Infection with the protozoan parasite TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, a form of TRYPANOSOMIASIS endemic in Central and South America. It is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLIA; CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY; and dysfunction of the ESOPHAGUS or COLON.
The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.
A disease of the CARDIAC MUSCLE developed subsequent to the initial protozoan infection by TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI. After infection, less than 10% develop acute illness such as MYOCARDITIS (mostly in children). The disease then enters a latent phase without clinical symptoms until about 20 years later. Myocardial symptoms of advanced CHAGAS DISEASE include conduction defects (HEART BLOCK) and CARDIOMEGALY.
A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Several species are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.
A subfamily of assassin bugs (REDUVIIDAE) that are obligate blood-suckers of vertebrates. Included are the genera TRIATOMA; RHODNIUS; and PANSTRONGYLUS, which are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, the agent of CHAGAS DISEASE in humans.
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Bolivia" is not a medical term that has a definition in the field of medicine. It is actually the name of a country, specifically the Plurinational State of Bolivia, located in South America. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!
Agents destructive to the protozoal organisms belonging to the suborder TRYPANOSOMATINA.
A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Rhodnius prolixus is a vector for TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Nitroimidazoles are a class of antibacterial and antiprotozoal drugs, which, upon reduction, interact with bacterial or protozoal DNA leading to inhibition of nucleic acid synthesis and ultimately cell death, used primarily in the treatment of anaerobic infections and certain parasitic diseases.
A nitrofuran thiazine that has been used against TRYPANOSOMIASIS.
The geographic area of Latin America in general and when the specific country or countries are not indicated. It usually includes Central America, South America, Mexico, and the islands of the Caribbean.
A method for diagnosing a disease in one organism by inoculating the putative causative organism in a second animal of a different species. It has been used for the detection of parasites (Trypanosoma cruzi and Trichinella spiralis) when peripheral blood smears are negative. (Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995)
Dilatation of the COLON, often to alarming dimensions. There are various types of megacolon including congenital megacolon in HIRSCHSPRUNG DISEASE, idiopathic megacolon in CONSTIPATION, and TOXIC MEGACOLON.
Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Argentina" is not a medical concept or condition that has a defined meaning within the medical field. Argentina is actually the second largest country in South America, and is known for its rich cultural history, diverse landscapes, and significant contributions to fields such as science, arts, and sports. If you have any questions related to healthcare, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Venezuela" is a country in South America and not a medical term or concept. Therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but there seems to be a misunderstanding as "South America" is not a medical term and cannot have a medical definition. It is a geographical term referring to the southern portion of the American continent, consisting of twelve independent countries and three territories of other nations.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Guatemala" is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. Guatemala is the name of a country located in Central America, known officially as the Republic of Guatemala. If you have any questions related to medical topics or definitions, I would be happy to help with those!
Living facilities for humans.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Paraguay" is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. Paraguay is a country located in the central part of South America, bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Bolivia to the north and west, and Brazil to the east and northeast. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help!
Central America is not a medical term, but a geographical region consisting of seven countries (Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama) that connect North America to South America, which may be relevant in medical contexts such as discussions of regional disease patterns, public health initiatives, or tropical medicine.
A genus of cone-nosed bugs of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Its species are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.
Bodies preserved either by the ancient Egyptian technique or due to chance under favorable climatic conditions.
The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Brazil" is not a medical term or concept, it is a country located in South America, known officially as the Federative Republic of Brazil. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or science, I'd be happy to help answer those!
WHO regional office for the Americas acting as a coordinating agency for the improvement of health conditions in the hemisphere. The four main functions are: control or eradication of communicable diseases, strengthening of national and local health services, education and training, and research.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Mexico" is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. It is the name of a country located in North America, known officially as the United Mexican States. If you have any questions related to medical topics or terminology, I would be happy to help answer those!
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
"Panama" is not a recognized medical term or condition in healthcare and medicine. It might be a reference to a location, but it does not have a specific medical meaning in itself.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Honduras" is a country located in Central America and it doesn't have a medical definition. If you have any questions related to medical topics or definitions, I'd be happy to help with those!
The immature stage in the life cycle of those orders of insects characterized by gradual metamorphosis, in which the young resemble the imago in general form of body, including compound eyes and external wings; also the 8-legged stage of mites and ticks that follows the first moult.
DNA of kinetoplasts which are specialized MITOCHONDRIA of trypanosomes and related parasitic protozoa within the order KINETOPLASTIDA. Kinetoplast DNA consists of a complex network of numerous catenated rings of two classes; the first being a large number of small DNA duplex rings, called minicircles, approximately 2000 base pairs in length, and the second being several dozen much larger rings, called maxicircles, approximately 37 kb in length.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.
Substances that are destructive to protozoans.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Chile" is not a medical concept or condition, it is a country located in South America. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to help answer those!
The presence of parasites in food and food products. For the presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food, FOOD MICROBIOLOGY is available.
The study of disease in prehistoric times as revealed in bones, mummies, and archaeologic artifacts.
Diseases that are underfunded and have low name recognition but are major burdens in less developed countries. The World Health Organization has designated six tropical infectious diseases as being neglected in industrialized countries that are endemic in many developing countries (HELMINTHIASIS; LEPROSY; LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS; ONCHOCERCIASIS; SCHISTOSOMIASIS; and TRACHOMA).
The active insecticidal constituent of CHRYSANTHEMUM CINERARIIFOLIUM flowers. Pyrethrin I is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemummonocarboxylic acid and pyrethrin II is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemumdicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Peru" is not a medical term or concept, it is a country located in South America, known officially as the Republic of Peru. If you have any questions about medical topics that I can help clarify, please let me know!
The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and parasitic diseases. The parasitic infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
Individual members of South American ethnic groups with historic ancestral origins in Asia.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
The presence of parasites (especially malarial parasites) in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Sensitive assay using radiolabeled ANTIGENS to detect specific ANTIBODIES in SERUM. The antigens are allowed to react with the serum and then precipitated using a special reagent such as PROTEIN A sepharose beads. The bound radiolabeled immunoprecipitate is then commonly analyzed by gel electrophoresis.
Infestations by PARASITES which live on, or burrow into, the surface of their host's EPIDERMIS. Most ectoparasites are ARTHROPODS.
Infection with protozoa of the genus TRYPANOSOMA.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed protozoa administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious protozoan disease.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "El Salvador" is a country located in Central America, and it doesn't have a medical definition. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!
A genus of large OPOSSUMS in the family Didelphidae, found in the Americas. The species Didelphis virginiana is prominent in North America.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Infections with the protozoa of the phylum EUGLENOZOA.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
A genus of flagellate protozoans found in the blood and lymph of vertebrates and invertebrates, both hosts being required to complete the life cycle.
People who leave their place of residence in one country and settle in a different country.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Colombia" is not a medical term that can be defined in a medical context; rather, it's a country located in South America. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help with those instead!
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
A type of affinity chromatography where ANTIBODIES are used in the affinity capture reaction on the solid support, in the mobile phase, or both.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Ecuador" is a country in South America and not a medical term. The term you might be looking for is "ecdysone," which is a hormone found in arthropods that controls their molting process.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
Bites and stings inflicted by insects.
Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
A family of winged insects of the suborder HETEROPTERA, called assassin bugs, because most prey on other insects. However one subfamily, TRIATOMINAE, attacks humans and other vertebrates and transmits Chagas disease.
The systematic surveying, mapping, charting, and description of specific geographical sites, with reference to the physical features that were presumed to influence health and disease. Medical topography should be differentiated from EPIDEMIOLOGY in that the former emphasizes geography whereas the latter emphasizes disease outbreaks.
'Blood donors' are individuals who voluntarily and safely donate a specific amount of their own blood, which can be further separated into components, to be used for transfusion purposes or for manufacturing medical products, without receiving remuneration that is intended to reward them financially.
Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.
The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
Cytochromes of the b group that have alpha-band absorption of 563-564 nm. They occur as subunits in MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III.
Compounds that specifically inhibit STEROL 14-DEMETHYLASE. A variety of azole-derived ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS act through this mechanism.
A genus of gram-positive BACTERIA in the family Gordoniaceae, isolated from soil and from sputa of patients with chest disorders. It is also used for biotransformation of natural products.
The complete genetic complement contained in a set of CHROMOSOMES in a protozoan.
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
Infestations with arthropods of the subclass ACARI, superorder Acariformes.
An NADPH-dependent P450 enzyme that plays an essential role in the sterol biosynthetic pathway by catalyzing the demethylation of 14-methyl sterols such as lanosterol. The enzyme acts via the repeated hydroxylation of the 14-methyl group, resulting in its stepwise conversion into an alcohol, an aldehyde and then a carboxylate, which is removed as formic acid. Sterol 14-demethylase is an unusual cytochrome P450 enzyme in that it is found in a broad variety of organisms including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and protozoa.
The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.
Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The normal process of elimination of fecal material from the RECTUM.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
The palm family of order Arecales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
A genus of large, brightly colored SPONGES in the family Agelasidae, possessing a skeleton of spongin fibers with a core of large spicules (megascleres).
Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.
A plant genus of the family PIPERACEAE that includes species used for spicy and stimulating qualities.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Inflammatory processes of the muscular walls of the heart (MYOCARDIUM) which result in injury to the cardiac muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Manifestations range from subclinical to sudden death (DEATH, SUDDEN). Myocarditis in association with cardiac dysfunction is classified as inflammatory CARDIOMYOPATHY usually caused by INFECTION, autoimmune diseases, or responses to toxic substances. Myocarditis is also a common cause of DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY and other cardiomyopathies.
The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.
A discipline or occupation concerned with the study of INSECTS, including the biology and the control of insects.
A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.
Drugs used to treat or prevent parasitic infections.
Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.
Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
Testing or screening required by federal, state, or local law or other agencies for the diagnosis of specified conditions. It is usually limited to specific populations such as categories of health care providers, members of the military, and prisoners or to specific situations such as premarital examinations or donor screening.
('Costa Rica' in medical context is not a defined term) However, in general context, Costa Rica is a country located in Central America, known for its advanced healthcare system and high life expectancy, which could be relevant to various medical or health-related discussions.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.
Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.
The period of history before 500 of the common era.
A motility disorder of the ESOPHAGUS in which the LOWER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER (near the CARDIA) fails to relax resulting in functional obstruction of the esophagus, and DYSPHAGIA. Achalasia is characterized by a grossly contorted and dilated esophagus (megaesophagus).
A disease caused by any of a number of species of protozoa in the genus LEISHMANIA. There are four major clinical types of this infection: cutaneous (Old and New World) (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS), diffuse cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS), mucocutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, MUCOCUTANEOUS), and visceral (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL).
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The functional hereditary units of protozoa.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)

Candidate parasitic diseases. (1/1819)

This paper discusses five parasitic diseases: American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease), dracunculiasis, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis and schistosomiasis. The available technology and health infrastructures in developing countries permit the eradication of dracunculiasis and the elimination of lymphatic filariasis due to Wuchereria bancrofti. Blindness due to onchocerciasis and transmission of this disease will be prevented in eleven West African countries; transmission of Chagas disease will be interrupted. A well-coordinated international effort is required to ensure that scarce resources are not wasted, efforts are not duplicated, and planned national programmes are well supported.  (+info)

Induction of CD8+ T cell-mediated protective immunity against Trypanosoma cruzi. (2/1819)

Trypanosoma cruzi was transformed with the Plasmodium yoelii gene encoding the circum-sporozoite (CS) protein, which contains the well-characterized CD8+ T cell epitope, SYVPSAEQI. In vivo and in vitro assays indicated that cells infected with the transformed T. cruzi could process and present this malaria parasite-derived class I MHC-restricted epitope. Immunization of mice with recombinant influenza and vaccinia viruses expressing the SYVPSAEQI epitope induced a large number of specific CD8+ T cells that strongly suppressed parasitemia and conferred complete protection against the acute T. cruzi lethal infection. CD8+ T cells mediated this immunity as indicated by the unrelenting parasitemia and high mortality observed in immunized mice treated with anti-CD8 antibody. This study demonstrated, for the first time, that vaccination of mice with vectors designed to induce CD8+ T cells is effective against T. cruzi infection.  (+info)

Chagas' disease diagnosis: comparative analysis of parasitologic, molecular, and serologic methods. (3/1819)

During the course of chronic chagasic infection, low parasitemia levels prevent parasite detection by current techniques such as hemoculture and xenodiagnosis. Since serologic tests have sensitivity but lack specificity, molecular assays based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have been proposed as alternative tools for parasite detection in individuals with chronic Chagas' disease. A variable degree of PCR efficiency has been reported in the literature and illustrates the need for further evaluation of large numbers of chagasic patients. In this study, we compared an optimized PCR technique with hemoculture and complement-mediated lysis (CoML) in 113 individuals from or living in endemic areas of Brazil who had conventional serologic results that were either positive, negative, or inconclusive. The PCR amplification yielded positive results in 83.5% (66 of 79) of individuals with positive serology, 47.6% (10 of 21) with negative serology, and 46.2% (6 of 13) with inconclusive serology. Of 10 patients with negative serology and positive PCR result, eight (80%) had positive CoML, indicating that they could have been chagasic but were not mounting immune responses. The PCR results were also positive for all individuals who had positive hemoculture, for 37 individuals with negative hemoculture and positive serology, and for two of six individuals with inconclusive serology and negative hemoculture. Thirteen individuals living in nonendemic areas who had negative serology were used as a negative control group: 100% had negative PCR results. Our results show that the optimized PCR protocol used here was very sensitive in detecting the presence of Trypanosoma cruzi in chronic chagasic patients. The PCR and CoML results were well correlated in all of the groups studied, which suggests that our PCR protocol may be effective in the evaluation of cure in patients who receive anti-parasite treatment.  (+info)

