Infection with the protozoan parasite TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, a form of TRYPANOSOMIASIS endemic in Central and South America. It is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLIA; CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY; and dysfunction of the ESOPHAGUS or COLON.
The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.
A disease of the CARDIAC MUSCLE developed subsequent to the initial protozoan infection by TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI. After infection, less than 10% develop acute illness such as MYOCARDITIS (mostly in children). The disease then enters a latent phase without clinical symptoms until about 20 years later. Myocardial symptoms of advanced CHAGAS DISEASE include conduction defects (HEART BLOCK) and CARDIOMEGALY.
A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Several species are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.
A subfamily of assassin bugs (REDUVIIDAE) that are obligate blood-suckers of vertebrates. Included are the genera TRIATOMA; RHODNIUS; and PANSTRONGYLUS, which are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, the agent of CHAGAS DISEASE in humans.
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.
Agents destructive to the protozoal organisms belonging to the suborder TRYPANOSOMATINA.
A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Rhodnius prolixus is a vector for TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
A nitrofuran thiazine that has been used against TRYPANOSOMIASIS.
The geographic area of Latin America in general and when the specific country or countries are not indicated. It usually includes Central America, South America, Mexico, and the islands of the Caribbean.
A method for diagnosing a disease in one organism by inoculating the putative causative organism in a second animal of a different species. It has been used for the detection of parasites (Trypanosoma cruzi and Trichinella spiralis) when peripheral blood smears are negative. (Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995)
Dilatation of the COLON, often to alarming dimensions. There are various types of megacolon including congenital megacolon in HIRSCHSPRUNG DISEASE, idiopathic megacolon in CONSTIPATION, and TOXIC MEGACOLON.
Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Living facilities for humans.
A genus of cone-nosed bugs of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Its species are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.
Bodies preserved either by the ancient Egyptian technique or due to chance under favorable climatic conditions.
The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)
WHO regional office for the Americas acting as a coordinating agency for the improvement of health conditions in the hemisphere. The four main functions are: control or eradication of communicable diseases, strengthening of national and local health services, education and training, and research.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
The immature stage in the life cycle of those orders of insects characterized by gradual metamorphosis, in which the young resemble the imago in general form of body, including compound eyes and external wings; also the 8-legged stage of mites and ticks that follows the first moult.
DNA of kinetoplasts which are specialized MITOCHONDRIA of trypanosomes and related parasitic protozoa within the order KINETOPLASTIDA. Kinetoplast DNA consists of a complex network of numerous catenated rings of two classes; the first being a large number of small DNA duplex rings, called minicircles, approximately 2000 base pairs in length, and the second being several dozen much larger rings, called maxicircles, approximately 37 kb in length.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.
Substances that are destructive to protozoans.
The presence of parasites in food and food products. For the presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food, FOOD MICROBIOLOGY is available.
The study of disease in prehistoric times as revealed in bones, mummies, and archaeologic artifacts.
Diseases that are underfunded and have low name recognition but are major burdens in less developed countries. The World Health Organization has designated six tropical infectious diseases as being neglected in industrialized countries that are endemic in many developing countries (HELMINTHIASIS; LEPROSY; LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS; ONCHOCERCIASIS; SCHISTOSOMIASIS; and TRACHOMA).
The active insecticidal constituent of CHRYSANTHEMUM CINERARIIFOLIUM flowers. Pyrethrin I is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemummonocarboxylic acid and pyrethrin II is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemumdicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester.
The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and parasitic diseases. The parasitic infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
Individual members of South American ethnic groups with historic ancestral origins in Asia.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
The presence of parasites (especially malarial parasites) in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Sensitive assay using radiolabeled ANTIGENS to detect specific ANTIBODIES in SERUM. The antigens are allowed to react with the serum and then precipitated using a special reagent such as PROTEIN A sepharose beads. The bound radiolabeled immunoprecipitate is then commonly analyzed by gel electrophoresis.
Infestations by PARASITES which live on, or burrow into, the surface of their host's EPIDERMIS. Most ectoparasites are ARTHROPODS.
Infection with protozoa of the genus TRYPANOSOMA.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed protozoa administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious protozoan disease.
A genus of large OPOSSUMS in the family Didelphidae, found in the Americas. The species Didelphis virginiana is prominent in North America.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Infections with the protozoa of the phylum EUGLENOZOA.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
A genus of flagellate protozoans found in the blood and lymph of vertebrates and invertebrates, both hosts being required to complete the life cycle.
People who leave their place of residence in one country and settle in a different country.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
A type of affinity chromatography where ANTIBODIES are used in the affinity capture reaction on the solid support, in the mobile phase, or both.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
Bites and stings inflicted by insects.
Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
A family of winged insects of the suborder HETEROPTERA, called assassin bugs, because most prey on other insects. However one subfamily, TRIATOMINAE, attacks humans and other vertebrates and transmits Chagas disease.
The systematic surveying, mapping, charting, and description of specific geographical sites, with reference to the physical features that were presumed to influence health and disease. Medical topography should be differentiated from EPIDEMIOLOGY in that the former emphasizes geography whereas the latter emphasizes disease outbreaks.
Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.
The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
Cytochromes of the b group that have alpha-band absorption of 563-564 nm. They occur as subunits in MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III.
Compounds that specifically inhibit STEROL 14-DEMETHYLASE. A variety of azole-derived ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS act through this mechanism.
A genus of gram-positive BACTERIA in the family Gordoniaceae, isolated from soil and from sputa of patients with chest disorders. It is also used for biotransformation of natural products.
The complete genetic complement contained in a set of CHROMOSOMES in a protozoan.
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
Infestations with arthropods of the subclass ACARI, superorder Acariformes.
An NADPH-dependent P450 enzyme that plays an essential role in the sterol biosynthetic pathway by catalyzing the demethylation of 14-methyl sterols such as lanosterol. The enzyme acts via the repeated hydroxylation of the 14-methyl group, resulting in its stepwise conversion into an alcohol, an aldehyde and then a carboxylate, which is removed as formic acid. Sterol 14-demethylase is an unusual cytochrome P450 enzyme in that it is found in a broad variety of organisms including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and protozoa.
The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.
Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The normal process of elimination of fecal material from the RECTUM.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
The palm family of order Arecales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
A genus of large, brightly colored SPONGES in the family Agelasidae, possessing a skeleton of spongin fibers with a core of large spicules (megascleres).
Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.
A plant genus of the family PIPERACEAE that includes species used for spicy and stimulating qualities.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Inflammatory processes of the muscular walls of the heart (MYOCARDIUM) which result in injury to the cardiac muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Manifestations range from subclinical to sudden death (DEATH, SUDDEN). Myocarditis in association with cardiac dysfunction is classified as inflammatory CARDIOMYOPATHY usually caused by INFECTION, autoimmune diseases, or responses to toxic substances. Myocarditis is also a common cause of DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY and other cardiomyopathies.
The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.
A discipline or occupation concerned with the study of INSECTS, including the biology and the control of insects.
A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.
Drugs used to treat or prevent parasitic infections.
Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.
Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
Testing or screening required by federal, state, or local law or other agencies for the diagnosis of specified conditions. It is usually limited to specific populations such as categories of health care providers, members of the military, and prisoners or to specific situations such as premarital examinations or donor screening.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.
Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.
The period of history before 500 of the common era.
A motility disorder of the ESOPHAGUS in which the LOWER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER (near the CARDIA) fails to relax resulting in functional obstruction of the esophagus, and DYSPHAGIA. Achalasia is characterized by a grossly contorted and dilated esophagus (megaesophagus).
A disease caused by any of a number of species of protozoa in the genus LEISHMANIA. There are four major clinical types of this infection: cutaneous (Old and New World) (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS), diffuse cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS), mucocutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, MUCOCUTANEOUS), and visceral (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL).
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The functional hereditary units of protozoa.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)

Candidate parasitic diseases. (1/1819)

This paper discusses five parasitic diseases: American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease), dracunculiasis, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis and schistosomiasis. The available technology and health infrastructures in developing countries permit the eradication of dracunculiasis and the elimination of lymphatic filariasis due to Wuchereria bancrofti. Blindness due to onchocerciasis and transmission of this disease will be prevented in eleven West African countries; transmission of Chagas disease will be interrupted. A well-coordinated international effort is required to ensure that scarce resources are not wasted, efforts are not duplicated, and planned national programmes are well supported.  (+info)

Induction of CD8+ T cell-mediated protective immunity against Trypanosoma cruzi. (2/1819)

Trypanosoma cruzi was transformed with the Plasmodium yoelii gene encoding the circum-sporozoite (CS) protein, which contains the well-characterized CD8+ T cell epitope, SYVPSAEQI. In vivo and in vitro assays indicated that cells infected with the transformed T. cruzi could process and present this malaria parasite-derived class I MHC-restricted epitope. Immunization of mice with recombinant influenza and vaccinia viruses expressing the SYVPSAEQI epitope induced a large number of specific CD8+ T cells that strongly suppressed parasitemia and conferred complete protection against the acute T. cruzi lethal infection. CD8+ T cells mediated this immunity as indicated by the unrelenting parasitemia and high mortality observed in immunized mice treated with anti-CD8 antibody. This study demonstrated, for the first time, that vaccination of mice with vectors designed to induce CD8+ T cells is effective against T. cruzi infection.  (+info)

Chagas' disease diagnosis: comparative analysis of parasitologic, molecular, and serologic methods. (3/1819)

During the course of chronic chagasic infection, low parasitemia levels prevent parasite detection by current techniques such as hemoculture and xenodiagnosis. Since serologic tests have sensitivity but lack specificity, molecular assays based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have been proposed as alternative tools for parasite detection in individuals with chronic Chagas' disease. A variable degree of PCR efficiency has been reported in the literature and illustrates the need for further evaluation of large numbers of chagasic patients. In this study, we compared an optimized PCR technique with hemoculture and complement-mediated lysis (CoML) in 113 individuals from or living in endemic areas of Brazil who had conventional serologic results that were either positive, negative, or inconclusive. The PCR amplification yielded positive results in 83.5% (66 of 79) of individuals with positive serology, 47.6% (10 of 21) with negative serology, and 46.2% (6 of 13) with inconclusive serology. Of 10 patients with negative serology and positive PCR result, eight (80%) had positive CoML, indicating that they could have been chagasic but were not mounting immune responses. The PCR results were also positive for all individuals who had positive hemoculture, for 37 individuals with negative hemoculture and positive serology, and for two of six individuals with inconclusive serology and negative hemoculture. Thirteen individuals living in nonendemic areas who had negative serology were used as a negative control group: 100% had negative PCR results. Our results show that the optimized PCR protocol used here was very sensitive in detecting the presence of Trypanosoma cruzi in chronic chagasic patients. The PCR and CoML results were well correlated in all of the groups studied, which suggests that our PCR protocol may be effective in the evaluation of cure in patients who receive anti-parasite treatment.  (+info)

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for IgA antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi in congenital infection. (4/1819)

With the aim of achieving earlier diagnosis of congenital Trypanosoma cruzi infection, we assessed the usefulness of detecting specific IgA antibody by an ELISA. We evaluated 12 pregnant women chronically infected with T. cruzi, their newborn infants, and three additional neonates with parasitemia at birth. The IgA-specific antibody was detected by adapting the procedure for use of a commercial IgG ELISA, the Hemagen Chagas' Kit (Hemagen Diagnostics, Inc., Waltham, MA). Trypanosoma cruzi-specific IgA was detected in 10 (83%) of 12 mothers at delivery, in one of three parasitemic infants, and one of 12 newborns of the chronically infected women. Testing of 13 infants at six months of age revealed IgA in seven infants (54%), of whom four also had persistent T. cruzi-specific IgG. Detection of T. cruzi-specific IgA could provide a criterion for diagnosis of congenital infection in the absence of detectable parasitemia.  (+info)

Acute Chagas' disease in western Venezuela: a clinical, seroparasitologic, and epidemiologic study. (5/1819)

A clinical, parasitologic, and serologic study carried out between 1988 and 1996 on 59 acute-phase patients in areas of western Venezuela where Chagas' disease is endemic showed 19 symptomatic patterns or groups of symptoms appearing in combination with different frequencies. The symptomatic pattern with the highest frequency was that showing simultaneously fever, myalgia, headache, and Romana's sign, which was detected in 20% of the acute-phase patients. Asymptomatic individuals and patients with fever as the only sign of the disease made up 15% and 11.9% of the total acute cases, respectively. Statistical correlation analysis revealed that xenodiagnosis and hemoculture were the most reliable and concordant of the five parasitologic methods used; these two methods also showed the highest proportions in detecting any clinical symptomatic pattern in acute-phase patients. A similar high reliability and concordance was obtained with a direct agglutination test, an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test, and an ELISA as serologic tests, which also showed a higher proportion of positive detection of clinical patterns than parasitologic methods (P < 0.001). It is recommended that individuals coming from endemic areas showing mild and/or severe clinical manifestations should be suspected of being in contact or having been in contact with Trypanosoma cruzi, be referred for parasitologic and serologic evaluations to confirm the presumptive clinical diagnosis of acute Chagas' disease, and start specific treatment. The epidemiologic implications of the present findings are discussed and the use of similar methodology to evaluate other areas where Chagas' disease is endemic is suggested.  (+info)

CD40 ligation prevents Trypanosoma cruzi infection through interleukin-12 upregulation. (6/1819)

Because of the critical role of the CD40-CD40 ligand (CD40L) pathway in the induction and effector phases of immune responses, we investigated the effects of CD40 ligation on the control of Trypanosoma cruzi infection. First, we observed that supernatants of murine spleen cells stimulated by CD40L-transfected 3T3 fibroblasts (3T3-CD40L transfectants) prevent the infection of mouse peritoneal macrophages (MPM) by T. cruzi. This phenomenon depends on de novo production of nitric oxide (NO) as it is prevented by the addition of N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, a NO synthase inhibitor. NO production requires interleukin (IL)-12-mediated gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) synthesis as demonstrated by inhibition experiments using neutralizing anti-IL-12, anti-IFN-gamma, and anti-TNF-alpha monoclonal antibodies (MAb). We found that an activating anti-CD40 MAb also directly stimulates IFN-gamma-activated MPM to produce NO and thereby to control T. cruzi infection. To determine the in vivo relevance of these in vitro findings, mice were injected with 3T3-CD40L transfectants or 3T3 control fibroblasts at the time of T. cruzi inoculation. We observed that in vivo CD40 ligation dramatically reduced both parasitemia and the mortality rate of T. cruzi-infected mice. A reduced parasitemia was still observed when the injection of 3T3-CD40L transfectants was delayed 8 days postinfection. It was abolished by injection of anti-IL-12 MAb. Taken together, these data establish that CD40 ligation facilitates the control of T. cruzi infection through a cascade involving IL-12, IFN-gamma, and NO.  (+info)

A multi-epitope synthetic peptide and recombinant protein for the detection of antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi in radioimmunoprecipitation-confirmed and consensus-positive sera. (7/1819)

Peptide epitopes of Trypanosoma cruzi have been identified through expression cloning. A tripeptide (2/D/E) containing three epitopes (TcD, TcE, PEP-2) was used in ELISA to detect antibodies to T. cruzi in 239 of 240 consensus-positive sera and 41 of 42 sera confirmed positive by radioimmunoprecipitation assay. The 1 discrepant consensus-positive serum was used to expression-clone a novel gene that contained a repeat sequence. A peptide corresponding to this sequence, TcLo1.2, was specific for T. cruzi. This antigen detected the discrepant consensus-positive serum and enhanced reactivity of low-positive sera in the tripeptide assay. A branched synthetic peptide, 2/D/E/Lo1.2, or a linear recombinant, r2/D/E/Lo1.2, realized all of the diagnostic features of the four epitopes, including the ability to boost reactivity of low-reactive sera. These studies show that peptides and recombinants containing multiple repeat epitopes are powerful tools for developing assays for T. cruzi antibody detection and have direct application in blood screening.  (+info)

Chagas' disease and the autoimmunity hypothesis. (8/1819)

The notion that the pathology of Chagas' disease has an autoimmune component was initially based on the finding of circulating antibodies binding heart tissue antigens in patients and mice chronically infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. Later, T lymphocytes reactive with heart or nerve tissue antigens were found in chagasic mice and patients, extending the concept to include cell-mediated immunity. However, there is disagreement about whether the observed immunologic autoreactivities are triggered by T. cruzi epitopes and then affect host tissue antigens by virtue of molecular mimicry or are elicited by host antigens exposed to lymphocytes after tissue damage caused by the parasite. There is also disagreement about the relevance of immunologic autoreactivities to the pathogenesis of Chagas' disease because of the lack of reproducibility of some key reports supporting the autoimmunity hypothesis, conflicting data from independent laboratories, conclusions invalidated by advances in our understanding of the immunologic mechanisms underlying cell lysis, and, last but not least, a lack of direct, incontrovertible evidence that cross-reacting antibodies or autoreactive cells mediate the typical pathologic changes associated with human Chagas' disease. The data and views backing and questioning the autoimmunity hypothesis for Chagas' disease are summarized in this review.  (+info)

