Compounds based on CHALCONE. They are important intermediates in the formation of FLAVONOIDS.
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze reactions in which a group can be regarded as eliminated from one part of a molecule, leaving a double bond, while remaining covalently attached to the molecule. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 5.5.
Propiophenones are a group of synthetic compounds characterized by a phenone functional group attached to a propyl chain, which have been used in various applications including as intermediates in chemical synthesis and as pharmaceutical ingredients with sedative and hypnotic properties.
Dried rhizome and roots of Piper methysticum, a shrub native to Oceania and known for its anti-anxiety and sedative properties. Heavy usage results in some adverse effects. It contains ALKALOIDS; LACTONES; kawain, methysticin, mucilage, STARCH, and yangonin. Kava is also the name of the pungent beverage prepared from the plant's roots.
An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of PHENYLALANINE to form trans-cinnamate and ammonia.
A group of FLAVONOIDS characterized with a 4-ketone.
A group of FLAVONOIDS derived from FLAVONOLS, which lack the ketone oxygen at the 4-position. They are glycosylated versions of cyanidin, pelargonidin or delphinidin. The conjugated bonds result in blue, red, and purple colors in flowers of plants.
A plant genus of the family MORACEAE that is widely planted for shade.
A plant genus in the CANNABACEAE family. Best known for the buds of Humulus lupulus L. used in BEER.
A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.
A plant genus of the family Apiaceae.
A plant family of the order Zingiberales, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida. It includes plants which have both flavoring and medicinal properties such as GINGER; turmeric (CURCUMA), and cardamom (ELETTARIA).
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A group of compounds which can be described as benzo-pyrano-furano-benzenes which can be formed from ISOFLAVONES by internal coupling of the B ring to the 4-ketone position. Members include medicarpin, phaseolin, and pisatin which are found in FABACEAE.
A sulfuric acid dimer, formed by disulfide linkage. This compound has been used to prolong coagulation time and as an antidote in cyanide poisoning.
Mercury-containing benzoic acid derivatives.
A group of 3-hydroxy-4-keto-FLAVONOIDS.
The photography of images produced on a fluorescent screen by X-rays.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
A trinitrobenzene derivative with antispasmodic properties that is used primarily as a laboratory reagent.
A plant family of the order Rhamnales, subclass Rosidae class Magnoliopsida. The plants have a characteristic silvery or rusty-colored sheen, caused by tiny distinctive scales. Flowers have a tubular structure of four sepals. Root nodules host the Frankia (ACTINOMYCETES) nitrogen-fixing symbionts.
Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.
'Chalcone' is a term used in medicinal chemistry to describe a class of compounds that are synthesized as intermediates during the production of flavonoids, which have been studied for their potential anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and neuroprotective properties.
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE. Members contain fredelin type TRITERPENES, mallorepine (a cyano-pyridone), and hydrolyzable TANNINS.
An order of the ANGIOSPERMS, subclass Rosidae. Its members include some of the most known ornamental and edible plants of temperate zones including roses, apples, cherries, and peaches.
A member of the P450 superfamily, this enzyme catalyzes the first oxidative step of the phenylpropanoid pathway in higher PLANTS by transforming trans-cinnamate into p-coumarate.
Butanones, also known as methyl ethyl ketone or MEK, are organic compounds consisting of a four-carbon chain with a ketone functional group located at the second carbon atom, classified as dimethyl ketones, and commonly used in industrial and laboratory settings as solvents and chemical intermediates.
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Enzymes that catalyze the formation of a carbon-carbon double bond by the elimination of AMMONIA. EC 4.3.1.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
A plant genus of the family ZINGIBERACEAE. Members contain galangin, yakuchinone-A, and diarylheptanoids.
A large plant family in the order Apiales, also known as Umbelliferae. Most are aromatic herbs with alternate, feather-divided leaves that are sheathed at the base. The flowers often form a conspicuous flat-topped umbel. Each small individual flower is usually bisexual, with five sepals, five petals, and an enlarged disk at the base of the style. The fruits are ridged and are composed of two parts that split open at maturity.
A plant genus of the family VIOLACEAE. Some species in this genus are called bouncing bet which is a common name more often used with SAPONARIA OFFICINALIS. Members contain macrocyclic peptides.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain CHALCONE, helichrysetin, arenarin, and flamin.
A class of enzymes that catalyze geometric or structural changes within a molecule to form a single product. The reactions do not involve a net change in the concentrations of compounds other than the substrate and the product.(from Dorland, 28th ed) EC 5.
Propane is a colorless, odorless, and chemically simple hydrocarbon (C3H8), commonly used as a fuel for heating, cooking, and engines, which exists as a gas at room temperature but can be liquefied under pressure and stored in cylinders or tanks.
Hydroxycinnamic acid and its derivatives. Act as activators of the indoleacetic acid oxidizing system, thereby producing a decrease in the endogenous level of bound indoleacetic acid in plants.
The reproductive organs of plants.
An extensive order of basidiomycetous fungi whose fruiting bodies are commonly called mushrooms.
A group of 4-keto-FLAVONOIDS.
A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Phenylpropionates are a class of organic compounds, including certain drugs such as ephedrine and pseudoephedrine, which contain a phenylethanoic acid structure with a propionate substitution.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
A water insoluble terpene fatty acid used in the treatment of gastrointestinal ulcers; it facilitates the healing and function of mucosal tissue.
A flavonol widely distributed in plants. It is an antioxidant, like many other phenolic heterocyclic compounds. Glycosylated forms include RUTIN and quercetrin.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Keto-pyrans.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Inorganic salts of thiosulfuric acid possessing the general formula R2S2O3.
The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Sets of enzymatic reactions occurring in organisms and that form biochemicals by making new covalent bonds.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
3-Phenylchromones. Isomeric form of FLAVONOIDS in which the benzene group is attached to the 3 position of the benzopyran ring instead of the 2 position.
Organic compounds that contain 1,2-diphenylethylene as a functional group.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction between L-tyrosine, L-dopa, and oxygen to yield L-dopa, dopaquinone, and water. It is a copper protein that acts also on catechols, catalyzing some of the same reactions as CATECHOL OXIDASE. EC 1.14.18.1.
Insoluble polymers of TYROSINE derivatives found in and causing darkness in skin (SKIN PIGMENTATION), hair, and feathers providing protection against SUNBURN induced by SUNLIGHT. CAROTENES contribute yellow and red coloration.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.
Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
"Esters are organic compounds that result from the reaction between an alcohol and a carboxylic acid, playing significant roles in various biological processes and often used in pharmaceutical synthesis."
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Diseases of plants.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.

Selective effect of 2',6'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxychalcone isolated from Piper aduncum on Leishmania amazonensis. (1/163)

2',6'-Dihydroxy-4'-methoxychalcone (DMC) was purified from the dichloromethane extract of Piper aduncum inflorescences. DMC showed significant activity in vitro against promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis, with 50% effective doses of 0.5 and 24 micrograms/ml, respectively. Its inhibitory effect on amastigotes is apparently a direct effect on the parasites and is not due to activation of the nitrogen oxidative metabolism of macrophages, since the production of nitric oxide by both unstimulated and recombinant gamma interferon-stimulated macrophages was decreased rather than increased with DMC. The phagocytic activity of macrophages was functioning normally even with DMC concentrations as high as 80 micrograms/ml, as seen by electron microscopy and by the uptake of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled beads. Ultrastructural studies also showed that in the presence of DMC the mitochondria of promastigotes were enlarged and disorganized. Despite destruction of intracellular amastigotes, no disarrangement of macrophage organelles were observed, even at 80 micrograms of DMC/ml. These observations suggest that DMC is selectively toxic to the parasites. Its simple structure may well enable it to serve as a new lead compound for the synthesis of novel antileishmanial drugs.  (+info)

Improvement of in vitro and in vivo antileishmanial activities of 2', 6'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxychalcone by entrapment in poly(D,L-lactide) nanoparticles. (2/163)

The inhibition of intracellular Leishmania amazonensis growth by 2', 6'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxychalcone (DMC) isolated from Piper aduncum was further enhanced after encapsulation of DMC in polymeric nanoparticles. Encapsulated DMC also showed increased antileishmanial activity in infected BALB/c mice, as evidenced by significantly smaller lesions and fewer parasites in the lesions.  (+info)

Novel anti-inflammatory chalcone derivatives inhibit the induction of nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 in mouse peritoneal macrophages. (3/163)

In a previous work, we tested a series of chalcone derivatives as possible anti-inflammatory compounds. We now investigate the effects of three of those compounds, CHI, CH8 and CH12, on nitric oxide and prostanoid generation in mouse peritoneal macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide and in the mouse air pouch injected with zymosan, where they showed a dose-dependent inhibition with inhibitory concentration 50% values in the microM range. This effect was not the consequence of a direct inhibitory action on enzyme activities. Our results demonstrated that chalcone derivatives inhibited de novo inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 synthesis, being a novel therapeutic approach for inflammatory diseases.  (+info)

The antileishmanial activity of novel oxygenated chalcones and their mechanism of action. (4/163)

Our previous studies have shown that licochalcone A, an oxygenated chalcone, has antileishmanial and antimalarial activities, and alters the ultrastructure and function of the mitochondria of Leishmania spp. parasites. The present study was designed to investigate the antileishmanial activity and the mechanism of action of a group of new oxygenated chalcones. The tested oxygenated chalcones inhibited the in-vitro growth of Leishmania major promastigotes and Leishmania donovani amastigotes. Treatment of hamsters infected with L. donovani with intraperitoneal administration of two oxygenated chalcones resulted in a significant reduction of parasite load in the liver and the spleen compared with untreated control animals. The oxygenated chalcones also inhibited the respiration of the parasite and the activity of mitochondrial dehydrogenases. Electron microscopic studies illustrated that they altered the ultrastructure of the mitochondria of L. major promastigote. The data clearly indicate that this group of oxygenated chalcones has a strong antileishmanial activity and might be developed into a new antileishmanial drug. The antileishmanial activity of oxygenated chalcones might be the result of interference with function of the parasite mitochondria.  (+info)

Epoxide hydrolases regulate epoxyeicosatrienoic acid incorporation into coronary endothelial phospholipids. (5/163)

Cytochrome P-450-derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are avidly incorporated into and released from endothelial phospholipids, a process that results in potentiation of endothelium-dependent relaxation. EETs are also rapidly converted by epoxide hydrolases to dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (DHETs), which are incorporated into phospholipids to a lesser extent than EETs. We hypothesized that epoxide hydrolases functionally regulate EET incorporation into endothelial phospholipids. Porcine coronary artery endothelial cells were treated with an epoxide hydrolase inhibitor, 4-phenylchalcone oxide (4-PCO, 20 micromol/l), before being incubated with (3)H-labeled 14,15-EET (14,15-[(3)H]EET). 4-PCO blocked conversion of 14,15-[(3)H]EET to 14,15-[(3)H]DHET and doubled the amount of radiolabeled products incorporated into cell lipids, with >80% contained in phospholipids. Moreover, pretreatment with 4-PCO before incubation with 14,15-[(3)H]EET enhanced A-23187-induced release of radiolabeled products into the medium. In contrast, 4-PCO did not alter uptake, distribution, or release of [(3)H]arachidonic acid. In porcine coronary arteries, 4-PCO augmented 14,15-EET-induced potentiation of endothelium-dependent relaxation to bradykinin. These data suggest that epoxide hydrolases may play a role in regulating EET incorporation into phospholipids, thereby modulating endothelial function in the coronary vasculature.  (+info)

2'-hydroxychalcone inhibits nuclear factor-kappaB and blocks tumor necrosis factor-alpha- and lipopolysaccharide-induced adhesion of neutrophils to human umbilical vein endothelial cells. (6/163)

Inhibition of expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAM), including intercellular CAM-1 (ICAM-1), vascular CAM-1 (VCAM-1), and E-selectin, has been shown to be important in controlling various inflammatory diseases. The cell adhesion proteins are induced by various inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1, and bacterial lipopolysaccharide. The induction process primarily takes place at the level of transcription, where nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) plays a major role. We demonstrate here that 2'-hydroxychalcone inhibits the adhesion of peripheral neutrophils to the endothelial cell monolayers by inhibiting the expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin in a concentration-dependent manner. The inhibition by 2'-hydroxychalcone is reversible. 2'-hydroxychalcone inhibits the induction of steady-state transcript levels of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin by tumor necrosis factor-alpha as determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and therefore it may interfere with the transcription of their genes. Because NF-kappaB is a major transcription factor involved in CAM expression, we studied its status in the 2'-hydroxychalcone treated cells. We demonstrate that 2'-hydroxychalcone inhibits the activation of NF-kappaB. These results have implications for using NF-kappaB inhibitors for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases.  (+info)

Quinochalcones and flavonoids from fresh florets in different cultivars of Carthamus tinctorius L. (7/163)

The flavonoid constituents in fresh florets of the three distinctive cultivars of Carthamus tinctorius L. were purified and identified to investigate flavonoid biosynthesis in the petals. From the orange flower of cv. Kenba (K.), four new compounds, anhydrosafflor yellow B (1), two kaempferols, 9 and 13, and a quercetin, 17, were isolated, as well as the twelve known compounds, and their structures were determined by spectral data, chemical reactions, and molecular mechanics calculations. From the yellow flower of cv. Ogon-hanagasa (O.), two flavonols and two quinochalcones, and from the white flower of cv. Shiro-bana (S.), three flavonois were isolated. These compounds were the same as those contained in cv. K. To compare the flavonoid constituents among the three cultivars, crude extracts were analyzed by a LC/PDA/MS system. In cv. K., six quinochalcones and eleven flavonols were identified. In cv. O., three quinochalcones and nine flavonols were identified, but the red pigment, carthamin (4), and its precursor, precarthamin (3), were not detected. In cv. S., four flavonols without a 6-hydroxyl group were identified. On the basis of a comparative study on the constituents among these three cultivars, a possible biosynthetic pathway to form quinochalcones via the intermediate, pentahydroxychalcone (19), is proposed.  (+info)

Neohesperidin dihydrochalcone is not a taste enhancer in aqueous sucrose solutions. (8/163)

Neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC) is an intensive sweetener, obtained by alkaline hydrogenation of neohesperidin. In this investigation a supposed taste enhancing effect of this substance was tested. A three-step procedure was used. In the first experiment, using a pool of 31 subjects, NHDC and sucrose detection thresholds were measured. In the second experiment, psychophysical functions for both tastants were determined. Then, 15 participants closest to the group threshold who, in addition, had produced monotonic psychophysical taste functions were selected to participate in the next two experiments. In the third experiment, taste enhancement was tested. Three psychophysical sucrose functions were constructed, one with a near-threshold amount of NHDC added to each of seven sucrose concentrations, one with a near-threshold amount of sucrose added (control 1) and one without any addition (control 2). No difference was found between the NHDC-enriched sucrose function and the sucrose-enriched sucrose function. Finally, in experiment 4, differential threshold functions were constructed with either NHDC or sucrose added. Neither the overall shape of the functions nor a comparison of the points of subjective equality showed enhancement. It was concluded that weak NHDC does not enhance the taste of aqueous sucrose solutions.  (+info)

Chalcones are a class of compounds that have a chemical structure consisting of two aromatic rings connected by a three-carbon α,β-unsaturated carbonyl system. The name "chalcone" is derived from the Greek word "chalcos," meaning copper, due to the yellow color that many chalcones exhibit.

