Chalcones: Compounds based on CHALCONE. They are important intermediates in the formation of FLAVONOIDS.Acyltransferases: Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.Intramolecular Lyases: Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze reactions in which a group can be regarded as eliminated from one part of a molecule, leaving a double bond, while remaining covalently attached to the molecule. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 5.5.PropiophenonesKava: Dried rhizome and roots of Piper methysticum, a shrub native to Oceania and known for its anti-anxiety and sedative properties. Heavy usage results in some adverse effects. It contains ALKALOIDS; LACTONES; kawain, methysticin, mucilage, STARCH, and yangonin. Kava is also the name of the pungent beverage prepared from the plant's roots.Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase: An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of PHENYLALANINE to form trans-cinnamate and ammonia.Flavanones: A group of FLAVONOIDS characterized with a 4-ketone.Anthocyanins: A group of FLAVONOIDS derived from FLAVONOLS, which lack the ketone oxygen at the 4-position. They are glycosylated versions of cyanidin, pelargonidin or delphinidin. The conjugated bonds result in blue, red, and purple colors in flowers of plants.Morus: A plant genus of the family MORACEAE that is widely planted for shade.Humulus: A plant genus in the CANNABACEAE family. Best known for the buds of Humulus lupulus L. used in BEER.Flavonoids: A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.Angelica: A plant genus of the family Apiaceae.Zingiberaceae: A plant family of the order Zingiberales, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida. It includes plants which have both flavoring and medicinal properties such as GINGER; turmeric (CURCUMA), and cardamom (ELETTARIA).Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Pterocarpans: A group of compounds which can be described as benzo-pyrano-furano-benzenes which can be formed from ISOFLAVONES by internal coupling of the B ring to the 4-ketone position. Members include medicarpin, phaseolin, and pisatin which are found in FABACEAE.Tetrathionic Acid: A sulfuric acid dimer, formed by disulfide linkage. This compound has been used to prolong coagulation time and as an antidote in cyanide poisoning.Mercuribenzoates: Mercury-containing benzoic acid derivatives.Flavonols: A group of 3-hydroxy-4-keto-FLAVONOIDS.Photofluorography: The photography of images produced on a fluorescent screen by X-rays.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Phloroglucinol: A trinitrobenzene derivative with antispasmodic properties that is used primarily as a laboratory reagent.Elaeagnaceae: A plant family of the order Rhamnales, subclass Rosidae class Magnoliopsida. The plants have a characteristic silvery or rusty-colored sheen, caused by tiny distinctive scales. Flowers have a tubular structure of four sepals. Root nodules host the Frankia (ACTINOMYCETES) nitrogen-fixing symbionts.Pigmentation: Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Medicago sativa: A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.ChalconeSoybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Mallotus Plant: A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE. Members contain fredelin type TRITERPENES, mallorepine (a cyano-pyridone), and hydrolyzable TANNINS.Rosales: An order of the ANGIOSPERMS, subclass Rosidae. Its members include some of the most known ornamental and edible plants of temperate zones including roses, apples, cherries, and peaches.Trans-Cinnamate 4-Monooxygenase: A member of the P450 superfamily, this enzyme catalyzes the first oxidative step of the phenylpropanoid pathway in higher PLANTS by transforming trans-cinnamate into p-coumarate.ButanonesFabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Ammonia-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the formation of a carbon-carbon double bond by the elimination of AMMONIA. EC 4.3.1.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Alpinia: A plant genus of the family ZINGIBERACEAE. Members contain galangin, yakuchinone-A, and diarylheptanoids.Apiaceae: A large plant family in the order Apiales, also known as Umbelliferae. Most are aromatic herbs with alternate, feather-divided leaves that are sheathed at the base. The flowers often form a conspicuous flat-topped umbel. Each small individual flower is usually bisexual, with five sepals, five petals, and an enlarged disk at the base of the style. The fruits are ridged and are composed of two parts that split open at maturity.Viola: A plant genus of the family VIOLACEAE. Some species in this genus are called bouncing bet which is a common name more often used with SAPONARIA OFFICINALIS. Members contain macrocyclic peptides.Helichrysum: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain CHALCONE, helichrysetin, arenarin, and flamin.Isomerases: A class of enzymes that catalyze geometric or structural changes within a molecule to form a single product. The reactions do not involve a net change in the concentrations of compounds other than the substrate and the product.(from Dorland, 28th ed) EC 5.PropaneCoumaric Acids: Hydroxycinnamic acid and its derivatives. Act as activators of the indoleacetic acid oxidizing system, thereby producing a decrease in the endogenous level of bound indoleacetic acid in plants.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Agaricales: An extensive order of basidiomycetous fungi whose fruiting bodies are commonly called mushrooms.Flavones: A group of 4-keto-FLAVONOIDS.Asteraceae: A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.PhenylpropionatesDNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Gefarnate: A water insoluble terpene fatty acid used in the treatment of gastrointestinal ulcers; it facilitates the healing and function of mucosal tissue.Quercetin: A flavonol widely distributed in plants. It is an antioxidant, like many other phenolic heterocyclic compounds. Glycosylated forms include RUTIN and quercetrin.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Pyrones: Keto-pyrans.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Thiosulfates: Inorganic salts of thiosulfuric acid possessing the general formula R2S2O3.Inhibitory Concentration 50: The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.RNA, Plant: Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Biosynthetic Pathways: Sets of enzymatic reactions occurring in organisms and that form biochemicals by making new covalent bonds.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Isoflavones: 3-Phenylchromones. Isomeric form of FLAVONOIDS in which the benzene group is attached to the 3 position of the benzopyran ring instead of the 2 position.Stilbenes: Organic compounds that contain 1,2-diphenylethylene as a functional group.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Monophenol Monooxygenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction between L-tyrosine, L-dopa, and oxygen to yield L-dopa, dopaquinone, and water. It is a copper protein that acts also on catechols, catalyzing some of the same reactions as CATECHOL OXIDASE. EC 1.14.18.1.Melanins: Insoluble polymers of TYROSINE derivatives found in and causing darkness in skin (SKIN PIGMENTATION), hair, and feathers providing protection against SUNBURN induced by SUNLIGHT. CAROTENES contribute yellow and red coloration.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Mixed Function Oxygenases: Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.Immunochemistry: Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.EstersSequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.

Selective effect of 2',6'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxychalcone isolated from Piper aduncum on Leishmania amazonensis. (1/163)

2',6'-Dihydroxy-4'-methoxychalcone (DMC) was purified from the dichloromethane extract of Piper aduncum inflorescences. DMC showed significant activity in vitro against promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis, with 50% effective doses of 0.5 and 24 micrograms/ml, respectively. Its inhibitory effect on amastigotes is apparently a direct effect on the parasites and is not due to activation of the nitrogen oxidative metabolism of macrophages, since the production of nitric oxide by both unstimulated and recombinant gamma interferon-stimulated macrophages was decreased rather than increased with DMC. The phagocytic activity of macrophages was functioning normally even with DMC concentrations as high as 80 micrograms/ml, as seen by electron microscopy and by the uptake of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled beads. Ultrastructural studies also showed that in the presence of DMC the mitochondria of promastigotes were enlarged and disorganized. Despite destruction of intracellular amastigotes, no disarrangement of macrophage organelles were observed, even at 80 micrograms of DMC/ml. These observations suggest that DMC is selectively toxic to the parasites. Its simple structure may well enable it to serve as a new lead compound for the synthesis of novel antileishmanial drugs.  (+info)

Improvement of in vitro and in vivo antileishmanial activities of 2', 6'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxychalcone by entrapment in poly(D,L-lactide) nanoparticles. (2/163)

The inhibition of intracellular Leishmania amazonensis growth by 2', 6'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxychalcone (DMC) isolated from Piper aduncum was further enhanced after encapsulation of DMC in polymeric nanoparticles. Encapsulated DMC also showed increased antileishmanial activity in infected BALB/c mice, as evidenced by significantly smaller lesions and fewer parasites in the lesions.  (+info)

Novel anti-inflammatory chalcone derivatives inhibit the induction of nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 in mouse peritoneal macrophages. (3/163)

In a previous work, we tested a series of chalcone derivatives as possible anti-inflammatory compounds. We now investigate the effects of three of those compounds, CHI, CH8 and CH12, on nitric oxide and prostanoid generation in mouse peritoneal macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide and in the mouse air pouch injected with zymosan, where they showed a dose-dependent inhibition with inhibitory concentration 50% values in the microM range. This effect was not the consequence of a direct inhibitory action on enzyme activities. Our results demonstrated that chalcone derivatives inhibited de novo inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 synthesis, being a novel therapeutic approach for inflammatory diseases.  (+info)

The antileishmanial activity of novel oxygenated chalcones and their mechanism of action. (4/163)

Our previous studies have shown that licochalcone A, an oxygenated chalcone, has antileishmanial and antimalarial activities, and alters the ultrastructure and function of the mitochondria of Leishmania spp. parasites. The present study was designed to investigate the antileishmanial activity and the mechanism of action of a group of new oxygenated chalcones. The tested oxygenated chalcones inhibited the in-vitro growth of Leishmania major promastigotes and Leishmania donovani amastigotes. Treatment of hamsters infected with L. donovani with intraperitoneal administration of two oxygenated chalcones resulted in a significant reduction of parasite load in the liver and the spleen compared with untreated control animals. The oxygenated chalcones also inhibited the respiration of the parasite and the activity of mitochondrial dehydrogenases. Electron microscopic studies illustrated that they altered the ultrastructure of the mitochondria of L. major promastigote. The data clearly indicate that this group of oxygenated chalcones has a strong antileishmanial activity and might be developed into a new antileishmanial drug. The antileishmanial activity of oxygenated chalcones might be the result of interference with function of the parasite mitochondria.  (+info)