Hayes, M M. and Kierszenbaum, F, Experimental chagas disease: kinetics of lymphocyte responses and immunological control of the transition from acute to chronic trypanosoma cruzi infection. (1981). Subject Strain Bibliography 1981. 1540 ...
Chagas Disease (American Trypanosomiasis) - Pipeline Review, H2 2015 Chagas Disease (American Trypanosomiasis) - Pipeline Review, H2 2015 Summary Global Markets Directs, Chagas Disease (American Trypanosomiasis) - - Market research report and industry analysis - 9535876
JARDIM, Edymar. Sweating in patients with chronic Chagas disease. Arq. Neuro-Psiquiatr. [online]. 1967, vol.25, n.3, pp.214-220. ISSN 0004-282X. The sweating in patients with chronic Chagas disease by using thermic stimulus (Minor test) is studied. The loss of water was significantly lower in the patients with Chagas disease when compared with the loss in non chagasic patients.. ...
Headline: Bitcoin & Blockchain Searches Exceed Trump! Blockchain Stocks Are Next!. Chagas Disease Therapeutics market report covers research informatics related to Chagas Disease Therapeutics clinical trials, such as a listing of industry and sponsored clinical trials as well as new drug therapies.. Designed to be a resource both for patients interested in participating in Chagas Disease Therapeutics clinical trials and for research professionals.. The report, Chagas Disease Therapeutics Global Clinical Trials Review, H2, 2016″ provides an overview of Chagas Disease Therapeutics clinical trials scenario. This report provides top line data relating to the clinical trials on Chagas Disease Therapeutics. Report includes an overview of trial numbers and their average enrolment in top countries conducted across the globe. The report also offers coverage of disease clinical trials by region, country (G7 & E7), phase, trial status, end points status and sponsor type.. Browse Detailed TOC, Tables, ...
W Apt. University of Chile, Santiago, Chile. Chapter Outline. Introduction 751. Drugs which inhibit protein or purine synthesis 752 Inhibitors of ergoesterol 753 Ofloxacine 755. Inhibitors of trypanothione metabolism 756 Inhibitors of cysteine protease (CPI) 758 Inhibitors of phospholipids 758 Inhibitors of pyrophosphate metabolism 758 Natural drugs 759 Other drugs 760. Treatment of human infection 760. Current drug therapy 760 Acute cases 762 Congenital infection 762 Accidental Chagas disease 764 Organ transplants 764. Reactivations of chronic Chagas disease and treatment of Chagas disease in immunosuppressed patients 764. Evaluation and follow-up of specific therapy 765 Resistance of T. cruzi to drugs 765 Critical comments 766 Glossary 767 References 767. Introduction. Chagas disease has existed for at least 9000 years. Of the desiccated human mummies from coastal valley sites in northern Chile and Peru, 41% were found to be positive by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and hybridization probes ...
CHAGAS DISEASE - AMERICAN TRYPANOSOMIASIS: Promising Treatment for Chagas Disease: Caryophyllene Oxide (a cannabinoid-based preparation)...
DISCUSSION. The decentralization of health interventions that occurred in Brazil and the intense natural environmental transformation have had important consequences for the evaluation and actions of the CDCP. The Municipality of Açucena, Rio Doce Valley studied here was located near two large industries where there was intense deforestation and planting of eucalyptus. This municipality is under the supervision of the HRM of Coronel Fabriciano, where the ES implanted in 2001 was not maintained as recommended. Studies of the prevalence in young age groups present a significant indicator of the success of control measures for Chagas disease related to vectorial transmission9. During the first phase of the study, serological testing for T. cruzi infection in schoolchildren, no children in the selected sample was seropositive. These results confirm those of other studies in different endemic areas in Minas Gerais and reveal the benefits attributed to the CDCP implemented in vast areas of the ...
You may have heard about the kissing bug that is making its way across southern regions of the U.S. Major news outlets such as TIME, CNN, and Forbes recently featured stories about this trending topic. Kissing bugs can carry the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which can cause Chagas disease. Its important to know that not all kissing bugs are infected with the parasite, and the likelihood of contracting Chagas disease is low.. The Kissing bug received its name because it typically bites the face of humans around the lips and eyes. They are similar to bed bugs; they are primarily nocturnal, and feed on the blood of mammals, including dogs and people. Feedings typically occur while hosts are asleep, and a meal can last 20-30 minutes. Hosts are unaware they are being bitten, because kissing bugs inject an anesthetizing agent during feeding.. About Chagas disease. Chagas disease is not new, but until recently, it was more commonly found in Mexico, Central America and South America. The disease is ...
Although low-grade parasite persistence is a fundamental aspect of chronic Chagas disease, current parasitological assays have low sensitivity and are not quant...
This study investigated the efficacy and tolerability of low and high dose posaconazole versus benznidazole in patients with chronic Chagas disease. The primary
While many studies have found associations between climate change and factors affecting Chagas disease transmission, the future impact of climate change on the global spread of Chagas disease remains debatable. A qualitative, systematic review was conducted to assess the impact of climate change on Chagas disease transmission in the Americas (Central America, South America, and North America). The literature search was performed in January 2019 using the keywords climate, Chagas, and
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Chronic Chagas disease presents different clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic (namely indeterminate) to severe cardiac and/or digestive. Previous results have shown that the immune response plays an important role, although no all mechanisms are understood. Immunoregulatory mechanisms such as apoptosis are important for the control of Chagas disease, possibly affecting the morbidity in chronic clinical forms. Apoptosis has been suggested to be an important mechanism of cellular response during T. cruzi infection. We aimed to further understand the putative role of apoptosis in Chagas disease and its relation to the clinical forms of the disease. Apoptosis of lymphocytes, under antigenic stimuli (soluble T. cruzi antigens - TcAg) where compared to that of non-stimulated cells. Apoptosis was evaluated using the expression of annexin and caspase 3+ by T cells and the percentage of cells positive evaluated by flow cytometry. In addition activation and T cell markers were used for the
The study investigated 100 subjects, both genders, with chronic Chagas disease, confirmed by at least two distinct serological tests, and classified according to Los Andes classification in a long term follow-up aiming at identifying the predictive value of the signal-averaged electrocardiogram for cardiac death and ventricular tachycardia.. All subjects admitted to the study were submitted to clinical history taking, physical examination, and noninvasive assessment, including blood pressure measurement, resting 12-lead surface electrocardiogram, 24h ambulatory electrocardiogram monitoring, M-Mode/two-dimensional echocardiogram, signal-averaged electrocardiogram in both time and frequency domains. Selected subjects were further submitted to treadmill stress test and coronary angiography to rule out coronary heart disease.. Subjects were followed by non-investigational primary care assistance at three to six months scheduled clinical visits on an outpatients basis. Both noninvasive and invasive ...
The objective of this thesis is to analyze how existing data can address Chagas disease transmission risk in South America given data availability. A literature review was conducted to determine prominent variables that models use to assist with Chagas disease mitigation efforts, followed by a Web search to collect publicly available spatial data pertaining to these variables. The data were then used to create maps of data availability and in an agent-based model to identify which variables are most associated with disease transmission risk. Data availability varied widely across South America, and model results indicate that datasets related to household size and spatial housing arrangement are most important to Chagas disease infection in urban areas. Governments can use this information to better direct their resources to collect data and control the spread of triatomine vectors and Chagas disease more effectively, and potentially identify more cost-effective strategies for vector elimination ...
Progress in control in each country is reported as follows:. Argentina. The area of transmission covered 60% of the country north of parallel 44 degrees. The main vector is T. infestans. In 1980 the average house infestation rate for the country as a whole was 30%; in 1998 it was 1.2%; and in 2002 it dropped to 1.0% which is equivalent to 98% reduction in house infestation by the main vector.. The seroprevalence rates for the whole country for the age group 0-4 years is 0.9% which confirms the very low number of acute cases among children in this age group. In the age group 0-14 years the rate is 1.9%. In the age group of 18-year-old males the seroprevalence rates have dropped from 5.8% in 1981 to 1.0% in 1993 and 0.5% in 2002. The interruption of vectorial transmission has been achieved in 10 of the 13 endemic provinces of the country.52. Finally, there is 100% coverage of the blood donations screened against Chagas disease in the blood banks of the public sector and 80% coverage in the ...
Chagas disease and leishmaniasis, caused by the kinetoplastid protozoans Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp., respectively, affect millions of people worldwide, most of them belonging to neglected populations. Diagnostic tests for Chagas disease are employed during epidemiological surveys of vectorial and oral transmission, blood bank screening, analysis of pregnant women and their newborns, and in individual cases. However, the currently available assays need improvement. The different phases of the disease, the transmission mode and the high genetic variability of the parasite increase the difficulties of making diagnostic kits with different markers suitable for the diverse scenarios of T. cruzi infection. Different Leishmania species cause diverse clinical features and sequelae and require different clinical management. In contrast to Chagas disease diagnosis, molecular diagnosis for leishmaniasis requires not only confirmation of the infection but also the genotyping of complexes, species ...
It is reported that 165,000 people in Paraguay suffer from the usually chronic disease. Itaguá, Cordillera and Paraguarí departments were identified as at-risk areas (Itaguá was once declared disease-free by the WHO).. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is a potentially life-threatening illness caused by the protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi). It is found mainly in endemic areas of 21 Latin American countries.. About 7 million to 8 million people worldwide are estimated to be infected with the parasite. For more infectious disease news and information, visit and like the Infectious Disease News Facebook page.. Chagas disease slideshow. T. cruzi parasites are mainly transmitted by the infected feces of blood-sucking triatomine bugs. In addition, the parasite can be transmitted via food contaminated with T. cruzi through for example thecontact with triatomine bug feces, blood transfusions using blood from ...
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A little-known but deadly disease is making its presence felt in the southwestern United States. Chagas disease, sometimes called the silent killer, has long been known in Central and South America but rarely diagnosed in the United States. Now, the number of cases is growing in Texas, while the bugs that carry the disease are turning up in Arizona and California.. All About Chagas. American trypanosomiasis, commonly called Chagas disease after the Brazilian physician who first identified it, is an infection by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Kissing bugs, which spread the T. cruzi parasite to humans, are nocturnal bugs that earned their nickname for their predilection to bite humans around the mouth (or sometimes eyes) at night. Unfortunately for the sleeping human providing the nighttime meal, the bug is simultaneously depositing feces infected with T. cruzi on the skin. The human host later scratches the itchy bug-bite and inadvertently rubs the infected bug feces into the mouth or eye, ...
American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease) is an important cause of heart disease, megaesophagus and megacolon among people in Mexico, Central and South America. Many mammals can be infected with the parasite that causes this disease; however, among animals, clinical cases have been reported mainly in dogs. Chagas disease is transmitted by the bites of triatomine insects, or
Symptoms of Chagas disease including 49 medical symptoms and signs of Chagas disease, alternative diagnoses, misdiagnosis, and correct diagnosis for Chagas disease signs or Chagas disease symptoms.
Treatment is urgently indicated for anyone during the acute phase and for those in whom the infection has been reactivated. In these situations, treatment is almost 100% effective, and the disease can be completely cured.. During the acute phase, Chagas disease can be treated with two antiparasitic medicines: benznidazole* and nifurtimox*. Both medicines are nearly 100% effective in curing the disease if given soon after infection, including the cases of congenital transmission. The efficacy of both diminishes, however, the longer a person has been infected, and the risk of adverse reactions increases with age.. Once Chagas disease reaches the chronic phase, medications wont cure the disease, but they may help slow the progression of the disease and its most serious complications. Adults, especially those with the indeterminate form of the disease, should be offered treatment, but its potential benefits in preventing or delaying the development of Chagas disease should be weighed against the ...
Background Chagas disease induced by (invasion and in sponsor tissue fibrosis. become inhibited by this compound. Interestingly we further shown that administration of type:entrez-nucleotide attrs :text:GW788388″ term_id :293585730″ term_text :GW788388″GW788388 at the end of the acute phase (20 dpi) still significantly increased survival and decreased cardiac fibrosis (evaluated by Massons trichrome staining and collagen type I manifestation) inside a stage when parasite growth is no more central to this event. Summary/Significance This work confirms that inhibition of TGF? signaling pathway can be considered like a potential alternate strategy for the treatment of the symptomatic cardiomyopathy found in the acute and chronic phases of Chagas disease. Author Summary Cardiac damage and dysfunction are prominent features in individuals with chronic Chagas disease which is definitely caused by illness with the protozoan parasite (invasion and growth and in sponsor tissue fibrosis. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Risedronate in the treatment of Murine Chagas disease. AU - Bouzahzah, Boumediene. AU - Jelicks, Linda A.. AU - Morris, Stephen A.. AU - Weiss, Louis M.. AU - Tanowitz, Herbert B.. N1 - Funding Information: Acknowledgements Supported in part by grants from Proctor & Gamble and from the National Institutes of Health AI-062730 (LAJ), AI-12770, AI-052739 and HL-073732 (HBT). We wish to thank Dazhi Zhao and Vitalyi Shtutin for their technical assistance.. PY - 2005/6. Y1 - 2005/6. N2 - Risedronate, a bisphosphonate, was used to treat CD-1 mice infected with the Brazil strain of Trypanosoma cruzi. When given by subcutaneous injection 3 times/week, there was a significant reduction in mortality, however, the myocardial pathology and right ventricular dilation was unchanged in these mice compared to control animals. In C57BL/6 mice infected with the Tulahuen strain, there was no change in mortality in response to risedronate treatment. These data suggest that this class of compounds ...
In most instances of acute T cruzi infection, a specific diagnosis is not made because of the nonspecific nature of the signs and symptoms and because most cases occur in poor people who have limited ... more
The heart is the most commonly affected organ in persons with chronic Chagas disease.{ref55}{ref56}{ref57}{ref58} Autopsy may reveal marked bilateral ventricular enlargement, often involving the right... more
Despite current beliefs that Chagas disease is a recently emerging disease, we report historical references dating as far back as 1935. Both imported cases and autochthonous transmission contribute to the historical disease burden in Texas.
The etiological treatment of Chagas disease is recommended for all patients with acute or recent chronic infection, but controversies remain regarding the benefit of chemotherapy and interpretations of the parasitological cure after etiological treatment. This study compares the laboratory and clinical evaluations of Chagas disease patients who were diagnosed 13 years earlier. Fifty-eight Chagas disease patients (29 treated with benznidazole and 29 untreated) were matched at the time of treatment based on several variables. Conventional serology revealed the absence of seroconversion in all patients. However, lower serological titres were verified in the treated group, primarily among patients who had the indeterminate form of the disease. Haemoculture performed 13 years after the intervention was positive for 6.9% and 27.6% of the treated and untreated patients, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction tests were positive for 44.8% and 13.8% of the treated and untreated patients, respectively. ...
In Yucatan state, Mexico, health officials are reporting an increase in the parasitic disease during the month of Feb. 2019.. According to the epidemiological bulletin, between the Feb. 3rd and 9th, 24 new cases of Chagas disease have been confirmed in the state. In the month of February, 27 cases have been reported in total to date.. January 2019 saw just three cases and in all of 2018, 62 Chagas cases were reported in Yucatan.. According to the World Health Organization(WHO), Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is a potentially life-threatening illness caused by the protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi). It is found mainly in endemic areas of 21 Latin American countries.. About 7 million to 8 million people worldwide are estimated to be infected with the parasite.. ...
Dr. Peter Hotez and co-authors discuss the tragedy of Chagas disease in North America. In North America, Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma cruzi) was first reported in Mexico in 1940 and in the United States in Texas in 1955. However, based on ancient mummified remains discovered in the Rio Grande Valley, human T. cruzi infection has been present in North America since prehistoric times.. Continue reading. ...
Chagas Disease, also known as American Trypanosomiasis, is a protozoan infection transmitted by the Triatoma insect (known as vinchuca in Spanish or barbeiro in Portuguese) which bites humans most commonly on the face at night. The Triatoma insect sheds feces containing the Trypanosoma cruzi protozoa at the site of the bite which are rubbed or crushed into the bite wound to alleviate itching. The parasite then enters the bloodstream and affects organ tissues, typically the heart and the intestines. The disease largely spreads with the rise of migration from rural areas to urban and suburban areas as well as increasing deforestation. Chagas Disease affects between 6 and 7 million people and is a Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD)*. Many countries affected by the disease have active health education and eradication programs.. * Neglected Tropical Diseases are chronic infections that are typically endemic in low income countries. They prevent affected adults and children from going to school, ...
