HD , playing these basic games daily could help them sharpen their mental saws. (commonsensemedia.org)
  • Parents need to know that Brain Challenge HD is a so-called "brain-training" game that tasks players to answer questions in disciplines such as logic and memory as quickly as they can. (commonsensemedia.org)
  • Designed after Nintendo's popular Brain Age games, BRAIN CHALLENGE HD for the iPad offers players more than two dozen brain exercises in Logic, Math, Memory, Visual, and Focus categories. (commonsensemedia.org)
  • Mr Murphy said rivals to national legal tender pose challenges to central banks' ability to influence the price of credit for the whole economy. (rte.ie)
  • While caring for the elderly financially and emotionally will pose challenges for societies, Fishman pointed out that it also gives families more time with loved ones. (theatlantic.com)
  • Google NYC accepted the NYC Carbon Challenge in 2013, committing to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions intensity by 30% from 2011 levels. (nyc.gov)
  • Since 2011, the tour has added events in Asia, such as the Gujarat Kensville Challenge (India), National Bank of Oman Golf Classic, Challenge Tour Grand Final (Oman), Ras Al Khaimah Golf Challenge (Dubai) and Foshan Open (China). (wikipedia.org)
  • We have no news or videos for Dexter's Laboratory: Chess Challenge . (gamespot.com)
  • After she took the challenge on several local news stations, she said it went viral and the rest is history. (mtv.com)
  • CME Group's 2015 Trading Challenge included nine contracts from six asset classes: Corn, Soybeans, Live Cattle, Crude Oil, Natural Gas, Gold, E-mini S&P 500, 10-Year U.S. Treasury Note, and EUR/USD Futures. (cmegroup.com)
  • Satisfying the climbing global demand for soybeans poses a huge challenge. (treehugger.com)
  • The motivation behind this challenge is the development of a nighttime face recognition capability for homeland security and defense. (google.com)
  • The motivation behind the First Year Challenge was to introduce students to research-based education as a prelude to the empirically-focused education they would receive in their first year in the economics department. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The London Challenge incorporated the 14-19 Pathfinders initiative which aimed to define and develop improved "learning pathways" for students in this age group. (wikipedia.org)
  • How can students at Auburn University contribute to the Leadership Challenge? (auburn.edu)
  • A three day Canada-wide challenge for university students interested in a career in professional services. (ey.com)
  • The competition brings together the best and brightest students from across Canada to compete in an interactive and exciting three day challenge. (ey.com)
  • From the campus competition to the national finals, EY Challenge provided me with the opportunity to meet a lot of people from EY as well as students from other universities, all while having lots of fun! (ey.com)
  • The Students Rebuild Ocean Challenge provides students and educators with the opportunity to support ocean and coral reef conservation while they learn about marine ecosystems and the communities that depend on them for survival. (nature.org)
  • The USGBC Louisiana Green Schools Challenge is empowering Louisiana's schools and students to make positive changes in their learning environments, school buildings and communities. (google.com)
  • Already, several students have written to say how challenging-in a good way-and thought-provoking the contest was, even if they didn't win a prize. (esri.com)
  • Campus challenge highlights World AIDS Day activism Trevor Wiles thinks many college students underestimate the power of their voice. (usatoday.com)
  • The ONE Campus Challenge asks students to "paint a picture of an AIDS free world" Dec. 1. (usatoday.com)
  • As the 25th annual observance of World AIDS Day on Dec. 1 approaches, the ONE Campus Challenge is asking students to "paint a picture of an AIDS free world. (usatoday.com)
  • The ONE Campus Challenge seems custom-made for students like Wiles. (usatoday.com)
  • Launched in 2007, the challenge is a platform for college students, transforming them into "savvy and effective leaders," who will unite in the fight against world poverty, says Meredith Horowski, the ONE Campus Challenge coordinator. (usatoday.com)
  • The challenge, which started Nov. 11 and ends Dec. 8, asks students to tweet or mail their pictures to members of Congress or local administrators, urging them to fund programs that fight HIV and AIDS. (usatoday.com)
  • Students at at Coolidge PrepSchool took the National Drug and Alcohol Facts Week IQ Challenge & shared why they want to #shatterthemyths on drugs & alcohol. (flickr.com)