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for IgA antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi in congenital infection. (4/1819)

With the aim of achieving earlier diagnosis of congenital Trypanosoma cruzi infection, we assessed the usefulness of detecting specific IgA antibody by an ELISA. We evaluated 12 pregnant women chronically infected with T. cruzi, their newborn infants, and three additional neonates with parasitemia at birth. The IgA-specific antibody was detected by adapting the procedure for use of a commercial IgG ELISA, the Hemagen Chagas' Kit (Hemagen Diagnostics, Inc., Waltham, MA). Trypanosoma cruzi-specific IgA was detected in 10 (83%) of 12 mothers at delivery, in one of three parasitemic infants, and one of 12 newborns of the chronically infected women. Testing of 13 infants at six months of age revealed IgA in seven infants (54%), of whom four also had persistent T. cruzi-specific IgG. Detection of T. cruzi-specific IgA could provide a criterion for diagnosis of congenital infection in the absence of detectable parasitemia.  (+info)

Acute Chagas' disease in western Venezuela: a clinical, seroparasitologic, and epidemiologic study. (5/1819)

A clinical, parasitologic, and serologic study carried out between 1988 and 1996 on 59 acute-phase patients in areas of western Venezuela where Chagas' disease is endemic showed 19 symptomatic patterns or groups of symptoms appearing in combination with different frequencies. The symptomatic pattern with the highest frequency was that showing simultaneously fever, myalgia, headache, and Romana's sign, which was detected in 20% of the acute-phase patients. Asymptomatic individuals and patients with fever as the only sign of the disease made up 15% and 11.9% of the total acute cases, respectively. Statistical correlation analysis revealed that xenodiagnosis and hemoculture were the most reliable and concordant of the five parasitologic methods used; these two methods also showed the highest proportions in detecting any clinical symptomatic pattern in acute-phase patients. A similar high reliability and concordance was obtained with a direct agglutination test, an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test, and an ELISA as serologic tests, which also showed a higher proportion of positive detection of clinical patterns than parasitologic methods (P < 0.001). It is recommended that individuals coming from endemic areas showing mild and/or severe clinical manifestations should be suspected of being in contact or having been in contact with Trypanosoma cruzi, be referred for parasitologic and serologic evaluations to confirm the presumptive clinical diagnosis of acute Chagas' disease, and start specific treatment. The epidemiologic implications of the present findings are discussed and the use of similar methodology to evaluate other areas where Chagas' disease is endemic is suggested.  (+info)

CD40 ligation prevents Trypanosoma cruzi infection through interleukin-12 upregulation. (6/1819)

Because of the critical role of the CD40-CD40 ligand (CD40L) pathway in the induction and effector phases of immune responses, we investigated the effects of CD40 ligation on the control of Trypanosoma cruzi infection. First, we observed that supernatants of murine spleen cells stimulated by CD40L-transfected 3T3 fibroblasts (3T3-CD40L transfectants) prevent the infection of mouse peritoneal macrophages (MPM) by T. cruzi. This phenomenon depends on de novo production of nitric oxide (NO) as it is prevented by the addition of N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, a NO synthase inhibitor. NO production requires interleukin (IL)-12-mediated gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) synthesis as demonstrated by inhibition experiments using neutralizing anti-IL-12, anti-IFN-gamma, and anti-TNF-alpha monoclonal antibodies (MAb). We found that an activating anti-CD40 MAb also directly stimulates IFN-gamma-activated MPM to produce NO and thereby to control T. cruzi infection. To determine the in vivo relevance of these in vitro findings, mice were injected with 3T3-CD40L transfectants or 3T3 control fibroblasts at the time of T. cruzi inoculation. We observed that in vivo CD40 ligation dramatically reduced both parasitemia and the mortality rate of T. cruzi-infected mice. A reduced parasitemia was still observed when the injection of 3T3-CD40L transfectants was delayed 8 days postinfection. It was abolished by injection of anti-IL-12 MAb. Taken together, these data establish that CD40 ligation facilitates the control of T. cruzi infection through a cascade involving IL-12, IFN-gamma, and NO.  (+info)

A multi-epitope synthetic peptide and recombinant protein for the detection of antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi in radioimmunoprecipitation-confirmed and consensus-positive sera. (7/1819)

Peptide epitopes of Trypanosoma cruzi have been identified through expression cloning. A tripeptide (2/D/E) containing three epitopes (TcD, TcE, PEP-2) was used in ELISA to detect antibodies to T. cruzi in 239 of 240 consensus-positive sera and 41 of 42 sera confirmed positive by radioimmunoprecipitation assay. The 1 discrepant consensus-positive serum was used to expression-clone a novel gene that contained a repeat sequence. A peptide corresponding to this sequence, TcLo1.2, was specific for T. cruzi. This antigen detected the discrepant consensus-positive serum and enhanced reactivity of low-positive sera in the tripeptide assay. A branched synthetic peptide, 2/D/E/Lo1.2, or a linear recombinant, r2/D/E/Lo1.2, realized all of the diagnostic features of the four epitopes, including the ability to boost reactivity of low-reactive sera. These studies show that peptides and recombinants containing multiple repeat epitopes are powerful tools for developing assays for T. cruzi antibody detection and have direct application in blood screening.  (+info)

Chagas' disease and the autoimmunity hypothesis. (8/1819)

The notion that the pathology of Chagas' disease has an autoimmune component was initially based on the finding of circulating antibodies binding heart tissue antigens in patients and mice chronically infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. Later, T lymphocytes reactive with heart or nerve tissue antigens were found in chagasic mice and patients, extending the concept to include cell-mediated immunity. However, there is disagreement about whether the observed immunologic autoreactivities are triggered by T. cruzi epitopes and then affect host tissue antigens by virtue of molecular mimicry or are elicited by host antigens exposed to lymphocytes after tissue damage caused by the parasite. There is also disagreement about the relevance of immunologic autoreactivities to the pathogenesis of Chagas' disease because of the lack of reproducibility of some key reports supporting the autoimmunity hypothesis, conflicting data from independent laboratories, conclusions invalidated by advances in our understanding of the immunologic mechanisms underlying cell lysis, and, last but not least, a lack of direct, incontrovertible evidence that cross-reacting antibodies or autoreactive cells mediate the typical pathologic changes associated with human Chagas' disease. The data and views backing and questioning the autoimmunity hypothesis for Chagas' disease are summarized in this review.  (+info)

Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is a tropical parasitic disease caused by the protozoan *Trypanosoma cruzi*. It is primarily transmitted to humans through the feces of triatomine bugs (also called "kissing bugs"), which defecate on the skin of people while they are sleeping. The disease can also be spread through contaminated food or drink, during blood transfusions, from mother to baby during pregnancy or childbirth, and through organ transplantation.

The acute phase of Chagas disease can cause symptoms such as fever, fatigue, body aches, headache, rash, loss of appetite, diarrhea, and vomiting. However, many people do not experience any symptoms during the acute phase. After several weeks or months, most people enter the chronic phase of the disease, which can last for decades or even a lifetime. During this phase, many people do not have any symptoms, but about 20-30% of infected individuals will develop serious cardiac or digestive complications, such as heart failure, arrhythmias, or difficulty swallowing.

Chagas disease is primarily found in Latin America, where it is estimated that around 6-7 million people are infected with the parasite. However, due to increased travel and migration, cases of Chagas disease have been reported in other parts of the world, including North America, Europe, and Asia. There is no vaccine for Chagas disease, but medications are available to treat the infection during the acute phase and to manage symptoms during the chronic phase.

Trypanosoma cruzi is a protozoan parasite that causes Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis. It's transmitted to humans and other mammals through the feces of triatomine bugs, often called "kissing bugs." The parasite can also be spread through contaminated food, drink, or from mother to baby during pregnancy or birth.

The life cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi involves two main forms: the infective metacyclic trypomastigote that is found in the bug's feces and the replicative intracellular amastigote that resides within host cells. The metacyclic trypomastigotes enter the host through mucous membranes or skin lesions, where they invade various types of cells and differentiate into amastigotes. These amastigotes multiply by binary fission and then differentiate back into trypomastigotes, which are released into the bloodstream when the host cell ruptures. The circulating trypomastigotes can then infect other cells or be taken up by another triatomine bug during a blood meal, continuing the life cycle.

Clinical manifestations of Chagas disease range from an acute phase with non-specific symptoms like fever, swelling, and fatigue to a chronic phase characterized by cardiac and gastrointestinal complications, which can develop decades after the initial infection. Early detection and treatment of Chagas disease are crucial for preventing long-term health consequences.

Chagas cardiomyopathy is a specific type of heart disease that is caused by infection with the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which is spread through the feces of infected triatomine bugs (also known as "kissing bugs"). The disease is named after Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite in 1909.

In Chagas cardiomyopathy, the infection can lead to inflammation of the heart muscle (myocarditis), which can cause damage to the heart over time. This damage can lead to a range of complications, including:

* Dilated cardiomyopathy: This is a condition in which the heart muscle becomes weakened and stretched, leading to an enlarged heart chamber and reduced pumping ability.
* Arrhythmias: These are abnormal heart rhythms that can cause symptoms such as palpitations, dizziness, and fainting.
* Heart failure: This is a condition in which the heart is unable to pump blood effectively, leading to symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and fluid buildup in the body.
* Cardiac arrest: In severe cases, Chagas cardiomyopathy can lead to sudden cardiac arrest, which is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment.

Chagas cardiomyopathy is most commonly found in Latin America, where the parasite that causes the disease is endemic. However, due to increased travel and migration, cases of Chagas cardiomyopathy have been reported in other parts of the world, including the United States. Treatment for Chagas cardiomyopathy typically involves medications to manage symptoms and prevent further complications, as well as lifestyle changes such as diet and exercise modifications. In some cases, more invasive treatments such as surgery or implantable devices may be necessary to treat severe complications of the disease.

Triatoma is a genus of insects in the family Reduviidae, also known as "kissing bugs" or "conenose bugs." These insects are called "kissing bugs" because they often bite humans around the mouth and face. They are found primarily in the Americas, ranging from the southern United States to Argentina.

Triatoma species are of medical importance because they can transmit a parasitic infection called Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) to humans through their feces. The parasite that causes Chagas disease, Trypanosoma cruzi, is found in the bug's feces and can enter the human body through mucous membranes or breaks in the skin.

Chagas disease can cause serious health problems, including heart damage and digestive system complications, if left untreated. Therefore, it is important to take precautions to prevent Triatoma bites and seek medical attention promptly if bitten by one of these insects.

Triatominae is a subfamily of insects in the family Reduviidae, also known as assassin bugs. Triatomines are commonly called "kissing bugs" because they often bite humans near the mouth or eyes while they sleep. They are called this because of their habit of feeding on the blood of mammals, including humans, and prefer to bite near the lips or eyes where the skin is thin.

Triatomines are vectors for Trypanosoma cruzi, a parasitic protozoan that causes Chagas disease, a potentially life-threatening illness endemic in the Americas. The transmission of T. cruzi to humans occurs when feces or urine from an infected triatomine is accidentally rubbed into the bite wound or mucous membranes, such as those found in the eyes or mouth.

Triatomines are typically nocturnal and hide during the day in crevices in walls, roofs, or beds. They are attracted to light and can be found near human dwellings, particularly in rural areas with poor housing conditions. Preventing triatomine infestations and reducing contact with these insects is an important part of Chagas disease prevention.

'Insect control' is not a term typically used in medical definitions. However, it generally refers to the methods and practices used to manage or reduce the population of insects that can be harmful or disruptive to human health, food supply, or property. This can include various strategies such as chemical pesticides, biological control agents, habitat modification, and other integrated pest management techniques.

In medical terms, 'vector control' is a more relevant concept, which refers to the specific practices used to reduce or prevent the transmission of infectious diseases by insects and other arthropods that act as disease vectors (such as mosquitoes, ticks, and fleas). Vector control measures may include the use of insecticides, larvicides, biological control agents, environmental management, personal protection methods, and other integrated vector management strategies.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Bolivia" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of a country located in South America, known officially as the Plurinational State of Bolivia. If you have any questions related to geography, history, or culture, I would be happy to try and help with those. However, for medical advice or information, it's always best to consult a qualified healthcare professional.

Trypanocidal agents are a type of medication specifically used for the treatment and prevention of trypanosomiasis, which is a group of diseases caused by various species of protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Trypanosoma. These agents work by killing or inhibiting the growth of the parasites in the human body.

There are two main types of human trypanosomiasis: African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness, which is caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense; and American trypanosomiasis, also known as Chagas disease, which is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi.

Trypanocidal agents can be divided into two categories:

1. Drugs used to treat African trypanosomiasis: These include pentamidine, suramin, melarsoprol, and eflornithine. Pentamidine and suramin are used for the early stages of the disease, while melarsoprol and eflornithine are used for the later stages.
2. Drugs used to treat American trypanosomiasis: The main drug used for Chagas disease is benznidazole, which is effective in killing the parasites during the acute phase of the infection. Another drug, nifurtimox, can also be used, although it has more side effects than benznidazole.

It's important to note that trypanocidal agents have limited availability and are often associated with significant toxicity, making their use challenging in some settings. Therefore, prevention measures such as avoiding insect vectors and using vector control methods remain crucial in controlling the spread of these diseases.

"Rhodnius" is not a medical term, but rather it refers to a genus of true bugs in the family Reduviidae. These small, wingless insects are known as "bugs" and are commonly found in tropical regions of the Americas. They feed on plant sap and are also known to be vectors for certain diseases, such as Chagas disease, which is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. However, they are not typically associated with human medicine or medical conditions.