Chagas disease affects 8 to 10 million people living in endemic Latin American countries, with an additional 300,000-400,000 living in nonendemic countries, including Spain and the United States. An estimated 41,200 new cases occur annually in endemic countries, and 14,400 infants are born with congenital Chagas disease annually.[5][15] in 2010 it resulted in approximately 10,300 deaths up from 9,300 in 1990.[45] The disease is present in 18 countries on the American continents, ranging from the southern United States to northern Argentina.[6] Chagas exists in two different ecological zones. In the Southern Cone region, the main vector lives in and around human homes. In Central America and Mexico, the main vector species lives both inside dwellings and in uninhabited areas. In both zones, Chagas occurs almost exclusively in rural areas, where triatomines breed and feed on the more than 150 species from 24 families of domestic and wild mammals, as well as humans, that are the natural reservoirs ...
Chagas disease affects 8 to 10 million people living in endemic Latin American countries, with an additional 300,000-400,000 living in nonendemic countries, including Spain and the United States. An estimated 41,200 new cases occur annually in endemic countries, and 14,400 infants are born with congenital Chagas disease annually.[5][15] in 2010 it resulted in approximately 10,300 deaths up from 9,300 in 1990.[45] The disease is present in 18 countries on the American continents, ranging from the southern United States to northern Argentina.[6] Chagas exists in two different ecological zones. In the Southern Cone region, the main vector lives in and around human homes. In Central America and Mexico, the main vector species lives both inside dwellings and in uninhabited areas. In both zones, Chagas occurs almost exclusively in rural areas, where triatomines breed and feed on the more than 150 species from 24 families of domestic and wild mammals, as well as humans, that are the natural reservoirs ...
Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas disease or American Trypanosomiasis. Chagas Disease continues to be a relevant infectious cause of death in L...
Rick Tarleton of the Center for Tropical and Emerging Global Diseases at the University of Georgia and the Chagas Disease Foundation, and colleagues provide background on Chagas disease and discuss the Chagas-related milestones identified by the London Declaration on Neglected Tropical Diseases, as well as the actions necessary to control and eventually eliminate the disease (10/9).. ...
Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. The contributions of parasite and immune system for disease pathogenesis remain unresolved and controversial. The possibility that Chagas disease was an autoimmune progression triggered by T. cruzi infection led some to question the benefit of treating chronically T. cruzi-infected persons with drugs. Furthermore, it provided the rationale for not investing in research aimed at a vaccine which might carry a risk of inducing autoimmunity or exacerbating inflammation. This viewpoint was adopted by cash-strapped health systems in the developing economies where the disease is endemic and has been repeatedly challenged by researchers and clinicians in recent years and there is now a considerable body of evidence and broad consensus that parasite persistence is requisite for pathogenesis and that antiparasitic immunity can be protective against T. cruzi pathogenesis without eliciting autoimmune pathology. Thus, treatment of chronically ...
Chagas disease is diagnosed using blood tests, but different kinds of blood tests are needed for acute and chronic Chagas disease.
M. Rolón, D.R. Serrano, A. Lalatsa, E. de Pablo, J.J. Torrado, M.P. Ballesteros, A.M. Healy, C. Vega, C. Coronel, F. Bolás-Fernández and M.A. Dea-Ayuela, M.A. Engineering Oral and Parenteral Amorphous Amphotericin B Formulations against Experimental Trypanosoma cruzi Infections. Molecular Pharmaceutics, 14(4) (2017) 1095-1106 ...
Neglected parasitic infections, including Chagas disease, toxocariasis, cysticercosis, and toxoplasmosis, affect millions of persons in the United States. Relatively few resources have been devoted to surveillance, prevention, and treatment of these diseases. Chagas disease primarily affects Latin American immigrants and can cause heart failure and death if not treated. Immediate antiparasitic treatment is indicated for most patients with acute Chagas disease. Treatment is recommended for patients younger than 18 years who have chronic Chagas disease and is generally recommended for adults younger than 50 years who do not have advanced cardiomyopathy; treatment decisions for other patients should be made on an individual basis. Toxocariasis primarily affects children and can cause gastrointestinal, respiratory, and ophthalmologic disease. Treatment options include albendazole and mebendazole. Patients with ocular infection require referral to an ophthalmologist. Neurocysticercosis, a form of
American Trypanosomiasis: Global Status is one in a series of GIDEON ebooks which explore all individual infectious diseases, drugs, vaccines, outbreaks, surveys and pathogens in every country of the world. Data are based on the GIDEON web application ( which relies on standard text books, peer-review journals, Health Ministry reports and ProMED, supplemented by an ongoing exhaustive search of the medical literature.. The ebook includes ...
Over 80% of Chagas infections in Latin America are passed on by domestic insect vectors. Dr. Chris Schofield outlines how eliminating these on a very large scale would stop disease transmission, as well as the risk of insect vectors spreading elsewhere in the world. Early disease detection and treatment combined with continued surveillance for insect re-infestation are also essential to meet the challenge of eliminating Chagas disease as a public health problem.. Be an expert! Click here for full article.. Dr. Christopher Schofield is Coordinator of ECLAT at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. He is a world renowned researcher of Chagas Disease. We are privileged to have Dr. Schofield as a member of our Kids for World Health Advisory Board.. ...
A specific test is necessary for the diagnosis of Chagas disease. The test detects the presence of the infection through analysis of a blood sample. Anyone who suspects that they may have Chagas disease should ask their doctor to order this test.. Patients who test positive for the infection should have a cardiac check-up. This is done using radiography, an electrocardiogram and occasionally an echocardiogram. Depending on whether or not the patient reports digestive symptoms, the doctor will decide if a digestive tract assessment is needed.. To find out whether you should be tested for Chagas infection, we recommend you take the following test.. ...
In this study, we were able to achieve a 4-fold reduction in the amount of benznidazole required to significantly reduce blood and tissue parasite burdens by combining the low-dose benznidazole with a recombinant vaccine candidate, Tc24 C4, formulated with a synthetic Toll-like 4 receptor agonist, E6020, in a squalene oil-in-water emulsion. Additionally, vaccination induced a robust parasite-speci...
A new antigen preparation useful in immunoprecipitin diagnostic testing for Chagas disease is prepared by growing Trypanosoma cruzi in tissue culture to form essentially only the trypomastigote and a
Admission:. Longitudinal prospective study, with a cohort of 100 consecutive outpatient subjects (34 to 74 years old; 31 females) with Chagas disease followed-up for at least 10 years at the cardiomyopathy outpatient clinic of University Hospital, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil, a tertiary care center. Enrollment was from 1995 to 1999. Subjects were born in endemic regions of Minas Gerais, Goias or Bahia States of Brazil and Chagas disease was diagnosed on basis of two positive serum tests, hemagglutination cruzipain-ELISA and indirect immunofluorescence. All subjects were referred to the arrhythmia for risk stratification. At the time of admission none had received nitroderivative therapy. Subjects were classified according to the severity of heart involvement according to Los Andes classification, and divided into three groups: class I - 28 subjects (group 1), class II - 48 subjects (group 2), and class III - 24 subjects (group 3). Clinical and laboratory data were assessed during a personal ...
Abstract. To contribute to a better understanding of the molecular bases of the circadian biological rhythms in Chagas disease vectors, in this work we identified functional domains in the sequences of the clock protein PERIOD (PER) in Rhodnius prolixus and Triatoma infestans and analyzed the expression of the PER gene at mRNA level in T. infestans. The PER protein sequences comparison among these species and those from other insects revealed that the most similar regions are the PAS domains and the most variable is the COOH-terminal. On the other hand, the per gene expression in nervous tissue of adult T. infestans varies with a daily canonical rhythm in groups of individuals maintained under photoperiod (light/dark, LD) and constant dark (DD), showing a significant peak of expression at sunset. The pattern of expression detected in LD persists under the DD condition. As expected, in the group maintained in constant light (LL), no daily increase was detected in per transcript level. Besides, the
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evidence for Trypanosoma cruzi in adipose tissue in human chronic Chagas disease. AU - Matos Ferreira, Adaliene Versiani. AU - Segatto, Marcela. AU - Menezes, Zélia. AU - Macedo, Andréa Mara. AU - Gelape, Cláudio. AU - de Oliveira Andrade, Luciana. AU - Nagajyothi, Fnu. AU - Scherer, Philipp E.. AU - Teixeira, Mauro Martins. AU - Tanowitz, Herbert B.. PY - 2011/11/1. Y1 - 2011/11/1. N2 - Trypanosoma cruzi the cause of Chagas disease persists in tissues of infected experimental animals and humans. Here we demonstrate the persistence of the parasite in adipose tissue from of three of 10 elderly seropositive patients with chronic chagasic heart disease. Nine control patients had no parasites in the fat. We also demonstrate that T. cruzi parasitizes primary adipocytes in vitro. Thus, in humans as in mice the parasite may persist in adipose tissue for decades and become a reservoir of infection.. AB - Trypanosoma cruzi the cause of Chagas disease persists in tissues of infected ...
The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) circulates in the blood upon infection and invades a variety of cells. Parasites intensively multiply during the acute phase of infection and persist lifelong at low levels in tissues and blood during the chronic phase. Natural killer (NK) and NKT cells play an important role in the immune control of T. cruzi infection, mainly by releasing the cytokine IFN-γ that activates the microbicidal action of macrophages and other cells and shapes a protective type 1 immune response. The mechanisms by which immune cells are regulated to produce IFN-γ during T. cruzi infection are still incompletely understood. Here, we show that urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) is induced early upon T. cruzi infection, and remains elevated until day 20 post inoculation. We previously demonstrated that the inhibitory receptor Ly49E, which is expressed, among others, on NK and NKT cells, is triggered by uPA. Therefore, we compared wild type (WT) to Ly49E knockout (KO) mice
Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is caused by infection with the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. The organism T cruzi and infection in humans were first described in 1909 by the Brazilian physician Carlos R.
Chronic Chagas Disease (CD) diagnosis is based on serological methods employing crude, semipurified or recombinant antigens, which may result in low sensitivity or cross-reactivity. To reduce these restrictions, we developed a strategy involving use of molecules containing repetitive fragments of Trypanosoma cruzi conserved proteins. Diagnostic performance of IBMP-8.1 and IBMP-8.4 chimeric antigens (Molecular Biology Institute of Paraná - IBMP in Portuguese acronym) was assessed to diagnose T. cruzi-infected and non-infected immigrants living in Barcelona (Spain), a non-endemic setting for Chagas disease. Reactivity of IBMP-8.1 and IBMP-8.4 was assessed using an in-house automated ELISA with 347 positive and 331 negative individuals to Chagas disease. Antigenic cross-reactivity was measured with sera samples from pregnant women with Toxoplasma gondii (n = 98) and Zika virus (n = 75) antibodies. The area under the curve values was 1 and 0.99 for the IBMP-8.1 and IBMP-8.4 proteins, respectively,
Abstract. Chagas disease has the highest prevalence of any parasitic disease in the Americas, affecting 6-7 million people. Conventional diagnosis requires a well-equipped laboratory with experienced personnel. The development of new diagnostic tools that are easy to use and adapted to the reality of affected populations and health systems is still a significant challenge. The main objective of this study was to measure Trypanosoma cruzi infection status using saliva samples of infected subjects. Blood and saliva samples from 20 T. cruzi-seropositive individuals and 10 controls were tested for T. cruzi infection using two different commercial serological tests. We have shown that detection of T. cruzi infection is possible using saliva samples, supporting the potential use of saliva to diagnose Chagas disease in humans. This method could provide a simple, low-cost but effective tool for the diagnosis of T. cruzi infection. Its noninvasive nature makes it particularly well suited for endemic areas.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Structurally simple inhibitors of lanosterol 14α-demethylase are efficacious in a rodent model of acute Chagas disease. AU - Suryadevara, Praveen Kumar. AU - Olepu, Srinivas. AU - Lockman, Jeffrey W.. AU - Ohkanda, Junko. AU - Karimi, Mandana. AU - Verlinde, Christophe L.M.J.. AU - Kraus, James M.. AU - Schoepe, Jan. AU - Van Voorhis, Wesley C.. AU - Hamilton, Andrew D.. AU - Buckner, Frederick S.. AU - Gelb, Michael H.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2009/6/25. Y1 - 2009/6/25. N2 - We report structure-activity studies of a large number of dialkyl imidazoles as inhibitors of Trypanosoma cruzi lanosterol-14α-demethylase (L14DM). The compounds have a simple structure compared to posaconazole, another L14DM inhibitor that is an anti-Chagas drug candidate. Several compounds display potency for killing T. cruzi amastigotes in vitro with values of EC 50 in the 0.4-10 nM range. Two compounds were selected for efficacy studies in a mouse model ...
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Biology professor Lori Stevens spends a lot of time wearing a lab coat as she sleuths out DNA sequences found in the gut of the reduviid bug, often called the kissing bug, which is responsible for the spread of Chagas disease, an affliction that affects 8-10 million people in Latin America. Almost as often, shes wearing a t-shirt in the hot Guatemalan sun, helping rural villagers who are most vulnerable to the disease learn to retrofit their homes against the insect. Chagas is a parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi which is transmitted by the kissing bugs.. The insect lies low during the day and emerges at night. Kissing bugs infected with T. cruzi transmit the parasite to humans by piercing the skin-often near areas like the eyes, nose or mouth-and then defecating near the wound. The parasite, present in the feces, enters the hosts bloodstream through an opening in the skin when the person scratches the itchy bite. The parasite can also be passed from mother to fetus, ...
Chagas disease is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which is transmitted to animals and people by an insect called a triatomine bug. Infection is most commonly acquired through contact with the feces of an infected triatomine bug (or kissing bug), a blood-sucking insect that feeds on humans and animals.
We report the discovery of nontoxic fungicide fenarimol (1) as an inhibitor of Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), the causative agent of Chagas disease, and the results of structure-activity investigations leading to potent analogues with low nM IC50s in a T. cruzi whole cell in vitro assay. Lead compounds suppressed blood parasitemia to virtually undetectable levels after once daily oral dosing in mouse models of T. cruzi infection. Compounds are chemically tractable, allowing rapid optimization of target biological activity and drug characteristics. Chemical and biological studies undertaken in the development of the fenarimol series toward the goal of delivering a new drug candidate for Chagas disease are reported. ...
Title:Computational Drug Repositioning by Target Hopping: A Use Case in Chagas Disease. VOLUME: 22 ISSUE: 21. Author(s):V. Joachim Haupt, Jesús E. Aguilar Uvalle, Sebastian Salentin, Simone Daminelli, Franziska Leonhardt, Janez Konc and Michael Schroeder. Affiliation:BIOTEC, TU Dresden, Tatzberg 47/49, 01307 Dresden, Germany.. Keywords:Drug repositioning, drug re-purposing, structural bioinformatics, structure alignment, drug discovery, Chagas disease, target hopping.. Abstract:Background: Drug repositioning aims to identify novel indications for existing drugs. One approach to repositioning exploits shared binding sites between the drug targets and other proteins. Here, we review the principle and algorithms of such target hopping and illustrate them in Chagas disease, an in Latin America widely spread, but neglected disease. Conclusion: We demonstrate how target hopping recovers known treatments for Chagas disease and predicts novel drugs, such as the antiviral foscarnet, which we predict to ...
The pathogenesis of megaesophagus in chronic Chagas disease, which is caused by infection with the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi is compelling. Individuals with megaesophagus often present achalasia and disturbances of peristalsis and neuronal loss. Esophageal samples were obtained from 6 T. cruzi infected individuals with megaesophagus, 6 T. cruzi infected individuals without megaesophagus, and 6 noninfected individuals who underwent necropsy procedures.
Author Summary Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and represents a major public health problem in Latin America. Furthermore, growing human population movements extend the disease distribution to regions outside the South American continent. Accurate diagnosis is crucial in patient care and in preventing transmission through blood transfusion, organ transplantation, or vertical transmission from mother to child. Routine diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi infection generally is based on detection of the hosts antibodies against the parasite. However, antibody detection tests are liable to specificity problems and are of limited use in assessing treatment outcome and congenital infections. The introduction of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify specific DNA sequences opened promising diagnostic perspectives. Despite its reported high sensitivity and specificity, broad use of the PCR technique in diagnosis of Chagas disease is hampered by
The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, causative agent of Chagas disease, depends upon a cell surface-expressed trans-sialidase (ts) to avoid activation of complement-mediated lysis and to enhance intracellular invasion. However these functions alone fail to account for the size of this gene family in T. cruzi, especially considering that most of these genes encode proteins lacking ts enzyme activity. Previous whole genome sequencing of the CL Brener clone of T. cruzi identified ~1400 ts variants, but left many partially assembled sequences unannotated. In the current study we reevaluated the trans-sialidase-like sequences in this reference strain, identifying an additional 1779 full-length and partial ts genes with their important features annotated, and confirming the expression of previously annotated