  • A link to Practical Action's floating garden challenge and its related resources, where students are tasked with designing and building a model structure that will enable farmers to produce crops in areas that are liable to flooding. (rsc.org)
  • Challenge your brain, monitor your progress, and watch your mental capacity grow! (xbox.com)
  • Despite progress on many fronts, governments around the world are still confronted with the need to reform their existing water policies in order to meet current objectives and future challenges. (oecd.org)
  • You will progress through various levels of intensity to challenge your body as it develops strength and muscular endurance. (active.com)
  • Unfortunately, those constraints are being imposed just as America faces a growing strategic challenge. (nytimes.com)
  • CME Group's 2013 Trading Challenge included three contracts from two asset classes: Crude Oil, Gold and Corn Futures. (cmegroup.com)
  • VANCOUVER (Reuters) - A coalition of environmental groups launched a second legal challenge against Enbridge Inc's Northern Gateway crude oil pipeline on Friday, asking a Canadian court to quash federal approval that they say was based on a flawed report. (reuters.com)
  • Ofsted first reported on the impact of the London Challenge in 2006, and found that, between 2001 and 2005, London's GCSE results had improved faster in London than in England as a whole. (wikipedia.org)
  • The final goal is to publish proceedings containing results presented at the Challenge workshop, and a book containing the best of the proceedings papers. (gatech.edu)
  • The challenge results are online. (gatech.edu)
  • In this Image Challenge, Dr. Venkataraman and Dr. Sir Philip look at a 65-year-old patient with syncope and mild hepatosplenomegaly whose blood count results prompted a bone marrow biopsy. (hematology.org)
  • The results of the challenge exceeded our expectations,' said Lahnie Johnson, Founder and President of Acoustiblok. (prweb.com)
  • The results of the challenge exceeded our expectations and the Acoustiblok materials did what they were created to do. (prweb.com)
  • Once you finish the challenge, the App will present your results so that you know which hazards you successfully identified and those that you missed. (cdc.gov)
  • The results of the online challenge are compared to recent laboratory study results on mineworker's hazard recognition abilities. (cdc.gov)
  • Up to 1993 the Challenge Tour rankings were based on each player's best several results, but since 1994 it has been a straightforward money list, with all results counting. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most Challenge Tour events give 12 OWGR points to the winner, with those co-sanctioned by the European Tour earning 18 points. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Challenge Tour Grand Final gives 17 points to the winner. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2014, a number of events received slightly higher points totals, with three events earning a minimum of 13 points and the Challenge Tour Grand Final winner receiving 17 points, up from 16. (wikipedia.org)
  • As you accumulate Challenge Points, you will achieve prize levels. (slideshare.net)
  • Prize Level Challenge Points to Prize Drawing to be Achieve Level held Bronze 50 Monthly Silver 150 Monthly Gold 500 Monthly Platinum 1500 At end of Challenge Are you up for the Challenge? (slideshare.net)
  • Whether you complete one part of the challenge or all, check back in to the Ranger Station before leaving for your prize. (floridastateparks.org)
  • The Challenge is offered free to all individuals, workplaces and organizations. (slideshare.net)
  • The Challenge resulted in more than 350 organizations across the globe committing to slow AMR. (cdc.gov)
  • SoftLayer cloud powering the Citrix App Challenge and strategic enterprises cloud deployments worldwide. (citrix.com)
  • Yet governments around the world face significant challenges in managing their water resources effectively. (oecd.org)
  • The course includes real-world challenges that showcase the techniques Chris has shown for creating intriguing and beautiful color photographs. (lynda.com)
  • The YOR Best Body Challenge App brings the most fun and simple 8-week Health and Body Transformation System in the world to the palm of your hand! (apple.com)
  • High quality Challenge inspired Canvas Prints by independent artists and designers from around the world. (redbubble.com)
  • The first reported challenge took place on July 15 and, once the Beverly, Massachusetts, Frates, his family and friends started challenging each other, his notoriety in the Boston sports world drew attention to the stunt in that area. (mtv.com)