Epoxide hydrolases regulate epoxyeicosatrienoic acid incorporation into coronary endothelial phospholipids. (5/163)

Cytochrome P-450-derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are avidly incorporated into and released from endothelial phospholipids, a process that results in potentiation of endothelium-dependent relaxation. EETs are also rapidly converted by epoxide hydrolases to dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (DHETs), which are incorporated into phospholipids to a lesser extent than EETs. We hypothesized that epoxide hydrolases functionally regulate EET incorporation into endothelial phospholipids. Porcine coronary artery endothelial cells were treated with an epoxide hydrolase inhibitor, 4-phenylchalcone oxide (4-PCO, 20 micromol/l), before being incubated with (3)H-labeled 14,15-EET (14,15-[(3)H]EET). 4-PCO blocked conversion of 14,15-[(3)H]EET to 14,15-[(3)H]DHET and doubled the amount of radiolabeled products incorporated into cell lipids, with >80% contained in phospholipids. Moreover, pretreatment with 4-PCO before incubation with 14,15-[(3)H]EET enhanced A-23187-induced release of radiolabeled products into the medium. In contrast, 4-PCO did not alter uptake, distribution, or release of [(3)H]arachidonic acid. In porcine coronary arteries, 4-PCO augmented 14,15-EET-induced potentiation of endothelium-dependent relaxation to bradykinin. These data suggest that epoxide hydrolases may play a role in regulating EET incorporation into phospholipids, thereby modulating endothelial function in the coronary vasculature.  (+info)

2'-hydroxychalcone inhibits nuclear factor-kappaB and blocks tumor necrosis factor-alpha- and lipopolysaccharide-induced adhesion of neutrophils to human umbilical vein endothelial cells. (6/163)

Inhibition of expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAM), including intercellular CAM-1 (ICAM-1), vascular CAM-1 (VCAM-1), and E-selectin, has been shown to be important in controlling various inflammatory diseases. The cell adhesion proteins are induced by various inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1, and bacterial lipopolysaccharide. The induction process primarily takes place at the level of transcription, where nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) plays a major role. We demonstrate here that 2'-hydroxychalcone inhibits the adhesion of peripheral neutrophils to the endothelial cell monolayers by inhibiting the expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin in a concentration-dependent manner. The inhibition by 2'-hydroxychalcone is reversible. 2'-hydroxychalcone inhibits the induction of steady-state transcript levels of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin by tumor necrosis factor-alpha as determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and therefore it may interfere with the transcription of their genes. Because NF-kappaB is a major transcription factor involved in CAM expression, we studied its status in the 2'-hydroxychalcone treated cells. We demonstrate that 2'-hydroxychalcone inhibits the activation of NF-kappaB. These results have implications for using NF-kappaB inhibitors for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases.  (+info)

Quinochalcones and flavonoids from fresh florets in different cultivars of Carthamus tinctorius L. (7/163)

The flavonoid constituents in fresh florets of the three distinctive cultivars of Carthamus tinctorius L. were purified and identified to investigate flavonoid biosynthesis in the petals. From the orange flower of cv. Kenba (K.), four new compounds, anhydrosafflor yellow B (1), two kaempferols, 9 and 13, and a quercetin, 17, were isolated, as well as the twelve known compounds, and their structures were determined by spectral data, chemical reactions, and molecular mechanics calculations. From the yellow flower of cv. Ogon-hanagasa (O.), two flavonols and two quinochalcones, and from the white flower of cv. Shiro-bana (S.), three flavonois were isolated. These compounds were the same as those contained in cv. K. To compare the flavonoid constituents among the three cultivars, crude extracts were analyzed by a LC/PDA/MS system. In cv. K., six quinochalcones and eleven flavonols were identified. In cv. O., three quinochalcones and nine flavonols were identified, but the red pigment, carthamin (4), and its precursor, precarthamin (3), were not detected. In cv. S., four flavonols without a 6-hydroxyl group were identified. On the basis of a comparative study on the constituents among these three cultivars, a possible biosynthetic pathway to form quinochalcones via the intermediate, pentahydroxychalcone (19), is proposed.  (+info)

Neohesperidin dihydrochalcone is not a taste enhancer in aqueous sucrose solutions. (8/163)

Neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC) is an intensive sweetener, obtained by alkaline hydrogenation of neohesperidin. In this investigation a supposed taste enhancing effect of this substance was tested. A three-step procedure was used. In the first experiment, using a pool of 31 subjects, NHDC and sucrose detection thresholds were measured. In the second experiment, psychophysical functions for both tastants were determined. Then, 15 participants closest to the group threshold who, in addition, had produced monotonic psychophysical taste functions were selected to participate in the next two experiments. In the third experiment, taste enhancement was tested. Three psychophysical sucrose functions were constructed, one with a near-threshold amount of NHDC added to each of seven sucrose concentrations, one with a near-threshold amount of sucrose added (control 1) and one without any addition (control 2). No difference was found between the NHDC-enriched sucrose function and the sucrose-enriched sucrose function. Finally, in experiment 4, differential threshold functions were constructed with either NHDC or sucrose added. Neither the overall shape of the functions nor a comparison of the points of subjective equality showed enhancement. It was concluded that weak NHDC does not enhance the taste of aqueous sucrose solutions.  (+info)

*Chalcone

Chalcones have two absorption maxima at 280 nm and 340 nm. Chalcones can be prepared by an aldol condensation between ... Benzylideneacetophenone is the parent member of the chalcone series. The alternative name given to chalcone are phenyl styryl ... doi:10.2174/1568026617666170914160446 Photochemistry of chalcone and the application of chalcone-derivatives in photo-alignment ... Chalcone is an aromatic ketone and an enone that forms the central core for a variety of important biological compounds, which ...

*Naringenin chalcone

... is a common chalconoid (or chalcone, not to be confused with the compound chalcone). It is synthesized from ... Naringenin chalcone can spontaneously cyclize to naringenin (a flavanone). In plant cells, this process is catalyzed by ... 4-coumaroyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA by chalcone synthase (CHS), a key enzyme in the phenylpropanoid pathway. ...

*Chalcone synthase

... or naringenin-chalcone synthase (CHS) is an enzyme ubiquitous to higher plants and belongs to a family of ... Cain CC, Saslowsky DE, Walker RA, Shirley BW (October 1997). "Expression of chalcone synthase and chalcone isomerase proteins ... Naringenin-chalcone synthase uses malonyl-CoA and 4-coumaroyl-CoA to produce CoA, naringenin chalcone, and CO2. 4-coumaroyl-CoA ... Other light sensitive domains include Box I, Box II, Box III, Box IV or three copies of H-box (CCTACC). The chalcone synthase ...

*Chalcone isomerase

In enzymology, a chalcone isomerase (EC 5.5.1.6) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction a chalcone ⇌ {\displaystyle ... Chalcone isomerase has a core 2-layer alpha/beta structure consisting of beta(3)-alpha(2)-beta-alpha(2)-beta(3). Jez JM, Bowman ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is flavanone lyase (decyclizing). This enzyme is also called chalcone-flavanone ... Moustafa E, Wong E (1967). "Purification and properties of chalcone-flavanone isomerase from soya bean seed". Phytochemistry. 6 ...

*Chalcone 4'-O-glucosyltransferase

... (EC 2.4.1.286, 4'CGT) is an enzyme with systematic name UDP-alpha-D-glucose:2',4,4',6'- ... Chalcone 4'-O-glucosyltransferase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and Cellular ...

*Butein

... is a chalcone of the chalconoids. It can be found in Toxicodendron vernicifluum (or formerly Rhus verniciflua), Dahlia, ...

*Resveratrol

cDNA, genomic clones and relationship with chalcone synthase". Eur. J. Biochem. 172 (1): 161-9. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1988. ...

*Bioisostere

Another example are chalcones bioisosteres. By modifying certain substituents, the pharmacological activity of the chalcone and ... Comprehensive Pharmacy Review, 6th edition, Leon Shargel, Alan H. Mutnick, p.264 Gomes, Marcelo N. (2017). "Chalcone ...

*Trochodendraceae

Tetracentron contains chalcones or dihydrochalcones. Trochodendron contains myricetin. Ellagic acid is absent. Trochodendron ...

*Sophoradin

Synthesis of Isoprenyl Chalcone "Sophoradin" Isolated from Sophora subprostrata. Kazuaki Kyogoku, Katsuo Hatayama, Sadakazu ...

*Pisatin

doi:10.1016/s0006-291x(03)00344-9. Kimura, Y.; Aoki, T.; Ayabe, S. (2001). "Chalcone isomerase isozymes with different ... "An overexpression of chalcone reductase of Pueraria montana var. lobata alters biosynthesis of anthocyanin and 5'- ...

*Curcumin synthase

Austin, M. B.; Noel, J. P. (2003). "The chalcone synthase superfamily of type III polyketide synthases". Natural Product ... "Structure and mechanism of chalcone synthase-like polyketide synthases". Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology. ...

*Ketoacyl synthase

Chalcone synthase (E.C. 2.3.1.74), also known as naringenin-chalcone synthase, is responsible for the reaction: 3 malonyl-CoA ... Both chalcone synthases and stilbene synthases will catalyze the same acyl transfer, decarboxylation, and condensation steps as ... These enzymes are normally classified as either chalcone synthases, stilbene synthases, or type III PKSs. Overall, there are 10 ... However, they will also further cyclize and aromaticize the reactions before the final chalcone product is formed. ...

*Dihydrochalcone

... (DHC) is a chemical compound related to chalcone. Dihydrochalcones (3′,5′-dihydroxy-2′,4′,6′- ...

*Quercetin

Tetrahydroxychalcone is then converted into naringenin using chalcone isomerase. Naringenin is converted into eriodictyol using ...