Chalcones are synthesized through a reaction known as the Claisen-Schmidt condensation between an aldehyde and a ketone. They are important intermediates in the biosynthesis of flavonoids, which are a large group of plant pigments that have various biological activities, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties.

Chalcones themselves have been studied for their potential medicinal properties, including their ability to inhibit the growth of cancer cells, bacteria, and fungi. However, more research is needed to fully understand their mechanisms of action and safety profiles before they can be developed into drugs.

Acyltransferases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of an acyl group (a functional group consisting of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom and single-bonded to a hydrogen atom) from one molecule to another. This transfer involves the formation of an ester bond between the acyl group donor and the acyl group acceptor.

Acyltransferases play important roles in various biological processes, including the biosynthesis of lipids, fatty acids, and other metabolites. They are also involved in the detoxification of xenobiotics (foreign substances) by catalyzing the addition of an acyl group to these compounds, making them more water-soluble and easier to excrete from the body.

Examples of acyltransferases include serine palmitoyltransferase, which is involved in the biosynthesis of sphingolipids, and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), which facilitates the transfer of cholesteryl esters between lipoproteins.

Acyltransferases are classified based on the type of acyl group they transfer and the nature of the acyl group donor and acceptor molecules. They can be further categorized into subclasses based on their sequence similarities, three-dimensional structures, and evolutionary relationships.

Intramolecular lyases are a type of enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of a molecule by removing a group of atoms from within the same molecule, creating a new chemical bond in the process. These enzymes specifically cleave a molecule through an intramolecular mechanism, meaning they act on a single substrate molecule. Intramolecular lyases are involved in various biological processes, such as DNA replication, repair, and recombination. They play a crucial role in maintaining the integrity of genetic material by removing or adding specific groups of atoms to DNA or RNA molecules.

Propionophenones are a group of chemical compounds that contain a propanone (or methyl ketone) substituent and a phenyl group. In medical terms, some propionophenones have been used as pharmaceuticals, such as the antipsychotic drug perphenazine. However, it's important to note that not all propionophenones have medicinal uses, and some may even be harmful or toxic. Therefore, specific propionophenones should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis for their medical relevance or potential hazards.

Kava, also known as kava-kava, is a plant (Piper methysticum) that is native to the Pacific Islands. The root of the kava plant is used to make a drink that has been traditionally used in cultural and social gatherings for its relaxing effects. It can be consumed in various forms such as tea, capsules, or extracts.

In modern medicine, kava is sometimes used as a dietary supplement for anxiety, insomnia, and stress. However, its use as a medicinal product is controversial due to concerns about potential liver toxicity. The FDA has issued warnings about the risk of severe liver injury associated with kava-containing products. Therefore, it's essential to consult a healthcare professional before taking kava or any other dietary supplement.

Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase (PAL) is a enzyme that catalyzes the non-oxidative deamination of phenylalanine to trans-cinamic acid, releasing ammonia in the process. This reaction is a key step in the biosynthesis of various aromatic compounds in plants and microorganisms. In humans, PAL is not normally present, but its introduction through gene therapy has been studied as a potential treatment for phenylketonuria (PKU), a genetic disorder characterized by an inability to metabolize phenylalanine properly, leading to its accumulation in the body and potential neurological damage.

Flavanones are a type of flavonoid, which is a class of plant pigments widely found in fruits, vegetables, and other plants. Flavanones are known for their antioxidant properties and potential health benefits. They are typically found in citrus fruits such as oranges, lemons, and grapefruits. Some common flavanones include hesperetin, naringenin, and eriodictyol. These compounds have been studied for their potential effects on cardiovascular health, cancer prevention, and neuroprotection, although more research is needed to fully understand their mechanisms of action and therapeutic potential.

Anthocyanins are a type of plant pigment that belong to the flavonoid group. They are responsible for providing colors ranging from red, purple, and blue to black in various fruits, vegetables, flowers, and leaves. Anthocyanins have been studied extensively due to their potential health benefits, which include antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer properties. They also play a role in protecting plants from environmental stressors such as UV radiation, pathogens, and extreme temperatures. Chemically, anthocyanins are water-soluble compounds that can form complex structures with other molecules, leading to variations in their color expression depending on pH levels.

"Morus" is not a term commonly used in medical terminology. However, it may refer to "Morus alba," which is the scientific name for the white mulberry tree. Some studies suggest that certain compounds found in the leaves of this tree may have potential health benefits, but more research is needed. It's important to note that supplements containing these compounds should not be used as a substitute for medical treatment, and individuals should consult with their healthcare provider before taking them.

"Humulus" is a term that refers to a genus of plants, specifically the hop plant. The hop plant belongs to the Cannabaceae family and is native to Europe, western Asia, and North America. The humulus plant has climbing or trailing stems and produces separate male and female flowers on different plants.

The female flowers, known as hops, are used in the brewing industry to add flavor, aroma, and preservative qualities to beer. Hops contain resins and essential oils that contribute to the bitter taste and floral or citrusy notes of beer. They also have antibacterial properties that help to stabilize and preserve the beverage.

In a medical context, hops are sometimes used in herbal medicine for their sedative and calming effects. They may be prepared as teas, tinctures, or extracts and can be used to treat anxiety, insomnia, restlessness, and other conditions related to nervous tension. However, it's important to note that the scientific evidence supporting these uses is limited, and hops should not be used as a substitute for medical treatment without consulting a healthcare professional.

Flavonoids are a type of plant compounds with antioxidant properties that are beneficial to health. They are found in various fruits, vegetables, grains, and wine. Flavonoids have been studied for their potential to prevent chronic diseases such as heart disease and cancer due to their ability to reduce inflammation and oxidative stress.

There are several subclasses of flavonoids, including:

1. Flavanols: Found in tea, chocolate, grapes, and berries. They have been shown to improve blood flow and lower blood pressure.
2. Flavones: Found in parsley, celery, and citrus fruits. They have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.
3. Flavanonols: Found in citrus fruits, onions, and tea. They have been shown to improve blood flow and reduce inflammation.
4. Isoflavones: Found in soybeans and legumes. They have estrogen-like effects and may help prevent hormone-related cancers.
5. Anthocyanidins: Found in berries, grapes, and other fruits. They have antioxidant properties and may help improve vision and memory.

It is important to note that while flavonoids have potential health benefits, they should not be used as a substitute for medical treatment or a healthy lifestyle. It is always best to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any new supplement regimen.

'Angelica' is a common name that refers to several plant species in the genus Angelica. The most commonly used medicinally is Angelica archangelica, also known as garden angelica or wild celery. This herb has been used in traditional medicine for various purposes, such as:

1. Digestive aid: It is believed to stimulate appetite, ease digestion, and reduce gas and bloating.
2. Respiratory health: Angelica has been used to treat respiratory conditions like bronchitis, colds, and coughs.
3. Menstrual discomfort: Some people use it to alleviate menstrual cramps and PMS symptoms.
4. Nervous system: It may help reduce anxiety and promote relaxation.
5. Skin issues: The herb has been used topically for skin irritations, wounds, and insect bites.

However, it is essential to note that while angelica has potential health benefits, it can also have side effects and interact with certain medications. Pregnant women should avoid using this herb, as it may stimulate uterine contractions and lead to miscarriage. Always consult a healthcare professional before starting any new supplement or medication.

Zingiberaceae is not a medical term, but a taxonomic category in botany. It refers to the family of flowering plants that includes ginger, turmeric, and cardamom, among others. These plants are native to warm and tropical regions, primarily in Asia. Some species of Zingiberaceae have been used in traditional medicine for various purposes, such as treating digestive issues or inflammation. However, the specific medicinal properties and uses of each plant depend on the species and may vary. Therefore, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional before using any herbal remedies.

I apologize for any confusion, but "plants" is not a term that has a medical definition. The term "plants" refers to a large and diverse group of organisms that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, which is the process of converting sunlight into chemical energy. Plants are typically characterized by having cells with cell walls containing cellulose, chloroplasts containing the pigment chlorophyll, and the ability to synthesize their own food through photosynthesis.

In a medical or biological context, you might be thinking of "plant-based" or "phytomedicine," which refer to the use of plants or plant extracts as a form of medicine or treatment. Phytomedicines have been used for thousands of years in many traditional systems of medicine, and some plant-derived compounds have been found to have therapeutic benefits in modern medicine as well. However, "plants" itself does not have a medical definition.

Pterocarpans are a type of chemical compound known as flavonoids, which are found naturally in plants. They are specifically classified as a subgroup of pterocarpanoids and have a characteristic chemical structure consisting of two benzene rings joined by a heterocyclic pyran ring.

Pterocarpans are produced through the phenylpropanoid pathway, which is a metabolic route used by plants to synthesize various compounds with diverse biological activities. These compounds have been found to possess a range of pharmacological properties, including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer effects.

Some examples of pterocarpans include medicarpin, maackiain, and glyceollins. They are commonly found in leguminous plants such as soybeans, kudzu, and red clover. In recent years, there has been growing interest in the potential therapeutic applications of pterocarpans due to their diverse biological activities.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but Tetrathionic Acid is not a medical term. It is a chemical compound with the formula S4O62-. It's an acidic oxyanion of sulfur with the sulfur in the +5 oxidation state. It is not related to human health or medicine directly. If you have any questions about a medical topic, I'd be happy to help with that instead!

Mercuribenzoates are organic compounds that contain a mercury atom bonded to a benzoate group. They were historically used as diuretics and antiseptics, but their use has been largely discontinued due to the toxicity of mercury.

The medical definition of Mercuribenzoates is not widely used in modern medicine, as these compounds have fallen out of favor due to safer and more effective treatment options being available. Additionally, the use of mercury-containing compounds in medicine has become increasingly restricted due to concerns about their environmental impact and potential health risks.

Flavonols are a type of flavonoid, which is a class of plant and fungal metabolites. They are characterized by the presence of a 3-hydroxyflavone skeleton. Flavonols are found in a variety of plants and are known for their antioxidant properties. Some common dietary sources of flavonols include onions, kale, broccoli, apples, tea, and red wine. They have been studied for their potential health benefits, including reducing the risk of chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. Flavonols are also known to have anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and antimicrobial properties.

Photofluorography is not a widely used medical term, but it generally refers to a radiographic technique that uses fluorescent screens to produce images. It was historically used for mass screening of pulmonary diseases such as tuberculosis. The patient would be exposed to a low-dose X-ray, and the resulting image would be captured on a special film or sensor that is sensitive to light emitted by the fluorescent screen.

However, it's worth noting that photofluorography has largely been replaced by digital radiography and other modern imaging techniques in clinical practice.

A gene in plants, like in other organisms, is a hereditary unit that carries genetic information from one generation to the next. It is a segment of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) that contains the instructions for the development and function of an organism. Genes in plants determine various traits such as flower color, plant height, resistance to diseases, and many others. They are responsible for encoding proteins and RNA molecules that play crucial roles in the growth, development, and reproduction of plants. Plant genes can be manipulated through traditional breeding methods or genetic engineering techniques to improve crop yield, enhance disease resistance, and increase nutritional value.

Phloroglucinol is not strictly a medical term, but it is used in medicine and pharmacology. Phloroglucinol is an aromatic organic compound with the formula C6H6(OH)3. It is a white crystalline solid that is soluble in water and polar organic solvents.

In a medical context, phloroglucinol is most commonly used as a smooth muscle relaxant. It is often found in over-the-counter medications used to treat gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal cramps, spasms, and pain. Phloroglucinol works by relaxing the smooth muscles of the digestive tract, which can help to reduce spasms and relieve pain.

Phloroglucinol is also used in some countries as a treatment for kidney stones. It is believed to help to relax the ureter, the tube that connects the kidney to the bladder, making it easier to pass small kidney stones. However, its effectiveness for this use is not well established, and it is not approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for this purpose.

It's important to note that phloroglucinol should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare provider, as it can have side effects and interact with other medications.

Elaeagnaceae is a family of flowering plants that includes around 50–60 species in 3–4 genera: Elaeagnus, Hippophae, Shepherdia, and Tetradiclis. These plants are often found in temperate and subtropical regions of the world, and they are known for their small, inconspicuous flowers and silvery or brownish scales that cover their leaves and stems.

Some species of Elaeagnus and Hippophae produce edible fruits that are high in antioxidants and other nutrients, making them popular in traditional medicine and as functional foods. For example, the fruit of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) is rich in vitamin C, vitamin E, and carotenoids, while the fruit of autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) contains high levels of lycopene and other antioxidants.

Overall, Elaeagnaceae is a diverse family of plants that includes both ornamental and medicinal species, as well as some invasive species that can cause problems in certain ecosystems.

Pigmentation, in a medical context, refers to the coloring of the skin, hair, or eyes due to the presence of pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. These cells produce a pigment called melanin, which determines the color of our skin, hair, and eyes.

There are two main types of melanin: eumelanin and pheomelanin. Eumelanin is responsible for brown or black coloration, while pheomelanin produces a red or yellow hue. The amount and type of melanin produced by melanocytes can vary from person to person, leading to differences in skin color and hair color.

Changes in pigmentation can occur due to various factors such as genetics, exposure to sunlight, hormonal changes, inflammation, or certain medical conditions. For example, hyperpigmentation refers to an excess production of melanin that results in darkened patches on the skin, while hypopigmentation is a condition where there is a decreased production of melanin leading to lighter or white patches on the skin.

"Plant proteins" refer to the proteins that are derived from plant sources. These can include proteins from legumes such as beans, lentils, and peas, as well as proteins from grains like wheat, rice, and corn. Other sources of plant proteins include nuts, seeds, and vegetables.

Plant proteins are made up of individual amino acids, which are the building blocks of protein. While animal-based proteins typically contain all of the essential amino acids that the body needs to function properly, many plant-based proteins may be lacking in one or more of these essential amino acids. However, by consuming a variety of plant-based foods throughout the day, it is possible to get all of the essential amino acids that the body needs from plant sources alone.

Plant proteins are often lower in calories and saturated fat than animal proteins, making them a popular choice for those following a vegetarian or vegan diet, as well as those looking to maintain a healthy weight or reduce their risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease and cancer. Additionally, plant proteins have been shown to have a number of health benefits, including improving gut health, reducing inflammation, and supporting muscle growth and repair.

Medicinal plants are defined as those plants that contain naturally occurring chemical compounds which can be used for therapeutic purposes, either directly or indirectly. These plants have been used for centuries in various traditional systems of medicine, such as Ayurveda, Chinese medicine, and Native American medicine, to prevent or treat various health conditions.

Medicinal plants contain a wide variety of bioactive compounds, including alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, terpenes, and saponins, among others. These compounds have been found to possess various pharmacological properties, such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities.

Medicinal plants can be used in various forms, including whole plant material, extracts, essential oils, and isolated compounds. They can be administered through different routes, such as oral, topical, or respiratory, depending on the desired therapeutic effect.

It is important to note that while medicinal plants have been used safely and effectively for centuries, they should be used with caution and under the guidance of a healthcare professional. Some medicinal plants can interact with prescription medications or have adverse effects if used inappropriately.