Insect vectors are insects that transmit disease-causing pathogens (such as viruses, bacteria, parasites) from one host to another. They do this while feeding on the host's blood or tissues. The insects themselves are not infected by the pathogen but act as mechanical carriers that pass it on during their bite. Examples of diseases spread by insect vectors include malaria (transmitted by mosquitoes), Lyme disease (transmitted by ticks), and plague (transmitted by fleas). Proper prevention measures, such as using insect repellent and reducing standing water where mosquitoes breed, can help reduce the risk of contracting these diseases.

Nitroimidazoles are a class of antibiotic drugs that contain a nitro group (-NO2) attached to an imidazole ring. These medications have both antiprotozoal and antibacterial properties, making them effective against a range of anaerobic organisms, including bacteria and parasites. They work by being reduced within the organism, which leads to the formation of toxic radicals that interfere with DNA function and ultimately kill the microorganism.

Some common examples of nitroimidazoles include:

* Metronidazole: used for treating infections caused by anaerobic bacteria and protozoa, such as bacterial vaginosis, amebiasis, giardiasis, and pseudomembranous colitis.
* Tinidazole: similar to metronidazole, it is used to treat various infections caused by anaerobic bacteria and protozoa, including trichomoniasis, giardiasis, and amebiasis.
* Secnidazole: another medication in this class, used for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, and amebiasis.

Nitroimidazoles are generally well-tolerated, but side effects can include gastrointestinal symptoms like nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea. Rare but serious side effects may include peripheral neuropathy (nerve damage) and central nervous system toxicity, particularly with high doses or long-term use. It is essential to follow the prescribed dosage and duration closely to minimize potential risks while ensuring effective treatment.

Nifurtimox is an antiprotozoal medication used in the treatment of acute and chronic stages of American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease) caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. It works by inhibiting the parasite's energy metabolism, ultimately leading to its death. Nifurtimox is often given orally in the form of tablets and its use is typically accompanied by close medical supervision due to potential side effects such as anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and neurological symptoms.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Latin America" is not a medical term. It is a geographical and cultural region that includes parts of North America, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean where Romance languages (Spanish, Portuguese, and French) are predominantly spoken. The term does not have a specific medical relevance or definition.

Xenodiagnosis is a medical diagnostic technique whereby a parasite or other infectious agent is detected in an alternative host species that has been exposed to a patient's sample. This method is particularly useful in identifying the causative agents of certain diseases, especially those with obscure or unknown etiology, when traditional diagnostic methods have failed.

For example, in the case of Chagas disease, which is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and transmitted mainly through triatomine bugs (also known as "kissing bugs"), xenodiagnosis involves allowing uninfected bugs to feed on a patient's blood. After an incubation period, the bugs are examined for the presence of T. cruzi in their gut, which would confirm the patient's infection.

It is important to note that xenodiagnosis has limited use in modern medicine due to the development of more sensitive and specific diagnostic methods, such as PCR and serological tests. However, it can still be a valuable tool in certain research and clinical settings where traditional diagnostics may not be feasible or conclusive.

Megacolon is a medical condition characterized by an abnormal dilation and/or hypomotility (decreased ability to move) of the colon, resulting in a significantly enlarged colon. It can be congenital or acquired. Congenital megacolon, also known as Hirschsprung's disease, is present at birth and occurs due to the absence of ganglion cells in the distal portion of the colon. Acquired megacolon, on the other hand, can develop in adults due to various causes such as chronic constipation, neurological disorders, or certain medications.

In both cases, the affected individual may experience symptoms like severe constipation, abdominal distention, and fecal impaction. If left untreated, megacolon can lead to complications such as perforation of the colon, sepsis, and even death. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause but may include medication, surgery, or a combination of both.

A disease vector is a living organism that transmits infectious pathogens from one host to another. These vectors can include mosquitoes, ticks, fleas, and other arthropods that carry viruses, bacteria, parasites, or other disease-causing agents. The vector becomes infected with the pathogen after biting an infected host, and then transmits the infection to another host through its saliva or feces during a subsequent blood meal.

Disease vectors are of particular concern in public health because they can spread diseases rapidly and efficiently, often over large geographic areas. Controlling vector-borne diseases requires a multifaceted approach that includes reducing vector populations, preventing bites, and developing vaccines or treatments for the associated diseases.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Argentina" is a country in South America and not a medical term or concept. The term "argyria" may be what you're looking for, which is a rare condition resulting from the accumulation of silver compounds in the body, causing the skin to turn blue-gray. However, Argentina and argyria are two distinct terms with different meanings.

Antibodies, protozoan, refer to the immune system's response to an infection caused by a protozoan organism. Protozoa are single-celled microorganisms that can cause various diseases in humans, such as malaria, giardiasis, and toxoplasmosis.

When the body is infected with a protozoan, the immune system responds by producing specific proteins called antibodies. Antibodies are produced by a type of white blood cell called a B-cell, and they recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of the protozoan organism.

There are five main types of antibodies: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each type of antibody has a different role in the immune response. For example, IgG is the most common type of antibody and provides long-term immunity to previously encountered pathogens. IgM is the first antibody produced in response to an infection and is important for activating the complement system, which helps to destroy the protozoan organism.

Overall, the production of antibodies against protozoan organisms is a critical part of the immune response and helps to protect the body from further infection.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Venezuela" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in South America, known officially as the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. If you have any questions about medical terms or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "South America" is not a medical term. It is a geographical term that refers to the southern portion of the Americas, which is a continent in the Western Hemisphere. South America is generally defined as including the countries of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, and Venezuela, as well as the overseas departments and territories of French Guiana (France), and the Falkland Islands (UK).

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help answer them for you.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Guatemala" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of a country located in Central America. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help with those!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "housing" is not a term that has a medical definition. In a general sense, housing refers to a place where someone lives, such as a house or apartment. If you have any questions related to healthcare, medicine, or health-related topics, I would be happy to try to help answer them.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Paraguay" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in the central part of South America, bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Bolivia to the north and west, and Brazil to the east and northeast. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you.

Central America is a geographical region that connects North America and South America. It is made up of seven countries: Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. The eastern coast of Central America is bordered by the Caribbean Sea, while the western coast is bordered by the Pacific Ocean.

The region is characterized by its diverse geography, which includes lowland rainforests, volcanic mountain ranges, and coastal plains. It is also home to a wide range of plant and animal species, many of which are found nowhere else in the world.

Culturally, Central America is a melting pot of indigenous, African, and European influences. The region has a rich history of Mayan civilization, as well as Spanish colonialism. Today, the countries of Central America have diverse economies, with agriculture, manufacturing, and tourism being major industries.

"Panstrongylus" is a genus of kissing bugs (triatomines), which are insects that feed on the blood of mammals, including humans. They are called "kissing bugs" because they often bite humans around the mouth and eyes. The most well-known species in this genus is "Panstrongylus megistus," which is a vector for Chagas disease, a potentially life-threatening illness endemic to Central and South America.

Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which is transmitted to humans through the feces of infected triatomines. The infection can lead to serious cardiac and gastrointestinal complications if left untreated.

It's important to note that while "Panstrongylus" species are vectors for Chagas disease, not all kissing bugs transmit the disease. Furthermore, Chagas disease is primarily a concern in endemic areas of Central and South America, and it's rare for travelers to contract the infection elsewhere.

In the field of medicine and particularly in forensic pathology, mummies are human or animal bodies that have been preserved naturally or intentionally after death, through processes such as desiccation (drying), freezing, or exposure to chemicals like salt or smoke. The study of mummies, known as mummy science or mummy studies, can provide valuable insights into various aspects including the biological characteristics, health conditions, dietary habits, and cultural practices of past civilizations.

An endemic disease is a type of disease that is regularly found among particular people or in a certain population, and is spread easily from person to person. The rate of infection is consistently high in these populations, but it is relatively stable and does not change dramatically over time. Endemic diseases are contrasted with epidemic diseases, which suddenly increase in incidence and spread rapidly through a large population.

Endemic diseases are often associated with poverty, poor sanitation, and limited access to healthcare. They can also be influenced by environmental factors such as climate, water quality, and exposure to vectors like mosquitoes or ticks. Examples of endemic diseases include malaria in some tropical countries, tuberculosis (TB) in many parts of the world, and HIV/AIDS in certain populations.

Effective prevention and control measures for endemic diseases typically involve improving access to healthcare, promoting good hygiene and sanitation practices, providing vaccinations when available, and implementing vector control strategies. By addressing the underlying social and environmental factors that contribute to the spread of these diseases, it is possible to reduce their impact on affected populations and improve overall health outcomes.

I apologize, but "Brazil" is not a medical term or condition. It is the largest country in both South America and Latin America by land area and population. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, please provide more information and I will do my best to help.

The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) is the specialized international health agency for the Americas. It is an integral part of the United Nations system and functions as the regional office for the Americas of the World Health Organization (WHO). PAHO's mission is to promote equity in health, to combat disease, and to improve the quality of, and length of, life among the peoples of the Americas. It aims to provide technical cooperation and mobilize partnerships to help countries improve their health systems and services, with an emphasis on those most in need. The organization also works to strengthen national and local health institutions and mobilize partnerships for the implementation of effective public policies and actions to combat diseases and injuries.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Mexico" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of a country located in North America. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

Seroepidemiologic studies are a type of epidemiological study that measures the presence and levels of antibodies in a population's blood serum to investigate the prevalence, distribution, and transmission of infectious diseases. These studies help to identify patterns of infection and immunity within a population, which can inform public health policies and interventions.

Seroepidemiologic studies typically involve collecting blood samples from a representative sample of individuals in a population and testing them for the presence of antibodies against specific pathogens. The results are then analyzed to estimate the prevalence of infection and immunity within the population, as well as any factors associated with increased or decreased risk of infection.

These studies can provide valuable insights into the spread of infectious diseases, including emerging and re-emerging infections, and help to monitor the effectiveness of vaccination programs. Additionally, seroepidemiologic studies can also be used to investigate the transmission dynamics of infectious agents, such as identifying sources of infection or tracking the spread of antibiotic resistance.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Panama" is not a medical term. It is a country located in Central America, known for its famous canal and diverse wildlife. If you have any questions about medical terms or conditions, I would be happy to help answer those!

A chronic disease is a long-term medical condition that often progresses slowly over a period of years and requires ongoing management and care. These diseases are typically not fully curable, but symptoms can be managed to improve quality of life. Common chronic diseases include heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). They are often associated with advanced age, although they can also affect children and younger adults. Chronic diseases can have significant impacts on individuals' physical, emotional, and social well-being, as well as on healthcare systems and society at large.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Honduras" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of a country located in Central America, bordered by Guatemala to the west, El Salvador to the southwest, Nicaragua to the southeast, and the Caribbean Sea to the north, and the Pacific Ocean to the southwest. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Nymph" does not have a medical definition. In general, nymph is a term used in mythology to refer to a minor nature deity typically represented as an attractive maiden or beautiful young woman who animates nature and is often associated with various natural phenomena.

If you have any medical concerns or questions, I would be happy to help if you could provide more information.

The kinetoplast is a unique structure found in the single, mitochondrion of certain protozoan parasites, including those of the genera Trypanosoma and Leishmania. It consists of a network of circular DNA molecules that are highly concentrated and tightly packed. These DNA molecules contain genetic information necessary for the functioning of the unique mitochondrion in these organisms.

The kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) is organized into thousands of maxicircles and minicircles, which vary in size and number depending on the species. Maxicircles are similar to mammalian mitochondrial DNA and encode proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation, while minicircles contain sequences that code for guide RNAs involved in the editing of maxicircle transcripts.

The kDNA undergoes dynamic rearrangements during the life cycle of these parasites, which involves different morphological and metabolic forms. The study of kDNA has provided valuable insights into the biology and evolution of these important pathogens and has contributed to the development of novel therapeutic strategies.

There doesn't seem to be a specific medical definition for "DNA, protozoan" as it is simply a reference to the DNA found in protozoa. Protozoa are single-celled eukaryotic organisms that can be found in various environments such as soil, water, and the digestive tracts of animals.

Protozoan DNA refers to the genetic material present in these organisms. It is composed of nucleic acids, including deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), which contain the instructions for the development, growth, and reproduction of the protozoan.

The DNA in protozoa, like in other organisms, is made up of two strands of nucleotides that coil together to form a double helix. The four nucleotide bases that make up protozoan DNA are adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). These bases pair with each other to form the rungs of the DNA ladder, with A always pairing with T and G always pairing with C.

The genetic information stored in protozoan DNA is encoded in the sequence of these nucleotide bases. This information is used to synthesize proteins, which are essential for the structure and function of the organism's cells. Protozoan DNA also contains other types of genetic material, such as regulatory sequences that control gene expression and repetitive elements with no known function.

Understanding the DNA of protozoa is important for studying their biology, evolution, and pathogenicity. It can help researchers develop new treatments for protozoan diseases and gain insights into the fundamental principles of genetics and cellular function.

Antiprotozoal agents are a type of medication used to treat protozoal infections, which are infections caused by microscopic single-celled organisms called protozoa. These agents work by either killing the protozoa or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. They can be administered through various routes, including oral, topical, and intravenous, depending on the type of infection and the severity of the illness.

Examples of antiprotozoal agents include:

* Metronidazole, tinidazole, and nitazoxanide for treating infections caused by Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica.
* Atovaquone, clindamycin, and pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine for treating malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum or other Plasmodium species.
* Pentamidine and suramin for treating African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense or T. b. rhodesiense.
* Nitroimidazoles, such as benznidazole and nifurtimox, for treating Chagas disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi.
* Sodium stibogluconate and paromomycin for treating leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania species.