International migration has changed the epidemiologic patterns of Chagas disease. Recently, 2 cases of Chagas disease transmitted from Latin American women to their newborns were diagnosed in Geneva, Switzerland. A retrospective study to detect Chagas disease showed a prevalence of 9.7% among 72 Latin American women tested during pregnancy in Switzerland ...
Author Summary Chagas disease, a Latin American illness caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, has only rare spontaneous cure, and in most patients a small number of parasites persists for life in the blood and tissues, leading to chronic disorders such as cardiomyopathy. In a murine model of chronic T. cruzi infection we observed that the liver plays an important role in the clearance of blood-circulating parasites. Moreover, parasite accumulation in this organ is followed by their elimination, an effect that is not immediate but seems to depend on the recruitment of leukocytes and on the local production of IFN-γ, a cytokine known to increase the T. cruzi-killing capacity of phagocytes. Our findings contribute to the knowledge of T. cruzi-host interaction, showing the participation of a non-lymphoid organ in parasite control. In addition, they contribute to understanding the multifaceted role the liver plays in the immune response.
Trypanosoma cruzi is an intracellular protozoan parasite that causes Chagas disease. The parasite life cycle involves hematophagous reduviid bugs as vectors. Once parasites enter the host body, they invade diverse host cells including cardiomyocytes. Establishment of infection depends on various parasite molecules such as cruzipain, oligopeptidase B, and trans-sialidase that activate Ca2+ signaling. Internalized parasites escape from the parasitophorous vacuole using secreted pore-forming TcTOX molecule and replicate in the cytosol. Multiplied parasites eventually lyse infected host cells and are released in the circulation. During these events, the parasites manipulate host innate immunity and elicit cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. T lymphocyte responses are also disturbed ...
Trypanosoma cruzi is an intracellular protozoan parasite that causes Chagas disease. The parasite life cycle involves hematophagous reduviid bugs as vectors. Once parasites enter the host body, they invade diverse host cells including cardiomyocytes. Establishment of infection depends on various parasite molecules such as cruzipain, oligopeptidase B, and trans-sialidase that activate Ca2+ signaling. Internalized parasites escape from the parasitophorous vacuole using secreted pore-forming TcTOX molecule and replicate in the cytosol. Multiplied parasites eventually lyse infected host cells and are released in the circulation. During these events, the parasites manipulate host innate immunity and elicit cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. T lymphocyte responses are also disturbed ...
Here we provide evidence for a critical role of PP2As (protein phosphatase 2As) in the transformation of Trypanosoma cruzi. In axenic medium at pH 5.0, trypomastigotes rapidly transform into amastigotes, a process blocked by okadaic acid, a potent PP2A inhibitor, at concentrations as low as 0.1 μM. 1-Norokadaone, an inactive okadaic acid analogue, did not affect the transformation. Electron microscopy studies indicated that okadaic acid-treated trypomastigotes had not undergone ultrastructural modifications, reinforcing the idea that PP2A inhibits transformation. Using a microcystin-Sepharose affinity column we purified the native T. cruzi PP2A. The enzyme displayed activity against 32P-labelled phosphorylase a that was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by okadaic acid. The protein was also submitted to MS and, from the peptides obtained, degenerate primers were used to clone a novel T. cruzi PP2A enzyme by PCR. The isolated gene encodes a protein of 303 amino acids, termed TcPP2A, which ...
Between 1999-2002, Médécins Sans Frontières-Spain implemented a project seeking to determine the efficacy and safety of benznidazole in the treatment of recent chronic Chagas disease in a cohort of seropositive children in the Yoro Department, Honduras. A total of 24,471 children were screened for Trypanosoma cruzi IgG antibodies through conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) on filter paper. Recombinant ELISA (0.93% seroprevalence) showed 256 initially reactive cases, including 232 confirmed positive cases. Of these, 231 individuals were treated with benznidazole (7.5 mg/kg/day) for 60 days and were followed with a strict weekly medical control and follow-up protocol. At the end of the project, 229 patients were examined by the Honduras Secretariat of Health for post-treatment serological assessments; 88.2% seroconverted after 18 months and 93.9% seroconverted after three years. No differences were found in the seroconversion rates according to age or sex. Most of the side ...
It is caused by the flagellated protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. Discovered in 1908-1909 is commonly transmitted to animals and people through the feces of triatomine bugs. The triatomine bug is nicknamed the kissing bug because it frequently bites humans on the face or around the eyes; the insect then defecates near the bite and the infected fecal matter may be rubbed into the bite wound by the bitten individual. Vaccination for the Chagas Disease has not been found. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), Chagas disease is an endemic throughout South America where around 6-7 million people are infected. In mummies from southern Peru and northern Chile, the oldest record of Chagas disease, nearly 9,000 years old. The Chagas disease is known to be found in the poor and rural population. As people sleep the triatomine bugs are typically active. Near the site of the bite, the triatomine bugs draw blood near faces and lips of host and will defecate. When the host rubs the feces into their ...
Dogs are domestic reservoir hosts of Trypanosoma cruzi, the aetiological agent of Chagas disease. Using an experimental set-up mimicking rural mud-and-thatch houses, we evaluated the effect of deltamethrin-treated dog collars on the feeding success and survival of Triatoma infestans, the main T. cruzi vector in Latin America. Seven collared and three uncollared control dogs were exposed to colonized T. infestans at day 0 (i.e. before attachment of collars), at 15 days, and then monthly for 3 months post collar attachment. Following overnight exposure to uncollared dogs, 96% (1473/1538) of bugs fed, of which 51% (746/1473) fully engorged. Feeding rates were significantly reduced on collared dogs for up to 1 month post collar attachment with the lowest rates of 91% (551/604) observed at day 30 (P,0.05). Amongst those bugs that fed, engorgement rates were significantly reduced on collared dogs throughout the trial, during which average rates were 31% (543/1768) (P,0.001). No collar effect on ...
New formulation for weight-adjusted treatment of pediatric Chagas patients age 0-18 targets most vulnerable patient group / Submission based on results of CHICO (CHagas disease In Children treated with NifurtimOx) phase III clinical study of nifurtimox in pediatric patients with Chagas disease as well as pre-clinical data / Fight against Neglected Tropical Diseases part of Bayers Sustainability Strategy
New formulation for weight-adjusted treatment of pediatric Chagas patients age 0-18 targets most vulnerable patient group / Submission based on results of CHICO (CHagas disease In Children treated with NifurtimOx) phase III clinical study of nifurtimox in pediatric patients with Chagas disease as well as pre-clinical data / Fight against Neglected Tropical Diseases part of Bayers Sustainability Strategy
Definition : Molecular assay reagents intended to identify Trypanosoma cruzi, a species of protozoon of the suborder Trypanosomatina, by detecting specific genetic information of the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of the target parasite. Trypanosoma cruzi parasites cause Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) in humans, characterized by an erythematous nodule (i.e., chagoma) appearing within a few days at the site of the inoculation. These parasites are transmitted to humans via insects, either from other humans or from animals (e.g., cats, dogs, rodents).. Entry Terms : Trypanosoma cruzi Reagents, Identification , Trypanosoma cruzi Detection/Identification Reagents , Trypanosoma Species Reagents, Identification , American Trypanosomiasis Diagnostic Reagents , Sleeping Sickness Diagnostic Reagents , Trypanosomosis Diagnostic Reagents , Trypanosoma Species Detection/Identification Reagents , Chagas Disease Diagnostic Reagents , Reagents, Molecular Assay, Infection, Parasite, ...
Chagas disease: Chagas disease, infection with the flagellate protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. It is transmitted to humans by bloodsucking reduviid bugs and is endemic in most rural areas of Central and South America. The disease is most often transmitted by contact with the feces of infected insects, commonly through
CD8+ T cells are essential for controlling Trypanosoma cruzi infection. During Brazil strain infection, C57BL/6 mice expand parasite-specific CD8+ T cells recognizing the dominant TSKB20 (ANYKFTLV) and subdominant TSKB74 (VNYDFTLV) trans-sialidase gene (TS)-encoded epitopes with up to 40% of all CD8+ T cells specific for these epitopes. Although this is one of the largest immunodominant T cell responses described for any infection, most mice fail to clear T. cruzi and subsequently develop chronic disease. To determine if immunodominant TS-specific CD8+ T cells are necessary for resistance to infection, we epitope-tolerized mice by high-dose i.v. injections of TSKB20 or TSKB74 peptides. Tolerance induction led to deletion of TS-specific CD8+ T cells but did not prevent the expansion of other effector CD8+ T cell populations. Mice tolerized against either TSKB20 or TSKB74, or both epitopes simultaneously, exhibited transient increases in parasite loads, although ultimately they controlled the ...
La enfermedad de Chagas en Argentina. Investigación científica, problemas sociales y políticas sanitarias [Chagas disease in Argentina. Scientific research, social problems and health policies]. By Juan Pablo Zabala. Universidad Nacional de Quilmes, Argentina. 2010. 360 pages.. Mal de Chagas is a disease that affects 2.5 million people in Argentina and 8 million in Latin America. Caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, it generates heart, digestive and/or nervous system problems that may lead to death. The main vector of contagion is an insect (in Argentina, called vinchuca, in Brazil, barbeiro), which nests in the walls and roofs of dilapidated huts. Chagas disease is effectively a disease of poverty, as its transmission is associated with deficient housing, insufficient material conditions and sanitation facilities, malnutrition, and lack of access to sanitary information.. Chagas is considered a neglected disease. This is due to: the lack of overt symptoms; the lack of ...
Case 1. In December 2005, a man aged 64 years with idiopathic cardiomyopathy received a heart transplant. In January 2006, he was treated with enhanced immunosuppression for suspected organ rejection. In February 2006, he was readmitted to the hospital with anorexia, fever, and diarrhea of 2 weeks duration. A peripheral blood smear revealed T. cruzi trypomastigotes, blood cultures were positive for T. cruzi, and endomyocardial biopsy specimens contained amastigotes. The patient was interviewed about natural exposures, and organ procurement and transplantation records were reviewed. He had no identifiable risk factors for T. cruzi infection (e.g., travel to a country endemic for Chagas disease). He was seronegative for T. cruzi antibodies but positive for T. cruzi DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), indicating recent infection. After initiation of nifurtimox therapy, his parasitemia rapidly cleared. However, in April 2006, the patient died from complications attributed to acute rejection of ...
Background: TSSA (Trypomastigote Small Surface Antigen) is an antigenic, adhesion molecule displayed on the surface of Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes. TSSA displays substantial sequence identity to members of the TcMUC gene family, which code for the trypomastigote mucins (tGPI-mucins). In addition, TSSA bears sequence polymorphisms among parasite strains; and two TSSA variants expressed as recombinant molecules (termed TSSA-CL and TSSA-Sy) were shown to exhibit contrasting features in their host cell binding and signaling properties. Methods/Principle findings: Here we used a variety of approaches to get insights into TSSA structure/function. We show that at variance with tGPI-mucins, which rely on their extensive O-glycoslylation to achieve their protective function, TSSA seems to be displayed on the trypomastigote coat as a hypo-glycosylated molecule. This has a functional correlate, as further deletion mapping experiments and cell binding assays indicated that exposition of at least two ...
The mechanisms by which Trypanosoma cruzi causes cardiomyopathy and induces neuronal destruction are discussed in this paper. The results suggest that autoimmunity in the chronic phase is the main cause of the progressive cardiac destruction, and that autoreactivity is restricted to the CD4+ T cell compartment. During the acute phase, the neuronal and cardiac fiber destruction occurs when ruptured parasite nests release T. cruzi antigens that bind to the cell surface in the vicinity which become targets for the cellular and humoral immune response against T. cruzi. The various factors involved in the genesis of autoimmunity in chronic T. cruzi infection include molecular mimicry, presentation of self-antigens and imbalance of immune regulation ...
Title:Proteomic and Bioinformatic Analysis of Trypanosoma cruzi Chemotherapy and Potential Drug Targets: New Pieces for an Old Puzzle. VOLUME: 15 ISSUE: 3. Author(s):Rubem Figueiredo Sadok Menna-Barreto, Kele Teixeira Belloze, Jonas Perales and Floriano Paes Silva-Jr. Affiliation:Laboratorio de Bioquimica de Proteinas e Peptideos, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Av. Brasil 4365 - 21040-360, Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.. Keywords:Bioinformatics, chagas disease, chemotherapy, (chemo) proteomics, drug targets, Trypanosoma cruzi.. Abstract:Chagas disease is endemic in Latin America and is caused by the protozoan hemoflagellate parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Nowadays, it has also been disseminated to non-endemic countries due to the ease of global mobility. The nitroheterocycle benznidazole is currently used to treat this neglected tropical disease, although this drug causes severe side effects and has limited efficacy during the chronic phase of the disease. Proteomics and bioinformatics have ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genomic variation of Trypanosoma cruzi. T2 - Involvement of multicopy genes. AU - Wagner, W.. AU - So, M.. PY - 1990/1/1. Y1 - 1990/1/1. N2 - By using improved pulsed field gel conditions, the karyotypes of several strains of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi were analyzed and compared with those of Leishmania major and two other members of the genus Trypanosoma. There was no difference in chromosome migration patterns between different life cycle stages of the T. cruzi strains analyzed. However, the sizes and numbers of chromosomal bands varied considerably among T. cruzi strains. This karyotype variation among T. cruzi strains was analyzed further at the chromosomal level by using multicopy genes as probes in Southern hybridizations. The chromosomal location of the genes encoding α- and β-tubulin, ubiquitin, rRNA, spliced leader RNA, and an 85-kilodalton protein remained stable during developmental conversion of the parasite. The sizes and numbers of chromosomes ...
The presence of lytic antibodies in the circulation of patients with chronic Chagas disease might lead to their cure. It has been shown that amastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi activate complement and accumulate large amounts of the terminal complement components, but without killing the parasites. One plausible explanation for this observation is that the insertion of the membrane attack complex of complement is prevented by inhibitors present in the parasite membrane. To explore this possibility, we raised a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the surface molecules of T. cruzi amastigotes. One of these, MAb M4C12, induced complement-mediated lysis of amastigotes as detected with a 86Rb-release assay. The antigen molecule from the membrane lysate of amastigotes that was recognized by MAb M4C12 was purified, characterized, and designated M4C12Ag. It is a 92-kD molecule structurally related to Ssp4, a previously characterized amastigote surface molecule. However, M4C12Ag is more basic (pI 6.9-7.1
Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis), a zoonosis caused by the protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi (1-3), is a typical exotic disease in that it is a major cause of morbidity and death among the poor in less developed countries but is little known among physicians in the industrialized nations where it rarely occurs. In this issue Grant and colleagues (4) and Nickerson and associates (5) describe two cases of acute Chagas disease that occurred in the United States and Canada as a result of transfusion of blood donated by asymptomatic Latin American immigrants chronically infected with T. cruzi. In view of these ...
Author: Correa-de-Santana, E. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2009; Keywords: Growth hormone; Mammosomatotrophic cells; Prolactin; Trypanosoma cruzi; Title: Modulation of Growth Hormone and Prolactin Secretion in Trypanosoma cruzi-Infected Mammosomatotrophic Cells
UZCANGA, GRACIELA; GALAN-CARIDAD, JOSÉ MANUEL; SUAREZ, KAREM NORIS y BUBIS, JOSÉ. Divalent cation hinder the solubilization of a tubulin kinase activity from Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes. Biol. Res. [online]. 2003, vol.36, n.3-4, pp.367-379. ISSN 0716-9760. Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes were extracted under various conditions in order to examine the role of divalent cations in the solubilization of microtubule proteins. When epimastigotes were homogenized in the presence of 5 mM Mg+2 and 5 mM Ca+2, a protein kinase responsible for phosphorylating tubulin, as well as the tubulin that became phosphorylated, remained tightly associated with the parasite particulate and detergent-resistant fractions. On the contrary, tubulin kinase and its substrate were predominantly released into the parasite cytosolic and detergent-soluble fractions, when epimastigotes were extracted in the presence of 5 mM EDTA and 5 mM EGTA. These evidences demonstrated ...
Chagas disease is one of the most imperative health problems in Latin America. It is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (Rassi Jr et a...
BACKGROUND: Blood transfusion is one of the most important transmission routes of Chagas disease, a major parasitic infection in Latin America. Therefore, screening for antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi is mandatory in blood banks in South America. Most of the commercial serologic tests employ epimastigote antigens and show a high number of inconclusive and false-positive results, with high economic and social costs.STUDY DESIGN and METHODS: An ELISA using a mixture of three T. cruzi recombinant antigens, B13, 1F8, and H49 (mix-ELISA), was evaluated, first with a panel of well-characterized sera from 617 patients with Chagas disease and 277 nonchagasic individuals, living in nine countries of South and Central America. Subsequently, the mix-ELISA was evaluated with 451 samples, from an endemic area of Brazil (Goias), that were rejected from several blood banks because they presented discrepant results by two commercially available kits (indirect immunofluorescence assay, indirect ...