  • Residents are grumbling about traffic problems security preparations will create, while protesters are preparing to challenge talks on world trade. (voanews.com)
  • Put simply, if APEC can't get its act together on one of the biggest challenges that the world faces today - that is, climate change - the APEC will have no effective future. (voanews.com)
  • In this challenge, you are invited to enter two (not 1ne, but 2wo) separate identical entries- one entry in Full Colours, the other is the same shot in Black and White. (dpreview.com)
  • These entries were provided by the challenge host(s) as samples and cannot be voted on. (dpreview.com)
  • In his book, Bad Habits , humorist Dave Barry describes the Pepsi challenge as, "Pepsi's ongoing misguided attempt to convince the general public that Coke and Pepsi are not the same thing, which of course they are. (wikipedia.org)
  • I'd give yourself about five to seven minutes…in order to accomplish these challenges. (lynda.com)
  • This led to some of the intrepid group having to descend from Snowdon in the dark but being well-prepared all made it back safely, completing the whole challenge in a very creditable time of just under 33 hours. (prnewswire.com)
  • Had a fun time in the Wisconsin challenge last year. (slideshare.net)
  • Participants of the YOR Best Body Challenge must be at least 18 years of age at time of registration. (apple.com)
  • Before filming began Acoustiblok had to agree to the challenge ahead of time regardless of the outcome. (prweb.com)
  • Earlier in the program, we tricked our time challenge guinea pigs into thinking we were filming the science of chocolate, when really we were trying to distort their perception of time. (abc.net.au)
  • What global challenge(s) are you most interested in and why? (auburn.edu)
  • There were 14 of these yachts built, for the purpose of racing in the BT Global Challenge. (wikipedia.org)
  • Water is one of four key challenge areas identified as part of its technical strategy review alongside health & wellbeing, energy, and food & nutrition. (youtube.com)
  • In September 2011, Dr. David Lakey, president of the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO), challenged all states, the District of Columbia, and territories to sign a pledge to reduce preterm births by 8% by the end of 2014. (cdc.gov)
  • This Healthy Babies President's Challenge was issued in collaboration with the March of Dimes to create an achievable goal, support policies and programs that reduce premature birth, and expand awareness of state prematurity rates and related maternal and child health indicators. (cdc.gov)
  • The ASTHO President's Challenge asked health officials to implement strategies based on successful national, regional, and state efforts to reduce pre-term births. (cdc.gov)
  • The AMR Challenge encouraged a One Health approach, recognizing that the health of people is connected to the health of animals and the environment. (cdc.gov)
  • This review summarizes the newest achievements and challenges of additive manufacturing in the field of pharmaceutical and biomedical research that have been published since 2015. (drugpatentwatch.com)
  • The First Year Challenge is a multimedia assignment designed to introduce first year undergraduates to independent research and to academic collaboration. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Dr. Raina Merchant, an emergency medicine specialist, created the MyHeartMap challenge after she and her research team realized how little is known about where life-saving AED's are. (upenn.edu)
  • Living Building Challenge founder Jason McLennan What if every single act of design and construction made the. (inhabitat.com)
  • Confident that Acoustiblok would win the challenge, Lahnie Johnson, President and Founder of Acoustiblok, accepted the conditions and the filming of the show was put into production. (prweb.com)
  • Please do not enter long exposure shots, I will have that challenge in future. (dpreview.com)
  • Thank you to all of developers and sponsors who became part of the Citrix Developer community during the challenge, and we look forward to working with you in the future. (citrix.com)
  • Stay tuned for future updates on Head to Head Challenge. (mlb.com)
  • McClintock left future generations with the challenge of understanding how genomes respond to genetic and environmental stresses by mounting adaptive responses that frequently include genome restructuring. (pnas.org)
  • One of the main goals of the Challenge Fellows is to spread awareness about the relevance and importance of these global issues. (auburn.edu)
  • The inaugural EY Challenge kicked off on over 10 campus across Canada in November 2015. (ey.com)