Antiprotozoal agents can have side effects, ranging from mild to severe, depending on the drug and the individual patient's response. It is essential to follow the prescribing physician's instructions carefully when taking these medications and report any adverse reactions promptly.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Chile" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country located in South America, known for its long and narrow geography, diverse landscapes, and rich cultural heritage. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

Food parasitology is not a commonly used term in medical or scientific communities. However, it generally refers to the study of parasites that are transmitted through food, including parasitic protozoa, helminths (worms), and arthropods (e.g., tapeworms, roundworms, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, etc.). Food parasitology involves understanding the life cycles, epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of these foodborne parasites. It is an important field within medical and veterinary parasitology, as well as food safety and public health.

Paleopathology is the study of ancient diseases and injuries as recorded in bones, mummies, and other archaeological remains. It is an interdisciplinary field that combines knowledge from pathology, epidemiology, anthropology, and archaeology to understand the health and disease patterns of past populations. The findings of paleopathology can provide valuable insights into the evolution of diseases, the effectiveness of ancient medical practices, and the impact of environmental and social factors on human health over time. Examples of conditions that may be studied in paleopathology include infectious diseases (such as tuberculosis or leprosy), nutritional deficiencies, trauma, cancer, and genetic disorders.

Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are a group of infectious diseases that primarily affect people living in poverty, in tropical and subtropical areas. These diseases are called "neglected" because they have been largely ignored by medical research and drug development, as well as by global health agencies and pharmaceutical companies.

The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified 20 diseases as NTDs, including:

1. Buruli ulcer
2. Chagas disease
3. Dengue and chikungunya
4. Dracunculiasis (guinea-worm disease)
5. Echinococcosis
6. Endemic treponematoses
7. Foodborne trematodiases
8. Human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness)
9. Leishmaniasis
10. Leprosy (Hansen's disease)
11. Lymphatic filariasis
12. Onchocerciasis (river blindness)
13. Rabies
14. Schistosomiasis
15. Soil-transmitted helminthiases
16. Snakebite envenoming
17. Taeniasis/Cysticercosis
18. Trachoma
19. Mycetoma, chromoblastomycosis and other deep mycoses
20. Yaws (Endemic treponematoses)

These diseases can lead to severe disfigurement, disability, and even death if left untreated. They affect more than 1 billion people worldwide, mainly in low-income countries in Africa, Asia, and the Americas. NTDs also have significant social and economic impacts, contributing to poverty, stigma, discrimination, and exclusion.

Efforts are underway to raise awareness and increase funding for research, prevention, and treatment of NTDs. The WHO has set targets for controlling or eliminating several NTDs by 2030, including dracunculiasis, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, trachoma, and human African trypanosomiasis.

Pyrethrins are a group of naturally occurring organic compounds extracted from the flowers of Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium and Chrysanthemum coccineum. They have been used for centuries as insecticides due to their ability to disrupt the nervous system of insects, leading to paralysis and death. Pyrethrins are composed of six esters, pyrethrin I and II, cinerin I and II, and jasmolin I and II, which have different insecticidal properties but share a similar mode of action. They are commonly used in household insect sprays, pet shampoos, and agricultural applications to control a wide range of pests. However, pyrethrins can be toxic to fish and some beneficial insects, so they must be used with caution.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Peru" is not a medical term. It is a country located in South America, known for its rich history, diverse culture, and beautiful landscapes. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help answer those!

The "Americas" is a term used to refer to the combined landmasses of North America and South America, which are separated by the Isthmus of Panama. The Americas also include numerous islands in the Caribbean Sea, Atlantic Ocean, and Pacific Ocean. This region is home to a diverse range of cultures, ecosystems, and historical sites. It is named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci, who was one of the first Europeans to explore and map parts of South America in the late 15th century.

Insecticides are substances or mixtures of substances intended for preventing, destroying, or mitigating any pest, including insects, arachnids, or other related pests. They can be chemical or biological agents that disrupt the growth, development, or behavior of these organisms, leading to their death or incapacitation. Insecticides are widely used in agriculture, public health, and residential settings for pest control. However, they must be used with caution due to potential risks to non-target organisms and the environment.

Parasitic pregnancy complications refer to a rare condition where a parasitic twin takes over the development of the dominant twin's reproductive system and becomes pregnant. This condition is also known as fetus in fetu or vanishing twin syndrome with a parasitic twin. The parasitic twin may have some organs developed, but it is not fully formed and relies on the dominant twin for survival. The pregnancy can pose risks to the dominant twin, such as abnormal growth patterns, organ damage, and complications during childbirth. This condition is usually detected during prenatal ultrasound examinations.

I believe you are asking for a description or explanation of the indigenous peoples of South America, rather than a "medical definition." A medical definition would typically apply to a condition or disease. Here is some information about the indigenous peoples of South America:

The indigenous peoples of South America are the original inhabitants of the continent and its islands, who lived there before the European colonization. They include a wide variety of ethnic groups, languages, and cultures, with distinct histories and traditions. Many indigenous communities in South America have faced significant challenges, including displacement from their lands, marginalization, and discrimination.

According to estimates by the United Nations, there are approximately 45 million indigenous people in Latin America, of which about 30 million live in South America. They represent around 7% of the total population of South America. Indigenous peoples in South America can be found in all countries, with the largest populations in Bolivia (62%), Guatemala (41%), and Peru (25%).

Indigenous peoples in South America have a rich cultural heritage, including unique languages, arts, and spiritual practices. Many of these cultures are under threat due to globalization, urbanization, and the loss of traditional lands and resources. In recent years, there has been increased recognition of the rights of indigenous peoples in international law, including the right to self-determination, cultural heritage, and free, prior, and informed consent for projects that affect their territories. However, significant challenges remain, and many indigenous communities continue to face violence, discrimination, and poverty.

Host-parasite interactions refer to the relationship between a parasitic organism (the parasite) and its host, which can be an animal, plant, or human body. The parasite lives on or inside the host and derives nutrients from it, often causing harm in the process. This interaction can range from relatively benign to severe, depending on various factors such as the species of the parasite, the immune response of the host, and the duration of infection.

The host-parasite relationship is often categorized based on the degree of harm caused to the host. Parasites that cause little to no harm are called commensals, while those that cause significant damage or disease are called parasitic pathogens. Some parasites can even manipulate their hosts' behavior and physiology to enhance their own survival and reproduction, leading to complex interactions between the two organisms.

Understanding host-parasite interactions is crucial for developing effective strategies to prevent and treat parasitic infections, as well as for understanding the ecological relationships between different species in natural ecosystems.

Parasitemia is a medical term that refers to the presence of parasites, particularly malaria-causing Plasmodium species, in the bloodstream. It is the condition where red blood cells are infected by these parasites, which can lead to various symptoms such as fever, chills, anemia, and organ damage in severe cases. The level of parasitemia is often used to assess the severity of malaria infection and to guide treatment decisions.

A Radioimmunoprecipitation Assay (RIA) is a highly sensitive laboratory technique used to measure the presence and concentration of specific antigens or antibodies in a sample. This technique combines the use of radioisotopes, immunochemistry, and precipitation reactions.

In an RIA, a known quantity of a radioactively labeled antigen (or hapten) is incubated with a sample containing an unknown amount of antibody (or vice versa). If the specific antigen-antibody pair is present in the sample, they will bind together to form an immune complex. This complex can then be selectively precipitated from the solution using a second antibody that recognizes and binds to the first antibody, thus forming an insoluble immune precipitate.

The amount of radioactivity present in the precipitate is directly proportional to the concentration of antigen or antibody in the sample. By comparing this value to a standard curve generated with known concentrations of antigen or antibody, the unknown concentration can be accurately determined. RIAs have been widely used in research and clinical settings for the quantification of various hormones, drugs, vitamins, and other biomolecules. However, due to safety concerns and regulatory restrictions associated with radioisotopes, non-radioactive alternatives like Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISAs) have become more popular in recent years.

Ectoparasitic infestations refer to the invasion and multiplication of parasites, such as lice, fleas, ticks, or mites, on the outer surface of a host organism, typically causing irritation, itching, and other skin disorders. These parasites survive by feeding on the host's blood, skin cells, or other bodily substances, leading to various health issues if left untreated.

Ectoparasitic infestations can occur in humans as well as animals and may require medical intervention for proper diagnosis and treatment. Common symptoms include redness, rash, inflammation, and secondary bacterial or viral infections due to excessive scratching. Preventive measures such as personal hygiene, regular inspections, and avoiding contact with infested individuals or environments can help reduce the risk of ectoparasitic infestations.

Trypanosomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by various species of the protozoan genus Trypanosoma. It is transmitted through the bite of an infected tsetse fly (in African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness) or reduviid bug (in American trypanosomiasis or Chagas disease). The parasites enter the bloodstream and lymphatic system, causing symptoms such as fever, swollen lymph nodes, skin lesions, and muscle pain. Untreated, it can lead to severe neurological complications and death in both forms of the disease. Prevention measures include avoiding insect bites, using insect repellents, and sleeping under insecticide-treated bed nets.

There is no medical definition for "Protozoan Vaccines" as such because there are currently no licensed vaccines available for human protozoan diseases. Protozoa are single-celled microorganisms that can cause various diseases in humans, such as malaria, toxoplasmosis, and leishmaniasis.

Researchers have been working on developing vaccines against some of these diseases, but none have yet been approved for use in humans. Therefore, it is not possible to provide a medical definition for "Protozoan Vaccines" as a recognized category of vaccines.

I'm not sure what you're looking for with the term "Medical definition of 'El Salvador'" as El Salvador is a country and not a medical term. However, I can provide some general information about El Salvador and its healthcare system.

El Salvador is a country located in Central America, bordered by Guatemala to the west, Honduras to the north, and Nicaragua to the east. It has a population of approximately 6.5 million people. The official language is Spanish.

The healthcare system in El Salvador is composed of both public and private sectors. The Ministry of Health oversees the public sector, which includes hospitals, health centers, and clinics that provide free or low-cost services to the population. However, due to limited resources and infrastructure, many people seek care in the private sector, which can be expensive and often requires out-of-pocket payments.

El Salvador faces several challenges in its healthcare system, including high rates of infectious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS, as well as noncommunicable diseases such as diabetes and hypertension. Access to healthcare services can also be limited, particularly in rural areas. The country has made efforts to improve its healthcare system, including the implementation of health reforms aimed at increasing access to care and improving the quality of services.

I hope this information is helpful! If you have any specific questions about El Salvador or its healthcare system, please let me know.

"Didelphis" is a genus of mammals that belongs to the family Didelphidae, which includes opossums. The name "Didelphis" itself is derived from the Greek words "di" meaning two and "delphys" meaning womb, referring to the fact that females of this genus have two separate uteri and two cervices.

The most common species in this genus is Didelphis virginiana, also known as the Virginia opossum or North American opossum. This nocturnal marsupial is native to North America and can be found in a variety of habitats ranging from forests to urban areas. It has a pointed snout, sharp teeth, and a prehensile tail that it uses for climbing and grasping objects.

Didelphis species are known for their adaptability and opportunistic feeding habits. They are omnivores that eat a wide range of foods, including fruits, insects, small mammals, birds, and reptiles. Females give birth to relatively undeveloped young that crawl into a pouch on the mother's belly and continue to develop there for several weeks before becoming independent.

Vertical transmission of infectious diseases refers to the spread of an infection from an infected mother to her offspring during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding. This mode of transmission can occur through several pathways:

1. Transplacental transmission: The infection crosses the placenta and reaches the fetus while it is still in the womb. Examples include HIV, syphilis, and toxoplasmosis.
2. Intrauterine infection: The mother's infection causes direct damage to the developing fetus or its surrounding tissues, leading to complications such as congenital defects. Examples include rubella and cytomegalovirus (CMV).
3. Perinatal transmission: This occurs during childbirth when the infant comes into contact with the mother's infected genital tract or bodily fluids. Examples include group B streptococcus, herpes simplex virus (HSV), and hepatitis B.
4. Postnatal transmission: This occurs after birth, often through breastfeeding, when the infant ingests infected milk or comes into contact with the mother's contaminated bodily fluids. Examples include HIV and HTLV-I (human T-lymphotropic virus type I).

Vertical transmission is a significant concern in public health, as it can lead to severe complications, congenital disabilities, or even death in newborns. Preventive measures, such as prenatal screening, vaccination, and antimicrobial treatment, are crucial for reducing the risk of vertical transmission and ensuring better outcomes for both mothers and their offspring.

An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is a type of analytical biochemistry assay used to detect and quantify the presence of a substance, typically a protein or peptide, in a liquid sample. It takes its name from the enzyme-linked antibodies used in the assay.

In an ELISA, the sample is added to a well containing a surface that has been treated to capture the target substance. If the target substance is present in the sample, it will bind to the surface. Next, an enzyme-linked antibody specific to the target substance is added. This antibody will bind to the captured target substance if it is present. After washing away any unbound material, a substrate for the enzyme is added. If the enzyme is present due to its linkage to the antibody, it will catalyze a reaction that produces a detectable signal, such as a color change or fluorescence. The intensity of this signal is proportional to the amount of target substance present in the sample, allowing for quantification.

ELISAs are widely used in research and clinical settings to detect and measure various substances, including hormones, viruses, and bacteria. They offer high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility, making them a reliable choice for many applications.

Euglenozoa is a group of unicellular organisms that includes both free-living and parasitic species. Two major parasitic groups within Euglenozoa are the kinetoplastids, which include organisms such as Trypanosoma and Leishmania, and the diplonemids.

Trypanosoma infections can cause diseases such as African sleeping sickness (also known as human African trypanosomiasis) and Chagas disease (also known as American trypanosomiasis), while Leishmania infections can cause various forms of leishmaniasis, including cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral leishmaniasis. These diseases are transmitted to humans through the bites of infected insect vectors, such as tsetse flies (in the case of African sleeping sickness) or sandflies (in the case of leishmaniasis and Chagas disease).

Diplonemid infections in humans have not been well-studied, and it is currently unclear whether these organisms are capable of causing disease in humans. However, diplonemids have been found to infect a wide range of marine and freshwater organisms, including fish, crustaceans, and other protists.