MADEIRA, FERNANDA FERNANDEZ... Reproductive Aspects of Chagas Disease Vectors: Evidence of Transcriptional Activity during the Nucleolar Persistence Phenomenon in the Spermatogenesis of Triatomines. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 101 n.3 p. 602-604 2019. Journal article.
Feasability and suitability for field research of a whole-blood preservation method was evaluated through the screening of anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies in 1209 samples under different conditions. Antibody reactivity of paired samples from preser
The intracellular protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi causes Chagass disease in humans[1]. About 5 million to 8 million people are infected by T. cruzi around the world[2]. Chagas disease has acquired global relevance because is spreading to non-endemic countries[3], representing a significant economic global burden[4]. The parasite infects many tissues and the presence of the parasite in peripheral neurons and heart muscle cells may be related to some of the pathological findings in the acute and chronic infection[5]. The systemic and tissue-localized immune responses induced during the acute infection are not sufficient to eradicate the pathogen, resulting in chronic infection[6]. Approximately 30 to 40% of the infected patients may develop megacolon, heart failure and cardiomegaly during the chronic phase of the disease, even many years after the acute infection[1]. Yet, the majority (about 60 to 70%) of the patients that progresses to the chronic phase of the infection remains clinically ...
... at Curlie Chagas information at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control Chagas information from the Drugs for ... Chagas disease is classified as a neglected tropical disease. Chagas disease occurs in two stages: an acute stage, which ... In Argentina, the disease is known as mal de Chagas-Mazza in his honor. Serological tests for Chagas disease were introduced in ... Chagas disease results in the loss of over 800,000 disability-adjusted life years each year. The endemic area of Chagas disease ...
... diseases/news/world-Chagas-day-approved/en/ World Chagas Disease Day: raising awareness of neglected tropical diseases. (2020, ... diseases/news/world-Chagas-day-approved/en/ World Chagas Disease Day: raising awareness of neglected tropical diseases. (2020, ... World Chagas Disease Day is observed on April 14 to raise awareness around chagas disease. It was first celebrated on April 14 ... "World Chagas Disease Day 2020". Retrieved 2020-04-16. "World Chagas Disease Day highlights 'silent and silenced' ...
Carlos Justiniano Ribeiro Chagas. WhoNamedIt. Dr. Carlos Chagas Historical aspects of Chagas disease. Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. ( ... To complete his work on the pathology of the new disease, Chagas described 27 cases of the acute form of the disease and ... Chagas was the son of José Justiniano das Chagas, a coffee farmer from Minas Gerais, and Mariana Cândida Chagas, both of ... Chagas suspected that the parasite could cause human disease, due to the prevalence of the insect vector in human households ...
"Parasites - American Trypanosomiasis (also known as Chagas Disease)". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). ... "Safety Profile of Nifurtimox for Treatment of Chagas Disease in the United States". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 63 (8): 1056- ... "Tolerance and Safety of Nifurtimox in Patients with Chronic Chagas Disease". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 51 (10): e69-e75. ... In Chagas disease it is a second-line option to benznidazole. It is given by mouth. Common side effects include abdominal pain ...
"Chagas disease". World Health Organization. March 2016. Archived from the original on 27 February 2014. Retrieved 7 December ... "FDA approves first U.S. treatment for Chagas disease". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (Press release). 29 August 2017 ... Benznidazole is an antiparasitic medication used in the treatment of Chagas disease. While it is highly effective in early ... Benznidazole has a significant activity during the acute phase of Chagas disease, with a success rate of up to 80%. Its ...
Chagas disease may cause constipation through the destruction of the myenteric plexus. Voluntary withholding of the stool is a ... Underlying associated diseases include hypothyroidism, diabetes, Parkinson's disease, celiac disease, non-celiac gluten ... Digestive disease symptoms, Diseases of intestines, Nursing diagnoses, Waterborne diseases, Wikipedia medicine articles ready ... Pérez-Molina, José A.; Molina, Israel (6 January 2018). "Chagas disease". The Lancet. 391 (10115): 82-94. doi:10.1016/S0140- ...
"CDC - Chagas Disease - General Information". 13 April 2022. "Chagas disease". "Thripidae - an overview , ScienceDirect Topics ... "Vector-borne diseases". Articles about vector-borne disease. Vaccine News Daily. Chicago. WHO page on vector-borne diseases ... Chagas Disease - Detailed Fact Sheet". 11 April 2022. "Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from Mayo Clinic - Mayo Clinic". ... are causing a resurgence in zoonotic disease across the world. Examples of vector-borne zoonotic diseases include: Lyme disease ...
"PAHO , Chagas disease". Weirauch, Christiane; Munro, James B. (October 2009). "Molecular phylogeny of the assassin bugs ( ... The Vectors of Chagas". Advances in Parasitology. 75: 169-192. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-385863-4.00008-3. ISBN 9780123858634. PMID ... The family members are almost all predatory, except for a few blood-sucking species, some of which are important as disease ... several of these haematophagous Central and South American species transmit the potentially fatal trypanosomal Chagas disease, ...
Chagas disease and the US blood supply. Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis. 21: 476-482. CrossRef, PubMed "Triatoma indictiva" at the ... Chagas disease and the US blood supply. Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis. 21: 476-482. CrossRef, PubMed (WHO) World Health Organization ... Chagas disease. Lancet 375: 1388-1402. CrossRef, PubMed "ITIS Standard Report." ITIS Standard Report. N.p., 04 Nov. 2013. Web. ... T. indictiva is one of the main vectors of T. cruzi, the hemoflagellate protozoan that causes Chagas disease. T. cruzi is ...
ISBN 978-0-8130-3231-3. Clayton, Julie (24 June 2010). "Chagas disease 101". Nature. 465 (n7301_supp): S4-S5. Bibcode:2010Natur ... In 1882 he was diagnosed with what was called "angina pectoris" which then meant coronary thrombosis and disease of the heart. ...
Darwin is speculated to have died from chronic Chagas disease. T. infestans has both a wide range of habitats/ecologies and ... 2017). American trypanosomiasis Chagas disease: one hundred years of research. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-12- ... Zeledón, R; Rabinovich, J E (1981). "Chagas Disease: An Ecological Appraisal With Special Emphasis on its Insect Vectors". ... Keynes 2001, p. 315 Clayton, Julie (24 June 2010). "Chagas disease 101". Nature. 465 (n7301_supp): S4-S5. Bibcode:2010Natur. ...
Given the 100 million people at risk and Chagas disease's disease burden, funding for R&D to improve treatments is extremely ... of Chagas disease patients receive any treatment at all. Increased public and private funding for R&D into Chagas treatments is ... Each year over 8 million people in the Americas contract the Chagas disease. Chagas occurs in two stages and kills more people ... was spent on the development of new drugs for Chagas disease. DNDi's Chagas: Time to Treat campaign is advocating for the ...
Chagas disease is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi and is mostly spread by Triatominae. It is endemic to 21 countries in Latin ... Medicine portal Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative Globalization and disease List of diseases eliminated from the United ... "Chagas disease - PAHO/WHO; Pan American Health Organization". Smith, Cairns S; Aerts, Ann; Saunderson, Paul; ... Elimination of this disease is under way in the region of the Americas, where this disease was endemic to Brazil, Colombia, ...
Chagas disease mitigation); Paraguay (family farming); and Argentina itself (flood relief). Rodríguez served in this post until ...
Prevention, CDC-Centers for Disease Control and (2017-05-02). "CDC - Chagas Disease - Disease". Retrieved 2019-03- ... The parasite causes a disease called Chagas disease, in which acute infections around an insect bite can lead to more serious ... and peripheral artery disease. If untreated, it can also lead to plaque accumulation in blood vessels, which is known as ...
Chagas disease was found in the US as early as the 1970s. However, in the developed world, diseases that are associated with ... These diseases result from four different classes of causative pathogens: (i) protozoa (for Chagas disease, human African ... Chagas disease is also known as American trypanosomiasis. There are approximately 15 million people infected with Chagas ... Geneva, Switzerland, p. 26 Kirchhoff LV (August 1993). "American trypanosomiasis (Chagas' disease)--a tropical disease now in ...
Control of Chagas Disease. WHO technical Report Series, No. 905. 2002. 40-49. ISBN 92-4-120905-4 O'Toole, Christopher. The New ... a known cause of Chagas disease. Cavernicola pilosa feeds primarily on bats, but has been reported as biting humans. ...
Heart transplantation in Chagas' disease. 10 years after the initial experience. Circulation. 1996 Oct 15;94(8):1815-7. PMID ...
... thereby causing Parkinson's disease. The neuropathy in Chagas disease spreads in part via the major parasympathetic branches of ... Córdova E, Maiolo E, Corti M, Orduña T (April 2010). "Neurological manifestations of Chagas' disease". Neurological Research. ... the development of Parkinson's disease, suggesting that Parkinson's disease begins in the gastrointestinal tract and spreads ... Vagotomy (cutting of the vagus nerve) is a now obsolete therapy that was performed for peptic ulcer disease. Vagotomy is ...
In American trypanosomiasis (Chagas' disease), the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi forms pseudocysts, particularly within muscular ... Lalloo, David (2014). "South American trypanosomiasis (Chagas' disease)". In Beeching, Nick; Gill, Geoff (eds.). Lecture Notes ... "Pancreatic Pseudocysts". Center for Pancreatic and Biliary Diseases; USC Department of Surgery. Kar, Mitryan; Pucci, Ed; Brody ...
His laboratory also works on a suite of neglected tropical diseases (or diseases of poverty) including Chagas disease, dengue, ... Chagas Disease Risk in Texas. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 4 (10): e836. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000836. Gardner, L., ... PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 4 (1): e585. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000585. Illoldi-Rangel, P. Rivaldi, C. -L., Sissel, B ... Species Distribution Models and Ecological Suitability Analysis for Potential Tick Vectors of Lyme Disease in México. Journal ...
CDC-Centers for Disease Control and (2 May 2017). "CDC - Chagas Disease - General Information". Retrieved 8 March ... including the fatal human diseases sleeping sickness, caused by Trypanosoma brucei, and Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma ... cause of Chagas' disease) and T. brucei (cause of African sleeping sickness) are not closely related to each other. ... which causes Chagas disease in humans Trypanosoma culicavium, which infects birds and mosquitoes T. congolense, which causes ...
Chagas Disease: A Clinical Approach. Birkhäuser Advances in Infectious Diseases. Switzerland: Springer Nature. pp. 25-59. doi: ... 130 It was identified as a vector for Chagas disease in Carlos Chagas's original 1909 description of the condition.: 394 The ... Coura, J.R. (2015). "The main sceneries of Chagas disease transmission. The vectors, blood and oral transmissions - A ... the causative agent of Chagas disease), particularly in Brazil. Besides humans, P. megistus is known to feed on birds, rodents ...
... the eldest son of Carlos Chagas (1879-1934), noted physician and scientist who discovered Chagas disease, and brother of Carlos ... Being one of the pioneers in the use of electrocardiography has made significant contributions on Chagas disease. He conducted ... Leishmaniasis and Chagas Disease. He also created, in 1936, the Institute of Experimental Pathology of North (in Portuguese: ... Chagas disease, 20th-century Brazilian physicians, Victims of aviation accidents or incidents in Brazil, Victims of aviation ...
Prevention, CDC - Centers for Disease Control and. "CDC - Chagas Disease - Detailed Fact Sheet". Retrieved 3 ... Chagas disease, can be transmitted to the nursing infant via cracked nipples. Women with hepatitis C are advised to abstain ... Because cracked nipples can result in the infant being exposed to blood, women with certain blood-borne diseases may be advised ...
Current serologic studies in Chagas' disease. The Journal of Pediatrics, Volume 58, Issue 5, Pages 738-745. Another medical ... A nota praevia is prefixed to C.M. Bettinotti's study, "Las Cardiopatías y la Enfermedad de Chagas. Estudio serológico" in ...
... of patients affected with Chagas disease. Chagas is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, a flagellate protozoan transmitted by the ... Megacolon can be associated with Chagas disease. In Central and South America, the most common incidence of chronic megacolon ... Koeberle F (1963). "Enteromegaly and cardiomegaly in Chagas disease". Gut. 4 (4): 399-405. doi:10.1136/gut.4.4.399. PMC 1413478 ... Other neurologic, systemic and metabolic diseases Also called Hirschsprung's disease, it is a congenital disorder of the colon ...
Among them, Malaria and Chagas disease. Under the government of Nilo Peçanha, Meriti had a timid improvement in the area of ... With this work, the rivers ceased to be mosquito breeding sites, greatly reducing the number of diseases in the region. When ... The sanitation works were abandoned, there was a delay in the conditions conducive to health and several diseases arose. ... The still and polluted waters led to the spread of disease-carrying mosquitoes. The location was rendered practically ...
The proponent of Chagas disease, Dr. Saul Adler, stated that Darwin may have suffered both from Chagas disease and from "an ... Asperger's syndrome or other Pervasive developmental disorder Chagas disease Chronic fatigue syndrome Crohn's disease Cyclic ... He believed that Chagas disease contracted during the Beagle voyage was consistent with Darwin's account of his fever at that ... Saul Adler from Hebrew University, the hypothesis of Chagas disease was based partly on the fact that during the Beagle ...
This behaviour causes disease or the likelihood of disease that varies with the organism: Chagas disease in humans, dourine and ... Chagas disease undergoes two phases, which are the acute and the chronic phase. The acute phase can last from two weeks to two ... "Vector Blood Meals and Chagas Disease Transmission Potential, United States". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 18 (4): 646-649. ... Chagas' disease's geographical occurrence happens worldwide but high-risk individuals include those who don't have access to ...
... a major human pathogen that causes Chagas disease A morphological class of trypanosomatid with a flagellum laterally attached ...
... "neglected diseases". These include the following diseases: African trypanosomiasis Chagas disease Leishmaniasis Lymphatic ... Gum disease has been linked to diseases such as cardiovascular disease. Diseases of poverty reflect the dynamic relationship ... These diseases produced in part by poverty are in contrast to diseases of affluence, which are diseases thought to be a result ... Diseases of poverty (also known as poverty-related diseases) are diseases that are more prevalent in low-income populations. ...
Chagas disease is caused by the parasitic protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. Infection with Chagas disease occurs after Rhodnius ... C. J .Schofield (2000). "Challenges of Chagas disease vector control in Central America : position paper". World Health ... Chagas disease, Insects described in 1859, Insects of South America). ... Rhodnius prolixus is the principal triatomine vector of the Chagas parasite due to both its sylvatic and domestic populations ...
Although chickens cannot serve as host reservoirs for the disease, chickens may play a crucial role in sustaining populations ... Chagas and its significance to kala-azar distribution in South America". Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. 78 (3): 269-280. ... Transmission and development of the disease are consequently dependent upon the sandfly's access to multiple blood meals. Dogs ... disease pathogenesis with regards to L. infantum. After emergence from pupae, both male and female L. longipalpis initially ...
Cervical spinal stenosis Cervical vertebral fusion Cervicooculoacoustic syndrome Chagas disease Chalazion Chanarin disease ... Marie-Tooth disease type 1A Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1B Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1C Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease ... Marie-Tooth disease type 2C Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2D Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4A Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease ... Tooth disease Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease deafness dominant type Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease ...
Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi and transmitted by triatomine bugs), and leishmaniasis (a set of trypanosomal ... These include several species that cause major diseases in humans. Trypanosomatida are intracellular parasites. The three major ... Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. 5 (1): 72-81. doi:10.1089/vbz.2005.5.72. PMID 15815152. [1] "A new lineage of trypanosome ... diseases caused by various species of Leishmania transmitted by sandflies). The family is known from fossils of the extinct ...
... malaria and Chagas disease, which are caused by parasites such as nematodes, cestodes, trematodes and infectious protozoa. ... Centers for Disease Control Prevention (CDC) (May 2010). "Acute antimicrobial pesticide-related illnesses among workers in ... Louis Pasteur's work in microbiology also led to the development of many vaccines for life-threatening diseases such as anthrax ... According to a 2010 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report, health-care workers can take steps to improve their ...
... and their significance as vectors of Chagas' disease". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 163: 1-520. hdl:2246 ...
... entomologist Carlos Chagas (1879-1934), biologist, zoologist, public health worker Evandro Chagas (1905-1940), physician and ... the identification and complete description of the pathogenic agent and the pathophysiological cycle of schistosomiasis disease ... son of Carlos Chagas Hércules Florence (1804-1879), pioneer of photography Santiago Americano Freire (1908-1997), physician and ... discovered the active principle of a drug for hypertension Carlos Chagas Filho (1910-2000), physician and physiologist, former ...
In addition, he did extensive studies of the diseases: schistosomiasis, Chagas disease, onchocerciasis and leishmaniasis. He ... Illinois Google Books War and Disease: Biomedical Research on Malaria in the Twentieth Century by Leo B. Slater Google Books ...
Chagas MH, Crippa JA, Zuardi AW, Hallak JE, Machado-de-Sousa JP, Hirotsu C, et al. (March 2013). "Effects of acute systemic ... The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 208 (8): 619-627. doi:10.1097/nmd.0000000000001172. PMID 32433200. S2CID 218766009. ...
... and Chagas disease, pointing to Central America. The patient has heart problems, so Foreman suggests they biopsy the heart. ... The test reveals that he has had histoplasmosis, a disease common in Ohio, but also coccidioidomycosis, residing in ... House notices that the patient's blood thickens dangerously when his body temperature drops (cold agglutinin disease), ...