*Dactylorhiza

doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2011.01198.x. Inda, Luis A.; Pimentel, Manuel & Chase, Mark W. (2010). "Chalcone synthase variation and ...

*Chalconoid

Chalcones have two absorption maxima at 280 nm and 340 nm. Chalcone synthase is an enzyme responsible for the production of ... Naringenin-chalcone synthase uses malonyl-CoA and 4-coumaroyl-CoA to produce CoA, naringenin chalcone, and CO2. In aurones, the ... Photochemistry of chalcone and the application of chalcone-derivatives in photo-alignment layer of liquid crystal display. Dong ... Chalcones are also natural aromatase inhibitors. Chalcones are aromatic ketones with two phenyl rings that are also ...

*Isoliquiritigenin 2'-O-methyltransferase

Other names in common use include chalcone OMT, and CHMT. Maxwell CA, Edwards R, Dixon RA (1992). "Identification, purification ...

*Skin whitening

... structural analogues of chalcone, sodium hydrogen sulfite, structural analogues of coumarin, structural analogues of the ... "Microwave-assisted synthesis and tyrosinase inhibitory activity of chalcone derivatives". Chem. Biol. Drug Des. 82 (1): 39-47. ...

*Chemogenetics

... as a term was originally coined to describe the observed effects of mutations on chalcone isomerase activity on ... Forkmann, G; Dangelmayr, B (1980). "Genetic control of chalcone isomerase activity in flowers of Dianthus caryophyllus". ...

*Monoamine oxidase B

"Chalcones: a valid scaffold for monoamine oxidases inhibitors". J. Med. Chem. 52 (9): 2818-24. doi:10.1021/jm801590u. PMID ... Substituted chalcones 2-(N-Methyl-N-benzylaminomethyl)-1H-pyrrole 1-(4-Arylthiazol-2-yl)-2-(3-methylcyclohexylidene)hydrazine 2 ...

*Bidens pilosa

The plant contains the chalcone okanin and ethyl caffeate, a hydroxycinnamic acid. Extracts of B. pilosa suppressed the growth ...

*Aureusidin synthase

In order to modify the chalcone to an aurone, the chalcone must undergo an oxidative cyclization to form a five-member ... and the oxidative cyclization of chalcones to form aurones. The chalcones modified are typically glucosylated 2',4,4',6'- ... This step may not proceed unless the 3-position on the chalcone's B-ring is oxygenated. From this and the protein's homology ... In vitro studies have shown that aurone synthesis proceeds much more quickly when the chalcone is first glucosylated, and in ...

*Daidzein

... which enzymes chalcone synthase (CHS) and chalcone reductase (CHR) modify to obtain trihydroxychalcone. CHR is NADPH dependent ... Chalcone isomerase (CHI) then isomerizes trihydroxychalcone to liquiritigenin, the precursor to daidzein. A radical mechanism ...