In general, euglenozoan infections can cause a variety of symptoms depending on the specific organism involved and the location of the infection within the body. Symptoms may include fever, swelling, skin lesions, anemia, and damage to various organs. Treatment for these infections typically involves the use of antiparasitic drugs, such as pentamidine, suramin, or benznidazole, although the specific treatment approach will depend on the organism involved and the severity of the infection.

Antigens are substances (usually proteins) found on the surface of cells, or viruses, that can be recognized by the immune system and stimulate an immune response. In the context of protozoa, antigens refer to the specific proteins or other molecules found on the surface of these single-celled organisms that can trigger an immune response in a host organism.

Protozoa are a group of microscopic eukaryotic organisms that include a diverse range of species, some of which can cause diseases in humans and animals. When a protozoan infects a host, the host's immune system recognizes the protozoan antigens as foreign and mounts an immune response to eliminate the infection. This response involves the activation of various types of immune cells, such as T-cells and B-cells, which recognize and target the protozoan antigens.

Understanding the nature of protozoan antigens is important for developing vaccines and other immunotherapies to prevent or treat protozoan infections. For example, researchers have identified specific antigens on the surface of the malaria parasite that are recognized by the human immune system and have used this information to develop vaccine candidates. However, many protozoan infections remain difficult to prevent or treat, and further research is needed to identify new targets for vaccines and therapies.

Trypanosoma is a genus of flagellated protozoan parasites belonging to the family Trypanosomatidae. These microscopic single-celled organisms are known to cause various tropical diseases in humans and animals, including Chagas disease (caused by Trypanosoma cruzi) and African sleeping sickness (caused by Trypanosoma brucei).

The life cycle of Trypanosoma involves alternating between an insect vector (like a tsetse fly or kissing bug) and a mammalian host. The parasites undergo complex morphological changes as they move through the different hosts and developmental stages, often exhibiting distinct forms in the insect vector compared to the mammalian host.

Trypanosoma species have an undulating membrane and a single flagellum that helps them move through their environment. They can be transmitted through various routes, including insect vectors, contaminated food or water, or congenital transmission from mother to offspring. The diseases caused by these parasites can lead to severe health complications and may even be fatal if left untreated.

An emigrant is a person who leaves their native country to live permanently in another country. The process of leaving one's country to settle in another is called emigration.

On the other hand, an immigrant is a person who comes to live permanently in a foreign country. The process of coming to live permanently in a new country is called immigration.

So, the main difference between emigrants and immigrants lies in the perspective: emigrants are people leaving their own country, while immigrants are people entering a new country.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Colombia" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in South America, known officially as the Republic of Colombia. If you are looking for medical information related to Colombia or its healthcare system, I would be happy to try to help you with that.

An acute disease is a medical condition that has a rapid onset, develops quickly, and tends to be short in duration. Acute diseases can range from minor illnesses such as a common cold or flu, to more severe conditions such as pneumonia, meningitis, or a heart attack. These types of diseases often have clear symptoms that are easy to identify, and they may require immediate medical attention or treatment.

Acute diseases are typically caused by an external agent or factor, such as a bacterial or viral infection, a toxin, or an injury. They can also be the result of a sudden worsening of an existing chronic condition. In general, acute diseases are distinct from chronic diseases, which are long-term medical conditions that develop slowly over time and may require ongoing management and treatment.

Examples of acute diseases include:

* Acute bronchitis: a sudden inflammation of the airways in the lungs, often caused by a viral infection.
* Appendicitis: an inflammation of the appendix that can cause severe pain and requires surgical removal.
* Gastroenteritis: an inflammation of the stomach and intestines, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.
* Migraine headaches: intense headaches that can last for hours or days, and are often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.
* Myocardial infarction (heart attack): a sudden blockage of blood flow to the heart muscle, often caused by a buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries.
* Pneumonia: an infection of the lungs that can cause coughing, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
* Sinusitis: an inflammation of the sinuses, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.

It's important to note that while some acute diseases may resolve on their own with rest and supportive care, others may require medical intervention or treatment to prevent complications and promote recovery. If you are experiencing symptoms of an acute disease, it is always best to seek medical attention to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment.

Immunochromatography is a rapid and qualitative diagnostic assay that involves the use of immunological reagents, such as antibodies or antigens, to detect the presence or absence of a specific analyte in a sample. It is a type of chromatographic technique that utilizes the properties of antigen-antibody interactions for the detection and quantification of various analytes, including proteins, hormones, drugs, and infectious agents.

The assay typically involves the application of a sample to a porous membrane strip that contains immobilized antibodies or antigens at specific locations. As the sample migrates along the membrane by capillary action, it interacts with these reagents, leading to the formation of visible bands or lines that indicate the presence or absence of the target analyte.

One common type of immunochromatography is lateral flow assay (LFA), which is widely used in point-of-care testing for various applications, such as pregnancy tests, drug screening, and infectious disease diagnosis. LFAs are simple to use, do not require specialized equipment or technical expertise, and provide rapid results within a few minutes.

Overall, immunochromatography is a valuable tool in clinical diagnostics, providing a fast and reliable method for the detection of various analytes in a wide range of samples.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Ecuador" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of a country located in South America, officially known as the "República del Ecuador." If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!

Serologic tests are laboratory tests that detect the presence or absence of antibodies or antigens in a patient's serum (the clear liquid that separates from clotted blood). These tests are commonly used to diagnose infectious diseases, as well as autoimmune disorders and other medical conditions.

In serologic testing for infectious diseases, a sample of the patient's blood is collected and allowed to clot. The serum is then separated from the clot and tested for the presence of antibodies that the body has produced in response to an infection. The test may be used to identify the specific type of infection or to determine whether the infection is active or has resolved.

Serologic tests can also be used to diagnose autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus, by detecting the presence of antibodies that are directed against the body's own tissues. These tests can help doctors confirm a diagnosis and monitor the progression of the disease.

It is important to note that serologic tests are not always 100% accurate and may produce false positive or false negative results. Therefore, they should be interpreted in conjunction with other clinical findings and laboratory test results.

Insect bites and stings refer to the penetration of the skin by insects, such as mosquitoes, fleas, ticks, or bees, often resulting in localized symptoms including redness, swelling, itching, and pain. The reaction can vary depending on the individual's sensitivity and the type of insect. In some cases, systemic reactions like anaphylaxis may occur, which requires immediate medical attention. Treatment typically involves relieving symptoms with topical creams, antihistamines, or in severe cases, epinephrine. Prevention measures include using insect repellent and protective clothing.

Parasitic sensitivity tests, also known as parasite drug susceptibility tests, refer to laboratory methods used to determine the effectiveness of specific antiparasitic medications against a particular parasitic infection. These tests help healthcare providers identify which drugs are most likely to be effective in treating an individual's infection and which ones should be avoided due to resistance or increased risk of side effects.

There are several types of parasitic sensitivity tests, including:

1. In vitro susceptibility testing: This involves culturing the parasite in a laboratory setting and exposing it to different concentrations of antiparasitic drugs. The growth or survival of the parasite is then observed and compared to a control group that was not exposed to the drug. This helps identify the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the drug, which is the lowest concentration required to prevent the growth of the parasite.
2. Molecular testing: This involves analyzing the genetic material of the parasite to detect specific mutations or gene variations that are associated with resistance to certain antiparasitic drugs. This type of testing can be performed using a variety of methods, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing.
3. Phenotypic testing: This involves observing the effects of antiparasitic drugs on the growth or survival of the parasite in a laboratory setting. For example, a parasite may be grown in a culture medium and then exposed to different concentrations of a drug. The growth of the parasite is then monitored over time to determine the drug's effectiveness.

Parasitic sensitivity tests are important for guiding the treatment of many parasitic infections, including malaria, tuberculosis, and leishmaniasis. These tests can help healthcare providers choose the most effective antiparasitic drugs for their patients, reduce the risk of drug resistance, and improve treatment outcomes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Protozoan Proteins" is not a specific medical or scientific term. Protozoa are single-celled eukaryotic organisms, and proteins are large biological molecules consisting of one or more chains of amino acid residues. Therefore, "Protozoan Proteins" generally refers to the various types of proteins found in protozoa.

However, if you're looking for information about proteins specific to certain protozoan parasites with medical relevance (such as Plasmodium falciparum, which causes malaria), I would be happy to help! Please provide more context or specify the particular protozoan of interest.

Reduviidae is a family of insects in the order Hemiptera, also known as "assassin bugs." These insects are named for their long, narrow bodies and piercing-sucking mouthparts that they use to feed on other insects and sometimes small vertebrates. Some species of Reduviidae are known to be hematophagous (blood-feeding) and can transmit diseases to humans and animals, such as Chagas disease, which is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and transmitted through the feces of infected triatomine bugs. However, most species of Reduviidae are beneficial predators that help control pest insect populations in natural ecosystems.

Medical topography refers to the detailed description and mapping of the locations and relative positions of various anatomical structures, abnormalities, or lesions in the body. It is often used in the context of imaging techniques such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans, where it helps to visualize and communicate the spatial relationships between different bodily features. Medical topography may also involve the use of physical examination, surgical exploration, or other diagnostic methods to gather information about the location and extent of medical conditions.

In summary, medical topography is a detailed mapping and description of the location and position of anatomical structures or pathological changes in the body.

A blood donor is a person who voluntarily gives their own blood or blood components to be used for the benefit of another person in need. The blood donation process involves collecting the donor's blood, testing it for infectious diseases, and then storing it until it is needed by a patient. There are several types of blood donations, including:

1. Whole blood donation: This is the most common type of blood donation, where a donor gives one unit (about 450-500 milliliters) of whole blood. The blood is then separated into its components (red cells, plasma, and platelets) for transfusion to patients with different needs.
2. Double red cell donation: In this type of donation, the donor's blood is collected using a special machine that separates two units of red cells from the whole blood. The remaining plasma and platelets are returned to the donor during the donation process. This type of donation can be done every 112 days.
3. Platelet donation: A donor's blood is collected using a special machine that separates platelets from the whole blood. The red cells and plasma are then returned to the donor during the donation process. This type of donation can be done every seven days, up to 24 times a year.
4. Plasma donation: A donor's blood is collected using a special machine that separates plasma from the whole blood. The red cells and platelets are then returned to the donor during the donation process. This type of donation can be done every 28 days, up to 13 times a year.

Blood donors must meet certain eligibility criteria, such as being in good health, aged between 18 and 65 (in some countries, the upper age limit may vary), and weighing over 50 kg (110 lbs). Donors are also required to answer medical questionnaires and undergo a mini-physical examination before each donation. The frequency of blood donations varies depending on the type of donation and the donor's health status.

A disease reservoir refers to a population or group of living organisms, including humans, animals, and even plants, that can naturally carry and transmit a particular pathogen (disease-causing agent) without necessarily showing symptoms of the disease themselves. These hosts serve as a source of infection for other susceptible individuals, allowing the pathogen to persist and circulate within a community or environment.

Disease reservoirs can be further classified into:

1. **Primary (or Main) Reservoir**: This refers to the species that primarily harbors and transmits the pathogen, contributing significantly to its natural ecology and maintaining its transmission cycle. For example, mosquitoes are the primary reservoirs for many arboviruses like dengue, Zika, and chikungunya viruses.

2. **Amplifying Hosts**: These hosts can become infected with the pathogen and experience a high rate of replication, leading to an increased concentration of the pathogen in their bodies. This allows for efficient transmission to other susceptible hosts or vectors. For instance, birds are amplifying hosts for West Nile virus, as they can become viremic (have high levels of virus in their blood) and infect feeding mosquitoes that then transmit the virus to other animals and humans.

3. **Dead-end Hosts**: These hosts may become infected with the pathogen but do not contribute significantly to its transmission cycle, as they either do not develop sufficient quantities of the pathogen to transmit it or do not come into contact with potential vectors or susceptible hosts. For example, humans are dead-end hosts for many zoonotic diseases like rabies, as they cannot transmit the virus to other humans.

Understanding disease reservoirs is crucial in developing effective strategies for controlling and preventing infectious diseases, as it helps identify key species and environments that contribute to their persistence and transmission.

Emigration is the process of leaving one's country of origin or habitual residence to settle in another country. It involves giving up the rights and privileges associated with citizenship in the country of origin and acquiring new rights and responsibilities as a citizen or resident of the destination country. Emigrants are people who choose to leave their native land to live elsewhere, often driven by factors such as economic opportunities, political instability, or conflict.

Immigration, on the other hand, is the process of entering and settling in a new country with the intention of becoming a permanent resident or citizen. Immigrants are individuals who come from another country to live in a new place, often seeking better job opportunities, education, or quality of life. They must comply with the immigration laws and regulations of the host country and may be required to undergo medical examinations, background checks, and other screening processes before being granted permission to enter and reside in the country.

In summary, emigration refers to leaving one's home country, while immigration refers to entering and settling in a new country.

A rural population refers to people who live in areas that are outside of urban areas, typically defined as having fewer than 2,000 residents and lacking certain infrastructure and services such as running water, sewage systems, and paved roads. Rural populations often have less access to healthcare services, education, and economic opportunities compared to their urban counterparts. This population group can face unique health challenges, including higher rates of poverty, limited access to specialized medical care, and a greater exposure to environmental hazards such as agricultural chemicals and industrial pollutants.

Cytochromes b are a group of electron transport proteins that contain a heme c group, which is the prosthetic group responsible for their redox activity. They play a crucial role in the electron transport chain (ETC) located in the inner mitochondrial membrane of eukaryotic cells and in the plasma membrane of prokaryotic cells.

The cytochromes b are part of Complex III, also known as the cytochrome bc1 complex or ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase, in the ETC. In this complex, they function as electron carriers between ubiquinone (Q) and cytochrome c, participating in the process of oxidative phosphorylation to generate ATP.