... may refer to: Chagas disease 9483 Chagas, a main-belt asteroid a Portuguese-language family name, translating to wounds ... a Brazilian bridge player Manuel Chagas (possibly living), a Portuguese Olympic fencer Marco Chagas (born 1956), a Portuguese ... writing teacher and public speaker Dyanfres Douglas Chagas Matos (born 1987), a Brazilian football player António Chagas Rosa ( ... a Brazilian retired football player Ana Beatriz Francisco das Chagas (born 1971), a Brazilian volleyball player Carlos Chagas, ...
In areas where Chagas disease occurs (from the southern United States to northern Argentina), all triatomine species are ... "Global Health - Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Centers for Disease ... Brenner RR, Stoka AM (1987) Chagas' disease vectors. I, II and III. CRC Press. Boca Ratón Dujardin JP, Schofield CJ, Panzera F ... The Kiss of Death: Chagas' Disease in the Americas Taxonomy and general information on Triatominae bugs from ...
... is a hematophagous insect, a Chagas disease vector, included in the Triatominae group. It occurs in the north ... and their significance as vectors of Chagas' disease". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 163: 125-520. hdl: ... "Nested clade and phylogeographic analyses of the Chagas disease vector Triatoma brasiliensis in Northeast Brazil". Molecular ...
Parasites - American Trypanosomiasis (also known as Chagas Disease). United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ( ... This species and other "kissing bugs" are vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan that causes Chagas disease. This species ...
Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), Acanthamoeba keratitis, and primary amoebic ... List of protozoan diseases in humans: Panno, Joseph (14 May 2014). The Cell: Evolution of the First Organism. Infobase ... Some are harmless or beneficial to their host organisms; others may be significant causes of diseases, such as babesia, malaria ... ISBN 978-1-4684-7316-2. Khan, N. A. (2008-01-05). Microbial Pathogens and Human Diseases. CRC Press. p. 194. ISBN 978-1-4822- ...
Chagas and HIV coinfection Most sexually transmitted diseases and HIV (enhance HIV transmission) Some COVID-19 patients, or ... Infectious disease List of human diseases associated with infectious pathogens Superinfection Syndemic Opportunistic infection ... Role of Viral Load in Disease Severity and Co-Infections". Open Forum Infectious Diseases. 6 (10): S915-S916. doi:10.1093/ofid/ ... The potential for dynamics of these two infectious diseases to be linked has been known for decades. Other common examples of ...
Baden, Tom; Chagas, Andre Maia; Gage, Greg; Marzullo, Timothy; Prieto-Godino, Lucia L.; Euler, Thomas (20 March 2015). "Open ... Brazil is a very large agricultural exporter, but between 10 and 30% of crops fail because of disease. "The database currently ... "Communities learnt how to assess the risks posed by the disease independently of prior cultural assumptions, and local ... The Ashaninka have "faced historical pressures of disease, exploitation and displacement, and today still face the illegal ...
"He that escapes without disease," Downton wrote, "from that stinking stew of the Chinese part of Bantam must be of strong ... which resulted in the destruction of the Portuguese carrack Las Cinco Chagas. Although severely wounded during the action, by ...
... and may be vectors for leptospirosis and Chagas disease. This squirrel faces no particular threats, has a wide range and is ...
... the agent of Chagas disease, is mostly the product of cloning, and that only a few clones account for most of this widespread, ... dysfunctions and diseases were a consequence of the evolution of life. They were not a result of a deficient or malevolent ... mostly untreatable South American disease that affects 16 million to 18 million people. He served on the advisory board of the ... "discoveries have opened up new approaches to the prevention and treatment of diseases that affect hundreds of millions of ...
The most notable is American trypanosomiasis, known as Chagas disease, which occurs in South America, caused by Trypanosoma ... This disease is invariably fatal if left untreated, but can almost always be cured with current medicines if the disease is ... The disease can be managed by controlling the vector and thus reducing the incidence of the disease by disrupting the ... Another tactic to manage the disease is to target the disease directly using surveillance and curative or prophylactic ...
Chagas disease was reported as the cause of death of a red panda kept in a Kansas zoo. Amdoparvovirus was detected in the scat ...
American Trypanosomiasis Chagas Disease : One Hundred Years Of Research. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier. pp. 321-344/xx+826. ... Trypanosoma suis is a species of excavate trypanosome in the genus Trypanosoma that causes one form of the surra disease in ... v t e (Articles with 'species' microformats, Trypanosomatida, Parasites of mammals, Swine diseases, Parasitic excavates, All ...
Global Partners Are Taking the "Neglect" out of "Neglected Tropical Diseases" Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation Chagas disease ... Spain and Ethiopia addressing neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) including Chagas, dengue and soil-transmitted helminths. In ... Sociedad Central de Arquitectos Linde, Pablo (8 April 2016). "La filántropa que se tomó en serio al Chagas". El País (in ...
May 10 - Nelson Xavier, 75, actor (The Guns, A Queda), lung disease. May 12 - Antonio Candido, 98, literary critic and ... Belivaldo Chagas Silva Tocantins: Cláudia Telles de Menezes Pires Martins Lelis January 1 January 2 - At least 56 people were ... May 5 - Almir Guineto, 70, sambista, kidney disease and diabetes. May 7 - Elon Lages Lima, 87, mathematician. ... complications from Alzheimer's disease. November 30 - Ana Maria Nascimento e Silva [pt], 65, actress (Quatro por Quatro, Zazá, ...
Neglected Diseases (END) like African sleeping sickness, leishmaniasis, Chagas disease, and toxoplasmosis. Seattle is a hub for ... Neglected Diseases (END) like African sleeping sickness, leishmaniasis, Chagas disease, and toxoplasmosis.[citation needed] CID ... The Center for Infectious Disease Research performed research on four areas of infectious disease:HIV/AIDS, malaria, ... "Center for Infectious Disease Research to become part of Seattle Children's Research Institute". Retrieved ...
... causal agent of Chagas disease) and later called both organisms Schizotrypanum cruzi, a form of trypanosome infecting humans. ... Chagas C (1909). "Neue Trypanosomen". Vorläufige Mitteilung. Arch. Schiff. Tropenhyg. 13: 120-122. Chagas C (1909). "Nova ... The earliest report of this genus appears to have been that of Carlos Chagas in 1909, who discovered it in experimental animals ... Pneumocystis species cannot be grown in culture, so the availability of the human disease-causing agent, P. jirovecii, is ...
... Fact Sheet. What is Chagas disease?. What are the symptoms?. A disease that can cause serious heart and stomach ... How does someone get Chagas disease?. Usually from contact with a kissing bug. Why should I get tested for Chagas disease?. ... cause Chagas disease are in the bugs feces. People Chagas disease can be life threatening even though will usually scratch the ... For more information on Chagas disease, please visit and click "General Information" or call ...
Chagas Disease News and Research. RSS Chagas (pronounced SHA-gus) disease is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas ... Discovery offers an avenue for development of novel therapies for Chagas disease Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan ... WHO calls for equitable treatment access and health services to everyone affected by Chagas disease Today on World Chagas ... Study shows how parasite that causes Chagas disease resists current therapies New insight on how a parasite can resist current ...
The disease is common in South and Central America. ... Chagas disease is an illness caused by tiny parasites and ... Chagas disease is an illness caused by tiny parasites and spread by insects. The disease is common in South and Central America ... Chagas disease is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. It is spread by the bite of reduviid bugs, or kissing bugs, and is ... Chagas disease has two phases: acute and chronic. The acute phase may have no symptoms or very mild symptoms, including:. * ...
The disease was first described in 1909 by Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, after whom it is named.[1] Chagas disease is ... Chagas information at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control. *Chagas information from the Drugs for Neglected Diseases ... the disease is known as mal de Chagas-Mazza in his honor.[58] Serological tests for Chagas disease were introduced in the 1940s ... "Chagas Disease in Europe". In Marcelo Altcheh J, Freilij H (ed.). Chagas Disease: A Clinical Approach. Birkhäuser Advances in ...
Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is caused by infection with the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. ... are endemic for Chagas disease. Chagas disease is not endemic in any of the Caribbean Islands. Women who were born in Chagas ... are endemic for Chagas disease. Chagas disease is not endemic in any of the Caribbean Islands. Women who were born in Chagas ... encoded search term (Chagas Disease (American Trypanosomiasis)) and Chagas Disease (American Trypanosomiasis) What to Read Next ...
... the parasite that causes Chagas disease. Based on the epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory data, the reported case likely ... the reported case likely represents the first documented autochthonous case of Chagas disease in Missouri. ... represents the first documented autochthonous case of Chagas disease in Missouri. ... the parasite that causes Chagas disease. Based on the epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory data, ...
2019)‎. World Chagas Disease Day. World Health Organization. ...
... - Raising our voices to improve health around the world. ... neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), parasitic diseases. Tags Angola, Chagas Disease, dengue, Haiti, lymphatic filariasis, ... Tags blood, Chagas Disease, chest pain, parasites, shortness of breath April 7 is World Health Day. On this Page Malaria The ... This year World Health Day focuses on vector-borne diseases. More than half the world is at risk from vector-borne diseases. ...
Purchase American Trypanosomiasis Chagas Disease - 2nd Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780128010297, 9780128010693 ... Chagas Disease: One Hundred Years of Research, Second Edition, provides a comprehensive overview of Chagas disease and ... Vector-parasite-host interactions and implications for Chagas disease distribution. *Assessment of regions affected by Chagas ... American Trypanosomiasis Chagas Disease. Holiday Sale. :. Save up to 25% on print and eBooks with FREE shipping. No promo code ...
MAXIMUM 150 WORDS: Remember: front load your paragraphs! This content should include a strong opening sentence describing the health topic in the Eastern Mediterranean (include key words "Eastern Mediterranean" and health topic name for search engine optimization). You should focus on the issue as it relates to the Region and the magnitude of problem in the region, as well as a brief mention of current situation/problem.. ...
Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is caused by infection with the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. ... are endemic for Chagas disease. Chagas disease is not endemic in any of the Caribbean Islands. Women who were born in Chagas ... encoded search term (Chagas Disease (American Trypanosomiasis)) and Chagas Disease (American Trypanosomiasis) What to Read Next ... American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease)--a tropical disease now in the United States. N Engl J Med. 1993 Aug 26. 329 (9):639 ...
Infectious diseases like malaria or Zika may have dominated recent headlines but Chagas - the ... Canadian experts reinforce the importance of prevention and testing for Chagas disease among people from Latin America Believe ... "As Chagas disease is not a notifiable communicable disease in Canada, there are little data on the number of undiagnosed, ... Infectious diseases like malaria or Zika may have dominated recent headlines but Chagas - the "Kissing Bug" disease - is in the ...
Chagas disease is a preventable condition that affects mostly poor populations living in rural areas. The mean costs of ... Background: The objective of this study is to report the costs of Chagas disease in Colombia, in terms of vector disease ... The costs of preventing and treating chagas disease in Colombia PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2008;2(11):e336. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd. ... Conclusion: Chagas disease is a preventable condition that affects mostly poor populations living in rural areas. The mean ...
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases 2020;14(10) e0008418. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0008418 Summary: A comprehensive patient ... The authors suggest several health organizations that could potentially host a Chagas disease patient registry and point out ... Hit-to-lead optimization of a 2-aminobenzimidazole series as new candidates for Chagas disease. ... and treatment of Chagas disease, and play a critical role in patient care and treatment. ...
A donor sample is only tested for antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi or Chagas Disease) when increased risk is present, ... Chagas disease is a parasitic infection caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. It is most common in Central and South ... About Chagas disease. Chagas disease is diagnosed by a blood test. Many people can be infected and never develop symptoms. ... Donor Testing - Chagas Disease. Background. Chagas disease is caused by infection from a parasite called Trypanosoma cruzi (T. ...
US-2009325204-A1 chemical patent summary.
This lecture will explore the history of Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis), discovered by the physician Carlos Chagas ... History of Chagas Disease: Science and Health in Brazil. November 16, 2021 @ 12:00 pm - 1:00 pm. ... The talk will focus on studies and debates on Chagas disease as a medical and social problem connected to poor health ... particularly regarding tropical medicine and Chagas disease); the history of cardiology; and the history of scientific and ...
Most people get Chagas disease from a bug. Mothers who have Chagas disease can give it to their unborn babies. CS225858-A ... Help protect mothers and their children from Chagas disease [Spanish]La enfermedad de Chagas es causada por un parásito llamado ... Protect your baby from Chagas disease [Spanish]La enfermedad de Chagas es una afección que puede causar graves problemas ... Protect your baby from Chagas disease Corporate Authors(s) : Center for Global Health (U.S.). Division of Parasitic Diseases ...
Herein we evaluate an alternative algorithm for the conclusive diagnosis of chronic Chagas disease based on the use of rapid ... Author summary Chagas disease is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. It affects ~7 million people worldwide, exerting its ... Chagas disease Is the Subject Area "Chagas disease" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ... Parasitic diseases Is the Subject Area "Parasitic diseases" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
Deaths Related to Chagas Disease and COVID-19 Co-Infection, Brazil, March-December 2020. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28( ... We analyzed epidemiologic characteristics and distribution of 492 deaths related to Chagas disease and coronavirus disease ( ... Dias JC, Ramos AN Jr, Gontijo ED, Luquetti A, Shikanai-Yasuda MA, Coura JR, et al. Second Brazilian consensus on Chagas disease ... Molina I, Marcolino MS, Pires MC, Ramos LEF, Silva RT, Guimarães-Júnior MH, et al. Chagas disease and SARS-CoV-2 coinfection ...
CHAGAS DISEASE. (Kissing Bug). Chagas Disease is caused by the bite of the Triatoma bedbug, commonly known as a kissing or ... Cases of Chagas Disease in Jalisco. The Kissing Bug is present throughout Jalisco given the geographical, climatological and ... Their feces are those that contain the parasite that causes Chagas disease.. It is often confused with another bedbug that is ... The disease can be mild, causing swelling and fever, or it can be long lasting. Left untreated, it can cause congestive heart ...
Chagas disease is one of the most important yet neglected parasitic diseases in Mexico and is transmitted by Triatominae. ... Atlas of Mexican Triatominae (Reduviidae: Hemiptera) and vector transmission of Chagas disease. ... "Atlas of Mexican Triatominae (Reduviidae: Hemiptera) and Vector Transmission of Chagas Disease." Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ...
Chagas disease is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi and transmitted by feces of a triatomine that has the habit of defecating during ... Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis). Wkly Epidemiol Rec 90: 33-44.. World Health Organization. , 2015. . Chagas disease ( ... Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis). Wkly Epidemiol Rec 90: 33-44.. World Health Organization. , 2015. . Chagas disease ( ... all species being considered potential vectors of Chagas disease.2,3 As Chagas disease has no cure and treatment with ...
Chagas disease in the Guyanas. Proceedings of the ECLAT-AMCHA International Workshop on Chagas disease surveillance in the ... Chagas disease in the Guyanas. Proceedings of the ECLAT-AMCHA International Workshop on Chagas disease surveillance in the ... Oral transmission of Chagas disease by consumption of açaí palm fruit, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis 15: 653-655. ... Geographic distribution of Chagas disease vectors in Brazil based on ecological niche modeling. J Trop Med 2012: 1-15. ...
The results of the Phase II clinical trial carried out in Chagas Platform centres in Bolivia have been published in The Lancet ... As mothers can transmit Chagas disease to their children, the trial could help lead to the elimination of Chagas disease as a ... Policy & Global Development, Chagas Chagas Disease. The Time is Now to End 110 Years of Neglect. 12.04.2019 ... Research, Chagas Bolivian Study Finds Shorter Treatment for Chagas Disease To Be Just as Effective and Safer Than the Current ...
keywords = "Cerebral small vessel disease, Cerebrovascular disease, Chagas disease, Ischemic stroke, White matter lesions", ... Parasympathetic nervous system dysfunction and neurological consequences of chagas disease. Mediator or Bystander? Journal of ... Maud, A., & Qureshi, A. I. (2010). Parasympathetic nervous system dysfunction and neurological consequences of chagas disease. ... Parasympathetic nervous system dysfunction and neurological consequences of chagas disease. Mediator or Bystander? / Maud, ...
Chagas Disease (CD) is little known in non-endemic territories of the Americas, Europe and Western Pacific, making its control ... As a Neglected Tropical Disease associated with Latin America, ... Chagas disease in European countries: the challenge of a ... The challenge of access-to-care for chagas disease in Bergamo. The challenge of access-to-care for chagas disease in Bergamo ... As a Neglected Tropical Disease associated with Latin America, Chagas Disease (CD) is little known in non-endemic territories ...
Women that tested positive for Chagas disease were invited to receive SMS reminders of their follow-up 4-week postpartum home ... Mobile health (mHealth) has been utilized to improve communication and treatment adherence in many chronic diseases, although ... Diagnosis of congenital Chagas disease occurs at 9 months of age, making effective treatment challenging due to loss to ... Chagas disease, or American trypanosomiasis, is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. It is a major cause of ...
  • Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, affects some 8 million people worldwide. (