'Medicago sativa' is the scientific name for a plant species more commonly known as alfalfa. In a medical context, alfalfa is often considered a herbal supplement and its medicinal properties include being a source of vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. It has been used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of conditions such as kidney problems, asthma, arthritis, and high cholesterol levels. However, it's important to note that the effectiveness of alfalfa for these uses is not conclusively established by scientific research and its use may have potential risks or interactions with certain medications. Always consult a healthcare provider before starting any new supplement regimen.

A chalcone is a type of organic compound that is characterized by a chemical structure consisting of two aromatic rings connected by a three-carbon α,β-unsaturated carbonyl system. Chalcones are important intermediates in the synthesis of various flavonoids and isoflavonoids, which are classes of compounds found in many plants and have been studied for their potential medicinal properties.

Chalcones themselves have also been investigated for their biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer effects. However, it is important to note that while some chalcone derivatives have shown promising results in preclinical studies, more research is needed to establish their safety and efficacy in humans.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "soybeans" are not a medical term. They are a type of legume that is commonly used in agriculture and food production. The medical community might discuss soybeans in the context of nutrition or allergies, but there isn't a formal medical definition for this term.

Here's some general information: Soybeans, scientifically known as Glycine max, are native to East Asia and are now grown worldwide. They are a significant source of plant-based protein and oil. Soybeans contain various nutrients, including essential amino acids, fiber, B vitamins, and minerals like calcium, iron, magnesium, and zinc. They are used in various food products such as tofu, soy milk, tempeh, and miso. Additionally, soybeans are also used in the production of industrial products, including biodiesel, plastics, and inks. Some people may have allergic reactions to soybeans or soy products.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Mallotus plant" is not a recognized medical term or concept in medicine or healthcare. The term "Mallotus" refers to a genus of flowering plants in the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae. These plants are native to tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, Africa, and Australia. Some species of Mallotus have been used in traditional medicine, but there is limited scientific evidence supporting their effectiveness or safety.

If you have any questions related to a specific medical condition or treatment, I would be happy to try to help you with that instead!

I apologize for any confusion, but "Rosales" is not a medical term. It is a botanical term used in the classification of plants. Rosales is an order of flowering plants that includes roses, as well as many other plants such as apples, cherries, almonds, and strawberries. The plants in this group are characterized by having flowers with multiple stamens and styles. I hope this clarifies any confusion. If you have any medical terms you would like defined, please let me know!

Trans-cinnamate 4-monooxygenase is an enzyme that belongs to the class of oxidoreductases. It is specifically categorized as a member of the family of single-donor oxidoreductases, which use NAD or NADP as electron acceptors. This enzyme participates in the phenylpropanoid metabolic pathway and catalyzes the conversion of trans-cinnamic acid to p-coumaric acid using NADPH and oxygen as cofactors. The reaction can be represented as follows:

trans-cinnamic acid + NADPH + H+ + O2 -> p-coumaric acid + NADP+ + H2O

The gene encoding this enzyme is often used as a marker for plant defense responses and stress tolerance.

Butanones are a group of chemical compounds that contain a ketone functional group and have the molecular formula C4H8O. They are also known as methyl ethyl ketones or MEKs. The simplest butanone is called methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) or 2-butanone, which has a chain of four carbon atoms with a ketone group in the second position. Other butanones include diethyl ketone (3-pentanone), which has a ketone group in the third position, and methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) or 4-methyl-2-pentanone, which has a branched chain with a ketone group in the second position.

Butanones are commonly used as solvents in various industrial applications, such as paint thinners, adhesives, and cleaning agents. They have a characteristic odor and can be harmful if ingested or inhaled in large quantities. Exposure to butanones can cause irritation of the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract, and prolonged exposure may lead to neurological symptoms such as dizziness, headache, and nausea.

Fabaceae is the scientific name for a family of flowering plants commonly known as the legume, pea, or bean family. This family includes a wide variety of plants that are important economically, agriculturally, and ecologically. Many members of Fabaceae have compound leaves and produce fruits that are legumes, which are long, thin pods that contain seeds. Some well-known examples of plants in this family include beans, peas, lentils, peanuts, clover, and alfalfa.

In addition to their importance as food crops, many Fabaceae species have the ability to fix nitrogen from the atmosphere into the soil through a symbiotic relationship with bacteria that live in nodules on their roots. This makes them valuable for improving soil fertility and is one reason why they are often used in crop rotation and as cover crops.

It's worth noting that Fabaceae is sometimes still referred to by its older scientific name, Leguminosae.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Ammonia-lyases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the removal of an amino group from a substrate, releasing ammonia in the process. These enzymes play important roles in various biological pathways, including the biosynthesis and degradation of various metabolites such as amino acids, carbohydrates, and aromatic compounds.

The reaction catalyzed by ammonia-lyases typically involves the conversion of an alkyl or aryl group to a carbon-carbon double bond through the elimination of an amine group. This reaction is often reversible, allowing the enzyme to also catalyze the addition of an amino group to a double bond.

Ammonia-lyases are classified based on the type of substrate they act upon and the mechanism of the reaction they catalyze. Some examples of ammonia-lyases include aspartate ammonia-lyase, which catalyzes the conversion of aspartate to fumarate, and tyrosine ammonia-lyase, which converts tyrosine to p-coumaric acid.

These enzymes are important in both plant and animal metabolism and have potential applications in biotechnology and industrial processes.

Gene expression regulation in plants refers to the processes that control the production of proteins and RNA from the genes present in the plant's DNA. This regulation is crucial for normal growth, development, and response to environmental stimuli in plants. It can occur at various levels, including transcription (the first step in gene expression, where the DNA sequence is copied into RNA), RNA processing (such as alternative splicing, which generates different mRNA molecules from a single gene), translation (where the information in the mRNA is used to produce a protein), and post-translational modification (where proteins are chemically modified after they have been synthesized).

In plants, gene expression regulation can be influenced by various factors such as hormones, light, temperature, and stress. Plants use complex networks of transcription factors, chromatin remodeling complexes, and small RNAs to regulate gene expression in response to these signals. Understanding the mechanisms of gene expression regulation in plants is important for basic research, as well as for developing crops with improved traits such as increased yield, stress tolerance, and disease resistance.

Alpinia is a genus of plants in the ginger family (Zingiberaceae) that includes around 230 species. These plants are native to tropical regions of Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands. Many Alpinia species have aromatic rhizomes that are used in traditional medicine and cooking. Some common names for Alpinia include galangal, greater galangal, lesser galangal, and thai ginger.

In a medical context, Alpinia species such as Alpinia galanga and Alpinia officinarum have been studied for their potential medicinal properties. For example, some research suggests that these plants may have anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and analgesic effects. However, more research is needed to confirm these findings and to determine the safety and effectiveness of using Alpinia for medical purposes.

It's important to note that while Alpinia species have been used in traditional medicine for centuries, they should not be used as a substitute for professional medical advice or treatment. If you are considering using Alpinia or any other herbal remedy, it's important to talk to your healthcare provider first to ensure safety and effectiveness.

Apiaceae is a family of flowering plants also known as Umbelliferae. It includes aromatic herbs and vegetables such as carrots, parsley, celery, fennel, and dill. The plants in this family are characterized by their umbrella-shaped clusters of flowers (umbels) and hollow stems. Some members of Apiaceae contain toxic compounds, so caution should be taken when identifying and consuming wild plants from this family.

"Viola" is a term that has different meanings in various scientific and medical contexts. Here are some possible definitions related to medicine and biology:

1. Viola tricolor L. (Heartsease or Johnny-jump-up) - A species of flowering plant in the family Violaceae, which is used in herbal medicine for treating skin conditions, coughs, and respiratory issues.
2. Viola odorata L. (Sweet violet) - Another species of flowering plant in the family Violaceae, whose leaves and flowers are used to make teas, syrups, and other medicinal preparations for treating various ailments such as coughs, colds, and skin conditions.
3. In anatomy, "viola" is an archaic term that refers to the human uvula or the conical piece of soft tissue hanging down at the back of the throat.
4. Viola (musical instrument) - While not directly related to medicine, it's worth noting that "viola" is also a stringed musical instrument similar to a violin but slightly larger and with a deeper sound. In some contexts, such as music therapy, musical instruments can have therapeutic applications in healthcare settings.

It's essential to clarify the specific meaning of "Viola" in the given medical or scientific context since it can refer to different things depending on the field.

Helichrysum is a genus of plants belonging to the daisy family, Asteraceae. There are several species within this genus, and they are native to the Mediterranean region, southern Europe, and eastern Africa. Some common names for Helichrysum include everlasting, immortelle, and curry plant.

In the context of medical or therapeutic uses, Helichrysum is often referred to as Helichrysum italicum, which is also known as the Italian straw flower. The essential oil derived from this plant is used in aromatherapy for its purported anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and wound-healing properties. It is sometimes used topically for skin conditions such as acne, eczema, and wounds, and it is also believed to have calming effects on the mind and body. However, it's important to note that the scientific evidence supporting these claims is limited, and more research is needed to confirm their effectiveness and safety.

Isomerases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the interconversion of isomers of a single molecule. They do this by rearranging atoms within a molecule to form a new structural arrangement or isomer. Isomerases can act on various types of chemical bonds, including carbon-carbon and carbon-oxygen bonds.

There are several subclasses of isomerases, including:

1. Racemases and epimerases: These enzymes interconvert stereoisomers, which are molecules that have the same molecular formula but different spatial arrangements of their atoms in three-dimensional space.
2. Cis-trans isomerases: These enzymes interconvert cis and trans isomers, which differ in the arrangement of groups on opposite sides of a double bond.
3. Intramolecular oxidoreductases: These enzymes catalyze the transfer of electrons within a single molecule, resulting in the formation of different isomers.
4. Mutases: These enzymes catalyze the transfer of functional groups within a molecule, resulting in the formation of different isomers.
5. Tautomeres: These enzymes catalyze the interconversion of tautomers, which are isomeric forms of a molecule that differ in the location of a movable hydrogen atom and a double bond.

Isomerases play important roles in various biological processes, including metabolism, signaling, and regulation.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Propane" is not a medical term. It is a chemical compound commonly used as a fuel for heating, cooking, and engines. Propane is a gas at room temperature and pressure, but it can be liquefied under moderate pressure and stored in cylinders or tanks.

If you have any questions about a medical term or concept, I'd be happy to try to help answer those for you!

Coumaric acids are a type of phenolic acid that are widely distributed in plants. They are found in various foods such as fruits, vegetables, and grains. The most common forms of coumaric acids are p-coumaric acid, o-coumaric acid, and m-coumaric acid.

Coumaric acids have been studied for their potential health benefits, including their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial properties. They may also play a role in preventing chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential health benefits of coumaric acids.

It's worth noting that coumaric acids are not to be confused with warfarin (also known as Coumadin), a medication used as an anticoagulant. While both coumaric acids and warfarin contain a similar chemical structure, they have different effects on the body.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "flowers" is not a term that has a medical definition. The term "flowers" is commonly used to refer to the reproductive structures of flowering plants (angiosperms), which are characterized by having both male and female reproductive organs or separate male and female flowers.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health conditions, I would be happy to try to help answer those for you!

Agaricales is an order of fungi that includes mushrooms, toadstools, and other gilled fungi. These fungi are characterized by their distinctive fruiting bodies, which have a cap (pileus) and stem (stipe), and gills (lamellae) on the underside of the cap where the spores are produced. Agaricales contains many well-known and economically important genera, such as Agaricus (which includes the common button mushroom), Amanita (which includes the deadly "death cap" mushroom), and Coprinus (which includes the inky cap mushrooms). The order was established by the Swedish mycologist Elias Magnus Fries in 1821.

Flavones are a type of flavonoid, which is a class of plant and fungal metabolites. They are characterized by a phenylbenzopyrone structure, consisting of two benzene rings (A and B) linked through a heterocyclic pyrone ring (C). Flavones specifically have a double bond between the second and third carbon atoms in the C ring, which contributes to their planar structure.

Flavones are found in various plants, including fruits, vegetables, and herbs, and they have been studied for their potential health benefits. Some common flavones include luteolin, apigenin, and chrysin. These compounds have been shown to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties in laboratory studies, but more research is needed to determine their effectiveness and safety in humans.

Asteraceae is a family of flowering plants commonly known as the daisy family or sunflower family. It is one of the largest and most diverse families of vascular plants, with over 1,900 genera and 32,000 species. The family includes a wide variety of plants, ranging from annual and perennial herbs to shrubs and trees.

The defining characteristic of Asteraceae is the presence of a unique type of inflorescence called a capitulum, which resembles a single flower but is actually composed of many small flowers (florets) arranged in a dense head. The florets are typically bisexual, with both male and female reproductive structures, and are radially symmetrical.

Asteraceae includes many economically important plants, such as sunflowers, daisies, artichokes, lettuce, chicory, and ragweed. Some species of Asteraceae are also used in traditional medicine and have been found to contain bioactive compounds with potential therapeutic uses.

It's worth noting that the taxonomy of this family has undergone significant revisions in recent years, and some genera and species have been moved to other families or renamed.

A plant extract is a preparation containing chemical constituents that have been extracted from a plant using a solvent. The resulting extract may contain a single compound or a mixture of several compounds, depending on the extraction process and the specific plant material used. These extracts are often used in various industries including pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, cosmetics, and food and beverage, due to their potential therapeutic or beneficial properties. The composition of plant extracts can vary widely, and it is important to ensure their quality, safety, and efficacy before use in any application.

Molecular structure, in the context of biochemistry and molecular biology, refers to the arrangement and organization of atoms and chemical bonds within a molecule. It describes the three-dimensional layout of the constituent elements, including their spatial relationships, bond lengths, and angles. Understanding molecular structure is crucial for elucidating the functions and reactivities of biological macromolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates. Various experimental techniques, like X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), are employed to determine molecular structures at atomic resolution, providing valuable insights into their biological roles and potential therapeutic targets.

Phenylpropionates are a group of organic compounds that contain a phenyl group and a propionate group. In the context of pharmaceuticals, phenylpropionates often refer to a specific type of esterified hormone, such as testosterone phenylpropionate or nandrolone phenylpropionate. These esters are used in some forms of anabolic-androgenic steroids and are created by attaching a phenylpropionate group to the parent hormone molecule. This modification allows for a slower release and longer duration of action when administered intramuscularly.

It is important to note that these substances have medical uses, but they also carry risks and potential side effects, especially when used inappropriately or without medical supervision. They are controlled substances in many countries due to their potential for misuse and abuse.

DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the genetic material present in the cells of all living organisms, including plants. In plants, DNA is located in the nucleus of a cell, as well as in chloroplasts and mitochondria. Plant DNA contains the instructions for the development, growth, and function of the plant, and is passed down from one generation to the next through the process of reproduction.

The structure of DNA is a double helix, formed by two strands of nucleotides that are linked together by hydrogen bonds. Each nucleotide contains a sugar molecule (deoxyribose), a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. There are four types of nitrogenous bases in DNA: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). Adenine pairs with thymine, and guanine pairs with cytosine, forming the rungs of the ladder that make up the double helix.