There are multiple isoforms of cytochromes b found in various organisms, with different numbers of subunits and structures. However, they all share a common function as essential components of the electron transport chain, facilitating the transfer of electrons during cellular respiration and energy production.

14-alpha Demethylase Inhibitors are a class of antifungal medications that work by inhibiting the enzyme 14-alpha demethylase, which is essential for the synthesis of ergosterol, a critical component of fungal cell membranes. By inhibiting this enzyme, the drugs disrupt the structure and function of the fungal cell membrane, leading to fungal cell death.

Examples of 14-alpha Demethylase Inhibitors include:

* Fluconazole (Diflucan)
* Itraconazole (Sporanox)
* Ketoconazole (Nizoral)
* Posaconazole (Noxafil)
* Voriconazole (Vfend)

These medications are used to treat a variety of fungal infections, including candidiasis, aspergillosis, and cryptococcosis. However, they can also have significant drug-drug interactions and toxicities, so their use must be monitored closely by healthcare professionals.

Gordonia bacterium is a type of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that belongs to the family Gordoniaceae. These bacteria are typically found in soil, water, and clinical specimens such as respiratory secretions, wounds, and blood. They are catalase-positive and oxidase-negative, and many species can produce colonies with a distinctive orange or pink color due to the production of pigments such as gordoniabactin.

Gordonia species are generally considered to be low-virulence organisms, but they have been associated with various types of infections, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. These infections can include respiratory tract infections, catheter-related bloodstream infections, and skin and soft tissue infections.

Gordonia species are often resistant to many antibiotics, including beta-lactams, macrolides, and aminoglycosides. Therefore, identification of the specific Gordonia species and susceptibility testing are important for guiding appropriate antimicrobial therapy.

A protozoan genome refers to the complete set of genetic material or DNA present in a protozoan organism. Protozoa are single-celled eukaryotic microorganisms that lack cell walls and have diverse morphology and nutrition modes. The genome of a protozoan includes all the genes that code for proteins, as well as non-coding DNA sequences that regulate gene expression and other cellular processes.

The size and complexity of protozoan genomes can vary widely depending on the species. Some protozoa have small genomes with only a few thousand genes, while others have larger genomes with tens of thousands of genes or more. The genome sequencing of various protozoan species has provided valuable insights into their evolutionary history, biology, and potential as model organisms for studying eukaryotic cellular processes.

It is worth noting that the study of protozoan genomics is still an active area of research, and new discoveries are continually being made about the genetic diversity and complexity of these fascinating microorganisms.

Wild animals are those species of animals that are not domesticated or tamed by humans and live in their natural habitats without regular human intervention. They can include a wide variety of species, ranging from mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, to insects and other invertebrates.

Wild animals are adapted to survive in specific environments and have behaviors, physical traits, and social structures that enable them to find food, shelter, and mates. They can be found in various habitats such as forests, grasslands, deserts, oceans, rivers, and mountains. Some wild animals may come into contact with human populations, particularly in urban areas where their natural habitats have been destroyed or fragmented.

It is important to note that the term "wild" does not necessarily mean that an animal is aggressive or dangerous. While some wild animals can be potentially harmful to humans if provoked or threatened, many are generally peaceful and prefer to avoid contact with people. However, it is essential to respect their natural behaviors and habitats and maintain a safe distance from them to prevent any potential conflicts or harm to either party.

Mite infestations refer to the presence and multiplication of mites, which are tiny arthropods belonging to the class Arachnida, on or inside a host's body. This can occur in various sites such as the skin, lungs, or gastrointestinal tract, depending on the specific mite species.

Skin infestations by mites, also known as dermatophilosis or mange, are common and may cause conditions like scabies (caused by Sarcoptes scabiei) or demodecosis (caused by Demodex spp.). These conditions can lead to symptoms such as itching, rash, and skin lesions.

Lung infestations by mites, although rare, can occur in people who work in close contact with mites, such as farmers or laboratory workers. This condition is called "mite lung" or "farmer's lung," which is often caused by exposure to high levels of dust containing mite feces and dead mites.

Gastrointestinal infestations by mites can occur in animals but are extremely rare in humans. The most common example is the intestinal roundworm, which belongs to the phylum Nematoda rather than Arachnida.

It's important to note that mite infestations can be treated with appropriate medical interventions and prevention measures.

Sterol 14-demethylase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the biosynthesis of sterols, particularly ergosterol in fungi and cholesterol in animals. This enzyme is classified as a cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme and is located in the endoplasmic reticulum.

The function of sterol 14-demethylase is to remove methyl groups from the sterol molecule at the 14th position, which is a necessary step in the biosynthesis of ergosterol or cholesterol. Inhibition of this enzyme can disrupt the normal functioning of cell membranes and lead to various physiological changes, including impaired growth and development.

Sterol 14-demethylase inhibitors (SDIs) are a class of antifungal drugs that target this enzyme and are used to treat fungal infections. Examples of SDIs include fluconazole, itraconazole, and ketoconazole. These drugs work by binding to the heme group of the enzyme and inhibiting its activity, leading to the accumulation of toxic sterol intermediates and disruption of fungal cell membranes.

Tropical medicine is a branch of medicine that deals with health problems that are prevalent in or unique to tropical and subtropical regions. These regions are typically characterized by hot and humid climates, and often have distinct ecological systems that can contribute to the spread of infectious diseases.

The field of tropical medicine encompasses a wide range of health issues, including:

1. Infectious diseases: Many tropical diseases are caused by infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi. Some of the most common infectious diseases in the tropics include malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, chikungunya, Zika virus, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, and Chagas disease.
2. Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs): A group of chronic infectious diseases that primarily affect poor and marginalized populations in the tropics. NTDs include diseases such as human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), leprosy, Buruli ulcer, and dracunculiasis (guinea worm disease).
3. Zoonotic diseases: Diseases that are transmitted between animals and humans, often through insect vectors or contaminated food and water. Examples of zoonotic diseases in the tropics include rabies, leptospirosis, and Rift Valley fever.
4. Environmental health issues: The tropical environment can pose unique health challenges, such as exposure to toxic chemicals, heat stress, and poor air quality. Tropical medicine also addresses these environmental health issues.
5. Travel medicine: As global travel increases, there is a growing need for medical professionals who are knowledgeable about the health risks associated with traveling to tropical destinations. Tropical medicine physicians often provide pre-travel consultations and post-travel evaluations for international travelers.

Overall, tropical medicine is an essential field that addresses the unique health challenges faced by populations living in or traveling to tropical and subtropical regions.

Chromosomes in insects are thread-like structures that contain genetic material, made up of DNA and proteins, found in the nucleus of a cell. In insects, like other eukaryotes, chromosomes come in pairs, with one set inherited from each parent. They are crucial for the inheritance, storage, and transmission of genetic information from one generation to the next.

Insects typically have a diploid number of chromosomes (2n), which varies among species. The chromosomes are present in the cell's nucleus during interphase as loosely coiled structures called chromatin. During cell division, they condense and become visible under the microscope as distinct, X-shaped structures called metaphase chromosomes.

The insect chromosome set includes autosomal chromosomes, which are identical in appearance and function between males and females, and sex chromosomes, which differ between males and females. In many insects, the males have an XY sex chromosome constitution, while the females have an XX sex chromosome constitution. The sex chromosomes carry genes that determine the sex of the individual.

Insect chromosomes play a vital role in various biological processes, including development, reproduction, and evolution. They are also essential for genetic research and breeding programs in agriculture and medicine.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

Hemagglutination tests are laboratory procedures used to detect the presence of antibodies or antigens in a sample, typically in blood serum. These tests rely on the ability of certain substances, such as viruses or bacteria, to agglutinate (clump together) red blood cells.

In a hemagglutination test, a small amount of the patient's serum is mixed with a known quantity of red blood cells that have been treated with a specific antigen. If the patient has antibodies against that antigen in their serum, they will bind to the antigens on the red blood cells and cause them to agglutinate. This clumping can be observed visually, indicating a positive test result.

Hemagglutination tests are commonly used to diagnose infectious diseases caused by viruses or bacteria that have hemagglutinating properties, such as influenza, parainfluenza, and HIV. They can also be used in blood typing and cross-matching before transfusions.

Defecation is the medical term for the act of passing stools (feces) through the anus. It is a normal bodily function that involves the contraction of muscles in the colon and anal sphincter to release waste from the body. Defecation is usually a regular and daily occurrence, with the frequency varying from person to person.

The stool is made up of undigested food, bacteria, and other waste products that are eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus. The process of defecation is controlled by the autonomic nervous system, which regulates involuntary bodily functions such as heart rate and digestion.

Difficulties with defecation can occur due to various medical conditions, including constipation, irritable bowel syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease. These conditions can cause symptoms such as hard or painful stools, straining during bowel movements, and a feeling of incomplete evacuation. If you are experiencing any problems with defecation, it is important to speak with your healthcare provider for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

Arecaceae is the scientific name for the family of plants that includes palm trees. It is a large and diverse family with over 2,600 known species, distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The plants in this family are characterized by their long, unbranched stems, which can be underground or aboveground, and their large, compound leaves that are arranged in a crown at the top of the stem.

The fruits of many Arecaceae species are also economically important, including coconuts, dates, and acai berries. In addition to their use as food sources, palm trees have many other uses, such as providing materials for construction, fiber for making ropes and baskets, and shade in tropical environments.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "population density" is actually a term used in population geography and epidemiology, rather than medical terminology. It refers to the number of people living in a specific area or region, usually measured as the number of people per square mile or square kilometer.

However, understanding population density can be important in public health and medicine because it can influence various factors related to health outcomes and healthcare delivery, such as:

1. Disease transmission rates: Higher population densities can facilitate the spread of infectious diseases, particularly those that are transmitted through close contact between individuals.
2. Access to healthcare services: Areas with lower population density might have fewer healthcare resources and providers available, making it more challenging for residents to access necessary medical care.
3. Health disparities: Population density can contribute to health inequities, as urban areas often have better access to healthcare, education, and economic opportunities than rural areas, leading to differences in health outcomes between these populations.
4. Environmental factors: Higher population densities might lead to increased pollution, noise, and other environmental hazards that can negatively impact health.

Therefore, while "population density" is not a medical definition per se, it remains an essential concept for understanding various public health and healthcare issues.

"Agelas" is a genus of demosponges, also known as marine sponges, that belong to the family Agelasidae. These sponges are commonly found in tropical and subtropical waters around the world. They are known for their distinctive skeletal structures, which are made up of fused spicules (small, needle-like structures) that form a rigid framework. Some species of Agelas contain compounds with potential medicinal properties, such as anti-inflammatory and antiviral agents. However, there is no specific medical definition or use of the term "Agelas."

Domestic animals, also known as domestic animals or pets, are species that have been tamed and kept by humans for various purposes. These purposes can include companionship, work, protection, or food production. Some common examples of domestic animals include dogs, cats, cows, sheep, goats, pigs, horses, and chickens.

Domestic animals are distinguished from wild animals in that they are dependent on humans for their survival and are able to live in close proximity to people. They have often been selectively bred over generations to possess certain traits or characteristics that make them more suitable for their intended uses. For example, dogs may be bred for their size, strength, agility, or temperament, while cats may be bred for their coat patterns or behaviors.

It is important to note that the term "domestic animal" does not necessarily mean that an animal is tame or safe to handle. Some domestic animals, such as certain breeds of dogs, can be aggressive or dangerous if not properly trained and managed. It is always important to approach and handle any animal, domestic or wild, with caution and respect.

"Piper" is not a medical term. It is a genus of plants in the family Piperaceae, which includes black pepper and many other species. In some cases, "piper" may refer to piperazine, a class of medications used to treat various conditions such as intestinal worm infections and symptoms of mental disorders. However, it's not a commonly used medical term.

Feeding behavior refers to the various actions and mechanisms involved in the intake of food and nutrition for the purpose of sustaining life, growth, and health. This complex process encompasses a coordinated series of activities, including:

1. Food selection: The identification, pursuit, and acquisition of appropriate food sources based on sensory cues (smell, taste, appearance) and individual preferences.
2. Preparation: The manipulation and processing of food to make it suitable for consumption, such as chewing, grinding, or chopping.
3. Ingestion: The act of transferring food from the oral cavity into the digestive system through swallowing.
4. Digestion: The mechanical and chemical breakdown of food within the gastrointestinal tract to facilitate nutrient absorption and eliminate waste products.
5. Assimilation: The uptake and utilization of absorbed nutrients by cells and tissues for energy production, growth, repair, and maintenance.
6. Elimination: The removal of undigested material and waste products from the body through defecation.

Feeding behavior is regulated by a complex interplay between neural, hormonal, and psychological factors that help maintain energy balance and ensure adequate nutrient intake. Disruptions in feeding behavior can lead to various medical conditions, such as malnutrition, obesity, eating disorders, and gastrointestinal motility disorders.

Myocarditis is an inflammation of the myocardium, which is the middle layer of the heart wall. The myocardium is composed of cardiac muscle cells and is responsible for the heart's pumping function. Myocarditis can be caused by various infectious and non-infectious agents, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, autoimmune diseases, toxins, and drugs.

In myocarditis, the inflammation can damage the cardiac muscle cells, leading to decreased heart function, arrhythmias (irregular heart rhythms), and in severe cases, heart failure or even sudden death. Symptoms of myocarditis may include chest pain, shortness of breath, fatigue, palpitations, and swelling in the legs, ankles, or abdomen.

The diagnosis of myocarditis is often based on a combination of clinical presentation, laboratory tests, electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and endomyocardial biopsy. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and severity of the disease and may include medications to support heart function, reduce inflammation, control arrhythmias, and prevent further damage to the heart muscle. In some cases, hospitalization and intensive care may be necessary.