  • Scientifically referred to as triatomine bugs, these blood-sucking insects can carry in their feces and pass on to humans the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi that causes Chagas disease, a lifelong infection that takes a heavy toll on community health in poor populations, particularly in El Salvador. (
  • Researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden have mapped how the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi forms new variants that are more effective at evading the immune system and causing disease. (
  • Trypanosoma species (American trypanosomiasis, Chagas' disease): biology of trypanosomes. (
  • Chagas disease , also known as American trypanosomiasis , is a tropical parasitic disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi . (
  • In 2017, a blood donation in Missouri screened positive for antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi , the parasite that causes Chagas disease. (
  • The patient had donated blood, and laboratory screening revealed antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi , the parasite that causes Chagas disease. (
  • The genome sequence of Trypanosoma cruzi, etiologic agent of Chagas disease. (
  • Chagas disease is caused by a parasite called Trypanosoma cruzi, which is mostly found in Latin America and, occasionally, in southern parts of the United States. (
  • A donor sample is only tested for antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi or Chagas Disease) when increased risk is present, determined by the donor screening questions. (
  • Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi , is a neglected public health problem in Latin America ( 1 ). (
  • Mobile health (mHealth) has been utilized to improve communication and treatment adherence in many chronic diseases, although no studies of mHealth in Trypanosoma cruzi -infected individuals have been conducted. (
  • These insects are vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas, the parasite responsible for Chagas disease. (
  • In a Perspective accompanying the Rassi report [ 2 ] , Maguire observes that Chagas cardiomyopathy is the most common clinical manifestation of infection by Trypanosoma cruzi , which is increasingly seen among immigrant populations in the US, Canada, and Europe. (
  • The trypanosomatid protozoa Leishmania, Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma cruzi are the caustive agents of the human diseases respectively, leishmaniasis, African sleeping sickness and Chagas disease. (
  • In Latin America, the bloodsucking bugs Triatominae are vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite that causes Chagas disease. (
  • When considering a diagnosis of achalasia, the differential diagnosis includes Chagas disease secondary to Trypanosoma cruzi infection and pseudoachalasia from gastroesophageal junction tumors. (
  • Chagas disease (CD) or American trypanosomiasis is a neglected anthropozoonosis caused by Trypanosoma cruzi that affects 6-8 million people worldwide (mainly in Latin America), 30-40% of whom develop cardiac or digestive complications. (
  • Chagas disease is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, and it is treated by taking an antiparasitic medicine. (
  • LAMPIT is the only FDA-approved treatment for Chagas disease caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi for children of all ages, from birth to younger than 18 years, who weigh at least 5.5 pounds (2.5 kg). (
  • LAMPIT ® is a prescription medicine used to treat Chagas disease caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi in children less than 18 years of age weighing at least 5.5 pounds (2.5 kg). (
  • A doença de Chagas, causada por um protozoário flagelado denominado Trypanosoma cruzi, acomete milhares de pessoas ao redor do mundo. (
  • Chaga's disease, caused by the flagellate protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, affects thousands of people around the world. (
  • Chagas disease is caused by the parasitic protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi and affects an estimated 12 million persons throughout South and Central America and Mexico ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • American trypanosomiasis , commonly referred to as Chagas disease , is caused by a single cell protozoan known as Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi). (
  • Chagas illness is a probably deadly sickness brought on by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi . (
  • Protozoan parasites belonging to the genera Leishmania and Trypanosoma of the Trypanosomatidae family cause a variety of life threatening and debilitating diseases including kala-azar (the visceral form of leishmaniasis), sleeping sickness (Human African Trypanosomiasis, or HAT) and Chagas disease (American Trypanosomiasis). (
  • First diagnosed by Dr. Chagas on April 14, 1909, Chagas disease is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi which is found only in the Americas and is primarily transmitted to animals and people by triatomine bugs in rural areas of Latin America where poverty is widespread. (
  • Q: What characterizes the illness among transplant recipients who have Chagas' disease due to reactivation of latent Trypanosoma cruzi infection? (
  • La Enfermedad de Chagas es transmitida por Trypanosoma cruzi, protozoo hemoflagelado que posee un organelo denominado kinetoplasto, compuesto por kDNA, organizado en maxi y minicírculos. (
  • Chagas disease is transmitted by Trypanosoma cruzi, a protozoan hemoflagellate that has an organelle named kinetoplast, composed of kDNA, organized in maxi and minicircles. (
  • Although most documented cases are among persons originally from Latin America, health care providers and public health professionals should be aware of the possibility of locally acquired Chagas disease in the southern United States. (
  • As a Neglected Tropical Disease associated with Latin America, Chagas Disease (CD) is little known in non-endemic territories of the Americas, Europe and Western Pacific, making its control challenging, with limited detection rates, healthcare access and consequent epidemiological silence. (
  • Chagas disease is a chronic debilitating disease, prevalent in Latin America, and affecting up to 10 million people worldwide ( Pereira & Navarro, 2013 ). (
  • A recent editorial in the Lancet [ 3 ] laments the scant attention paid to Chagas disease, which, it observes, kills at least 50 000 people every year in Latin America. (
  • Once confined to endemic areas of Latin America, CD has more recently become a global disease as a result of migration flows from endemic to non-endemic regions, particularly in northern America and Europe. (
  • Although it is found mostly throughout Latin America, Chagas disease is also a health concern in the United States, where it affects an estimated 300,000 people. (
  • Common in many parts of Latin America, it has become widespread in areas where its insect disease vectors are not endemic to due to immigration. (
  • University of Oklahoma and Baylor College of Medicine researchers are investigating a potential treatment for a disease that affects as many as 8 million people in the United States and Latin America. (
  • Thus, slowly the discovery of Chagas disease spread across various countries of Latin America. (
  • It remains a neglected and silent disease of poverty.53 Millions of people are infected in Latin America and thousands of others in Europe, Asia, and North America. (
  • Although those affected are mainly in Latin America , Chagas has been detected in the United States (US), Canada and in many European countries due to migration. (
  • This vector-borne disease is a major cause of heart disease and gastrointestinal dysfunction in widespread areas throughout Latin America, The Albert Einstein College of Medicine reports. (
  • Most Chagas disease cases in the U.S. occur in immigrants from Latin America. (
  • Typically, people are infected by the bugs that transmit Chagas disease in rural Latin America, often don't realize they are infected, and then, after coming to the U.S., struggle to find and receive care. (
  • Mexico, as well as all nations of Central and South America, are endemic for Chagas disease. (
  • The 152 extant species of kissing bug include important vectors of the debilitating, chronic, and often fatal Chagas disease, which affects several million people mainly in Central and South America. (
  • As many as 300,000 persons in the United States and 11 million persons in Mexico and in Central and South America carry the parasite and serve as a potential source of transfusion transmitted disease. (
  • Chagas disease only occurs in some rural areas in Central and South America. (
  • Along with the statistics provided above for the United States, an additional 16 to 18 million people are afflicted with Chagas disease in Central and South America. (
  • Nine cases of Chagas disease (CD), although rare in normal. (
  • Locally acquired cases of Chagas disease are exceedingly rare in the United States. (
  • Although the insect vector for the parasite T. cruzi , triatomines (commonly known as "kissing bugs"), has been identified previously in Missouri, no locally acquired human cases of Chagas disease have been identified in the state. (
  • More cases of Chagas disease are being diagnosed in the United States because of immigration of infected individuals from endemic countries. (
  • Their feces are those that contain the parasite that causes Chagas disease. (
  • Triatomine bugs ("kissing bugs") transmit the parasite that causes Chagas disease. (
  • [1] Diagnosis of early disease is by finding the parasite in the blood using a microscope or detecting its DNA by polymerase chain reaction . (
  • The diagnosis of acute Chagas disease, which includes congenital Chagas disease and reactivation of chronic T cruzi infection in immunosuppressed persons, is based on direct detection of the parasites. (
  • Evaluation of adult chronic Chagas' heart disease diagnosis by molecular and serological methods. (
  • The study reports on a family case of transmissions from mother to unborn children, raising questions over prevention and diagnosis of Chagas disease in Canada, where thousands of individuals live with potentially undetected infection. (
  • Soon after the mother received a positive diagnosis, three of her four adult children - two sisters and one brother, born in Canada but with family in South America - also tested positive for Chagas disease. (
  • The NRCP laboratory is known for its expertise in the Chagas disease diagnosis. (
  • Diagnosis of congenital Chagas disease occurs at 9 months of age, making effective treatment challenging due to loss to follow-up. (
  • ABSTRACT The current strategies recommended for the diagnosis of congenital Chagas disease require the conventional serological diagnosis in pregnant women to detect their infection and the parasitological confirmation in the congenitally infected newborns. (
  • Diagnosis of chronic Chagas disease is based on positive results from at least two serologic tests that use different techniques and different antigen preparations because no single test is sufficiently sensitive and specific for diagnosis. (
  • Despite this, the current therapies for these diseases have serious shortcomings and, as such, the need to develop novel drugs, improve diagnosis and control the spread of disease is of paramount importance. (
  • April 14th is when Dr. Chagas made the first diagnosis of the disease. (
  • Chagas disease diagnosis appears to be increasing among hospitalized women of reproductive age in the US with a 10-fold elevated risk of mortality . (
  • They just didn't realize it at the time… If you're a physician trying to work through a Chagas disease diagnosis, what do you do when you don't even know where to start? (
  • therefore, the diagnosis of chronic Chagas' disease requires two positive tests that differ with regard to technique or antigen. (
  • American Trypanosomiasis, Chagas Disease: One Hundred Years of Research, Second Edition, provides a comprehensive overview of Chagas disease and discusses the latest discoveries concerning the three elements that compose the transmission chain of the disease, the host, the insect vectors, and the causative parasite. (
  • Lent H, Wygodzinsky P. Revision of the Triatominae (Hemiptera, Reduviidae), and their significance as vectors of Chagas' disease. (
  • The significance of the species as vectors of Chagas disease in Suriname is discussed. (
  • Haematophagous Triatominae, vectors of Chagas disease, are also relatively unknown in the Guianas and investigations into their diversity and distribution in the three countries are scarce ( Lent & Wygodzinsky 1979 Lent H, Wygodzinsky P 1979. (
  • Chemical elimination programs have been launched to control Chagas disease vectors. (
  • However, the disease persists because native vectors from sylvatic habitats are able to (re)colonize houses-a process called domiciliation. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Commercial coconut palm as an ecotope of Chagas disease vectors in north-eastern Venezuela. (
  • Morocoima A, Chique J, Zavala-Jaspe R, Díaz-Bello Z, Ferrer E, Urdaneta-Morales S, Herrera L. Commercial coconut palm as an ecotope of Chagas disease vectors in north-eastern Venezuela. (
  • In the small community of San Benito, Texas ( Figure 1 ), after three pet dogs died from Chagas cardiomyopathy, personnel from the Texas Department of Health, the Cameron County Health Department, Environmental Health Division, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) inspected the owner's home, garage, and grounds for potential triatomine insect vectors ( Figure 2 ). (
  • Last week, Maribel talked us about disease outbreaks , many of which are transmitted by insect vectors. (
  • Even though vectors could transmit infectious agents to either plants or animals, in this article we will focus on those agents related to animal diseases. (
  • The CDC also strongly recommends treatment for adults aged 50 years or younger with chronic infection who do not already have advanced Chagas cardiomyopathy. (
  • The objective of this study is to report the costs of Chagas disease in Colombia, in terms of vector disease control programmes and the costs of providing care to chronic Chagas disease patients with cardiomyopathy. (
  • The authors, Dr Anis Rassi Jr (Anis Rassi Hospital, Goiânia, Brazil) and associates, based the scoring system on standard clinical, cardiac structural, and electrocardiographic features observed in their retrospective series of patients with Chagas cardiomyopathy. (
  • The report from Rassi et al should increase awareness of Chagas cardiomyopathy among physicians in nonendemic countries, according to Maguire. (
  • After three dogs died from acute Chagas cardiomyopathy at one location, an investigation was conducted of the home, garage, and grounds of the owner. (
  • Cell therapy in chagas cardiomyopathy (chagas arm of the multicenter randomized trial of cell therapy in cardiopathies study): a multicenter randomized trial. (
  • Tropical and laboratory medicine experts from Winnipeg and Montreal warn natives of specific Central and South American nations and their offspring are at risk of contracting Chagas disease - even after they have moved to Canada. (
  • On this Page Malaria The Reality of Outbreak Investigations: Dengue in Angola Chagas disease and the kissing bug Lymphatic filariasis: Spotlight on elimination in Haiti April 7 marks World Health Day. (
  • The company's own R&D portfolio currently includes projects for Chagas disease, dengue fever, HAT and leishmaniasis. (
  • BRAMU specialises in neglected tropical diseases, such as dengue and Chagas, and other infectious diseases. (
  • The prevalence study examined a population of 98 individuals who sprayed insecticides in campaigns for the prevention of Dengue, Chagas disease and Yellow fever. (
  • Infectious diseases like malaria or Zika may have dominated recent headlines but Chagas - the "Kissing Bug" disease - is in the spotlight following the publication of a new case study in the Canadian Medical Association Journal (CMAJ). (
  • Title : Protect your baby from Chagas disease Corporate Authors(s) : Center for Global Health (U.S.). Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria. (
  • He has worked on the discovery and development of anti-infective drugs in academia, industry and public-private partnerships.Simon's research has focussed on the R & D of novel drugs and formulations for the treatment of leishmaniasis, malaria, human African trypanosomiasis and Chagas disease, including projects on miltefosine, AmBisome and topical paromomycin, all of which reached clinical trials for the treatment of leishmaniasis. (
  • examples include malaria, tuberculosis, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/ Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and the neglected tropical diseases (Alkali et al. (
  • Chagas (pronounced SHA-gus) disease is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered it in 1909. (
  • The disease was first described in 1909 by Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas , after whom it is named. (
  • This lecture will explore the history of Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis), discovered by the physician Carlos Chagas in 1909 in a poor, rural area of Brazil. (
  • It's been more than 110 years since a Brazilian physician named Dr. Carlos Chagas discovered the parasitic disease that would be named after him, but-despite affecting more than an estimated 300,000 people in the United States-Chagas disease remains underrecognized by healthcare providers in the U.S. (
  • The flowchart below depicts the management of risk for congenital Chagas disease. (
  • The parasitologic cure rate in babies with congenital Chagas disease approaches 100% when a full course of treatment is given during the first year of life. (
  • This method has been used extensively to test for congenital Chagas disease in infants born to chronically infected mothers. (
  • The CDC recommends antiparasitic treatment for all cases of acute (ie, congenital) or reactivated Chagas disease and for chronic T cruzi in children up to age 18 years. (
  • Women that tested positive for Chagas disease were invited to receive SMS reminders of their follow-up 4-week postpartum home visit. (
  • A follow-up serologic survey was conducted to determine the percentage of the stray dogs in Cameron County that would test positive for Chagas disease antibodies. (
  • The overall risk of mother to fetus transmission of Chagas disease is only about 6 per cent but when the mother has a high number of parasites in her blood during pregnancy the risk of transmission has been described as high as 30 per cent," explains Dr. Plourde. (
  • Fearon MA, Scalia V, Huang M, Dines I, Ndao M: A Case of vertical transmission of Chagas Disease contracted via blood transfusion in Canada. (
  • The distribution of Chagas disease in the United States includes approximately the southern half of the country. (
  • Biogeography and evolution of Amazonian triatomines (Heteroptera: Reduviidae): implications for Chagas disease surveillance in humid forest ecoregions. (
  • Case report: the first parasitologically confirmed autochthonous case of acute Chagas disease in Suriname. (
  • The pathogenesis of acute Chagas' disease is not in dispute. (
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) and Sanofi - one of the world's leading pharmaceutical companies - have signed a new agreement for donations of medicines to sustain specific efforts to eliminate neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). (
  • According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the disease infects 8 million people each year. (
  • Chagas disease is a leading cause of heart failure and has been identified as a research priority by the World Health Organization, the World Heart Federation and the Inter-American Society of Cardiology. (
  • According to the World Health Organization, Chagas disease, as well as other neglected tropical diseases, are understudied and underinvested in despite affecting more than a billion people around the world because "they mostly affect impoverished communities and disproportionately affect women and children. (
  • Chagas disease ( T. cruzi infection) is also referred to as American trypanosomiasis. (