The genetic information in DNA is encoded in the sequence of these nitrogenous bases. Large sequences of bases form genes, which provide the instructions for the production of proteins. The process of gene expression involves transcribing the DNA sequence into a complementary RNA molecule, which is then translated into a protein.

Plant DNA is similar to animal DNA in many ways, but there are also some differences. For example, plant DNA contains a higher proportion of repetitive sequences and transposable elements, which are mobile genetic elements that can move around the genome and cause mutations. Additionally, plant cells have cell walls and chloroplasts, which are not present in animal cells, and these structures contain their own DNA.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Gefarnate" is not a recognized term in medical terminology. It may be that you have misspelled or are unfamiliar with the name of a particular medication or chemical compound. If you meant "Gefinitib," it is a type of cancer medication used to treat certain types of lung cancer. Always consult reliable medical sources or healthcare professionals for accurate and safe information.

Quercetin is a type of flavonoid antioxidant that is found in plant foods, including leafy greens, tomatoes, berries, and broccoli. It has been studied for its potential health benefits, such as reducing inflammation, protecting against damage to cells, and helping to reduce the risk of heart disease and cancer. Quercetin is also known for its ability to stabilize mast cells and prevent the release of histamine, making it a popular natural remedy for allergies. It is available in supplement form, but it is always recommended to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any new supplement regimen.

'Arabidopsis' is a genus of small flowering plants that are part of the mustard family (Brassicaceae). The most commonly studied species within this genus is 'Arabidopsis thaliana', which is often used as a model organism in plant biology and genetics research. This plant is native to Eurasia and Africa, and it has a small genome that has been fully sequenced. It is known for its short life cycle, self-fertilization, and ease of growth, making it an ideal subject for studying various aspects of plant biology, including development, metabolism, and response to environmental stresses.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Genetically modified plants (GMPs) are plants that have had their DNA altered through genetic engineering techniques to exhibit desired traits. These modifications can be made to enhance certain characteristics such as increased resistance to pests, improved tolerance to environmental stresses like drought or salinity, or enhanced nutritional content. The process often involves introducing genes from other organisms, such as bacteria or viruses, into the plant's genome. Examples of GMPs include Bt cotton, which has a gene from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis that makes it resistant to certain pests, and golden rice, which is engineered to contain higher levels of beta-carotene, a precursor to vitamin A. It's important to note that genetically modified plants are subject to rigorous testing and regulation to ensure their safety for human consumption and environmental impact before they are approved for commercial use.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Pyrones" is not a medical term, but rather a chemical term used to describe a class of organic compounds known as lactones with a characteristic eight-membered ring. These compounds are found in various natural sources such as plants and fungi, and some have been studied for their potential biological activities.

However, if you meant "pyrexia" instead of "pyrones," then I can provide the medical definition:

Pyrexia is a term used to describe an abnormally elevated body temperature, also known as fever. In adults, a core body temperature of 100.4°F (38°C) or higher is generally considered indicative of pyrexia. Fever is often a response to an infection or inflammation in the body and can be part of the immune system's effort to combat pathogens.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Alcohol oxidoreductases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones, while reducing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) to NADH. These enzymes play an important role in the metabolism of alcohols and other organic compounds in living organisms.

The most well-known example of an alcohol oxidoreductase is alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), which is responsible for the oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde in the liver during the metabolism of alcoholic beverages. Other examples include aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH).

These enzymes are important targets for the development of drugs used to treat alcohol use disorder, as inhibiting their activity can help to reduce the rate of ethanol metabolism and the severity of its effects on the body.

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

Thiosulfates are salts or esters of thiosulfuric acid (H2S2O3). In medicine, sodium thiosulfate is used as an antidote for cyanide poisoning and as a topical treatment for wounds, skin irritations, and certain types of burns. It works by converting toxic substances into less harmful forms that can be eliminated from the body. Sodium thiosulfate is also used in some solutions for irrigation of the bladder or kidneys to help prevent the formation of calcium oxalate stones.

Inhibitory Concentration 50 (IC50) is a measure used in pharmacology, toxicology, and virology to describe the potency of a drug or chemical compound. It refers to the concentration needed to reduce the biological or biochemical activity of a given substance by half. Specifically, it is most commonly used in reference to the inhibition of an enzyme or receptor.

In the context of infectious diseases, IC50 values are often used to compare the effectiveness of antiviral drugs against a particular virus. A lower IC50 value indicates that less of the drug is needed to achieve the desired effect, suggesting greater potency and potentially fewer side effects. Conversely, a higher IC50 value suggests that more of the drug is required to achieve the same effect, indicating lower potency.

It's important to note that IC50 values can vary depending on the specific assay or experimental conditions used, so they should be interpreted with caution and in conjunction with other measures of drug efficacy.

Ribonucleic acid (RNA) in plants refers to the long, single-stranded molecules that are essential for the translation of genetic information from deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) into proteins. RNA is a nucleic acid, like DNA, and it is composed of a ribose sugar backbone with attached nitrogenous bases (adenine, uracil, guanine, and cytosine).

In plants, there are several types of RNA that play specific roles in the gene expression process:

1. Messenger RNA (mRNA): This type of RNA carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a sequence of three-base code units called codons. These codons specify the order of amino acids in a protein.
2. Transfer RNA (tRNA): tRNAs are small RNA molecules that serve as adaptors between the mRNA and the amino acids during protein synthesis. Each tRNA has a specific anticodon sequence that base-pairs with a complementary codon on the mRNA, and it carries a specific amino acid that corresponds to that codon.
3. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA): rRNAs are structural components of ribosomes, which are large macromolecular complexes where protein synthesis occurs. In plants, there are several types of rRNAs, including the 18S, 5.8S, and 25S/28S rRNAs, that form the core of the ribosome and help catalyze peptide bond formation during protein synthesis.
4. Small nuclear RNA (snRNA): These are small RNA molecules that play a role in RNA processing, such as splicing, where introns (non-coding sequences) are removed from pre-mRNA and exons (coding sequences) are joined together to form mature mRNAs.
5. MicroRNA (miRNA): These are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by binding to complementary sequences in target mRNAs, leading to their degradation or translation inhibition.

Overall, these different types of RNAs play crucial roles in various aspects of RNA metabolism, gene regulation, and protein synthesis in plants.

In medical terms, "seeds" are often referred to as a small amount of a substance, such as a radioactive material or drug, that is inserted into a tissue or placed inside a capsule for the purpose of treating a medical condition. This can include procedures like brachytherapy, where seeds containing radioactive materials are used in the treatment of cancer to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Similarly, in some forms of drug delivery, seeds containing medication can be used to gradually release the drug into the body over an extended period of time.

It's important to note that "seeds" have different meanings and applications depending on the medical context. In other cases, "seeds" may simply refer to small particles or structures found in the body, such as those present in the eye's retina.

Gene expression regulation, enzymologic refers to the biochemical processes and mechanisms that control the transcription and translation of specific genes into functional proteins or enzymes. This regulation is achieved through various enzymatic activities that can either activate or repress gene expression at different levels, such as chromatin remodeling, transcription factor activation, mRNA processing, and protein degradation.

Enzymologic regulation of gene expression involves the action of specific enzymes that catalyze chemical reactions involved in these processes. For example, histone-modifying enzymes can alter the structure of chromatin to make genes more or less accessible for transcription, while RNA polymerase and its associated factors are responsible for transcribing DNA into mRNA. Additionally, various enzymes are involved in post-transcriptional modifications of mRNA, such as splicing, capping, and tailing, which can affect the stability and translation of the transcript.

Overall, the enzymologic regulation of gene expression is a complex and dynamic process that allows cells to respond to changes in their environment and maintain proper physiological function.

"Lycopersicon esculentum" is the scientific name for the common red tomato. It is a species of fruit from the nightshade family (Solanaceae) that is native to western South America and Central America. Tomatoes are widely grown and consumed in many parts of the world as a vegetable, although they are technically a fruit. They are rich in nutrients such as vitamin C, potassium, and lycopene, which has been studied for its potential health benefits.

A Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) in the context of medicinal chemistry and pharmacology refers to the relationship between the chemical structure of a drug or molecule and its biological activity or effect on a target protein, cell, or organism. SAR studies aim to identify patterns and correlations between structural features of a compound and its ability to interact with a specific biological target, leading to a desired therapeutic response or undesired side effects.

By analyzing the SAR, researchers can optimize the chemical structure of lead compounds to enhance their potency, selectivity, safety, and pharmacokinetic properties, ultimately guiding the design and development of novel drugs with improved efficacy and reduced toxicity.

Biosynthetic pathways refer to the series of biochemical reactions that occur within cells and living organisms, leading to the production (synthesis) of complex molecules from simpler precursors. These pathways involve a sequence of enzyme-catalyzed reactions, where each reaction builds upon the product of the previous one, ultimately resulting in the formation of a specific biomolecule.

Examples of biosynthetic pathways include:

1. The Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle) - an essential metabolic pathway that generates energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.
2. Glycolysis - a process that breaks down glucose into pyruvate to generate ATP and NADH.
3. Gluconeogenesis - the synthesis of glucose from non-carbohydrate precursors such as lactate, pyruvate, glycerol, and certain amino acids.
4. Fatty acid synthesis - a process that produces fatty acids from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA through a series of reduction reactions.
5. Amino acid synthesis - the production of various amino acids from simpler precursors, often involving intermediates in central metabolic pathways like the Krebs cycle or glycolysis.
6. Steroid biosynthesis - the formation of steroids from simple precursors such as cholesterol and its derivatives.
7. Terpenoid biosynthesis - the production of terpenes, terpenoids, and sterols from isoprene units (isopentenyl pyrophosphate).
8. Nucleotide synthesis - the generation of nucleotides, the building blocks of DNA and RNA, through complex biochemical pathways involving various precursors and cofactors.

Understanding biosynthetic pathways is crucial for comprehending cellular metabolism, developing drugs that target specific metabolic processes, and engineering organisms with desired traits in synthetic biology and metabolic engineering applications.

A multigene family is a group of genetically related genes that share a common ancestry and have similar sequences or structures. These genes are arranged in clusters on a chromosome and often encode proteins with similar functions. They can arise through various mechanisms, including gene duplication, recombination, and transposition. Multigene families play crucial roles in many biological processes, such as development, immunity, and metabolism. Examples of multigene families include the globin genes involved in oxygen transport, the immune system's major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, and the cytochrome P450 genes associated with drug metabolism.

Isoflavones are a type of plant-derived compounds called phytoestrogens, which have a chemical structure similar to human estrogen. They are found in various plants, particularly in soybeans and soy products. Isoflavones can act as weak estrogens or anti-estrogens in the body, depending on the levels of natural hormones present. These compounds have been studied for their potential health benefits, including reducing menopausal symptoms, improving cardiovascular health, and preventing certain types of cancer. However, more research is needed to fully understand their effects and safety.

Stilbenes are a type of chemical compound that consists of a 1,2-diphenylethylene backbone. They are phenolic compounds and can be found in various plants, where they play a role in the defense against pathogens and stress conditions. Some stilbenes have been studied for their potential health benefits, including their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. One well-known example of a stilbene is resveratrol, which is found in the skin of grapes and in red wine.

It's important to note that while some stilbenes have been shown to have potential health benefits in laboratory studies, more research is needed to determine their safety and effectiveness in humans. It's always a good idea to talk to a healthcare provider before starting any new supplement regimen.

In the context of medical terminology, "light" doesn't have a specific or standardized definition on its own. However, it can be used in various medical terms and phrases. For example, it could refer to:

1. Visible light: The range of electromagnetic radiation that can be detected by the human eye, typically between wavelengths of 400-700 nanometers. This is relevant in fields such as ophthalmology and optometry.
2. Therapeutic use of light: In some therapies, light is used to treat certain conditions. An example is phototherapy, which uses various wavelengths of ultraviolet (UV) or visible light for conditions like newborn jaundice, skin disorders, or seasonal affective disorder.
3. Light anesthesia: A state of reduced consciousness in which the patient remains responsive to verbal commands and physical stimulation. This is different from general anesthesia where the patient is completely unconscious.
4. Pain relief using light: Certain devices like transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) units have a 'light' setting, indicating lower intensity or frequency of electrical impulses used for pain management.

Without more context, it's hard to provide a precise medical definition of 'light'.

A plant root is not a medical term per se, but it is a term from botany, which is the study of plants. However, I can certainly provide a definition for you.

Plant roots are the underground organs of a plant that typically grow downward into the soil. They serve several important functions, including:

1. Anchorage: Roots help to stabilize the plant and keep it upright in the ground.
2. Absorption: Roots absorb water and nutrients from the soil, which are essential for the plant's growth and development.
3. Conduction: Roots conduct water and nutrients up to the above-ground parts of the plant, such as the stem and leaves.
4. Vegetative reproduction: Some plants can reproduce vegetatively through their roots, producing new plants from root fragments or specialized structures called rhizomes or tubers.

Roots are composed of several different tissues, including the epidermis, cortex, endodermis, and vascular tissue. The epidermis is the outermost layer of the root, which secretes a waxy substance called suberin that helps to prevent water loss. The cortex is the middle layer of the root, which contains cells that store carbohydrates and other nutrients. The endodermis is a thin layer of cells that surrounds the vascular tissue and regulates the movement of water and solutes into and out of the root. The vascular tissue consists of xylem and phloem, which transport water and nutrients throughout the plant.

Enzyme induction is a process by which the activity or expression of an enzyme is increased in response to some stimulus, such as a drug, hormone, or other environmental factor. This can occur through several mechanisms, including increasing the transcription of the enzyme's gene, stabilizing the mRNA that encodes the enzyme, or increasing the translation of the mRNA into protein.

In some cases, enzyme induction can be a beneficial process, such as when it helps the body to metabolize and clear drugs more quickly. However, in other cases, enzyme induction can have negative consequences, such as when it leads to the increased metabolism of important endogenous compounds or the activation of harmful procarcinogens.

Enzyme induction is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology, as it can affect the efficacy and safety of drugs and other xenobiotics. It is also relevant to the study of drug interactions, as the induction of one enzyme by a drug can lead to altered metabolism and effects of another drug that is metabolized by the same enzyme.

Tyrosinase, also known as monophenol monooxygenase, is an enzyme (EC 1.14.18.1) that catalyzes the ortho-hydroxylation of monophenols (like tyrosine) to o-diphenols (like L-DOPA) and the oxidation of o-diphenols to o-quinones. This enzyme plays a crucial role in melanin synthesis, which is responsible for the color of skin, hair, and eyes in humans and animals. Tyrosinase is found in various organisms, including plants, fungi, and animals. In humans, tyrosinase is primarily located in melanocytes, the cells that produce melanin. The enzyme's activity is regulated by several factors, such as pH, temperature, and metal ions like copper, which are essential for its catalytic function.

Melanin is a pigment that determines the color of skin, hair, and eyes in humans and animals. It is produced by melanocytes, which are specialized cells found in the epidermis (the outer layer of the skin) and the choroid (the vascular coat of the eye). There are two main types of melanin: eumelanin and pheomelanin. Eumelanin is a black or brown pigment, while pheomelanin is a red or yellow pigment. The amount and type of melanin produced by an individual can affect their skin and hair color, as well as their susceptibility to certain diseases, such as skin cancer.