'Life cycle stages' is a term used in the context of public health and medicine to describe the different stages that an organism goes through during its lifetime. This concept is particularly important in the field of epidemiology, where understanding the life cycle stages of infectious agents (such as bacteria, viruses, parasites) can help inform strategies for disease prevention and control.

The life cycle stages of an infectious agent may include various forms such as spores, cysts, trophozoites, schizonts, or vectors, among others, depending on the specific organism. Each stage may have different characteristics, such as resistance to environmental factors, susceptibility to drugs, and ability to transmit infection.

For example, the life cycle stages of the malaria parasite include sporozoites (the infective form transmitted by mosquitoes), merozoites (the form that infects red blood cells), trophozoites (the feeding stage inside red blood cells), schizonts (the replicating stage inside red blood cells), and gametocytes (the sexual stage that can be taken up by mosquitoes to continue the life cycle).

Understanding the life cycle stages of an infectious agent is critical for developing effective interventions, such as vaccines, drugs, or other control measures. For example, targeting a specific life cycle stage with a drug may prevent transmission or reduce the severity of disease. Similarly, designing a vaccine to elicit immunity against a particular life cycle stage may provide protection against infection or disease.

Entomology is the scientific study of insects, including their behavior, classification, and evolution. It is a branch of zoology that deals with the systematic study of insects and their relationship with humans, animals, and the environment. Entomologists may specialize in various areas such as medical entomology, agricultural entomology, or forensic entomology, among others. Medical entomology focuses on the study of insects that can transmit diseases to humans and animals, while agricultural entomology deals with insects that affect crops and livestock. Forensic entomology involves using insects found in crime scenes to help determine the time of death or other relevant information for legal investigations.

"Rodentia" is not a medical term, but a taxonomic category in biology. It refers to the largest order of mammals, comprising over 40% of all mammal species. Commonly known as rodents, this group includes mice, rats, hamsters, gerbils, guinea pigs, squirrels, prairie dogs, capybaras, beavers, and many others.

While "Rodentia" itself is not a medical term, certain conditions or issues related to rodents can have medical implications. For instance, rodents are known to carry and transmit various diseases that can affect humans, such as hantavirus, leptospirosis, salmonellosis, and lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCMV). Therefore, understanding the biology and behavior of rodents is important in the context of public health and preventive medicine.

Antiparasitic agents are a type of medication used to treat parasitic infections. These agents include a wide range of drugs that work to destroy, inhibit the growth of, or otherwise eliminate parasites from the body. Parasites are organisms that live on or inside a host and derive nutrients at the host's expense.

Antiparasitic agents can be divided into several categories based on the type of parasite they target. Some examples include:

* Antimalarial agents: These drugs are used to treat and prevent malaria, which is caused by a parasite that is transmitted through the bites of infected mosquitoes.
* Antiprotozoal agents: These drugs are used to treat infections caused by protozoa, which are single-celled organisms that can cause diseases such as giardiasis, amoebic dysentery, and sleeping sickness.
* Antihelminthic agents: These drugs are used to treat infections caused by helminths, which are parasitic worms that can infect various organs of the body, including the intestines, lungs, and skin. Examples include roundworms, tapeworms, and flukes.

Antiparasitic agents work in different ways to target parasites. Some disrupt the parasite's metabolism or interfere with its ability to reproduce. Others damage the parasite's membrane or exoskeleton, leading to its death. The specific mechanism of action depends on the type of antiparasitic agent and the parasite it is targeting.

It is important to note that while antiparasitic agents can be effective in treating parasitic infections, they can also have side effects and potential risks. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any antiparasitic medication to ensure safe and appropriate use.

Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG) is a medical procedure that records the electrical activity of the heart. It provides a graphic representation of the electrical changes that occur during each heartbeat. The resulting tracing, called an electrocardiogram, can reveal information about the heart's rate and rhythm, as well as any damage to its cells or abnormalities in its conduction system.

During an ECG, small electrodes are placed on the skin of the chest, arms, and legs. These electrodes detect the electrical signals produced by the heart and transmit them to a machine that amplifies and records them. The procedure is non-invasive, painless, and quick, usually taking only a few minutes.

ECGs are commonly used to diagnose and monitor various heart conditions, including arrhythmias, coronary artery disease, heart attacks, and electrolyte imbalances. They can also be used to evaluate the effectiveness of certain medications or treatments.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Spain" is not a medical term. It is a country located in southwestern Europe. If you have any questions about medical terms or topics, I would be happy to help answer them.

Mandatory testing refers to the practice of requiring individuals to undergo medical testing, typically for infectious diseases, as a condition for certain activities or privileges. This can include testing before starting a new job, entering school, receiving medical treatment, or participating in group activities. The purpose of mandatory testing is to protect public health by identifying and isolating infected individuals to prevent the spread of disease. It is important to note that mandatory testing must be implemented in accordance with legal and ethical guidelines to ensure individual rights and privacy are respected.

I apologize, but "Costa Rica" is not a medical term or concept. Costa Rica is a country located in Central America, known for its rich biodiversity and progressive environmental policies. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

An "ecosystem" is not a term that has a specific medical definition, as it is a concept that is more commonly used in the fields of ecology and environmental science. However, I can provide you with the general ecological definition of an ecosystem:

An ecosystem is a community of living organisms interacting with each other and their non-living environment, including both biotic factors (plants, animals, microorganisms) and abiotic factors (climate, soil, water, and air). These interactions create a complex network of relationships that form the foundation of ecological processes, such as energy flow, nutrient cycling, and population dynamics.

While there is no direct medical definition for an ecosystem, understanding the principles of ecosystems can have important implications for human health. For example, healthy ecosystems can provide clean air and water, regulate climate, support food production, and offer opportunities for recreation and relaxation, all of which contribute to overall well-being. Conversely, degraded ecosystems can lead to increased exposure to environmental hazards, reduced access to natural resources, and heightened risks of infectious diseases. Therefore, maintaining the health and integrity of ecosystems is crucial for promoting human health and preventing disease.

Parasitology is a branch of biology that deals with the study of parasites, their life cycles, the relationship between parasites and their hosts, the transmission of parasitic diseases, and the development of methods for their control and elimination. It involves understanding various types of parasites including protozoa, helminths, and arthropods that can infect humans, animals, and plants. Parasitologists also study the evolution, genetics, biochemistry, and ecology of parasites to develop effective strategies for their diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.

Parasitic diseases are infections or illnesses caused by parasites, which are organisms that live and feed on host organisms, often causing harm. Parasites can be protozoans (single-celled organisms), helminths (worms), or ectoparasites (ticks, mites, fleas). These diseases can affect various body systems and cause a range of symptoms, depending on the type of parasite and the location of infection. They are typically spread through contaminated food or water, insect vectors, or direct contact with an infected host or contaminated environment. Examples of parasitic diseases include malaria, giardiasis, toxoplasmosis, ascariasis, and leishmaniasis.

I'm not a medical professional, but the term "History, Ancient" is not a medical term per se. However, in a broader context, it could refer to the study of ancient medical practices, theories, and beliefs that existed in civilizations prior to the Middle Ages or Classical Antiquity. This might include the examination of ancient texts, artifacts, and archaeological evidence to understand how illnesses were treated and viewed in these historical periods. It forms an essential part of the evolution of medical knowledge and practices over time.

Esophageal achalasia is a rare disorder of the esophagus, the tube that carries food from the mouth to the stomach. In this condition, the muscles at the lower end of the esophagus fail to relax properly during swallowing, making it difficult for food and liquids to pass into the stomach. This results in symptoms such as difficulty swallowing (dysphagia), regurgitation of food, chest pain, and weight loss. The cause of esophageal achalasia is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to damage to the nerves that control the muscles of the esophagus. Treatment options include medications to relax the lower esophageal sphincter, botulinum toxin injections, and surgical procedures such as laparoscopic Heller myotomy or peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM).

Leishmaniasis is a complex of diseases caused by the protozoan parasites of the Leishmania species, which are transmitted to humans through the bite of infected female phlebotomine sandflies. The disease presents with a variety of clinical manifestations, depending upon the Leishmania species involved and the host's immune response.

There are three main forms of leishmaniasis: cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL), and visceral leishmaniasis (VL), also known as kala-azar. CL typically presents with skin ulcers, while MCL is characterized by the destruction of mucous membranes in the nose, mouth, and throat. VL, the most severe form, affects internal organs such as the spleen, liver, and bone marrow, causing symptoms like fever, weight loss, anemia, and enlarged liver and spleen.

Leishmaniasis is prevalent in many tropical and subtropical regions, including parts of Asia, Africa, South America, and southern Europe. The prevention strategies include using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and improving housing conditions to minimize exposure to sandflies. Effective treatment options are available for leishmaniasis, depending on the form and severity of the disease, geographical location, and the Leishmania species involved.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

Genes in protozoa refer to the hereditary units of these single-celled organisms that carry genetic information necessary for their growth, development, and reproduction. These genes are made up of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) molecules, which contain sequences of nucleotide bases that code for specific proteins or RNA molecules. Protozoan genes are responsible for various functions, such as metabolism, response to environmental stimuli, and reproduction.

It is important to note that the study of protozoan genes has contributed significantly to our understanding of genetics and evolution, particularly in areas such as molecular biology, cell biology, and genomics. However, there is still much to be learned about the genetic diversity and complexity of these organisms, which continue to be an active area of research.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

Population surveillance in a public health and medical context refers to the ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of health-related data for a defined population over time. It aims to monitor the health status, identify emerging health threats or trends, and evaluate the impact of interventions within that population. This information is used to inform public health policy, prioritize healthcare resources, and guide disease prevention and control efforts. Population surveillance can involve various data sources, such as vital records, disease registries, surveys, and electronic health records.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Dogs" is not a medical term or condition. It is the common name for a domesticated carnivore of the family Canidae, specifically the genus Canis, which includes wolves, foxes, and other extant and extinct species of mammals. Dogs are often kept as pets and companions, and they have been bred in a wide variety of forms and sizes for different purposes, such as hunting, herding, guarding, assisting police and military forces, and providing companionship and emotional support.

If you meant to ask about a specific medical condition or term related to dogs, please provide more context so I can give you an accurate answer.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "geography" is not a term that has a medical definition. Geography is a field of study that deals with the location and distribution of physical and cultural features on Earth's surface, as well as how humans interact with and affect those features. It is not a concept that is typically used in a medical context. If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you!

Phylogeography is not a medical term, but rather a subfield of biogeography and phylogenetics that investigates the spatial distribution of genealogical lineages and the historical processes that have shaped them. It uses genetic data to infer the geographic origins, dispersal routes, and demographic history of organisms, including pathogens and vectors that can affect human health.

In medical and public health contexts, phylogeography is often used to study the spread of infectious diseases, such as HIV/AIDS, influenza, or tuberculosis, by analyzing the genetic diversity and geographic distribution of pathogen isolates. This information can help researchers understand how diseases emerge, evolve, and move across populations and landscapes, which can inform disease surveillance, control, and prevention strategies.