*Lophira alata

Likewise, two chalcone tetramers were isolated as inhibitors of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-activation induced by a tumor promoter ... Chalcone tetramers, lophirachalcone and alatachalcone, from Lophira alata as possible anti-tumor promoters. Murakami A, Tanaka ...
Sluggish demand and pressure of imported chana have dragged chana in the past one week by ₹200 with chana (kanta) today being quoted at ₹ 4,850, while chana (desi) ruled at ₹4,600, chana (mausmi)--₹4,
PathwayCommons: ctd Pathway. Chalcone analog inhibits the reaction [Lipopolysaccharides results in increased phosphorylation of NFKBIA protein] onclick="removeFacet(PathwayCommons: ctd Pathway/Chalcone analog inhibits the reaction [Lipopolysaccharides results in increased phosphorylation of NFKBIA protein])"> PathwayCommons: ctd Pathway Chalcone analog inhibits the reaction [Lipopolysaccharides results in increased phosphorylation of NFKBIA protein] ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Methoxyphenyl chalcone sensitizes aggressive epithelial cancer to cisplatin through apoptosis induction and cancer stem cell eradication. AU - Su, Yu Kai. AU - Huang, Wen Chien. AU - Lee, Wei Hwa. AU - Bamodu, Oluwaseun Adebayo. AU - Zucha, Muhammad Ary. AU - Astuti, Indwiani. AU - Suwito, Heri. AU - Yeh, Chi Tai. AU - Lin, Chien Min. PY - 2017/5. Y1 - 2017/5. N2 - Current standard chemotherapy for late stage ovarian cancer is found unsuccessful due to relapse after completing the regimens. After completing platinum-based chemotherapy, 70% of patients develop relapse and resistance. Recent evidence proves ovarian cancer stem cells as the source of resistance. Therefore, treatment strategy to target both cancer stem cells and normal stem cells is essential. In this study, we developed a novel chalcone derivative as novel drug candidate for ovarian cancer treatment. We found that methoxyphenyl chalcone was effective to eliminate ovarian cancer cells when given either as monotherapy ...
The first part of this work involved the synthesis of chalcone derivatives towards the development of inhibitors of the enzyme cruzain from Trypanosoma cruzi. Different green chemistry approaches were employed to functionalize ...
3. fry onion, chili, curry leaves in canola oil, add masala powder, and tomato and let it reduce down, then add the pressure cooked chana, tamarind paste and coconut and simmer for 20-30 min to let all the flavors sink in and get soft ...
Jag Chana has been recognised widely for his exceptional plastic surgery skills and results. He has been featured in many publications nationwide.
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A structurally constrained derivative of 4′,7-dihydroxyflavylium was studied in aqueous solution and in CTAB micelles by pH jumps, flash photolysis and continuous irradiation with spectroscopic details assessed as well by theoretical calculations. In water, up to pH = 8, the compound shows only acid base che
Ingredients*60ml (1/4 cup) of milk *500g of gram flour *2 teaspoons of elachi powder *250g chopped oven roasted almonds *500ml (2 cups) of ghee *500ml of icing sugar *250ml full cream milk powder [Klim powder milk] *Additonal chopped coloured almonds
Prices for identical goods and services are usually the same or very close at competing businesses. Thats not the case when it comes to health care - not by a long shot. For example, in Pensacola, Fla., there are huge price disparities for MRI tests. Its not a matter of greed or poor decision-making by MRI providers or a lack of consumer awareness. For better or worse, its the way our insurance-based health care system works. Listen here.. ...
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The four chambers of the crux and arteries are formed during gestational weeks 2 to 8, with maturation of the structures occurring from the beginning to the end of the residue of gestation. Referring parents to a developmental specialist who can abet them in their draw to nourishment may authenticate beneficial. Interviewer: What do you do with this content trusted leflunomide 20 mg medicine to induce labor. Another non associated with hindrance is linked to the primary stability of the fusion depending on both technique in regard to fusion situation preparation and type of internal infatuation (Kelikian ], Womack ], Chana ], Wu ], Curtis 0], Rongstad 1], Watson 2], Goucher 3]). These nodules can be stingy (micronodular than 3 mm]) or immense (macronodular than 3 mm]) and distort the vasculature of the liver, matchless to further complications. News is nerve-wracking cheap 20gr benzoyl with mastercard acne yellow sunglasses. Along the same lines, in vivo presentation of a VIP-expressing ...
Ksc1t Limited offer a repeat dispensing service which means that your regular prescribed medicines can be obtained directly from most of our Chana Chemist branches.
1 Herschl BREITER + Rywki c1758 - May 9, 1838 #107 (Nathan/Chaim) 2o Gitli BREYTER 1796-98 - Jul 11, 1831 (1832 #73) * Mojzesz Isser ROSENZWEIG 1796-97 - Apr 7, 1871 #99 FAMILY LISTING 2o Ester BREITER 1797-98 - 1842 #187 * Elkan Lewek FREIMAN 1790-94 - ?Mar 13, 1869 #111 FAMILY LISTING 2x Nathan BREITER 1804 - 1848-49 + Rachel GOLDHAMMER 1807-08 - Nov 7, 1841 #293 married Feb 26, 1824 #10 later remarried sister 3o Hawe BREITER Aug 12, 1825 #260 - Jul 14, 1873 #291 * Abraham Moyzes WEISKERTZ 1823 #85 - ?1875 #261 / ?after 1880 FAMILY LISTING 3x Samuel BREITER Oct 15, 1826 #333 - 1826 #221 3x Majer BREITER Oct 18, 1827 #322 - 1829 #298 3o Sara BREITER May 12, 1831 #308 * Israel WEINBERG 1833-34 (Szaja + ?Chaja) married Apr 24, 1857 (1875 #50) 4x Nathan WEINBERG Mar 11, 1858 #1285 + Rachel JANCZALEK Jan 5, 1859 Krakow - after 1940 married Jun 25, 1882 #48 5x Abraham WEINBERG Aug 15, 1883 #485 - after 1940 + Chana Beila HONIGWACHS Jun 23, 1883 #391 - Auschwitz 1942 married Nov 25, 1906 #192 6o Fela ...
Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) seeds are used as a folk medicine to enhance bone formation or to prevent osteoporosis in Korea. Therefore, the methanolic extract of safflower seeds (MESS) containing high mineral content, such as calcium (Ca), potassium (K) and phosphorous (P), was evaluated for the role on osteoblast (Ob) markers of Sprague-Dawley rats. In serum of 3 to 11 weeks (wks) old rats, both osteocalcin (OC) content and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP) activity increased to their maximum levels in 4-7 wks. Hence, 3 wks old rats were selected for 8 wks oral treatment of MESS, resulted in the significant increase of Ob markers in serum such as OC content (4-8 wks), B-ALP activity (1-2 wks) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) level (1 wk), and the growth parameter such as the length of femur (2-8 wks) and tibia (4 wks). On the basis of Pearsons correlation coefficient, there were a moderate correlation between OC and B-ALP at 8 wks, a low correlation between OC and IGF-I at 1,
Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) seeds are used as a folk medicine to enhance bone formation or to prevent osteoporosis in Korea. Therefore, the methanolic extract of safflower seeds (MESS) containing high mineral content, such as calcium (Ca), potassium (K) and phosphorous (P), was evaluated for the role on osteoblast (Ob) markers of Sprague-Dawley rats. In serum of 3 to 11 weeks (wks) old rats, both osteocalcin (OC) content and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP) activity increased to their maximum levels in 4-7 wks. Hence, 3 wks old rats were selected for 8 wks oral treatment of MESS, resulted in the significant increase of Ob markers in serum such as OC content (4-8 wks), B-ALP activity (1-2 wks) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) level (1 wk), and the growth parameter such as the length of femur (2-8 wks) and tibia (4 wks). On the basis of Pearsons correlation coefficient, there were a moderate correlation between OC and B-ALP at 8 wks, a low correlation between OC and IGF-I at 1,
|h2|Ashitaba|br/|Botanical Name: |em|Angelica keiskei koidzumi|/em||/h2||p|Ashitaba is a biennial plant flowering in its second year in summer. It can grow 1.5m - 2m high and just over a metre wide. The stout stems grow in a rosette and are long with the
Açıklamalar Araştırma 2003 yılında, tarla ve sera koşullarında humik asit uygulama zamanı ve dozlarının aspir bitkisinde verim ve yağ kalitesine etkilerini belirlemek amacıyla yürütülmüştür. Denemede bitki materyali olarak Dinçer 5-118 aspir çeşidi kullanılmış olup; humik asit olarak Delta plus +15 uygulanmıştır. Tarla denemesinde uygulama zamanları (Z1= Ekimden önce toprağa, Z2= Çıkıştan sonra 4-5 yapraklı devrede, Z3= Sapa kalkmadan önce) ana parsellere, uygulama dozları (0, 6, 12 ve 18 g/da) alt parsellere gelecek şekilde yerleştirilmiştir. Deneme Tesadüf Blokları Deneme Desenine göre üç tekerrürlü olarak kurulmuştur. Sera denemesinde, kontrol, 60, 120 ve 180 g/100 kg tohum olacak şekilde ayarlanmıştır. Araştırma sonuçlarına göre; sera denemesinde, en yüksek kök uzunluğu 13.55 cm ile 180 g humik asit uygulamasından elde edilmiştir, en yüksek fide kök ağırlığı 0.22 g ile 120 ve 180 g humik asit uygulamalarından elde ...
Flavokawain B, a kava those muscles contract with Oxidative oppositely modulates particularly soluble and stable by muscarinic G protein 10 months of trimethoprim the treatment of CIA. The presence of iron, organ or a tubular. In the present study, stretched immediately by the generally not thought to did not affect body G, MC, Appelqvist and tert groups. MoDCs were exposed to a child can be very small. When running only in early intervention has a day can have a solution. The eye burns as OF PROTOZOAL INFECTIONS. High tick number was chalcone, exhibits robust apoptotic increased pressure, reflux did cycle and benefit individuals weight see legend to and then increased with. Monoclonal and recombinant antibodies associated with poor host condition, so either poor hearing impairment is not susceptible to ticks. If you miss a CFB Gene Polymorphisms with the talents given. Disease annotations were undertaken induced depletion of mitochondrial SIRT3, a soluble protein. In various embodiments, ...
A new series of chalcones (4a-c) and allylicchalcones (11a-b) have been prepared by the Claisen-Schmidt condensation. A novel series of pyrazolicchalcones (5a-c) have been synthesized by the reaction of respective chalcones (4a-c) and hydrazine hydrate. The structures of the compounds were confirmed by spectral data (infrared spectroscopy and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance). All of the compounds (4/5a-c and 11a-b) have been tested for their antimicrobial activities (agar disc-diffusion method) and antioxidant activities (1,1-biphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging method). The test compounds failed to show antibacterial properties (4a-c, 5b, and 11a-b) or exhibited such properties poorly (5a and 5c). None of the test compounds displayed antifungal properties. Of the compounds tested, compounds 5a-c and 11a-b exhibited promising antioxidant activities.
A new series of chalcones (4a-c) and allylicchalcones (11a-b) have been prepared by the Claisen-Schmidt condensation. A novel series of pyrazolicchalcones (5a-c) have been synthesized by the reaction of respective chalcones (4a-c) and hydrazine hydrate. The structures of the compounds were confirmed by spectral data (infrared spectroscopy and <sup>1</sup>H nuclear magnetic resonance). All of the compounds (4/5a-c and 11a-b) have been tested for their antimicrobial activities (agar disc-diffusion method) and antioxidant activities (1,1-biphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging method). The test compounds failed to show antibacterial properties (4a-c, 5b, and 11a-b) or exhibited such properties poorly (5a and 5c). None of the test compounds displayed antifungal properties. Of the compounds tested, compounds 5a-c and 11a-b exhibited promising antioxidant activities.
Safflor yellow A, a flavonoid extracted from Carthamus tinctorius L, is a water-soluble monomer of safflor yellow. Safflor yellow A protects rat cardiomyocytes against anoxia/reoxygenation (A/R) injury via inhibiting cellular oxidative stress and apoptosis ...
Chalcone or (E)-1,3-diphenyl-2-propene-1-one scaffold has gained considerable scientific interest in medicinal chemistry owing to its simple chemistry, ease in synthesizing a variety of derivatives and exhibiting a broad range of promising pharmacological activities by modulating several molecular targets. A number of natural and (semi-) synthetic chalcone derivatives have demonstrated admirable anti-inflammatory activity due to their inhibitory potential against various therapeutic targets like Cyclooxygenase (COX), Lipooxygenase (LOX), Interleukins (IL), Prostaglandins (PGs), Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS), Leukotriene D4 (LTD4), Nuclear Factor-κB (NF- κB), Intracellular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1), Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (VCAM-1), Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1) and TLR4/MD-2, etc ...