Catalysis is the process of increasing the rate of a chemical reaction by adding a substance known as a catalyst, which remains unchanged at the end of the reaction. A catalyst lowers the activation energy required for the reaction to occur, thereby allowing the reaction to proceed more quickly and efficiently. This can be particularly important in biological systems, where enzymes act as catalysts to speed up metabolic reactions that are essential for life.

Mixed Function Oxygenases (MFOs) are a type of enzyme that catalyze the addition of one atom each from molecular oxygen (O2) to a substrate, while reducing the other oxygen atom to water. These enzymes play a crucial role in the metabolism of various endogenous and exogenous compounds, including drugs, carcinogens, and environmental pollutants.

MFOs are primarily located in the endoplasmic reticulum of cells and consist of two subunits: a flavoprotein component that contains FAD or FMN as a cofactor, and an iron-containing heme protein. The most well-known example of MFO is cytochrome P450, which is involved in the oxidation of xenobiotics and endogenous compounds such as steroids, fatty acids, and vitamins.

MFOs can catalyze a variety of reactions, including hydroxylation, epoxidation, dealkylation, and deamination, among others. These reactions often lead to the activation or detoxification of xenobiotics, making MFOs an important component of the body's defense system against foreign substances. However, in some cases, these reactions can also produce reactive intermediates that may cause toxicity or contribute to the development of diseases such as cancer.

Immunochemistry is a branch of biochemistry and immunology that deals with the chemical basis of antigen-antibody interactions. It involves the application of chemical techniques and principles to the study of immune system components, particularly antibodies and antigens. Immunochemical methods are widely used in various fields such as clinical diagnostics, research, and forensic science for the detection, quantification, and characterization of different molecules, cells, and microorganisms. These methods include techniques like ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay), Western blotting, immunoprecipitation, and immunohistochemistry.

Fungi, in the context of medical definitions, are a group of eukaryotic organisms that include microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. The study of fungi is known as mycology.

Fungi can exist as unicellular organisms or as multicellular filamentous structures called hyphae. They are heterotrophs, which means they obtain their nutrients by decomposing organic matter or by living as parasites on other organisms. Some fungi can cause various diseases in humans, animals, and plants, known as mycoses. These infections range from superficial, localized skin infections to systemic, life-threatening invasive diseases.

Examples of fungal infections include athlete's foot (tinea pedis), ringworm (dermatophytosis), candidiasis (yeast infection), histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and aspergillosis. Fungal infections can be challenging to treat due to the limited number of antifungal drugs available and the potential for drug resistance.

Genetic engineering, also known as genetic modification, is a scientific process where the DNA or genetic material of an organism is manipulated to bring about a change in its characteristics. This is typically done by inserting specific genes into the organism's genome using various molecular biology techniques. These new genes may come from the same species (cisgenesis) or a different species (transgenesis). The goal is to produce a desired trait, such as resistance to pests, improved nutritional content, or increased productivity. It's widely used in research, medicine, and agriculture. However, it's important to note that the use of genetically engineered organisms can raise ethical, environmental, and health concerns.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "fruit" is not a medical term per se. It is a common term used to describe the part of a plant that develops from the ovary after flowering and contains seeds. However, in a nutritional or dietary context, "fruits" are often referred to as foods that are typically sweet and juicy, and come from plants' flowers. They are rich in fiber, vitamins, and minerals, making them an essential part of a healthy diet. But in a strict medical sense, there isn't a specific definition for "fruit."

Substrate specificity in the context of medical biochemistry and enzymology refers to the ability of an enzyme to selectively bind and catalyze a chemical reaction with a particular substrate (or a group of similar substrates) while discriminating against other molecules that are not substrates. This specificity arises from the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme, which has evolved to match the shape, charge distribution, and functional groups of its physiological substrate(s).

Substrate specificity is a fundamental property of enzymes that enables them to carry out highly selective chemical transformations in the complex cellular environment. The active site of an enzyme, where the catalysis takes place, has a unique conformation that complements the shape and charge distribution of its substrate(s). This ensures efficient recognition, binding, and conversion of the substrate into the desired product while minimizing unwanted side reactions with other molecules.

Substrate specificity can be categorized as:

1. Absolute specificity: An enzyme that can only act on a single substrate or a very narrow group of structurally related substrates, showing no activity towards any other molecule.
2. Group specificity: An enzyme that prefers to act on a particular functional group or class of compounds but can still accommodate minor structural variations within the substrate.
3. Broad or promiscuous specificity: An enzyme that can act on a wide range of structurally diverse substrates, albeit with varying catalytic efficiencies.

Understanding substrate specificity is crucial for elucidating enzymatic mechanisms, designing drugs that target specific enzymes or pathways, and developing biotechnological applications that rely on the controlled manipulation of enzyme activities.

In genetics, sequence alignment is the process of arranging two or more DNA, RNA, or protein sequences to identify regions of similarity or homology between them. This is often done using computational methods to compare the nucleotide or amino acid sequences and identify matching patterns, which can provide insight into evolutionary relationships, functional domains, or potential genetic disorders. The alignment process typically involves adjusting gaps and mismatches in the sequences to maximize the similarity between them, resulting in an aligned sequence that can be visually represented and analyzed.

Esters are organic compounds that are formed by the reaction between an alcohol and a carboxylic acid. They are widely found in nature and are used in various industries, including the production of perfumes, flavors, and pharmaceuticals. In the context of medical definitions, esters may be mentioned in relation to their use as excipients in medications or in discussions of organic chemistry and biochemistry. Esters can also be found in various natural substances such as fats and oils, which are triesters of glycerol and fatty acids.

Sequence homology, amino acid, refers to the similarity in the order of amino acids in a protein or a portion of a protein between two or more species. This similarity can be used to infer evolutionary relationships and functional similarities between proteins. The higher the degree of sequence homology, the more likely it is that the proteins are related and have similar functions. Sequence homology can be determined through various methods such as pairwise alignment or multiple sequence alignment, which compare the sequences and calculate a score based on the number and type of matching amino acids.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

Anti-inflammatory agents are a class of drugs or substances that reduce inflammation in the body. They work by inhibiting the production of inflammatory mediators, such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes, which are released during an immune response and contribute to symptoms like pain, swelling, redness, and warmth.

There are two main types of anti-inflammatory agents: steroidal and nonsteroidal. Steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (SAIDs) include corticosteroids, which mimic the effects of hormones produced by the adrenal gland. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a larger group that includes both prescription and over-the-counter medications, such as aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, and celecoxib.

While both types of anti-inflammatory agents can be effective in reducing inflammation and relieving symptoms, they differ in their mechanisms of action, side effects, and potential risks. Long-term use of NSAIDs, for example, can increase the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding, kidney damage, and cardiovascular events. Corticosteroids can have significant side effects as well, particularly with long-term use, including weight gain, mood changes, and increased susceptibility to infections.

It's important to use anti-inflammatory agents only as directed by a healthcare provider, and to be aware of potential risks and interactions with other medications or health conditions.

Phytotherapy is the use of extracts of natural origin, especially plants or plant parts, for therapeutic purposes. It is also known as herbal medicine and is a traditional practice in many cultures. The active compounds in these plant extracts are believed to have various medicinal properties, such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, or sedative effects. Practitioners of phytotherapy may use the whole plant, dried parts, or concentrated extracts to prepare teas, capsules, tinctures, or ointments for therapeutic use. It is important to note that the effectiveness and safety of phytotherapy are not always supported by scientific evidence, and it should be used with caution and preferably under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Tobacco is not a medical term, but it refers to the leaves of the plant Nicotiana tabacum that are dried and fermented before being used in a variety of ways. Medically speaking, tobacco is often referred to in the context of its health effects. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), "tobacco" can also refer to any product prepared from the leaf of the tobacco plant for smoking, sucking, chewing or snuffing.

Tobacco use is a major risk factor for a number of diseases, including cancer, heart disease, stroke, lung disease, and various other medical conditions. The smoke produced by burning tobacco contains thousands of chemicals, many of which are toxic and can cause serious health problems. Nicotine, one of the primary active constituents in tobacco, is highly addictive and can lead to dependence.

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a type of chromatography that separates and analyzes compounds based on their interactions with a stationary phase and a mobile phase under high pressure. The mobile phase, which can be a gas or liquid, carries the sample mixture through a column containing the stationary phase.

In HPLC, the mobile phase is a liquid, and it is pumped through the column at high pressures (up to several hundred atmospheres) to achieve faster separation times and better resolution than other types of liquid chromatography. The stationary phase can be a solid or a liquid supported on a solid, and it interacts differently with each component in the sample mixture, causing them to separate as they travel through the column.

HPLC is widely used in analytical chemistry, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, and other fields to separate, identify, and quantify compounds present in complex mixtures. It can be used to analyze a wide range of substances, including drugs, hormones, vitamins, pigments, flavors, and pollutants. HPLC is also used in the preparation of pure samples for further study or use.

Drug screening assays for antitumor agents are laboratory tests used to identify and evaluate the effectiveness of potential drugs or compounds that can inhibit the growth of tumor cells or induce their death. These assays are typically performed in vitro (in a test tube or petri dish) using cell cultures of various types of cancer cells.

The assays measure different parameters such as cell viability, proliferation, apoptosis (programmed cell death), and cytotoxicity to determine the ability of the drug to kill or inhibit the growth of tumor cells. The results of these assays can help researchers identify promising antitumor agents that can be further developed for clinical use in cancer treatment.

There are different types of drug screening assays for antitumor agents, including high-throughput screening (HTS) assays, which allow for the rapid and automated testing of a large number of compounds against various cancer cell lines. Other types of assays include phenotypic screening assays, target-based screening assays, and functional screening assays, each with its own advantages and limitations.

Overall, drug screening assays for antitumor agents play a critical role in the development of new cancer therapies by providing valuable information on the activity and safety of potential drugs, helping to identify effective treatments and reduce the time and cost associated with bringing new drugs to market.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

Molecular conformation, also known as spatial arrangement or configuration, refers to the specific three-dimensional shape and orientation of atoms that make up a molecule. It describes the precise manner in which bonds between atoms are arranged around a molecular framework, taking into account factors such as bond lengths, bond angles, and torsional angles.

Conformational isomers, or conformers, are different spatial arrangements of the same molecule that can interconvert without breaking chemical bonds. These isomers may have varying energies, stability, and reactivity, which can significantly impact a molecule's biological activity and function. Understanding molecular conformation is crucial in fields such as drug design, where small changes in conformation can lead to substantial differences in how a drug interacts with its target.

Molecular models are three-dimensional representations of molecular structures that are used in the field of molecular biology and chemistry to visualize and understand the spatial arrangement of atoms and bonds within a molecule. These models can be physical or computer-generated and allow researchers to study the shape, size, and behavior of molecules, which is crucial for understanding their function and interactions with other molecules.

Physical molecular models are often made up of balls (representing atoms) connected by rods or sticks (representing bonds). These models can be constructed manually using materials such as plastic or wooden balls and rods, or they can be created using 3D printing technology.

Computer-generated molecular models, on the other hand, are created using specialized software that allows researchers to visualize and manipulate molecular structures in three dimensions. These models can be used to simulate molecular interactions, predict molecular behavior, and design new drugs or chemicals with specific properties. Overall, molecular models play a critical role in advancing our understanding of molecular structures and their functions.

A cell line that is derived from tumor cells and has been adapted to grow in culture. These cell lines are often used in research to study the characteristics of cancer cells, including their growth patterns, genetic changes, and responses to various treatments. They can be established from many different types of tumors, such as carcinomas, sarcomas, and leukemias. Once established, these cell lines can be grown and maintained indefinitely in the laboratory, allowing researchers to conduct experiments and studies that would not be feasible using primary tumor cells. It is important to note that tumor cell lines may not always accurately represent the behavior of the original tumor, as they can undergo genetic changes during their time in culture.

A chemical model is a simplified representation or description of a chemical system, based on the laws of chemistry and physics. It is used to explain and predict the behavior of chemicals and chemical reactions. Chemical models can take many forms, including mathematical equations, diagrams, and computer simulations. They are often used in research, education, and industry to understand complex chemical processes and develop new products and technologies.

For example, a chemical model might be used to describe the way that atoms and molecules interact in a particular reaction, or to predict the properties of a new material. Chemical models can also be used to study the behavior of chemicals at the molecular level, such as how they bind to each other or how they are affected by changes in temperature or pressure.

It is important to note that chemical models are simplifications of reality and may not always accurately represent every aspect of a chemical system. They should be used with caution and validated against experimental data whenever possible.

Antineoplastic agents, phytogenic, also known as plant-derived anticancer drugs, are medications that are derived from plants and used to treat cancer. These agents have natural origins and work by interfering with the growth and multiplication of cancer cells, helping to slow or stop the spread of the disease. Some examples of antineoplastic agents, phytogenic include paclitaxel (Taxol), vincristine, vinblastine, and etoposide. These drugs are often used in combination with other treatments such as surgery, radiation therapy, and other medications to provide a comprehensive approach to cancer care.

Promoter regions in genetics refer to specific DNA sequences located near the transcription start site of a gene. They serve as binding sites for RNA polymerase and various transcription factors that regulate the initiation of gene transcription. These regulatory elements help control the rate of transcription and, therefore, the level of gene expression. Promoter regions can be composed of different types of sequences, such as the TATA box and CAAT box, and their organization and composition can vary between different genes and species.

According to the medical definition, ultraviolet (UV) rays are invisible radiations that fall in the range of the electromagnetic spectrum between 100-400 nanometers. UV rays are further divided into three categories: UVA (320-400 nm), UVB (280-320 nm), and UVC (100-280 nm).

UV rays have various sources, including the sun and artificial sources like tanning beds. Prolonged exposure to UV rays can cause damage to the skin, leading to premature aging, eye damage, and an increased risk of skin cancer. UVA rays penetrate deeper into the skin and are associated with skin aging, while UVB rays primarily affect the outer layer of the skin and are linked to sunburns and skin cancer. UVC rays are the most harmful but fortunately, they are absorbed by the Earth's atmosphere and do not reach the surface.

Healthcare professionals recommend limiting exposure to UV rays, wearing protective clothing, using broad-spectrum sunscreen with an SPF of at least 30, and avoiding tanning beds to reduce the risk of UV-related health problems.

Site-directed mutagenesis is a molecular biology technique used to introduce specific and targeted changes to a specific DNA sequence. This process involves creating a new variant of a gene or a specific region of interest within a DNA molecule by introducing a planned, deliberate change, or mutation, at a predetermined site within the DNA sequence.

The methodology typically involves the use of molecular tools such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, and/or ligases to introduce the desired mutation(s) into a plasmid or other vector containing the target DNA sequence. The resulting modified DNA molecule can then be used to transform host cells, allowing for the production of large quantities of the mutated gene or protein for further study.

Site-directed mutagenesis is a valuable tool in basic research, drug discovery, and biotechnology applications where specific changes to a DNA sequence are required to understand gene function, investigate protein structure/function relationships, or engineer novel biological properties into existing genes or proteins.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Cell survival refers to the ability of a cell to continue living and functioning normally, despite being exposed to potentially harmful conditions or treatments. This can include exposure to toxins, radiation, chemotherapeutic drugs, or other stressors that can damage cells or interfere with their normal processes.