  • We analyzed epidemiologic characteristics and distribution of 492 deaths related to Chagas disease and coronavirus disease (COVID-19) co-infection in Brazil during March‒December 2020. (
  • Number of deaths related to Chagas disease and COVID-19 co-infection, by month (A) and epidemiologic week (B) of death, Brazil, March-December 2020. (
  • Without treatment, infection persists for the lifetime of the infected person and can result in gastrointestinal disease or serious cardiac manifestations, including heart failure, stroke, or life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias in approximately 30% of those who are chronically infected. (
  • Babies whose mothers had the infection while pregnant are also at risk of Chagas disease and should be tested after birth. (
  • It is important to get treatment for Chagas disease because it can develop into a lifelong infection that causes severe damage to your heart and gut. (
  • Having Chagas disease is not an obstacle to having a normal pregnancy, but a pregnant woman who has the disease should undergo specific tests and check-ups and should strictly follow her doctor's instructions because the parasitic infection can be transmitted to her child during pregnancy or delivery. (
  • Chagas' Disease can present with a variety of chronic symptoms after years of low-grade, undetectable infection. (
  • In the last 10 years, due to the successful interruption of the vectorial and transfu- sional transmission of infection by T. cruzi , its incidence has been dramatically reduced in the entire American continent and the raising of awareness of Chagas disease has globalized due to migration to nonendemic. (
  • Researchers on the College of Georgia have recognized a possible remedy for Chagas illness, marking the primary drugs with the potential to successfully and safely goal the parasite an infection in additional than 50 years. (
  • Toxocariasis is a human disease caused by infection with the larval stages of the dog or cat roundworm. (
  • Today, approximately 40,000 women of childbearing age living in the United States have chronic Chagas disease and most are unaware that they have an infection that can be passed to their children. (
  • Transplant recipients who have Chagas' disease due to reactivation of latent T. cruzi infection, which can be either transmitted from the donor or already present in the recipient, classically present with fever, inflammatory panniculitis, and skin nodules. (
  • Chronic Chagas' disease develops in 30 to 40% of patients with T. cruzi infection and typically has cardiac manifestations (arrhythmias and conduction abnormalities, heart failure, apical aneurysms, and sudden death) or gastrointestinal manifestations (megaesophagus and megacolon). (
  • Could pre-infection exercise training improve the efficacy of specific antiparasitic chemotherapy for Chagas disease? (
  • by Hotez P, Bottazzi ME, Strub-Wourgaft N , Sosa-Estani S , Torrico F, Pajín L, Abril M, Sancho J. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases 2020;14(10) e0008418. (
  • As of March 1, 2020, donors with a travel risk will continue to be tested for Chagas. (
  • We included all deaths reported from March 1‒December 31, 2020, in which Chagas disease (International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision [ICD-10], codes B57-57.5, K23.1, and K93.1) and COVID-19 (ICD-10 codes B34.2, U0.71 or U0.72) were mentioned on the same death certificate as underlying or contributing to death. (
  • Bmc Infectious Diseases (2020), Bd. (
  • Our R&D portfolio includes 48 projects and more than 20 new chemical entities for 8 disease areas (as of December 2020). (
  • It is estimated that 6.5 million people, mostly in Mexico , Central America and South America , have Chagas disease as of 2019, [1] [3] resulting in approximately 9,490 annual deaths. (
  • 2019)‎. World Chagas Disease Day. (
  • On May 24, 2019, the World Health Assembly endorsed the proposal for a World Chagas Disease Day. (
  • The Drug Discovery Unit at Dundee University was set up in 2005 specifically to fill a void in research and development of drug targets for diseases of poverty such as leishmaniasis, Chagas disease and sleeping sickness (human African trypanosomiasis/HAT). (
  • The patient was referred by her physician to an infectious disease specialist for further evaluation. (
  • Anyone who lived in or visited those countries for an extended period of time and was bitten by a kissing bug, who received a blood transfusion in Chagas-endemic countries, or who was born to a mother diagnosed with Chagas disease should ask their healthcare providers to be tested for the disease," states Dr. Ndao who has been an infectious disease researcher for more than 20 years. (
  • Chagas disease is an infectious disease with esophageal functioning that mimics achalasia. (
  • Chagas disease is a slowly progressing infectious disease passed to humans from a parasite called the triatomine bug. (
  • Addressing Emerging Infectious Disease Threats: A Prevntn. (
  • Infectious disease which antedated the emergence of humankind will last as long as humanity itself, and will surely remain, as it has been hitherto, one of the fundamental parameters and determinants of human history. (
  • The spectrum of infectious disease is changing rapidly in conjunction with dramatic societal and environmental changes. (
  • Three recent reports by the Institute of Medicine document the need to address emerging infectious disease threats. (
  • In partnership with representatives from health departments, other federal agencies, medical and public health professional associ- ations, and international organizations, CDC has developed a strategic plan to address emerging infectious disease threats. (
  • Even infectious disease doctors with decades of experience don't always recognize Chagas disease when they see it. (
  • TB has caused more deaths in the last 200 years than any other infectious disease and yet receives only 1/6th of the funding that HIV research does. (
  • He completed his fellowship in infectious disease at the University of Florida, after which he completed a year of post-doctoral training at the University of Florida in global health and tuberculosis. (
  • He is the division education director and the associate program director of the infectious disease fellowship. (
  • The "tool-ready" category of diseases is those for which powerful and Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) and inexpensive control tools are currently zoonoses are a devastating obstacle to available and for which well-developed human settlement and socioeconomic implementation strategies are development of already impoverished immediately feasible. (
  • The major tasks for control of the tool- ready diseases are to expand coverage of Interventions against NTDs and packaged preventive chemotherapy zoonoses have already benefited millions interventions in order to access hard-to- of people, protecting them from physical reach populations at risk with innovative pain, disability and poverty. (
  • The DDU will work with GSK's Kinetoplastids Discovery Performance Unit at the company's Tres Cantos Medicines Development Campus in Spain, pursuing an integrated, multidisciplinary effort to find effective treatments for three neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), Chagas disease, leishmaniasis and African sleeping sickness. (
  • and WHO strategies, including the 2030 Roadmap for Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs). (
  • An important and still relatively untapped resource leading to the identification of specific drug targets against leishmaniasis and other trypanosomatid diseases is the available data from the sequenced parasite genomes. (
  • Kinetoplastid diseases including Visceral Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Chagas and HAT. (
  • [1] After four to eight weeks, untreated individuals enter the chronic phase of disease, which in most cases does not result in further symptoms. (
  • When used in chronic disease, medication may delay or prevent the development of end-stage symptoms. (
  • [2] When present, the symptoms are typically minor and not specific to any particular disease. (
  • Evaluation by physicians found no clinical symptoms consistent with Chagas disease. (
  • The latter should include periodic monitoring for signs and symptoms of chronic cardiac and gastrointestinal Chagas disease followed by appropriate interventions, when indicated. (
  • What are the symptoms of Chagas disease? (
  • However, it can be hard to tell if these symptoms are caused by Chagas disease, so blood tests should be done. (
  • Sidebar illustrations complement the sequential figures to provide information about the etiology, symptoms, and chronic effects of the disease. (
  • Chagas has largely slipped under the world's radar because symptoms often don't show up for months and years after a person has been infected. (
  • Often, there are no underlying symptoms of cardiovascular disease, and the first sign can be a heart attack or stroke. (
  • In 1881, von Mikulicz described the disease as a cardiospasm to indicate that the symptoms were due to a functional problem rather than a mechanical one. (
  • Such a registry could help answer key questions regarding the epidemiology, disease burden, natural history, and treatment of Chagas disease, and play a critical role in patient care and treatment. (
  • Descriptive epidemiology is usually the first stage in studying the epidemiology of a disease or syndrome or other conditions. (
  • Few studies have explored the epidemiology of Chagas within the US or changes in disease burden over the past decade. (
  • We suggest that future investigations should focus on the following specific areas where information was lacking: large-scale disease epidemiology, effectiveness of diagnostic platforms and therapeutic treatments, and the genetic, genomic and molecular bases of diseases. (
  • For this reason, improved funding and policy support from the continent's political, economic, healthcare and scientific community towards the better understanding of disease epidemiology, aetiology and propagation is needed in order to help accelerate the development of measures aimed at disease control and treatment (Abdulmalik et al. (
  • Individuals with a history of Chagas disease are permanently deferred from donating blood. (
  • Mothers can also be treated, but they must wait until after they have stopped breastfeeding because the drugs used to treat Chagas disease are contraindicated in women who are pregnant or breastfeeding. (
  • There is currently no licensed vaccine to prevent Chagas disease. (
  • Insecticides, the use of bednets, good hygiene practices in food preparation, and blood donor screenings are all ways to prevent Chagas disease. (
  • As mothers can transmit Chagas disease to their children, the trial could help lead to the elimination of Chagas disease as a public health problem, which is one of the World Health Organization's Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD) Roadmap objectives for the next decade. (
  • Due to immigration, the disease also affects people in the United States. (
  • [1] The disease affects more than 150 types of animals. (
  • Chagas disease affects approximately one in four people who have contracted it at some point in their lifetime," adds Dr. Plourde. (
  • Chagas disease is a preventable condition that affects mostly poor populations living in rural areas. (
  • Chagas disease affects an estimated six million people globally and can cause irreversible, life-threatening damage to the heart and other vital organs if not treated. (
  • The research project requires that you select a disease, syndrome, etc. of interest, which affects a diverse population, and write a descriptive epidemiological analysis of that topic. (
  • In response to an outstanding request from 2017 for the establishment of a day dedicated to Chagas disease, the Board recommended that the Seventy-second World Health Assembly consider a draft decision on the establishment of World Chagas Disease Day. (
  • On December 13, 2017, the Missouri Department of Health and Senior Services (MDHSS) was notified of a suspected case of Chagas disease in a Missouri woman. (
  • Trends and associated characteristics for Chagas disease among women of reproductive age in the United States, 2002 to 2017. (
  • Chagas disease is one of the most important yet neglected parasitic diseases in Mexico and is transmitted by Triatominae. (
  • We show the utility of this method for uncovering novel and under-studied groups of Triatominae hosts, as well as detecting the presence of the Chagas disease pathogen via Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) of a ∼400 bp sequence of the trypanosome 18S gene. (
  • Women who were born in Chagas endemic countries or who have resided therein for a substantial period are at geographic risk for having Chagas disease. (
  • He works extensively with industry and PDPs on Neglected Infectious Diseases and with a network of collaborators in disease endemic countries. (
  • PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases is the top Open Access tropical medicine journal, featuring an International Editorial Board and increased support for developing country authors. (
  • [4] Chronic disease is diagnosed by finding antibodies for T. cruzi in the blood. (
  • More importantly, the brother reported donating blood for many years until 2010 when Canadian Blood Services discovered he had positive Chagas antibodies. (
  • Serum from patients with suspected Chagas disease can be tested for T. cruzi IgM and IgG antibodies by an indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. (
  • [5] The disease may also be spread through blood transfusion , organ transplantation , consuming food or drink contaminated with the parasites, and vertical transmission (from a mother to her baby). (
  • Chagas disease can also be transmitted via blood transfusion, organ transplantation, and mother-to-baby. (
  • Most chronic infections are asymptomatic, which is referred to as indeterminate chronic Chagas disease. (
  • Outbreaks of gastrointestinal disease may occur on board of cruise ships due to the consumption of contaminated water or food, with a fast person-to-person transmission. (
  • McCall said, "What we think is happening is because carnitine is involved in fatty acid metabolism, we think it is changing the balance in the heart between glucose and fatty acid metabolism and that enables better cardiac contractions, leading to better cardiac function and less severe disease-better heart health. (
  • Chagas disease is an illness caused by tiny parasites and spread by insects. (
  • These included 1 case of acute Chagas myocarditis (ACM), hyperexcitability in 2 patients). (
  • Based on the epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory data, the reported case likely represents the first documented autochthonous case of Chagas disease in Missouri. (
  • Chagas disease is rarely an aetiological factor for achalasia in Chile, which is different from reports in other countries of South America. (
  • As of May 10, 2021, plasma donors in Sudbury (900 Lasalle Boulevard), Lethbridge (3735 Mayor Magrath Drive South), Kelowna (2271 Harvey Avenue - Orchard Park Mall) will no longer be asked about Chagas disease or tested for it as there is no risk of transmission with these types of donations. (
  • Chagas Disease is caused by the bite of the Triatoma bedbug, commonly known as a kissing or assassin bug, as it often bites the face. (
  • Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) is caused by a parasite transmitted by triatoma. (
  • En Chile, encontramos cuatro especies distintas de triatominos: Triatoma infestans, responsable del ciclo doméstico, Mepraia spinolai y Mepraia gajardoi, responsables del ciclo silvestre y la recientemente descrita, Mepraia parapatrica. (
  • This year World Health Day focuses on vector-borne diseases. (
  • More than half the world is at risk from vector-borne diseases. (
  • Chagas disease occurs in two stages: an acute stage, which develops one to two weeks after the insect bite, and a chronic stage, which develops over many years. (
  • Persons now living in Canada who were born or lived in countries where Chagas disease occurs, may have been infected without knowing it. (
  • Symptomatic disease occurs when dead or dying larvae cause a reaction in the body. (
  • In addition, women who are not themselves at geographic risk but whose mothers are at such a risk and are not known to be seronegative are in turn considered to be at risk for Chagas disease. (
  • Mothers who have Chagas disease can give it to their unborn babies. (
  • Since Chagas disease is not transmitted from mother to child through breast milk, mothers who have the disease can safely breastfeed their babies. (
  • A new policy report released today by the global non-profit research and development organization Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative (DNDi) highlights how the development of therapeutics has been relatively neglected in the global response to COVID-19 and warns that with the few treatment innovations available principally in high-income countries, we risk repeating history and replicating the vaccine inequality that has become a defining characteristic of this global pandemic. (
  • This study provides hope for people affected by this neglected disease, as a shorter treatment will remove some concerns of caregivers and patients and will improve treatment adoption," said Sergio Sosa Estani , Head of the Chagas Clinical Program at DNDi and researcher at CONICET (National Scientific and Technical Research Council) in Argentina. (
  • From 2004 to 2007 Simon was the first R & D Director of the Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative (DNDi), Geneva and from 2008 to 2014 he was Dean of Faculty at the LSHTM. (
  • affordable treatments for neglected diseases ( (
  • Early infections are treatable with the medications benznidazole or nifurtimox , which usually cure the disease if given shortly after the person is infected, but become less effective the longer a person has had Chagas disease. (
  • Currently, there are only two approved medications for the management of Chagas' disease: nifurtimox and benznidazole. (
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. (
  • Example: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2013, August 9). (
  • Announcer] This program is presented by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (
  • I'm Dana Woodhall, a Medical Officer at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (
  • Some diseases such as cryptococcosis (extrapulmonary form), chronic intestinal cryptosporidiosis, salmonellosis (non-typhoid), cerebral toxoplasmosis, and Chagas' disease (reactivated form) are also included in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criterion that was adapted from the definition of AIDS 8 8. (
  • With complaints of chest pain, coronary artery disease is the major concern and should be evaluated prior to an esophageal workup for esophageal motility disorders. (
  • Coronary heart disease, sometimes called coronary artery disease or ischemic heart disease, is the most common type of heart disease. (
  • Dr. Ashley Saunders, Professor of Cardiology at Texas A&M, described this deadly disease that is widespread in South and Central America and Mexico, but was formerly found mainly along our southern border. (
  • It presents images related to Communicable Diseases Emerging. (
  • Dr. Pierre Plourde, Medical Officer of Health and Medical Director of Travel Health and Tropical Medicine Services with the Winnipeg Regional Health Authority (WRHA), was the study's corresponding author and worked in partnership with parasitic diseases laboratory specialists Dr. Kamran Kadkhoda, Clinical Microbiologist from Cadham Provincial Laboratory in Winnipeg, and Dr. Ndao, head of the National Reference Centre for Parasitology (NRCP) at the RI-MUHC. (
  • It will also address the controversies about clinical and epidemiological aspects of the disease, in a context of intense nationalism and disagreements about the political meanings of the so-called tropical diseases. (
  • There are three clinical forms of the disease. (