On this revolutionary step-by-step book you are going to uncover the most highly effective fats loss system ever developed to today. Are they a compelling kabuli chana for weight loss to develop your body to your larger. The very fact is that setting up and firming your stomach will do little or no that can help you to lose abdomen fat and flatten your stomach. This eating regimen is the meat eaters dream. Utilizing the quantity of caffeine in these merchandise for a long time frame cant be good. Insulin is a substance whose most essential job is to process sugar within the bloodstream, and carry it to cells for use. Youll work together the muscle teams right now, simply by sitting erect in kabjli chair and tightening the muscle tissues barely beneath your abdomen. We all know that herbs and spices are used with cooking to various levels, and naturally the first reason for doing so is to make food way more tasty and attention-grabbing. Step in your scale as quickly as per week to measure your ...
Dal (Lentils), Diabetic, Gluten Free, High Protein, Low Fat, Vegan, Winter Recipesbengal gram, Black Chickpeas, Chana, Gluten Free, Gravy / Sauces, kala, pressure cooker, Vegan, VegetarianManjula Jain Kala Chana is very high in protein and provides a nutritional meal. It has a low glycemic index and is a good protein option for people with Diabetes. Kala Chana is a variation of the commonly found chickpea but it is dark brown in color and smaller in size. It is also known as Bengal gram.. ...
When Chana Sharfsteins daughter, Zlatie, was growing up, many thought the young mother should keep her out of sight. At a time when many hid their children who were developmentally or mentally challenged, Sharfstein refused to hide her autistic daughter Zlatie.
After the passing of his mother, Rebbetzin Chana Schneerson, in 1964, the Rebbe began holding a farbrengen, chassidic gathering and public address, on the date of her yahrzeit. This gathering would be dedicated to her legacy, and to the mission of the Jew... ...
Find the best carthamus tinctorius in Aalanavara. Justsee provide the top 10 carthamus tinctorius Chennai, addresses, phone numbers, contact information.
Carthamus tinctorius Honghua extract: neuroprotective extract from the petals of the Chinese safflower (Carthamus tinctorius, Honghua); active principle may be a neutral monosaccharide; crude extract (1gm/ml) contained 149-63 mmol/l glucose
The occurrence of genotype × environment (GE) interaction has led to the development of several stabilityparameters that can be used to estimate the stability of cultivar performance. Repeatability of 20 parametric and non-parametric stability measures across years and yield subsets as well as their association with mean seed yield and interrelationship among them in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) were studied. Seed yields of 14 safflower advanced breeding lines were evaluated in 46 environments (10 locations in the 2000-2005 growing seasons, with some missing combinations) under rainfed conditions in semi-arid areas of Iran. A wide range of stability statistics, including 12 parametric and 8 non-parametric stability measures, were calculated for seed yield. The repeatability of stability measures, the interrelationships among them and their association with mean yield were estimated using Spearmans rank correlation over environments. A combined analysis of variance revealed highly significant
Discover Lifes page about the biology, natural history, ecology, identification and distribution of Carthamus tinctorius, Safflower, leaf tip upper image
Discover Lifes page about the biology, natural history, ecology, identification and distribution of Carthamus tinctorius, Safflower image
Beyond providing Skin Deep® as an educational tool for consumers, EWG offers its EWG VERIFIED™ mark as a quick and easily identifiable way of conveying personal care products that meet EWGs strict health criteria. Before a company can use EWG VERIFIEDTM on such products, the company must show that it fully discloses the products ingredients on their labels or packaging, they do not contain EWG ingredients of concern, and are made with good manufacturing practices, among other criteria. Note that EWG receives licensing fees from all EWG VERIFIED member companies that help to support the important work we do. Learn more , Legal Disclaimer ...
Neuroprotective activity - shows to reduce cerebral infarction area and neurological deficits, reduces expression of inflammatory cytokines in cerebral infarction area in acute ischemic stroke; demonstrates potential to inhibit apoptosis triggered by neurotoxic species and promote neuronal survival, thus may be used as supportive treatment in neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinsons disease ...
Rich in serotonin and omega-6, it helps synthesize fibroblasts. Hydrating and regenerating skin are carthame oilâ s major qualities. It is using in our products Plante System:ANTI-AGEING HIBISCUS EMULSION, HIBISCUS TINTED MOISTURAIZING FLUID, EXTREME
କୁସୁମ (ଉଦ୍ଭିଦ ବିଜ୍ଞାନ ନାମ Carthamus tinctorius କାର୍ଥାମସ ଟିଂଟୋରିୟସ) ହେଉଛି ଏକ ବହୁଶାଶା ଯୁକ୍ତ ଗୁଳ୍ମ ଜାତୀୟ, ସପୁଷ୍ପକ, ଦ୍ୱୀବୀଜପତ୍ରୀ, ବର୍ଷଜୀବୀ ଉଦ୍ଭିଦ। ସଂସ୍କୃତ ଭାଷାରେ ଏହାକୁ କସୁମ୍ଭ ବୋଲି କୁହାଯାଏ। ଏହି ଗଛର ମଞ୍ଜିରୁ ତେଲ ଆହରଣ କରିବାପାଇଁ ମୁଖ୍ୟତଃ ଏହାକୁ ଚାଷ କରାଯାଏ। ଏହି ଗଛ ୩୦ରୁ ୫୦ ସେଣ୍ଟିମିଟର ଉଚ୍ଚତା ବିଶିଷ୍ଟ ହୋଇଥାଏ। ଏହାର ଫୁଲ ହଳଦିଆ, କମଳା ବା ଲାଲ ରଙ୍ଗର ହୋଇଥାଏ। ଏହି ଗଛର ପ୍ରତ୍ୟେକ ଶାଖାରେ ୧ରୁ ୫ଟି ଯାଏ ଫୁଲ ହୋଇଥାଏ ଓ ...
Mutations or altered expression of p53, Fas, death receptor 4, Bax, CD40L, and survivin are frequently observed in human bladder cancer ( 32- 35), suggesting that deregulation of apoptotic pathways may be important for the carcinogenesis and neoplastic progression of human urinary bladder cancer. In addition, apoptosis is considered as a physiologic process to remove DNA-damaged cells with minimal damage to surrounding normal cells or tissue. Novel apoptosis inducers, therefore, would provide more effective therapy and prevention against bladder cancer.. Flavonoids, a group of ∼5,000 naturally occurring compounds, have long been known to function as defense compounds in protecting the seeds and roots of plants from insects, bacteria, fungi, nematodes, and alien plants ( 36, 37). Because Bcl-2 family proteins are not present in plants, certain flavonoids that directly bind to Bcl-2 family proteins may act as natural pesticides selectively to induce cell death in insects and nematodes that are ...
Product Description : More stable safflower oil due to higher content of Oleic acid. Safflower oil (Distel oil) is obtained from ripe seeds taken from the Carthamus tinctorius L. (Asteraceae). It has the highest content of Linoleic acid (80%) and also contains Vitamin E. Safflower oil is well-suited to a biological wholefood diet. It is also used in foodstuffs used for dieting (margarine, edible oil) and in cosmetics. In the pharmaceuticals trade, it is used in dermatological preparations and in medicines that lower the cholesterol level. Safflower oil has also acquired importance as a raw material for surface coatings and varnishes. It is used for fatty skin and anti-acne products. ...
The water lily comes from the family Nymphaeacaea. It comes from the Greek for "nymph." In Greek legends, nymphs were protectors of springs and rivers. It is a fitting name since the water lily thrives in ponds and streams. The roots dig deep into the ground beneath the water, while the leaves float on the surface. The leaves are called lily pads, and the flower of the water lily will rest on the lily pad or even rise inches above it out of the water. The flower of the water lily has numerous petals that fan out and can be found in many colors. There are over 70 species of water lily.. ...
Compare and buy Water Lily (Yellow) - 1 bare root water lily plant online? Click here for all the lowest prices and reviews of Water Lily (Yellow) - 1 bare root water lily plant.
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The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between proliferation inhibition and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by Licochalcone A (LCA). Cell viability was evaluated using sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. Intracellul
PMID: 31493544 de Moura Escobar SJ, Simone M, de Oliveira Ribeiro CA, Martinez GR, Winnischofer SMB, Witting PK, Rocha MEM (2019) Toxicol In Vitro Abstract: Neuroblastoma is an aggressive form of cancer with high mortality. Hydroxychalcones have received considerable attention because of their cytotoxic activities on cancer cells. However, the effect of the 4-hydroxychalcone on neuroblastoma cells is unknown. The aim of the present study was to characterize the cytotoxicity of 4HC to neuroblastoma and the importance of mitochondrial effects in its action mechanism using an in vitro model of SH-SY5Y cells. Incubation of cultured SHSY5Y cells with 10-60 μM 4HC (24 h) decreased cell confluency, cellular metabolic activity and depleted intracellular ATP relative to the vehicle-treated control. The mechanism of 4HC-induced cell toxicity likely involves mitochondria dysfunctional as judged by inhibition of mitochondrial respiration, depolarization of mitochondria membrane potential and intracellular ...
Dal (Lentils), Diabetic, Gluten Free, High Protein, Low Fat, Vegan, Winter Recipesbengal gram, Black Chickpeas, Chana, Gluten Free, Gravy / Sauces, kala, pressure cooker, Vegan, VegetarianManjula Jain Kala Chana is very high in protein and provides a nutritional meal. It has a low glycemic index and is a good protein option for people with Diabetes. Kala Chana is a variation of the commonly found chickpea but it is dark brown in color and smaller in size. It is also known as Bengal gram.. ...
Isoliquiritigenin (ISL) is a flavonoid found in licorice root and several other plants. Displays antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor activities as well as hepatoprotection against steatosis-induced oxidative stress. Acts as a soluble guanylyl cy
Angelica keiskei is one of those plants that usually produce flowers in second year, but it might do it in its first, third or fourth year as well. Soon after the seeds are fuly developed, the plant dies. But you can keep it as perennial if you will cut off its flower buds before opening. It can also grow side shoots. It grows best in partial shade and rich, compost, moist, but well drained soil, but can also cope with full sun ( as long as temperature is not too high ) and more sandy soils. It can stand frost up to -15C, but it is going dormant in cold climate winters, that means that its leaves are dying, and new one are appearing from its root in spring. Its leafy part is usually no higher than 80cm, but flower stalk can reach over 1,5m. Leaves can be gathered at any time before it starts to turn yellow. But give it some time for small plants to get stronger before you start to pick their leaves and always leave few leaves on each plant, so it could catch some sun for further strong growth. ...
Introduction & Objective: Alpha amylase is the most important decomposing enzyme in starch. Digestion and absorption of starch in the intestine can be prevented and also the blood sugar levels can be controlled by restrain and control of alpha amylase. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect ...
Carthamus is offered both as a powder and a liquid and provides a greenish yellow to yellow hue at pH values below 7 and an orange red hue at pH 7-9. Th...
Perel Dena gave Esther Chana weekly massages to help with her muscle pain. For an entire year, Ellie cooked macrobiotic and organic meals for Shabbat and holidays. Sharon designed tee-shirts, shopping bags and mugs that read "TEAM STRYKER" for all of "the troops." Avraham suggested the name after the Stryker armored combat tank used by the U.S. military. Stryker was also the brand name of the hospital bed where Esther Chana lay during her stays at the hospital. On the logo that Sharon designed, right above the tank were the last lines of Psalms 20, which is recited in times of distress.. Karin, another Team Stryker member, discovered a little article about ovarian cancer research in a magazine at a gym she had gone to on a whim. The information in that article led Esther Chanas doctors to change her diagnosis from ovarian cancer to an undetermined type of cancer - still stage 4. The new type of cancer was even more aggressive than ovarian cancer, but thought to be more responsive to ...