In scientific research, measures of cell survival are often used to evaluate the effectiveness of various therapies or treatments. For example, researchers may expose cells to a particular drug or treatment and then measure the percentage of cells that survive to assess its potential therapeutic value. Similarly, in toxicology studies, measures of cell survival can help to determine the safety of various chemicals or substances.

It's important to note that cell survival is not the same as cell proliferation, which refers to the ability of cells to divide and multiply. While some treatments may promote cell survival, they may also inhibit cell proliferation, making them useful for treating diseases such as cancer. Conversely, other treatments may be designed to specifically target and kill cancer cells, even if it means sacrificing some healthy cells in the process.

Molecular evolution is the process of change in the DNA sequence or protein structure over time, driven by mechanisms such as mutation, genetic drift, gene flow, and natural selection. It refers to the evolutionary study of changes in DNA, RNA, and proteins, and how these changes accumulate and lead to new species and diversity of life. Molecular evolution can be used to understand the history and relationships among different organisms, as well as the functional consequences of genetic changes.

Sequence homology in nucleic acids refers to the similarity or identity between the nucleotide sequences of two or more DNA or RNA molecules. It is often used as a measure of biological relationship between genes, organisms, or populations. High sequence homology suggests a recent common ancestry or functional constraint, while low sequence homology may indicate a more distant relationship or different functions.

Nucleic acid sequence homology can be determined by various methods such as pairwise alignment, multiple sequence alignment, and statistical analysis. The degree of homology is typically expressed as a percentage of identical or similar nucleotides in a given window of comparison.

It's important to note that the interpretation of sequence homology depends on the biological context and the evolutionary distance between the sequences compared. Therefore, functional and experimental validation is often necessary to confirm the significance of sequence homology.

A plant disease is a disorder that affects the normal growth and development of plants, caused by pathogenic organisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, or nematodes, as well as environmental factors like nutrient deficiencies, extreme temperatures, or physical damage. These diseases can cause various symptoms, including discoloration, wilting, stunted growth, necrosis, and reduced yield or productivity, which can have significant economic and ecological impacts.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

I believe there may be a slight misunderstanding in your question. "Plant leaves" are not a medical term, but rather a general biological term referring to a specific organ found in plants.

Leaves are organs that are typically flat and broad, and they are the primary site of photosynthesis in most plants. They are usually green due to the presence of chlorophyll, which is essential for capturing sunlight and converting it into chemical energy through photosynthesis.

While leaves do not have a direct medical definition, understanding their structure and function can be important in various medical fields, such as pharmacognosy (the study of medicinal plants) or environmental health. For example, certain plant leaves may contain bioactive compounds that have therapeutic potential, while others may produce allergens or toxins that can impact human health.

In the context of medical and biological sciences, a "binding site" refers to a specific location on a protein, molecule, or cell where another molecule can attach or bind. This binding interaction can lead to various functional changes in the original protein or molecule. The other molecule that binds to the binding site is often referred to as a ligand, which can be a small molecule, ion, or even another protein.

The binding between a ligand and its target binding site can be specific and selective, meaning that only certain ligands can bind to particular binding sites with high affinity. This specificity plays a crucial role in various biological processes, such as signal transduction, enzyme catalysis, or drug action.

In the case of drug development, understanding the location and properties of binding sites on target proteins is essential for designing drugs that can selectively bind to these sites and modulate protein function. This knowledge can help create more effective and safer therapeutic options for various diseases.

Complementary DNA (cDNA) is a type of DNA that is synthesized from a single-stranded RNA molecule through the process of reverse transcription. In this process, the enzyme reverse transcriptase uses an RNA molecule as a template to synthesize a complementary DNA strand. The resulting cDNA is therefore complementary to the original RNA molecule and is a copy of its coding sequence, but it does not contain non-coding regions such as introns that are present in genomic DNA.

Complementary DNA is often used in molecular biology research to study gene expression, protein function, and other genetic phenomena. For example, cDNA can be used to create cDNA libraries, which are collections of cloned cDNA fragments that represent the expressed genes in a particular cell type or tissue. These libraries can then be screened for specific genes or gene products of interest. Additionally, cDNA can be used to produce recombinant proteins in heterologous expression systems, allowing researchers to study the structure and function of proteins that may be difficult to express or purify from their native sources.

Arabidopsis proteins refer to the proteins that are encoded by the genes in the Arabidopsis thaliana plant, which is a model organism commonly used in plant biology research. This small flowering plant has a compact genome and a short life cycle, making it an ideal subject for studying various biological processes in plants.

Arabidopsis proteins play crucial roles in many cellular functions, such as metabolism, signaling, regulation of gene expression, response to environmental stresses, and developmental processes. Research on Arabidopsis proteins has contributed significantly to our understanding of plant biology and has provided valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying various agronomic traits.

Some examples of Arabidopsis proteins include transcription factors, kinases, phosphatases, receptors, enzymes, and structural proteins. These proteins can be studied using a variety of techniques, such as biochemical assays, protein-protein interaction studies, and genetic approaches, to understand their functions and regulatory mechanisms in plants.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) is a non-invasive diagnostic technique that provides information about the biochemical composition of tissues, including their metabolic state. It is often used in conjunction with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to analyze various metabolites within body tissues, such as the brain, heart, liver, and muscles.

During MRS, a strong magnetic field, radio waves, and a computer are used to produce detailed images and data about the concentration of specific metabolites in the targeted tissue or organ. This technique can help detect abnormalities related to energy metabolism, neurotransmitter levels, pH balance, and other biochemical processes, which can be useful for diagnosing and monitoring various medical conditions, including cancer, neurological disorders, and metabolic diseases.

There are different types of MRS, such as Proton (^1^H) MRS, Phosphorus-31 (^31^P) MRS, and Carbon-13 (^13^C) MRS, each focusing on specific elements or metabolites within the body. The choice of MRS technique depends on the clinical question being addressed and the type of information needed for diagnosis or monitoring purposes.

RNA interference (RNAi) is a biological process in which RNA molecules inhibit the expression of specific genes. This process is mediated by small RNA molecules, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), that bind to complementary sequences on messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules, leading to their degradation or translation inhibition.

RNAi plays a crucial role in regulating gene expression and defending against foreign genetic elements, such as viruses and transposons. It has also emerged as an important tool for studying gene function and developing therapeutic strategies for various diseases, including cancer and viral infections.

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the genetic material present in the cells of organisms where it is responsible for the storage and transmission of hereditary information. DNA is a long molecule that consists of two strands coiled together to form a double helix. Each strand is made up of a series of four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - that are linked together by phosphate and sugar groups. The sequence of these bases along the length of the molecule encodes genetic information, with A always pairing with T and C always pairing with G. This base-pairing allows for the replication and transcription of DNA, which are essential processes in the functioning and reproduction of all living organisms.

A phenotype is the physical or biochemical expression of an organism's genes, or the observable traits and characteristics resulting from the interaction of its genetic constitution (genotype) with environmental factors. These characteristics can include appearance, development, behavior, and resistance to disease, among others. Phenotypes can vary widely, even among individuals with identical genotypes, due to differences in environmental influences, gene expression, and genetic interactions.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Isoenzymes, also known as isoforms, are multiple forms of an enzyme that catalyze the same chemical reaction but differ in their amino acid sequence, structure, and/or kinetic properties. They are encoded by different genes or alternative splicing of the same gene. Isoenzymes can be found in various tissues and organs, and they play a crucial role in biological processes such as metabolism, detoxification, and cell signaling. Measurement of isoenzyme levels in body fluids (such as blood) can provide valuable diagnostic information for certain medical conditions, including tissue damage, inflammation, and various diseases.

Genetic transcription is the process by which the information in a strand of DNA is used to create a complementary RNA molecule. This process is the first step in gene expression, where the genetic code in DNA is converted into a form that can be used to produce proteins or functional RNAs.

During transcription, an enzyme called RNA polymerase binds to the DNA template strand and reads the sequence of nucleotide bases. As it moves along the template, it adds complementary RNA nucleotides to the growing RNA chain, creating a single-stranded RNA molecule that is complementary to the DNA template strand. Once transcription is complete, the RNA molecule may undergo further processing before it can be translated into protein or perform its functional role in the cell.

Transcription can be either "constitutive" or "regulated." Constitutive transcription occurs at a relatively constant rate and produces essential proteins that are required for basic cellular functions. Regulated transcription, on the other hand, is subject to control by various intracellular and extracellular signals, allowing cells to respond to changing environmental conditions or developmental cues.

Antineoplastic agents are a class of drugs used to treat malignant neoplasms or cancer. These agents work by inhibiting the growth and proliferation of cancer cells, either by killing them or preventing their division and replication. Antineoplastic agents can be classified based on their mechanism of action, such as alkylating agents, antimetabolites, topoisomerase inhibitors, mitotic inhibitors, and targeted therapy agents.

Alkylating agents work by adding alkyl groups to DNA, which can cause cross-linking of DNA strands and ultimately lead to cell death. Antimetabolites interfere with the metabolic processes necessary for DNA synthesis and replication, while topoisomerase inhibitors prevent the relaxation of supercoiled DNA during replication. Mitotic inhibitors disrupt the normal functioning of the mitotic spindle, which is essential for cell division. Targeted therapy agents are designed to target specific molecular abnormalities in cancer cells, such as mutated oncogenes or dysregulated signaling pathways.

It's important to note that antineoplastic agents can also affect normal cells and tissues, leading to various side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and myelosuppression (suppression of bone marrow function). Therefore, the use of these drugs requires careful monitoring and management of their potential adverse effects.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Enzyme inhibitors are substances that bind to an enzyme and decrease its activity, preventing it from catalyzing a chemical reaction in the body. They can work by several mechanisms, including blocking the active site where the substrate binds, or binding to another site on the enzyme to change its shape and prevent substrate binding. Enzyme inhibitors are often used as drugs to treat various medical conditions, such as high blood pressure, abnormal heart rhythms, and bacterial infections. They can also be found naturally in some foods and plants, and can be used in research to understand enzyme function and regulation.

Western blotting is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to detect and quantify specific proteins in a mixture of many different proteins. This technique is commonly used to confirm the expression of a protein of interest, determine its size, and investigate its post-translational modifications. The name "Western" blotting distinguishes this technique from Southern blotting (for DNA) and Northern blotting (for RNA).

The Western blotting procedure involves several steps:

1. Protein extraction: The sample containing the proteins of interest is first extracted, often by breaking open cells or tissues and using a buffer to extract the proteins.
2. Separation of proteins by electrophoresis: The extracted proteins are then separated based on their size by loading them onto a polyacrylamide gel and running an electric current through the gel (a process called sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or SDS-PAGE). This separates the proteins according to their molecular weight, with smaller proteins migrating faster than larger ones.
3. Transfer of proteins to a membrane: After separation, the proteins are transferred from the gel onto a nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane using an electric current in a process called blotting. This creates a replica of the protein pattern on the gel but now immobilized on the membrane for further analysis.
4. Blocking: The membrane is then blocked with a blocking agent, such as non-fat dry milk or bovine serum albumin (BSA), to prevent non-specific binding of antibodies in subsequent steps.
5. Primary antibody incubation: A primary antibody that specifically recognizes the protein of interest is added and allowed to bind to its target protein on the membrane. This step may be performed at room temperature or 4°C overnight, depending on the antibody's properties.
6. Washing: The membrane is washed with a buffer to remove unbound primary antibodies.
7. Secondary antibody incubation: A secondary antibody that recognizes the primary antibody (often coupled to an enzyme or fluorophore) is added and allowed to bind to the primary antibody. This step may involve using a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated or alkaline phosphatase (AP)-conjugated secondary antibody, depending on the detection method used later.
8. Washing: The membrane is washed again to remove unbound secondary antibodies.
9. Detection: A detection reagent is added to visualize the protein of interest by detecting the signal generated from the enzyme-conjugated or fluorophore-conjugated secondary antibody. This can be done using chemiluminescent, colorimetric, or fluorescent methods.
10. Analysis: The resulting image is analyzed to determine the presence and quantity of the protein of interest in the sample.

Western blotting is a powerful technique for identifying and quantifying specific proteins within complex mixtures. It can be used to study protein expression, post-translational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and more. However, it requires careful optimization and validation to ensure accurate and reproducible results.

X-ray crystallography is a technique used in structural biology to determine the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms in a crystal lattice. In this method, a beam of X-rays is directed at a crystal and diffracts, or spreads out, into a pattern of spots called reflections. The intensity and angle of each reflection are measured and used to create an electron density map, which reveals the position and type of atoms in the crystal. This information can be used to determine the molecular structure of a compound, including its shape, size, and chemical bonds. X-ray crystallography is a powerful tool for understanding the structure and function of biological macromolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids.

Gel chromatography is a type of liquid chromatography that separates molecules based on their size or molecular weight. It uses a stationary phase that consists of a gel matrix made up of cross-linked polymers, such as dextran, agarose, or polyacrylamide. The gel matrix contains pores of various sizes, which allow smaller molecules to penetrate deeper into the matrix while larger molecules are excluded.

In gel chromatography, a mixture of molecules is loaded onto the top of the gel column and eluted with a solvent that moves down the column by gravity or pressure. As the sample components move down the column, they interact with the gel matrix and get separated based on their size. Smaller molecules can enter the pores of the gel and take longer to elute, while larger molecules are excluded from the pores and elute more quickly.

Gel chromatography is commonly used to separate and purify proteins, nucleic acids, and other biomolecules based on their size and molecular weight. It is also used in the analysis of polymers, colloids, and other materials with a wide range of applications in chemistry, biology, and medicine.

Recombinant proteins are artificially created proteins produced through the use of recombinant DNA technology. This process involves combining DNA molecules from different sources to create a new set of genes that encode for a specific protein. The resulting recombinant protein can then be expressed, purified, and used for various applications in research, medicine, and industry.

Recombinant proteins are widely used in biomedical research to study protein function, structure, and interactions. They are also used in the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapeutic drugs. For example, recombinant insulin is a common treatment for diabetes, while recombinant human growth hormone is used to treat growth disorders.

The production of recombinant proteins typically involves the use of host cells, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, which are engineered to express the desired protein. The host cells are transformed with a plasmid vector containing the gene of interest, along with regulatory elements that control its expression. Once the host cells are cultured and the protein is expressed, it can be purified using various chromatography techniques.

Overall, recombinant proteins have revolutionized many areas of biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study and manipulate proteins in ways that were previously impossible.