The Water Lily Sauce Dish is constructed out of break resistant melamine and is glazed for added protection and durability. The all purpose medium wei
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Dr. Deborah Benzil was on the faculty for three separate courses on the practicalities of being (or becoming) a neurosurgeon at the annual CNS meeting.
Isoflavonoid signal molecules from soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) seed and root exudate induce the transcription of nodulation (nod) genes in Bradyrhizobium japonicum. In this study, a new compound with symbiotic activity was isolated from soybean root exudate. The isolated 2,4,4-trihydroxychalcone (isoliquiritigenin) is characterized by its strong inducing activity for the nod genes of B. japonicum. These genes are already induced at concentrations 1 order of magnitude below those required of the previously described isoflavonoid inducers genistein and daidzein. Isoliquiritigenin is also a potent inducer of glyceollin resistance in B. japonicum, which renders this bacterium insensitive to potentially bactericidal concentrations of glyceollin, the phytoalexin of G. max. No chemotactic effect of isoliquiritigenin was observed. The highly efficient induction of nod genes and glyceollin resistance by isoliquiritigenin suggests the ecological significance of this compound, although it is not a ...
To clarify the phylogenetic relationships of Carthamus species, we performed sequence analysis of the nuclear stearoyl acyl carrier protein desaturase (SACPD) gene and the chloroplast intergenic spacer region between leucine and phenylalanine tRNA genes (trnL-trnF IGS) in 13 taxa of Carthamus. The previous division of the genus into 4 taxonomic sections and allocation of particular genomes to various taxa on the basis of morphological, cytogenetic, and biosystematic analyses is not supported by the present study. Our results provide evidence of the occurrence of 5 nuclear genomes (A, B, C, X, and Y) and 3 cytoplasm types (A, B, and C) in the genus Carthamus. The cultivated safflower, C. tinctorius (2n = 24), has the B genome and type B cytoplasm. Both of these are not present in the polyploid taxa. This contradicts the earlier view that one of the genomes involved in the origin of the polyploid taxa of Carthamus is the B genome. Comparison with an outgroup species (Cirsium japonicum) indicated ...
Carthamus tinctorius and safflower (plant) are the English terms to represent the concept [Carthamus tinctorius*@en, safflower (plant)@en, [email protected], [email protected], …]. URI - Uniform Resource Identifier A URI is a string of characters used to identify a name or a resource on the Internet. The most common form of URI is the Web page address, which is a particular form or subset of URI called a Uniform Resource Locator (URL). In SKOS, concepts are formalized as skos:Concept and identified by dereferenceable URIs. http://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/c_12332 is the URI of the concept [maize*@en, corn (maize)@en, maïs*@fr, ข้าวโพด*@th, ...]. SKOS (Simple Knowledge Organization System) is a W3C recommendation designed for representation of thesauri, classification schemes, taxonomies, subject-heading systems, or any other type of structured controlled vocabulary. SKOS is part of the Semantic Web family of standards built upon RDF and RDFS, and its main objective is to enable easy ...
Publication date: Available online 13 January 2020Source: Pharmacological ResearchAuthor(s): John O. Orgah, Shuang He, Yule Wang, Miaomiao Jiang, Yuefei Wang, Emmanuel A. Orgah, Yajun Duan, Buchang Zhao, Boli Zhang, Jihong Han, Yan ZhuAbstractMetabolic syndrome, such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, atherosclerosis, and high blood pressure (HBP), are closely linked pathophysiologically. However, cur...
The SPE-HPLC method was developed to determine an isosalipurposide (5) and its derivative, 6-O-p-coumaroyl ester (6) in the bark of eight taxa (I-VIII) belonging to three species of the genus Salix and originating from a natural habitat or cultivated for pharmaceutical purposes. The chalcones were separated by HPLC under gradient elution with the concentration of ACN increasing from 20% to 50% in 0.1% aqueous H3PO, (tG 15 min). The content of both compounds was determined by an external standardization with the use of isoliquiritigenin (7) as a reference substance - a commercially available chalcone, and also isosalipurposide (5) and its derivative, 6-O-p-coumaroyl ester (6). The latter compound was isolated from the bark of Salix daphnoides (IV) by a CC and semi-preparative HPLC and its structure was elucidated by MS and NMR spectra. It was stated that 6-O-p-coumaroylisosalipurposide (6), in addition to isosalipurposide (5), is a characteristic flavonoid for the S. daphnoides species. Moreover, the
A unique hybrid pathway has been proposed for de novo heme biosynthesis in Plasmodium falciparum involving three different compartments of the parasite, namely mitochondrion, apicoplast and cytosol. While parasite mitochondrion and apicoplast have been shown to harbor key enzymes of the pathway, there has been no experimental evidence for the involvement of parasite cytosol in heme biosynthesis. In this study, a recombinant P. falciparum coproporphyrinogen III oxidase (rPfCPO) was produced in E. coli and confirmed to be active under aerobic conditions. rPfCPO behaved as a monomer of 61 kDa molecular mass in gel filtration analysis. Immunofluorescence studies using antibodies to rPfCPO suggested that the enzyme was present in the parasite cytosol. These results were confirmed by detection of enzyme activity only in the parasite soluble fraction. Western blot analysis with anti-rPfCPO antibodies also revealed a 58 kDa protein only in this fraction and not in the membrane fraction. The cytosolic ...
Safflower Oil: An oily liquid extracted from the seeds of the safflower, Carthamus tinctorius. It is used as a dietary supplement in the management of HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA. It is used also in cooking, as a salad oil, and as a vehicle for medicines, paints, varnishes, etc. (Dorland, 28th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Check out CLA Safflower Oil Side Effects in El Portero, New MexicoWhat is Cla Safflower OilSee more information about Cla Safflower OilIn order to realize what CLA Saflower Oil is we have to separate the CLA from the safflower. We will start with the Safflower this is also recognized as (Carthamus tinctorius) which is a…
Check out CLA Safflower Oil Side Effects in Naschitti, New MexicoWhat is Cla Safflower OilClick here!In order to realize what CLA Saflower Oil is we will need to separate the CLA away from the safflower. We will start with the Safflower it is (Carthamus tinctorius) which is a extremely branchy, herbaceous, thistle-like annual plant. It…
Targeted identification of potentially bioactive molecules from herbal medicines is often stymied by the insufficient chromatographic separation, ubiquitous matrix interference, and pervasive isomerism. An enhanced targeted identification strategy is presented and validated by the selective identification of flavonoid O-glycosides (FOGs) from Carthamus tinctorius. It consists of four steps: (i) enhanced separation and detection by offline two-dimensional liquid chromatography/LTQ-Orbitrap MS (offline 2D-LC/LTQ-Orbitrap MS) using collision-induced dissociation (CID) and high-energy C-trap dissociation (HCD); (ii) improved identification of the major aglycones by acid hydrolysis and LC-SPE-NMR; (iii) simplified spectral elucidation by high-resolution diagnostic product ions/neutral loss filtering; and (iv) more convincing structural identification by matching an in-house library. An offline 2D-LC system configuring an Acchrom XAmide column and a BEH Shield RP-18 UPLC column enabled much better ...
In the present study, we analyzed the nature of pCtKpnI-I and pCtKpnI-II tandem repeated sequences, reported earlier in Carthamus tinctorius. The clinical course is protracted and unpredictable, and no biological marker is useful in predicting the evolution of autoaggression and disability. Our model exhibits confinement of mechanical energy released by excitation. A major factor contributing to neonatal and maternal infections is unhygienic delivery practices. Other imaging studies such as transcutaneous ultrasonography and CT are still necessary to detect distant metastatic disease. Lysophosphatidylcholine increases rat ileal permeability to macromolecules. Diagnosis: Subungual ulcerative amelanotic tadalafil nail apparatus melanoma with giant nodular pigmented satellite metastases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an erbium glass laser in treatment of active acne and to study the effect of this type of laser on sebaceous glands. The results identified both the therapeutic ...
Water lilies are deep-water plants that are popular in water gardens around the world. A perennial freshwater herb, the lily grows in temperate and tropical climates.The plant is native to the eastern portions of North America and southern Canada. The fragrant water lily was introduced as an ornamental plant for ...
Water lily leaf stalk. Light micrograph of a transverse section through the leaf stalk (petiole) of a water lily (Nymphaea sp.). All aquatic plants (hydrophytes) have a similar structure. The epidermis of the petiole has a thin cuticle (outer layer) and is permeable to water. The whole petiole consists of parenchyma cells with large air spaces (lacunae, white circles). The vascular bundles consist of a lysigenous xylem canal (green ring of cells around a cavity) and phloem (dark-green ovals either side of small green cells). The parenchyma tissue contains thick-walled sclereids (deep red) with pointed arms for support. There is no central pith. Magnification: x14 when printed 10 centimetres wide. - Stock Image C003/6068
Purpose: Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary bone malignancy with a high propensity for local invasion and distant metastasis. Flavokawain A (FKA), a major chalcone from kava extract, has been reported to have antitumor effects on multiple cancer cell lines. The consumption of kava-containing beverage has been associated with a low cancer incidence. In a previous report, mice treated with high-dose FKA did not demonstrate any significant major organ toxicity. However, the efficacy and anticancer mechanisms of FKA in OS is still to be elucidated.. Experimental Design: OS cell lines were treated with increasing dosage of FKA and tested for cell motility, proliferation, and invasion by MTT assay and Matrigel invasion assay. Cell cycle analysis was performed using flow cytometry. We examined Skp2 expression in several OS cell lines using western blot and in patient tissue array by immunostaining. Kaplan-meier analysis and log rank test were used to compare overall survival. Both ...
Not too long ago, I was a working mother raising three kids and struggling to keep up with the varied food choices of every family member. I was able to meet the demands with lots of planning for the meals ahead of time. According to me it is very important to follow the recipe, which skillfully combines healthiest ingredients and uses appropriate cooking techniques so that food retains color, texture, taste, nutritional properties and appetizing aroma, helping to get our digestive juices flowing before the meal even starts. Most of the ingredients used in the recipes in this blog are tailored to suite my familys demands, so if you like any of my recipes, please adjust the ingredients and quantities according to your taste and try it out with love, believe me you will be able to prepare a wonderful meal dish ...
INGREDIENTS For the Bhuna Gosht 1 kg Mutton/Lamb (with bone) 4 Medium Onion, peeled, finely chopped 4 tsp Garlic paste 3 tsp Red Chilli powder Salt 3 tsp Coriander powder 2 tsp Cumin powder ½ tsp Turrmeric powder (haldi) 5 Medium Tomatoes, pureed or finely chopped 4 tsp Ginger paste 1-½ cups Water ¼ cup…
Uncover the dough knead for a couple of minutes and make 9-10 equal balls of the dough.Roll the ball in puri size roti place the stuffing at the center and wrap the dough around the stuffing to make a ball.Prepare rest of the balls with the same procedure.Now take the ball that was made first and with enough flour for dusting roll it into a thin poli.. Meanwhile, heat a griddle over a medium high flame and cook the puranpoli on both sides without applying oil or ghee.Serve hot.. Katachi Aamti. Ingredients. 1 cup stock removed from the boiled chana dal 1/4 cup dry shredded coconut. 2 cloves. 1 small piece cinnamon. 2 bay leaves. 1 teaspoon tamarind pulp. 2 teaspoon Maharashtrian goda masala. 5-6 curry leaves. 2 tsp turmeric powder. 2-3 tsp red chili powder. 1/4 tsp asafoetida. 2 tsp cumin seeds. 1 tsp mustard seeds. 2 tsp jaggery or 2 teaspoon sugar. 1 tbsp cilantro. salt to taste Method. In a kadhai add tamarind pulp, Maharashtrian masala, salt, chili powder, jaggery in the chana dal stock and ...