'Gene expression regulation' refers to the processes that control whether, when, and where a particular gene is expressed, meaning the production of a specific protein or functional RNA encoded by that gene. This complex mechanism can be influenced by various factors such as transcription factors, chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, non-coding RNAs, and post-transcriptional modifications, among others. Proper regulation of gene expression is crucial for normal cellular function, development, and maintaining homeostasis in living organisms. Dysregulation of gene expression can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

Chalcones have two absorption maxima at 280 nm and 340 nm. Chalcones and chalconoids are synthesized in plants as secondary ... Some 2′-amino chalcones have been studied as potential antitumor agents. Chalcones are of interest in medicinal chemistry and ... "Photochemistry of chalcone and the application of chalcone-derivatives in photo-alignment layer of liquid crystal display". ... Chalcone is the organic compound C6H5C(O)CH=CHC6H5. It is an α,β-unsaturated ketone. A variety of important biological ...
... or naringenin-chalcone synthase (CHS) is an enzyme ubiquitous to higher plants and belongs to a family of ... Cain CC, Saslowsky DE, Walker RA, Shirley BW (October 1997). "Expression of chalcone synthase and chalcone isomerase proteins ... Naringenin-chalcone synthase uses malonyl-CoA and 4-coumaroyl-CoA to produce CoA, naringenin chalcone, and CO2. 4-coumaroyl-CoA ... Other light sensitive domains include Box I, Box II, Box III, Box IV or three copies of H-box (CCTACC). The chalcone synthase ...
... is a common chalconoid (or chalcone, not to be confused with the compound chalcone). It is synthesized from ... this process is catalyzed by chalcone isomerase. PubChem. "Naringenin chalcone". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2022-08-27 ... Naringenin chalcone can spontaneously cyclize to naringenin (a flavanone). In plant cells, ... 4-coumaroyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA by chalcone synthase (CHS), a key enzyme in the phenylpropanoid pathway. ...
In enzymology, a chalcone isomerase (EC 5.5.1.6) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction a chalcone ⇌ {\displaystyle ... Chalcone isomerase has a core 2-layer alpha/beta structure consisting of beta(3)-alpha(2)-beta-alpha(2)-beta(3). Jez JM, Bowman ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is flavanone lyase (decyclizing). This enzyme is also called chalcone-flavanone ... Moustafa E, Wong E (1967). "Purification and properties of chalcone-flavanone isomerase from soya bean seed". Phytochemistry. 6 ...
... (EC 2.4.1.286, 4'CGT) is an enzyme with systematic name UDP-alpha-D-glucose:2',4,4',6'- ... Chalcone+4'-O-glucosyltransferase at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: Biology (EC ...
"Chalcone and Stilbene Biosynthesis". Queen Mary University of London. Archived from the original on 18 October 2015. Dewick, P ... The compound reacts with naringenin-chalcone synthase and three malonyl CoA molecules to add six carbon atoms and three more ...
Naringenin-chalcone synthase uses malonyl-CoA and 4-coumaroyl-CoA to produce CoA, naringenin chalcone, and CO2. In aurones, the ... Chalcone synthase is an enzyme responsible for the production of chalconoids in plants. Chalcone isomerase is responsible for ... Chalcones are also natural aromatase inhibitors. Chalcones are aromatic ketones with two phenyl rings that are also ... "Chalcones". Reference.MD. Archived from the original on 2020-09-25. Retrieved 2011-04-30. (Articles with short description, ...
The corresponding chalcone undergoes an isomerization by chalcone isomerase to afford (2S)-naringenin, which is oxidized to (2S ... E)-4-coumaroyl-CoA is then subjected to the type III polyketide synthase naringenin chalcone synthase, undergoing successive ... Jez JM, Noel JP (January 2002). "Reaction mechanism of chalcone isomerase. pH dependence, diffusion control, and product ... "Low Temperature Induces the Accumulation of Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase and Chalcone Synthase mRNAs of Arabidopsis thaliana in ...
... is a chalcone of the chalconoids. It can be found in Toxicodendron vernicifluum (or formerly Rhus verniciflua), Dahlia, ...
Another example is seen in a series of anti-bacterial chalcones. By modifying certain substituents, the pharmacological ... Comprehensive Pharmacy Review, 6th edition, Leon Shargel, Alan H. Mutnick, p.264 Gomes, Marcelo N. (2017). "Chalcone ... activity of the chalcone and its toxicity are also modified. Non-classical bioisosteres may differ in a multitude of ways from ...
Synthesis of Isoprenyl Chalcone "Sophoradin" Isolated from Sophora subprostrata. Kazuaki Kyogoku, Katsuo Hatayama, Sadakazu ...
Kimura, Y.; Aoki, T.; Ayabe, S. (2001). "Chalcone isomerase isozymes with different substrate specificities towards 6′-hydroxy ... "An overexpression of chalcone reductase of Pueraria montana var. lobata alters biosynthesis of anthocyanin and 5′- ...
CURS1 has not been crystallized with CoA, but chalcone synthase, which is another type III PKS, has been shown bound to CoA. ... Jez JM, Ferrer JL, Bowman ME, Austin MB, Schröder J, Dixon RA, Noel JP (2001). "Structure and mechanism of chalcone synthase- ... Austin MB, Noel JP (February 2003). "The chalcone synthase superfamily of type III polyketide synthases". Natural Product ...
Chalcone synthase (E.C. 2.3.1.74), also known as naringenin-chalcone synthase, is responsible for the reaction: 3 malonyl-CoA ... Both chalcone synthases and stilbene synthases will catalyze the same acyl transfer, decarboxylation, and condensation steps as ... These enzymes are normally classified as either chalcone synthases, stilbene synthases, or type III PKSs. Overall, there are 10 ... However, they will also further cyclize and aromatize the reactions before the final chalcone product is formed. ...
Tetrahydroxychalcone is then converted into naringenin using chalcone isomerase. Naringenin is converted into eriodictyol using ...
doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2011.01198.x. Inda, Luis A.; Pimentel, Manuel & Chase, Mark W. (2010). "Chalcone synthase variation and ...
Chalcone isomerase (CHI) then isomerizes the product to close the pyrone ring to make naringenin. Finally, a flavanone synthase ... Austin MB, Noel JP (February 2003). "The chalcone synthase superfamily of type III polyketide synthases". Natural Product ... Entering the flavone synthesis pathway, the type III polyketide synthase enzyme chalcone synthase (CHS) uses consecutive ... condensations of three equivalents of malonyl CoA followed by aromatization to convert p-coumaroyl-CoA to chalcone. ...
Other names in common use include chalcone OMT, and CHMT. Maxwell CA, Edwards R, Dixon RA (1992). "Identification, purification ...
Hops also contain xanthohumol, a prenylated chalcone, and other compounds. As of October 2020[update], the following species ...
"Synthesis and characterization of novel ferrocenyl chalcone ammonium and pyridinium saltderivatives" Inorg. Chim. Acta; 2017 ... "Electrochemical and Spectroscopical Characterization of Ferrocenyl Chalcones" Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 2010, 157 ... "Synthesis and characterization of novel ferrocenyl chalcone ammonium and pyridinium salt derivatives". Inorganica Chimica Acta ... "Electrochemical and Spectroscopical Characterization of Ferrocenyl Chalcones". Journal of the Electrochemical Society. 157 (8 ...
Epicuticular waxes are basically composed of nonacosan-10-ol.[citation needed] Tetracentron contains chalcones or ...
... as a term was originally coined to describe the observed effects of mutations on chalcone isomerase activity on ... Receptor activated solely by a synthetic ligand Forkmann G, Dangelmayr B (June 1980). "Genetic control of chalcone isomerase ...
... naringenin chalcone is shown), which is subsequently isomerized by chalcone isomerase resulting in a flavanone (naringenin is ... Coenzyme A is attached to the carboxylate facilitated by 4-Coumarate-CoA ligase, forming (Coumaroyl-CoA). A chalcone synthase ... Ferrer JL, Jez JM (1999). "Structure of chalcone synthase and the molecular basis of plant polyketide biosynthesis". Nat. ... Jez JM, Bowman ME (2000). "Structure and mechanism of the evolutionarily unique plany enzyme chalcone isomerase". Nat. Struct. ...
It is the reduced derivative of chalcone (C6H5C(O)(CH)2C6H5). It is white solid that is soluble in many organic solvents. ... Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A.; Clifford, Michael N. (2000). "Flavanones, Chalcones and Dihydrochalcones - Nature, Occurrence and ...
"Chalcones: a valid scaffold for monoamine oxidases inhibitors". J. Med. Chem. 52 (9): 2818-24. doi:10.1021/jm801590u. PMID ... Substituted chalcones 2-(N-Methyl-N-benzylaminomethyl)-1H-pyrrole 1-(4-Arylthiazol-2-yl)-2-(3-methylcyclohexylidene)hydrazine 2 ...
The plant contains the chalcone okanin and ethyl caffeate, a hydroxycinnamic acid. Alternative medicine Chinese classic herbal ...
In order to modify the chalcone to an aurone, the chalcone must undergo an oxidative cyclization to form a five-member ... and the oxidative cyclization of chalcones to form aurones. The chalcones modified are typically glucosylated 2',4,4',6'- ... This step may not proceed unless the 3-position on the chalcone's B-ring is oxygenated. From this and the protein's homology ... In vitro studies have shown that aurone synthesis proceeds much more quickly when the chalcone is first glucosylated, and in ...
Some active compounds with chalcone scaffold found in Glycyrrhiza glabra, Cassia mimosoides, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, ... "Efficacy of chalcone and xanthine derivatives on lipase inhibition: A systematic review". Chemical Biology & Drug Design. 95 (2 ...
... which enzymes chalcone synthase (CHS) and chalcone reductase (CHR) modify to obtain trihydroxychalcone. CHR is NADPH dependent ... Chalcone isomerase (CHI) then isomerizes trihydroxychalcone to liquiritigenin, the precursor to daidzein. A radical mechanism ...
On the one hand, the hydroxytypes of chalcones and aurones, on the other hand the deoxy-types of chalcones and their ... The key to the process is the enzyme chalcone synthase (CHS), which catalyzes the formation of a hydroxyl chalcone from three ... the enzyme chalcone 3-hydroxylase catalyzes the hydroxylation at the C3-position of the A-ring of chalcones. This additional ... Both, chalcones and aurones are known as anthochlor pigments. Anthochlor pigments serve as UV nectar guides in some plants. ...
Chalcones have two absorption maxima at 280 nm and 340 nm. Chalcones and chalconoids are synthesized in plants as secondary ... Some 2′-amino chalcones have been studied as potential antitumor agents. Chalcones are of interest in medicinal chemistry and ... "Photochemistry of chalcone and the application of chalcone-derivatives in photo-alignment layer of liquid crystal display". ... Chalcone is the organic compound C6H5C(O)CH=CHC6H5. It is an α,β-unsaturated ketone. A variety of important biological ...
Chalcones in their various guises have been considered either valid and critically important lead compounds in the development ... 2.1 Chalcone hybrids. The biological activity of chalcones, and study thereof is not limited to the parent structure, but has ... Chalcone 29. was synergistic with matrine against the A459 cell line demonstrating a favorable in vivo safety profile. Chalcone ... 2. Biological activity of chalcones. Chalcones or analogues or derivatives of (. E. )-1,3-diphenyl-2-propene-1-one represent a ...
Discover a rapid and accurate method for trace-level chalcone determination using cyclic, differential pulse, and square wave ... Chalcone could produce two anodic peaks at about 0.514 V and 1.478 V and a cathodic peak at about -0.689 V. The differential ... O. V. Yarishkin, W. R. Hyung, P. Jae-Yong, S. Y. Min, H. Seong-Geun and H. P. Ki, "Sulfonate Chalcone as New Class Voltage- ... A. Shah, A. Khan, R. Qureshi, F. Ansari, M. Nazar and S. Shah, "Redox Behavior of Anticancer Chalcone on a Glassy Carbon ...
METHODS: The ChE inhibitory ability of some halogenated thiophene chalcone-based molecules known to be selective hMAO-B ... Cholinesterase Inhibitory Activities of Selected Halogenated Thiophene Chalcones.. Publication Type : Journal Article ... Keywords : acetylcholinesterase, Animals, Chalcones, Cholinesterase Inhibitors, Crystallography, X-Ray, Horses, Humans, ... "Cholinesterase Inhibitory Activities of Selected Halogenated Thiophene Chalcones.", Cent Nerv Syst Agents Med Chem, vol. 19, no ...
Graphene-enhanced platinum-catalysed hydrosilylation of amides and chalcones: a sustainable strategy allocated with in situ ... Graphene-enhanced platinum-catalysed hydrosilylation of amides and chalcones: a sustainable strategy allocated with in situ ... 4-hydrosilylation of chalcones. The rationally designed and in situ formed Pt@G@Si nanocatalyst is demonstrated to be highly ...
The chalcones, 4-hydroxyderricin (4HD) and xanthoangelol (XAG), are considered to be major active compounds of the Japanese ... Prenylated chalcones 4-hydroxyderricin and xanthoangelol stimulate glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells by inducing GLUT4 ... In this study, we found that Ashitaba (Angelica keiskei) chalcones, 4-hydroxyderricin (4HD) and xanthoangelol (XAG), suppressed ... The Ashitaba (Angelica keiskei) Chalcones 4-hydroxyderricin and Xanthoangelol Suppress Melanomagenesis By Targeting BRAF and ...
Download Herbpathy App in 3 Easy Steps ...
Characterization Of Two Chalcone Derivatives Isolated From Finger Root With Nutraceutical Potentials ... The bioactive compound identified were pinostrobin chalcone (1) and cardamone (2). These IR spectra, UV-vis photometry analysis ... Characterization Of Two Chalcone Derivatives Isolated From Finger Root With Nutraceutical Potentials. International Journal of ... aphrodisiac and gastrointestinal disorder.In this study the two chalcone derivatives were isolated from the root of B. rotunda ...
Chalcone synthase(CHS) is widely found in plants and is a key enzyme i... ... Codon Usage Bias of Chalcone Synthase Gene CHS in Pinus koraiensis LI Xiang1, FAN Zuo-Yi2, WANG Jing-Yuan2, WANG Qi2, LI Xi- ... 26] 邓浩.外源因素对红松查尔酮合成酶基因表达和多酚含量的影响[D].哈尔滨:哈尔滨工业大学,2014.Deng H.Effect of exogenous factors on chalcone synthase gene expression ... Abstract: Chalcone synthase(CHS) is widely found in plants and
Synthesis and anti-tumor activity of piperonal substituted chalcone ... 1Hand 13C NMR of the synthesized chalcone. The 1H and 13C NMR data of the substituted synthesized chalcones are shown in S1 and ... The synthesis of C2 furnished good yields, this agrees with the synthesis of chalcones and other chalcone derivatives reported ... Acute toxicity study of the synthesized chalcone. *Effect of the synthesized piperonal chalcones on histological examination of ...
Thiolase/Chalcone synthase The name of this superfamily has been modified since the most recent official CATH+ release (v4_3_0 ...
... characterization and antimicrobial activities of some novel bis-chalcones By Akbar Mobinikhaledi, استاد of , Science at ... A series of novel bis-chalcones 3a-n were synthesized in excellent yields by condensation reaction of 1,4-diacetylbenzene with ...