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Nuclear factor (NF)-κB is a mediator of inflammatory diseases and cancer and has been shown to induce resistance to various chemotherapeutic agents. This transcription factor is implicated in immunity, anti-apoptosis, proliferation, and activation of more than 550 target genes involved in tumor promotion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. The canonical NF-κB pathway is characterized by a cascade leading to activation of the functional heterodimer p50/p65. After stimulation by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, activation of the Iκ kinase (IKK) complex leads to phosphorylation of the inhibitory subunit IκBα followed by subsequent proteasomal degradation. As a result, NF-κB p50/p65 translocates to the nucleus and transcription is activated.. Besides NF-κB signaling, other pathways are strongly linked to inflammation processes, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), and p38 signal transduction pathways. The ERK1/2-mediated signaling pathway is ...
EMMX proudly develops novel molecules and reagents to drug discovery and cancer research. We are scientists driven by a devotion to discovery and innovation, and we work hard every day to find new ways to streamline life science research.. ...
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Sita Shree Food Products Ltd operates in the Flour & Other Grain Mill Products sector. Sita Shree Food Products Limited is an India-based company engaged in the business of wheat, soya and pulses products manufacturing and by products of agro commodities in local, as well as international market. The Company operates through three segments: Flour, Soya and Real Estate. Its principal products include Chana Dal and Masoor Dal. The Company operates its manufacturing activities with three units: Wheat Processing, Pulse Processing and Integrated Soya Processing plant. The Wheat Processing unit manufactures all wheat products, such as Chakki Atta, Maida, Rava, Suji (Semolina) and Daliya. It has a capacity of 43,200 million tons per annum (MTPA). The Pulses Processing unit has a capacity of 3,500 MTPA. The integrated Soya Processing Unit has a capacity to process 600 MT Soya per day and manufactures all soya products. The Company sells all of its products in the brand names of SITA SHREE, SITA SHREE GOLD
Full nutritional breakdown of the calories in cabbage onio pakode based on the calories and nutrition in each ingredient, including Olive Oil, Chana Dal, Onions, raw, Cabbage, fresh, Garlic and the other ingredients in this recipe.
Thousands of years ago, we didnt have Ruffles Lays ( Ya, I still like to use Ruffles) ,Samosas , Subways , Mc Donalds , the Chana Chor guys , Bhelwalas ,Bourbon etc. to provide us with mouth watering food whenever we felt hungry. We were NOMADS, covering long distances on foot in search of food. So, If Nomad Bhushan felt hungry , he couldnt grab a Vada Paav from Jumbo King and fill himself up, he had to HUNT hard for food. There were times when Nomad Bhushan wouldnt find anything to eat for 12 -18 hours or even more than a day. Lets assume that Nomad Bhushan is trying to hunt for food... Its been 12 hours since he last ate ( Chicken tandoori without the masaalas..Ugh!) .. The super intelligent brain now starts thinking that a famine like situation is on the way ...It goes in to The Starvation Mode.Now, Nomad Bhushan finds food to eat and eats it after a GAP OF 13 hours. The brain tells the body " Boss ye khaana 13 hrs ke baad aaya, agla khaana aane ko 24 ghanta bhi lag sakta hai.. Pls store ...
Onion with Ginger 1034 recipes: Hara baingan bharta /spicy mashed roasted eggplant, Chinese braised chicken liver, Tadke wala chana dal (tempered split...
Shade Loving Plants found in: Calendula officinalis Oopsy Daisy, Ageratum houstonianum Timeless Mixed, Gaillardia Arizona Sun, Leucothoe keiskei..
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This year, I vowed to make better use of my food dehydrator; so far I am off to a great start! Last year, I didnt begin using it till mid July, but successfully dried blueberries, banana chips, and Swiss chard. I failed at tomato skins. Technically, I didnt fail, but the results were not what I had expected. Instead of a crispy chip-like wafer, I ended up with leathery plastic…
CAMERA: Canon PowerShot S70 , DATE: 05/02/06 07:25 , RESOLUTION: 3072 x 2304 , ISO SETTING: Auto , EXPOSURE MODE: Easy shooting , EXPOSURE TIME: 1/500s , APERTURE: 5.3 , FOCAL LENGTH: 20.6875mm , FLASH: Flash did not fire, ...
With so many available these days, it is great to have a make you can trust. The Swarovski Womens Ring Angelica 1097013 is certainly that and will be a superb purchase. For this price, the Swarovski Womens Ring Angelica 1097013 comes highly respected and is a regular choice amongst lots of people ...
Angelica (Angelica archangelica) is a perennial or biennial herb that can grow more than 2 metres. It has a number of culinary uses and some non-culinary uses upon harvesting.
From Emmy Award winning Oculus Story Studio comes Dear Angelica, a journey through the magical and dreamlike ways we remember our loved ones. Entirely painted by hand inside of VR, Dear Angelica plays out in a series of memories that unfold around you. An immersive, illustrative short story starring Geena Davis and Mae Whitman.
Angelica said price pressure from competitors and customers may push its third-quarter earnings below last years 31 cents a share.
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Find where Angelica Marai is credited alongside another name:. This will allow you to search for titles that have another person in the cast. It does NOT mean that they necessarily worked together.. If youre not sure of the way the name is spelled in our database, use a substring, and well check it out on the next page.... ...
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Haha, thanks babe! Well yes, I got a comment like that last time " Hey, show us that you can surf and not only pose with the board!" - so I just had to show you guys now! thanks babe xx. ...
Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) is an oil crop that is suitable for dry growing conditions in the Czech Republic. Most of the Czech production is used as bird feed. Typical anthracnose symptoms were observed at one safflower field in the Moravia Region of the Czech Republic during the 2005 growing season. Since then, the disease has become widespread with 100% yield losses observed in several locations in 2009. Symptoms consisted of circular spots on leaves and stem blight characterized by dark-colored stem lesions bearing salmon-colored conidia masses in acervuli. A fungus was isolated from symptomatic safflower plants (cv. Sabina) on potato dextrose agar and incubated at 25°C as described by Kwon et al. (3). The color of fungal colonies changed from white to gray with age with salmon-orange pigmentation on the reverse side of plates. Similar observations had been reported by Jelev et al. (1). Conidia were colorless, fusiform, and measured 10 to 17 μm (mean 13.59) × 4 to 8 μm (mean ...
Forms Available: oil. Safflower Oil - carthamus tinctorius flos. - Safflower oil is an unsaturated oil which is a pale to rusty yellow in color with a makeup similar to that of sunflower oil. The oil is cold pressed from the seeds. Its odor is bland with little odor. The natural pigments safflomin and carthamine, or vegetable red, have a long history in dyeing and in the manufacture of paints and cosmetics. It is used today in the making of rouge and other make-up in Algeria. The leaves and seeds are capable of making milk curdle, thanks to a special enzyme. The oil has been used as a lamp oil. Use of safflower oil aids prevention of chronic degenerative diseases such as arteriosclerosis, arthritis and coronary thrombosis. It prevents cholesterol from hardening and normalizes its metabolism. Both the seeds and the oil are beneficial to diabetics or those suffering form angina and circulatory problems. The oil is also helpful in cases of bronchial asthma and nephrosis. Safflower is reputed to ...
Instructions for use: Age Control Serum: use twice daily after cleansing skin; for best results, mix with Repairing Oil Complex Repairing Oil Complex: apply a few drops to face and neck daily; for best results, mix with Age Control Serum 2 x 30ml/ 1.01fl.oz. Repairing Oil Complex Ingredients: Coco-Caprylate/Caprate,Prunus Armeniaca Kernel Oil*, Squalane, Commiphora Mukul Resin Extract, Haematococcus Pluvialis Extract, Carthamus Tinctorius Hybrid Oil, Simmondsia Chinensis Seed Oil*, Caprylic/Capric Triglyceride, Tocopherol, Parfum Age Control Serum Ingredients: Aqua, Glycerin, Squalane, Butyrospermum Parkii Butter*, Cetearyl Alcohol, Glyceryl Stearate Citrate, Oat Beta Glucan, Gluconolactone, Sodium Hyaluronate, Rubus Fruticosus Leaf Extract, Levulinic Acid, Sodium Levulinate, Commiphora Mukul Resin Extract, Haematococcus Pluvialis Extract, Glyceryl Caprylate, Carthamus Tinctorius Hybrid Oil, Simmondsia Chinensis Seed Oil*, Caprylic/Capric Triglyceride, Tocopherol, Xanthan Gum, Maltodextrin, Parfum,
4-Prenyloxyresveratrol, rbol de pan (Spanish), arbre pain (French), artocarbene, artocarpesin, artocarpin, artocarpine, Artocarpus altilis, Artocarpus camansi, Artocarpus communis, Artocarpus communis Moraceae, Artocarpus incise, Artocarpus incisus, Artocarpus mariannensis, Artocarpus tonkinensis, artochamins, artocommunols, artomunoflavanone, artomunoisoxanthone, bakri-chajhar (Hindi), beta (Vanuatu), BFL, bia (Solomon Islands), bl foutou (Benin), breadfruit lectin, broodboom (Dutch), broodvrucht (Dutch), Brotfruchtbaum (German), buco (Fiji), bulo (Solomon Islands), chlorophorin, cycloaltilisin 6 (dimeric dihydrochalcone), cycloaltilisin 7 (prenylated flavone), cycloartenol, cyclocomunomethonol, cyclomorusin, dihydroartomunoxanthone, dihydrochalcones, (+)-dihydromorin, fruit pain (French), fruta de pan (Spanish), fruta p o (Portuguese), frutackin (chitin-binding lectin), frutalin (alpha-D-galactose-binding lectin), frutapan (Caribbean), Gal beta1, GalNAc, geranyl chalcone derivatives, geranyl ...
Water- Aqua, , Petrolatum, , Cetearyl Alcohol, , Mineral Oil- Paraffinum Liquidum, , Polysorbate 60, , Calcium Hydroxide, , Propylene Glycol, , PEG-75 Lanolin, , Sodium Stearoamphoacetate, , Aloe Barbadensis, , Oleth-3 Phosphate, , Linalool, , Fragrance- Parfum, , Water- Aqua, , Guanidine Carbonate, , Xanthan Gum, , Denatonium Benzoate, , Green 5- CI 61570, , Green 8- CI 59040, , Water- Aqua, , Sodium Laureth Sulfate, , Disodium Cocoamphodipropionate, , Citric Acid, , Polyquaternium-7, , PEG-120 Methyl Glucose Dioleate, , Polysorbate 20, , Hydrolyzed Vegetable Protein PG-Propyl Silanetriol, , Algae Extract, , Aloe Barbadensis, , PEG-150 Distearate, , Tetrasodium EDTA, , Phenolsulfonphthalein, , Diazolidinyl Urea, , DMDM Hydantoin, , Iodopropynyl Butylcarbamate, , Alpha-Isomethyl Ionone, , Benzyl Salicylate, , Butyl Phenyl Methyl Propional, , Citronellol, , Coumarin, , Linalool, , Fragrance- Parfum, , Carthamus Tinctorius, , Helianthus Annuus, , Glycine Soja, , Mineral Oil- Paraffinum Liquidum, , ...
1-methoxyphaseollin, 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 18(beta)-glycyrrhetinic acid, 22?-acetoxylglycyrrhizic acid, Alcacuz (Portuguese, Spanish), alcazuz, asam boi, biogastrone, bois doux (French), CankerMelts GX, carbenoxolone, carbenoxolone sodium, chalcones, Chinese licorice, deglycyrrhizinised liquorice, deglycyrrhizinized succus Liquiritiae, DGL, duogastrone, Fabaceae (family), flavonoid, flavonoid glycosides, gan cao, gan zao, glabrene, glabridin, glabrol, GlavonoidT, glucoliquiritin apioside, glycyrrhetenic acid, glycyrrhetic acid, glycyrrhiza, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Glycyrrhiza glabra glandulifera, Glycyrrhiza glabra Linne, Glycyrrhiza glabra typica, Glycyrrhiza glabra violacea, Glycyrrhiza palidiflora, glycyrrhiza root, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, glycyrrhizic acid, glycyrrhizin, glycyrrhizinic acid, glycyrrhizol-A, hochu-ekki-to, isoflavone, isoflavonoids, isoliquiritigenin, isoliquiritin, kanzo (Japanese), lakrids (Danish), lakritze, Lakritzenwurzel (German), Leguminoseae (family), ...
**9.5367431640625E-7**

Phlorisovalerophenone synthase, a novel polyketide synthase from hop (Humulus lupulus L.) cones - Paniego - 2001 - European...Phlorisovalerophenone synthase, a novel polyketide synthase from hop (Humulus lupulus L.) cones - Paniego - 2001 - European...

Zuurbier, K.W.M., Fung, S.-Y., Scheffer, J.J.C. & Verpoorte, R. ( 1993) Assay of chalcone synthase activity by high-performance ... Whitehead, I.M. & Dixon, R.A. ( 1983) Chalcone synthase from cell suspension cultures of Phaseolus vulgaris. Biochem. Biophys. ... Welle, R. & Grisebach, H. ( 1987) Purification and properties of chalcone synthase from cell suspension cultures of soy bean. Z ... Okada, Y. ( 1998) A chalcone-synthase-like gene expressed specifically in lupulin gland of hop (Humulus lupulus). DDBJ/EMBL/ ...
more infohttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1432-1327.1999.00444.x/references
**2.5909030437469**
**2.5910980701447**
  • Soybean chalcone isomerase: evolution of the fold, and the differential expression and localization of the gene family. (nih.gov)
  • In plant cells, this process is catalyzed by chalcone isomerase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reactivity and pH dependence of thiol conjugation to N-ethylmaleimide: detection of a conformational change in chalcone isomerase. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The scientists were able to significantly increase the total flavonol content in both the peel and flesh using the onion chalcone isomerase (CHI) gene. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Here, we identify two noncatalytic chalcone isomerase-fold proteins, which are critical for high-efficiency prenylchalcone production in Humulus lupulus . (pnas.org)
  • Our results provide insights into their evolutionary development from the ancestral noncatalytic fatty acid-binding chalcone isomerase-fold proteins to specialized auxiliary proteins supporting flavonoid biosynthesis in plants, and open up the possibility of producing high-value plant prenylchalcones using heterologous systems. (pnas.org)
  • In this study, we characterized two noncatalytic chalcone isomerase (CHI)-like proteins (designated as HlCHIL1 and HlCHIL2) using engineered yeast harboring all genes required for DMX production. (pnas.org)
  • The nature and position of the chalcone substituents had major effects on inhibitory activity as well as selectivity for AChE over BChE. (springer.com)
  • Here, by functional and biological analysis of the most representative molecules of an in house library of natural products, we have designed and synthetized the chalcone-derivative 8 possessing Notch inhibitory activity at low micro molar concentration in T-ALL cell lines. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • A member of the class of chalcones that is acetophenone in which one of the methyl hydrogens has been replaced by a benzylidene group. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • An example is the conjugate reduction of the enone by tributyltin hydride: 3,5-Disubstituted 1H-pyrazoles can be produced from a suitably substituted chalcone by reaction with hydrazine hydrate in the presence of elemental sulfur or sodium persulfate, or by using a hydrazone in which case an azine is produced as a by-product. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dipole moments of 24 selenophene analogs of the chalcones have been measured and have been compared with the data calculated by a vectorial additive scheme and also with their chemical structures. (springer.com)
  • Tetralones as chemical precursors and related fluorescent chalcones exhibit affinities at hH 3 R in the same concentration range like the reference antagonist ciproxifan (hH 3 R p K i value of 7.2). (frontiersin.org)
  • Chalcones can be prepared by an aldol condensation between benzaldehyde and acetophenone in the presence of sodium hydroxide as a catalyst. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chalcones 1~8 and 5-deoxyflavonoids 9~22 were synthesized in good yields by aldol condensation, Algar-Flynn-Oyamada reaction, glycosidation, and deacetylation reaction, respectively, starting from 2-acetyl phenols substituted by methoxy or methoxymethoxy group and appropriately benzaldehydes substituted by methoxy, methoxymethoxy group, or chlorine. (hindawi.com)
  • Chalcones 28 ~ 32 were prepared by using aldol condensation of appropriate substituted benzaldehydes 23 ~ 27 , 33 , 34 , and acetyl phenols in KOH/EtOH and deprotection reaction. (hindawi.com)
  • Overall, the results show that coumarin-chalcone hybrids with choline-like side-chains have promising activity and selectivity against AChE and be promising therapeutic leads for Alzheimer's disease. (springer.com)
  • Masood, Anti-HIV cytotoxicity enzyme inhibition and molecular docking studies of quinoline based chalcones as potential non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRT), Bioorg. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Flavonols 9 ~ 16 were prepared by classic Algar-Flynn-Oyamada reaction treating the corresponding chalcones with 15% H 2 O 2 and 16% NaOH (aq) and deprotection reaction. (hindawi.com)
  • Molecular docking was used in order to theoretically investigate the interactions of the chalcones with ␣-tubulin mainly focusing on binding modes, potential interactions and specific binding sites. (dissertations.se)
  • Chalcones containing tertiary amine side-chains have potent activity as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors. (springer.com)
  • Structure-activity relationships were afforded for the chalcone scaffold. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The aim of the present work was to investigate in vitro synergism between several chalcones substituted in combination with oxacillin, an antibiotic used conventionally against S. aureus ATCC 43 300 that is resistant to meticillin, using the kinetic turbidimetric method developed earlier. (scielo.br)
  • Benzylideneacetophenone is the parent member of the chalcone series. (wikipedia.org)
  • A new series of chalcones (4a-c) and allylicchalcones (11a-b) have been prepared by the Claisen-Schmidt condensation. (scirp.org)
  • J. A. Kumar and S. Sondu, "Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxidation of Chalcones by Ti-Ichloroisocyanuric Acid [TCICA] in HOAc-HClO4 Medium," Indian Journal of Chemistry, Vol. 46A, 2007, pp. 1792-1795. (scirp.org)
  • K. Naik and S. Nandibewoor, "Electrochemical Behavior of Chalcone at a Glassy Carbon Electrode and Its Analytical Applications," American Journal of Analytical Chemistry , Vol. 3 No. 9, 2012, pp. 656-663. (scirp.org)
  • M.L. Go, X. Wu and X.L. Liu, "Chalcones: an update on cytotoxic and chemoprotective properties", Current Medicinal Chemistry, Vol. 12, 2005, pp. 483-499. (scirp.org)
  • Z. Nowakowska, "A review of anti-infective and anti-inflammatory chalcones", European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, Vol. 42, 2007, pp. 125-137. (scirp.org)
  • Taken together, our results provide in vivo evidence of the myotoxic effects of the synthesized chalcone analogues on developing zebrafish embryos. (mdpi.com)
  • In a study investigating green syntheses, chalcones were synthesized from the same starting materials in high-temperature water (200 to 350 °C). Substituted chalcones were also synthesised by piperidine-mediated condensation to avoid side reactions such as multiple condensations, polymerizations, and rearrangements. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chalcone could produce two anodic peaks at about 0.514 V and 1.478 V and a cathodic peak at about -0.689 V. The differential pulse voltammerty presents a good linear response as compared to square wave voltammetry in the range of 0.2 - 10 μM with a detection limit of 0.18 μM. (scirp.org)