CHI-chalcone-flavone isomerase; CHS-chalcone synthase; CIPK-Cbl-interacting protein kinase; CK-cytokinin; CKX-CK dehydrogenase ... CHI-chalcone-flavone isomerase; CHS-chalcone synthase; CIPK-Cbl-interacting protein kinase; CK-cytokinin; CKX-CK dehydrogenase ... and chalcone synthase (CHS) genes were up-regulated. Additionally, LOX1 and OPR2 were up-regulated in P. patula. JA-Ile 12- ...
Oxyfadichalcones A-C: three chalcone dimers fused through a cyclobutane ring from Tibetan medicine Oxytropis falcata Bunge ... Oxyfadichalcones A and B, two unprecedented chalcone dimers fused through a cyclobutane ring by head-to-tail [2+2] ... Explore Oxyfadichalcones A-C: three chalcone dimers fused through a cyclobutane ring from Tibetan medicine Oxytropis falcata ... Oxyfadichalcones A-C: three chalcone dimers fused through a cyclobutane ring from Tibetan medicine Oxytropis falcata Bunge ...
Eskander RN, Randall LM, Sakai T, Guo Y, Hoang B, Zi X. Flavokawain B, a novel, naturally occurring chalcone, exhibits robust ... Eskander, RN, Randall, LM, Sakai, T, Guo, Y, Hoang, B & Zi, X 2012, Flavokawain B, a novel, naturally occurring chalcone, ... Aim: To examine the effects of flavokawain B (FKB), a novel kava chalcone, on the growth of uterine leiomyosarcoma (LMS) cells ... N2 - Aim: To examine the effects of flavokawain B (FKB), a novel kava chalcone, on the growth of uterine leiomyosarcoma (LMS) ...
Yun JM, Kweon MH, Kwon H, Hwang JK, Mukhtar H. Induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest by a chalcone panduratin A isolated ... Yun, JM, Kweon, MH, Kwon, H, Hwang, JK & Mukhtar, H 2006, Induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest by a chalcone ... Dive into the research topics of Induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest by a chalcone panduratin A isolated from ... T1 - Induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest by a chalcone panduratin A isolated from Kaempferia pandurata in androgen- ...
Chalcones / therapeutic use * Cholesterol, HDL / blood * Dyslipidemias / drug therapy* * Dyslipidemias / metabolism * Fatty ...
Find 4′-Methylacetophenone Flavis No 2677 and more food-grade flavor ingredients at Sigma-Aldrich.com
UTILIZATION OF EGGSHELL-DERIVED MATERIAL AS A SOLID BASE CATALYST FOR EFFICIENT SYNTHESIS OF SUBSTITUTED CHALCONES Authors. * ... Activated chicken eggshells, chalcones, Aldol condensation Abstract. A simple preparation of sodium impregnated on activated ... Synthesis of Chalcones on the Basis of Pyridin-2(1H)-one. Russian Journal of General Chemistry. 78(6): 1247-1252. ... Synthesis of chalcones Catalyzed by Aminopropylated Silica Sol-Gel under Solvent-Free Condition. Journal of Molecular Catalysis ...
A member of the class of chalcones that is trans-chalcone substituted by hydroxy groups at positions 3, 4, 2, 3, and 4 ... A member of the class of chalcones that is ,stereo,trans,/stereo,-chalcone substituted by hydroxy groups at positions 3, 4, 2 ...
Issaenko, O. A., & Amerik, A. Y. (2012). Chalcone-based small-molecule inhibitors attenuate malignant phenotype via targeting ...
He,Xiao-Feng,Chen,Ji-Jun,Li,Tian-Ze,Hu,Jing,Zhang,Xue-Mei,&Geng,Chang-An.(2021).Diarylheptanoid-chalcone hybrids with PTP1B and ... Diarylheptanoid-chalcone hybrids with PTP1B and alpha-glucosidase dual inhibition from Alpinia katsumadai. ... Diarylheptanoid-chalcone hybrids with PTP1B and alpha-glucosidase dual inhibition from Alpinia katsumadai[J]. BIOORGANIC ... He,Xiao-Feng,et al."Diarylheptanoid-chalcone hybrids with PTP1B and alpha-glucosidase dual inhibition from Alpinia katsumadai". ...
DISODIUM ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATEGREEN 3 (CI 42053). HESPERIDIN METHYL CHALCONE. LACTOSE. LAVANDULA ANGUSTIFOLIA (LAVENDER) OIL ( ...
Hesperidin Methyl Chalcone. - Sometimes called Vitamin P. It is a bioflavonoid packed with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory ...
PDB Description: chalcone synthase from alfalfa complexed with hexanoyl-coa. SCOP Domain Sequences for d1chwa1:. Sequence; same ... d1chwa1 c.95.1.2 (A:1-235) Chalcone synthase {Alfalfa (Medicago sativa)} ...
Isoliquiritigenin (ISL), a flavonoid chalcone that is present in licorice, shallot, and bean sprouts, has antitumorigenic ...
3-triazolyl chalcone structures. The new chalcone derivatives produced by benzooxepine triazole methyl ketone 2 and different ... Chalcone and triazole scaffolds have demonstrated a crucial role in the advancement of science and technology. Due to their ...
PSBN1 DH1200/ 0.04 : 41.1806N 96.1392W CHALCO NE OMLN1 DH1200/ 0.04 : 41.2500N 96.0167W OMAHA 5W NE OMCN1 DH1200/ 0.04 : ...
Methyl Chalcone 200 mg. *Grape Seed Extract 100 mg. *Winter Cherry Extract 180 mg ...
A series of 6-pyrazolylpyrimidine-2-thione derivatives were prepared by reaction of the above chalcones with thiourea by ... In addition, 7-pyrazolylpyridopyrimidine-3-thione was prepared by reaction of chalcone with 6-aminothiouracil. All the newly ... method in the presence of a catalytic amount of sodium hydroxide at ambient temperature to give the respective chalcones. The ... A series of 6-pyrazolylpyrimidine-2-thione derivatives were prepared by reaction of the above chalcones with thiourea by ...
  • The enzyme chalcone synthase, a type III polyketide synthase, is responsible for the biosynthesis of these compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chalcone synthase( CHS ) is widely found in plants and is a key enzyme in anthocyanin synthesis pathway. (nefu.edu.cn)
  • Codon Usage Bias of Chalcone Synthase Gene CHS in Pinus koraiensis [J]. Bulletin of Botanical Research, 2020, 40(3): 447-457. (nefu.edu.cn)
  • Some 2′-amino chalcones have been studied as potential antitumor agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chalcones have been used as intermediates in heterocyclic synthesis, especially in the synthesis of pyrazoles and aurones. (wikipedia.org)
  • A simple preparation of sodium impregnated on activated chicken eggshells (Na-ACE) as a solid base material for substituted chalcones synthesis is presented. (utm.my)
  • Design, Synthesis and Cytotoxic Activity of Certain Novel Chalcone Analogous Compounds. (utm.my)
  • Synthesis, Characterization and Antiamoebic Activity of Chalcones Bearing N-substituted Ethanamine Tail. (utm.my)
  • Microwave Synthesis, Characterization and Bio-efficacy Evaluation of Novel Chalcone Based 6-carbethoxy-2-cyclohexen-1-one and 2H-indazol-3-ol Derivatives. (utm.my)
  • Synthesis of Chalcone Incorporated Quinazoline Derivatives as Anticancer Agents. (utm.my)
  • Application of Chalcones in Heterocycles Synthesis: Synthesis of 2-(isoxazolo, pyrazole and pyrimido) Substituted Analogues of 1,4-benzodiazepin-5-carboxamids Linked Through an Oxyphenyl Bridge. (utm.my)
  • Enantioselective Synthesis of 2-substituted-1,5-benzodiazepines Through Domino Reaction of o-phenylenediamine and Chalcone Derivatives. (utm.my)
  • Synthesis of Some Novel Chalcones, Flavanones and Flavones and Evaluation of Their Anti-inflammatory Activity. (utm.my)
  • Synthesis of chalcones Catalyzed by Aminopropylated Silica Sol-Gel under Solvent-Free Condition. (utm.my)
  • Sulfonamide Chalcones: Synthesis and In Vitro Exploration for Therapeutic Potential against Brugia malayi. (utm.my)
  • Chalcones and their derivatives demonstrate a wide range of biological activities including anti-inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Boesenbergia rotunda is an example of medicinal herbal plants which has been traditionally employed in the treatment of many life-threatening ailments such as diuretic, dysentery, inflammation, aphrodisiac and gastrointestinal disorder.In this study the two chalcone derivatives were isolated from the root of B. rotunda using column-thin chromatography and characterized using different spectroscopy methods such as such as UV-VIS, FTIR, and 1HNMR. (ump.edu.my)
  • In medicinal chemistry, chalcones have been used as: antioxidants Anticancer agents antidiabetic drugs antiviral drugs antimalarial drugs and more. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chalcones in their various guises have been considered either valid and critically important lead compounds in the development of novel anticancer agents or as pan assay interference compounds, PAINS. (intechopen.com)
  • Oxyfadichalcones A and B, two unprecedented chalcone dimers fused through a cyclobutane ring by head-to-tail [2+2] cycloaddition of two chalcones that had never been found previously in nature, along with oxyfadichalcone C, a new head-to-head [2+2] cyclized chalcone dimer, were simultaneously obtained from Oxytropis falcata. (virginia.edu)
  • Additionally, the photosynthesis of the chalcone dimers was performed and the plausible biosynthesis was discussed. (virginia.edu)
  • Anti-inflammatory Chalcone-Isoflavone Dimers and Chalcone Dimers from Caragana jubata . (bvsalud.org)
  • A variety of important biological compounds are known collectively as chalcones or chalconoids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chalcones offer a simple starting point for the development of specific compounds with high levels of activity toward key biological targets. (intechopen.com)
  • Chalcones have been shown to display a wide array of anticancer compounds. (intechopen.com)
  • After characterization using FTIR, XRD, SEM, EDS and total basicity, the catalyst was applied in Aldol condensation to produce corresponding chalcones 3a-3j. (utm.my)
  • Chalcone is usually prepared by an aldol condensation between benzaldehyde and acetophenone. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bioactive compound identified were pinostrobin chalcone (1) and cardamone (2). (ump.edu.my)
  • A member of the class of chalcones that is trans-chalcone substituted by hydroxy groups at positions 3, 4, 2', 3', and 4' respectively. (chemspider.com)
  • Diarylheptanoid-chalcone hybrids with PTP1B and alpha-glucosidase dual inhibition from Alpinia katsumadai[J]. BIOORGANIC CHEMISTRY,2021,108:104683. (kib.ac.cn)
  • The aim of the study was to synthesize a piperonal substituted chalcone and evaluate its in vivo antitumor activity. (ajpps.org)
  • K. Naik and S. Nandibewoor, "Electrochemical Behavior of Chalcone at a Glassy Carbon Electrode and Its Analytical Applications," American Journal of Analytical Chemistry , Vol. 3 No. 9, 2012, pp. 656-663. (scirp.org)
  • J. A. Kumar and S. Sondu, "Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxidation of Chalcones by Ti-Ichloroisocyanuric Acid [TCICA] in HOAc-HClO4 Medium," Indian Journal of Chemistry, Vol. 46A, 2007, pp. 1792-1795. (scirp.org)
  • Chalcone could produce two anodic peaks at about 0.514 V and 1.478 V and a cathodic peak at about -0.689 V. The differential pulse voltammerty presents a good linear response as compared to square wave voltammetry in the range of 0.2 - 10 μM with a detection limit of 0.18 μM. (scirp.org)
  • We describe a new sustainable strategy for the comprehensive utilization of a platinum catalyst in different organic transformations, in which an organosilicon/graphene-supported platinum catalyst prepared from a simple hydrosilylation-type reduction could be further used in the 1,4-hydrosilylation of chalcones. (rsc.org)
  • A simple and rapid method was developed using cyclic, differential pulse and square wave voltammetric techniques for the determination of trace-level chalcone at a glassy carbon electrode. (scirp.org)
  • Cholinesterase Inhibitory Activities of Selected Halogenated Thiophene Chalcones. (amrita.edu)
  • Chalcones and chalconoids are synthesized in plants as secondary metabolites. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study, a full-length cDNA sequence of chalcone isomerase (CHI) gene was obtained from the petals of C. nitidissima. (internationalcamellia.org)
  • Linked parallel synthesis and MTT bioassay screening of substituted chalcones. (openrepository.com)
  • A 644-membered library of chalcones was prepared by parallel synthesis using the Claisen-Schmidt base-catalyzed aldol condensation of substituted acetophenones and benzaldehydes. (openrepository.com)
  • Synthesis of carbazole derivatives containing chalcone analogs as non-intercalative topoisomerase II catalytic inhibitors and apoptosis inducers. (bvsalud.org)
  • 1. Synthesis and biological evaluation of chalcones and their derived pyrazoles as potential cytotoxic agents. (nih.gov)
  • 2. Synthesis of novel pyrazolic analogues of chalcones and their 3-aryl-4-(3-aryl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazole derivatives as potential antitumor agents. (nih.gov)
  • 4. Synthesis, structure, and in vitro antitumor activity of some glycoside derivatives of ferrocenyl-chalcones and ferrocenyl-pyrazolines. (nih.gov)
  • Part 202: novel 2'-amino chalcones: design, synthesis and biological evaluation. (nih.gov)
  • 8. Synthesis, characterization, electrochemical studies and antitumor activity of some new chalcone analogues containing ferrocenyl pyrazole moiety. (nih.gov)
  • 10. Synthesis and biological evaluation of a novel series of chalcones incorporated pyrazole moiety as anticancer and antimicrobial agents. (nih.gov)
  • 14. Synthesis and biological evaluation of indolyl chalcones as antitumor agents. (nih.gov)
  • We built the Curcumin Chalcone Derivatives Database (CCDD) to enable the effective virtual screening of highly potent curcumin and its analogs. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, a series of carbazole derivatives containing chalcone analogs (CDCAs) were synthesized and investigated for their Topo II inhibition and cytotoxic activities. (bvsalud.org)
  • 18. Anti-breast cancer activity of heteroaryl chalcone derivatives. (nih.gov)
  • Because of immense importance of molecular hybridization approach, we in our research approach, synthesized new novel Triazole-Chalcone hybrids and evaluated them for their antitubercular activity. (researchsquare.com)
  • Chalcone is a simple and versatile molecular scaffold, present in most of the naturally occurring compounds and precursor for flavonoids and isoflavonoids. (researchsquare.com)
  • To assess the therapeutic index of chalcone, molecular, synergistic, and in vivo monitoring investigations are essential. (jmchemsci.com)
  • Propargylated vanillin was condensed with differently substituted acetophenones to produce various chalcones (3a-c). (researchsquare.com)
  • Numerous flavonoids, which are found in abundance throughout the plant kingdom, are biosynthesized utilizing precursors known as chalcones, which have biological effects compared with those of flavonoids [13-19]. (jmchemsci.com)
  • The aim of this work was to be combine two pharmocophoric nuclei viz, triazole and chalcone and evaluate their antitubercular activity. (researchsquare.com)
  • A convenient and efficient FeCl 3 /I 2 -catalyzed aerobic oxidative coupling of amidines and chalcones provides tetrasubstituted imidazoles in high regioselectivity and yields. (organic-chemistry.org)
  • Using SOCl 2 /EtOH as a catalyst, the Claisen-Schmidt condensation method has been used in this study to effectively synthesize chalcone. (jmchemsci.com)
  • The results of this study reveal that chalcone can be used as a medication to treat toxoplasmosis because it had an antiparasitic impact on T. Gondii . (jmchemsci.com)
  • These hybrids were evaluated for their antitubercular activity, from the results it was found that triazole and chalcone on combination exhibited enhanced bioactivity thereby supported the theory of synergistic effect. (researchsquare.com)
  • Several families of naturally occurring compounds have been described as antiangiogenic agents with promising results, such as stilbenes, chalcones, terpenoids, phenylethanoids and others. (benthamscience.com)