... at Curlie Chagas information at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control Chagas information from the Drugs for ... Chagas disease is classified as a neglected tropical disease. Chagas disease occurs in two stages: an acute stage, which ... "Chagas Disease in Europe". In Marcelo Altcheh J, Freilij H (ed.). Chagas Disease. Birkhäuser Advances in Infectious Diseases. ... "Diagnosis of Chagas Disease". In Marcelo Altcheh J, Freilij H (ed.). Chagas Disease. Birkhäuser Advances in Infectious Diseases ...
... diseases/news/world-Chagas-day-approved/en/ World Chagas Disease Day: raising awareness of neglected tropical diseases. (2020, ... diseases/news/world-Chagas-day-approved/en/ World Chagas Disease Day: raising awareness of neglected tropical diseases. (2020, ... World Chagas Disease Day is observed on April 14 to raise awareness around Chagas disease. It was first celebrated on April 14 ... "World Chagas Disease Day 2020". www.who.int. Retrieved 2020-04-16. "World Chagas Disease Day highlights 'silent and silenced' ...
Carlos Justiniano Ribeiro Chagas. WhoNamedIt. Dr. Carlos Chagas Historical aspects of Chagas disease. Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. ( ... Chagas additionally discovered that the parasite was responsible for a deadly heart disease now known as Chagas heart disease ... In 1922, Chagas became member of the Health Committee of the League of Nations. Since 2020, The World Chagas Disease Day is ... To complete his work on the pathology of the new disease, Chagas described 27 cases of the acute form of the disease and ...
"Chagas disease". www.who.int. Retrieved 2022-11-16. Guarneri, A. A., Pereira, M. H., and Diotaiuti, L. (2000). Influence of the ... Also referred to as kissing bugs, T. sordida are most well known for their role as a secondary vector of Chagas Disease. ... Lazzari, C. R., Pereira, M. H., Lorenzo, M. G. (2013). Behavioural Biology of Chagas Disease Vectors. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz, ... The Triatoma genera are important vectors of Chagas Disease, transmitting the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi via their frass. When ...
"Parasites - American Trypanosomiasis (also known as Chagas Disease)". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). ... "Safety Profile of Nifurtimox for Treatment of Chagas Disease in the United States". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 63 (8): 1056- ... "Tolerance and safety of nifurtimox in patients with chronic chagas disease". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 51 (10): e69-e75. ... In Chagas disease it is a second-line option to benznidazole. It is given by mouth. Common side effects include abdominal pain ...
"Chagas disease". World Health Organization. March 2016. Archived from the original on 27 February 2014. Retrieved 7 December ... Castro JA, de Mecca MM, Bartel LC (August 2006). "Toxic side effects of drugs used to treat Chagas' disease (American ... "FDA approves first U.S. treatment for Chagas disease". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (Press release). 29 August 2017 ... Benznidazole is an antiparasitic medication used in the treatment of Chagas disease. While it is highly effective in early ...
Living kissing bugs are blood-sucking insects responsible for the transmission of Chagas disease. Chagas is a parasitic disease ... "Chagas disease". www.who.int. Retrieved 2023-04-06. Cruickshank, R.D; Ko, Ko (February 2003). "Geology of an amber locality in ...
Chagas disease may cause constipation through the destruction of the myenteric plexus. Voluntary withholding of the stool is a ... Underlying associated diseases include hypothyroidism, diabetes, Parkinson's disease, celiac disease, non-celiac gluten ... Digestive disease symptoms, Diseases of intestines, Nursing diagnoses, Waterborne diseases, Wikipedia medicine articles ready ... Pérez-Molina, José A.; Molina, Israel (6 January 2018). "Chagas disease". The Lancet. 391 (10115): 82-94. doi:10.1016/S0140- ...
The parasite causes a disease called Chagas disease, in which acute infections around an insect bite can lead to more serious ... "Chagas Disease". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2017-05-02. Retrieved 2019-03-09. "CDC - Leishmaniasis - ... Another parasite, Leishmania donovani, is the causative agent for leishmaniasis, a similar tropical disease that is spread by ... and peripheral artery disease. If untreated, it can also lead to plaque accumulation in blood vessels, which is known as ...
"CDC - Chagas Disease - General Information". 13 April 2022. "Chagas disease". "Thripidae - an overview , ScienceDirect Topics ... Chagas Disease - Detailed Fact Sheet". 11 April 2022. "Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from Mayo Clinic - Mayo Clinic". ... are causing a resurgence in zoonotic disease across the world. Examples of vector-borne zoonotic diseases include: Lyme disease ... Current Research in Parasitology and Vector-borne Diseases Science Direct, Vector-borne Diseases CDC Diseases Carried by ...
"PAHO , Chagas disease". Weirauch, Christiane; Munro, James B. (October 2009). "Molecular phylogeny of the assassin bugs ( ... The Vectors of Chagas". Advances in Parasitology. 75: 169-192. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-385863-4.00008-3. ISBN 9780123858634. PMID ... The family members are almost all predatory, except for a few blood-sucking species, some of which are important as disease ... several of these haematophagous Central and South American species transmit the potentially fatal trypanosomal Chagas disease, ...
... the eldest son of Carlos Chagas (1879-1934), noted physician and scientist who discovered Chagas disease, and brother of Carlos ... Being one of the pioneers in the use of electrocardiography has made significant contributions on Chagas disease. He conducted ... Leishmaniasis and Chagas Disease. He also created, in 1936, the Institute of Experimental Pathology of North (in Portuguese: ... Chagas disease, 20th-century Brazilian physicians, Victims of aviation accidents or incidents in Brazil, Victims of aviation ...
Chagas disease and the US blood supply. Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis. 21: 476-482. CrossRef, PubMed "Triatoma indictiva" at the ... Chagas disease and the US blood supply. Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis. 21: 476-482. CrossRef, PubMed (WHO) World Health Organization ... Chagas disease. Lancet 375: 1388-1402. CrossRef, PubMed "ITIS Standard Report." ITIS Standard Report. N.p., 04 Nov. 2013. Web. ... T. indictiva is one of the main vectors of T. cruzi, the hemoflagellate protozoan that causes Chagas disease. T. cruzi is ...
ISBN 978-0-8130-3231-3. Clayton, Julie (24 June 2010). "Chagas disease 101". Nature. 465 (n7301_supp): S4-S5. Bibcode:2010Natur ... In 1882, he was diagnosed with what was called "angina pectoris" which then meant coronary thrombosis and disease of the heart ...
Darwin is speculated to have died from chronic Chagas disease. T. infestans has both a wide range of habitats/ecologies and ... 2017). American trypanosomiasis Chagas disease: one hundred years of research. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier. doi:10.1016/ ... Zeledón, R; Rabinovich, J E (1981). "Chagas Disease: An Ecological Appraisal With Special Emphasis on its Insect Vectors". ... Keynes 2001, p. 315 Clayton, Julie (24 June 2010). "Chagas disease 101". Nature. 465 (n7301_supp): S4-S5. Bibcode:2010Natur. ...
Chagas disease is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi and is mostly spread by Triatominae. It is endemic to 21 countries in Latin ... for Neglected Diseases Initiative Globalization and disease Kigali Declaration on Neglected Tropical Diseases List of diseases ... "Chagas disease - PAHO/WHO; Pan American Health Organization". www.paho.org. Smith, Cairns S; Aerts, Ann; Saunderson, Paul; ... Elimination of this disease is under way in the region of the Americas, where this disease was endemic to Brazil, Colombia, ...
"EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CHAGAS DISEASE". www.dbbm.fiocruz.br. Sudhi Ranjan Garg (2013). Rabies in Man and Animals. Springer Science & ... Examples of pathogens that contain a sylvatic cycle include trichinosis, dengue viruses, Yersinia pestis, Chagas disease, and ...
Chagas disease mitigation); Paraguay (family farming); and Argentina itself (flood relief). Rodríguez served in this post until ...
Chagas disease was found in the US as early as the 1970s. However, in the developed world, diseases that are associated with ... Chagas disease is also known as American trypanosomiasis. There are approximately 15 million people infected with Chagas ... These diseases result from four classes of causative pathogens: (i) protozoa (Chagas disease, human African trypanosomiasis, ... Geneva, Switzerland, p. 26 Kirchhoff LV (August 1993). "American trypanosomiasis (Chagas' disease)--a tropical disease now in ...
Control of Chagas Disease. WHO technical Report Series, No. 905. 2002. 40-49. ISBN 92-4-120905-4 O'Toole, Christopher. The New ... can potentially transmit Trypanosoma cruzi (a known cause of Chagas disease), but they are not considered important vectors as ...
Heart transplantation in Chagas' disease. 10 years after the initial experience. Circulation. 1996 Oct 15;94(8):1815-7. PMID ...
T. gerstaeckeri is a reservoir for the parasite T. cruzi, which causes Chagas Disease. This is a very relevant disease in the ... There is no vaccine for Chagas Disease, so to decrease the prevalence of the disease, the spread of the T. gerstaeckeri and ... Chagas Disease is spread when an infected triatomine defecates on or near a host, causing the parasite to enter the body of the ... "Chagas Disease Risk in Texas." NCBI. N.p., 5 Oct. 2010. Web. Sonia, Kjos A., Karen F. Snowden, and Jimmy K. Olson. " ...
In American trypanosomiasis (Chagas' disease), the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi forms pseudocysts, particularly within muscular ... Lalloo, David (2014). "South American trypanosomiasis (Chagas' disease)". In Beeching, Nick; Gill, Geoff (eds.). Lecture Notes ... "Pancreatic Pseudocysts". Center for Pancreatic and Biliary Diseases; USC Department of Surgery. Kar, Mitryan; Pucci, Ed; Brody ...
His laboratory also works on a suite of neglected tropical diseases (or diseases of poverty) including Chagas disease, dengue, ... Chagas Disease Risk in Texas. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 4 (10): e836. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000836. Gardner, L., ... PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 4 (1): e585. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000585. Illoldi-Rangel, P. Rivaldi, C. -L., Sissel, B ... Species Distribution Models and Ecological Suitability Analysis for Potential Tick Vectors of Lyme Disease in México. Journal ...
CDC-Centers for Disease Control and (2 May 2017). "CDC - Chagas Disease - General Information". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 8 March ... including the fatal human diseases sleeping sickness, caused by Trypanosoma brucei, and Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma ... cause of Chagas' disease) and T. brucei (cause of African sleeping sickness) are not closely related to each other. ... which causes Chagas disease in humans Trypanosoma culicavium, which infects birds and mosquitoes T. congolense, which causes ...
Chagas Disease: A Clinical Approach. Birkhäuser Advances in Infectious Diseases. Switzerland: Springer Nature. pp. 25-59. doi: ... 130 It was identified as a vector for Chagas disease in Carlos Chagas's original 1909 description of the condition.: 394 The ... Coura, J.R. (2015). "The main sceneries of Chagas disease transmission. The vectors, blood and oral transmissions - A ... the causative agent of Chagas disease), particularly in Brazil. Besides humans, P. megistus is known to feed on birds, rodents ...
Torres, Gabriela (5 October 2014). "Chagas disease - inheriting a silent killer". BBC News. Retrieved 8 October 2023. "Hugo ... Spain and Ethiopia addressing neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) including Chagas, dengue and soil-transmitted helminths. In ... Linde, Pablo (8 April 2016). "La filántropa que se tomó en serio al Chagas". El País (in Spanish). "From Salta to Ethiopia: ... "Global Partners Are Taking the Neglect out of Neglected Tropical Diseases". Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Retrieved 8 ...
Prevention, CDC - Centers for Disease Control and. "CDC - Chagas Disease - Detailed Fact Sheet". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 3 ... An uncommon infection in the mother, Chagas disease, can be transmitted to the nursing infant via cracked nipples. Women with ... Because cracked nipples can result in the infant being exposed to blood, women with certain blood-borne diseases may be advised ...
Current serologic studies in Chagas' disease. The Journal of Pediatrics, Volume 58, Issue 5, Pages 738-745. Another medical ... A nota praevia is prefixed to C.M. Bettinotti's study, "Las Cardiopatías y la Enfermedad de Chagas. Estudio serológico" in ...
Chagas disease is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, a flagellate protozoan transmitted by the assassin bug. Chagas disease can also ... Koeberle F (1963). "Enteromegaly and cardiomegaly in Chagas disease". Gut. 4 (4): 399-405. doi:10.1136/gut.4.4.399. PMC 1413478 ... Other neurologic, systemic and metabolic diseases Also called Hirschsprung's disease, it is a congenital disorder of the colon ... develops in Chagas disease. The Austrian-Brazilian physician and pathologist Fritz Köberle was the first to propose the ...
Trypanosomiasis, American / Chagas Disease. CDC Yellow Book 2024. Travel-Associated Infections & Diseases ... In the United States, Chagas disease is primarily a disease of immigrants from endemic areas of Latin America. The risk to ... Chagas disease is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi.. Transmission. Human infection occurs when T. cruzi in ... To avoid Chagas disease, travelers should follow insect bite precautions (see Sec. 4, Ch. 6, Mosquitoes, Ticks & Other ...
Education and information about Chagas Disease, Triatomine bugs, Kissing Bugs, fact sheets, information for special groups, ... Screening and Treatment of Chagas Disease in Organ Transplant Recipients in the United States: Recommendations from the Chagas ... Less frequently, patients with Chagas disease experience gastrointestinal disease (megasyndromes). Once the characteristic ... Evaluation and Management of Congenital Chagas Disease in the United States, Morven S. Edwards,1 Kelly K. Stimpert,2,3 ...
... is a disease caused by a parasite. It is mainly spread by kissing bugs, which are common in Latin America. It is important to ... Chagas Disease (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) - PDF * Protect Your Baby from Chagas Disease (Centers for Disease ... How is Chagas disease diagnosed?. To find out if you have Chagas disease, your health care provider:. *Will do a physical exam ... Can Chagas disease be prevented?. There are no vaccines or medicines to prevent Chagas disease. If you travel to areas where it ...
Chagas disease at Curlie Chagas information at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control Chagas information from the Drugs for ... Chagas disease is classified as a neglected tropical disease. Chagas disease occurs in two stages: an acute stage, which ... "Chagas Disease in Europe". In Marcelo Altcheh J, Freilij H (ed.). Chagas Disease. Birkhäuser Advances in Infectious Diseases. ... "Diagnosis of Chagas Disease". In Marcelo Altcheh J, Freilij H (ed.). Chagas Disease. Birkhäuser Advances in Infectious Diseases ...
Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is caused by infection with the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. ... are endemic for Chagas disease. Chagas disease is not endemic in any of the Caribbean Islands. Women who were born in Chagas ... Diseases & Conditions Chagas Disease (American Trypanosomiasis) * 2003/viewarticle/do-statins-have-effect-severe-disease-people ... encoded search term (Chagas Disease (American Trypanosomiasis)) and Chagas Disease (American Trypanosomiasis) What to Read Next ...
Chagas disease is caused by a parasite. It is transmitted to people through the feces of insects. It is common in South and ... Home Health Conditions and Diseases Chagas Disease. Infectious Diseases What is Chagas disease? Chagas disease is a disease ... Chagas disease is a disease caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi.. *Youre most at risk for Chagas disease if you have ... What causes Chagas disease? When people become infected by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, they can get Chagas disease. The ...
Health and medicine/Diseases and disorders/Infectious diseases/Parasitic diseases/Chagas disease ... Health and medicine/Diseases and disorders/Tropical diseases * /Health and medicine/Medical specialties/Pathology/Disease ... Chagas Disease is also underdiagnosed in Spain A new study of nearly 3,000 Latin Americans who visited the Hospital Clinic over ... A high percentage of people from Latin America are infected with the parasite that causes Chagas disease. This is the ...
09, 2024 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- The Chagas Disease: American trypanosomiasis Market report has been added to ResearchAndMarkets. ... Chagas Disease, Dengue), Diagnostic Method - Forecast 2024-2030 * Chagas Disease Drug Global Market Insights 2023, Analysis and ... Chagas Disease Treatment Global Market Insights 2023, Analysis and Forecast to 2028, by Manufacturers, Regions, Technology, ... Chagas Disease (American Trypanosomiasis) Market Report 2024: Global Market Trends, with Market Revenue from 2021-2022, ...
... - Raising our voices to improve health around the world. ... Chagas disease is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Chagas disease is usually spread by triatomine bugs but can also be ... Chagas disease in the United States: Weve made lots of progress, but our work is not done. I have seen many important and ... positive changes around Chagas disease awareness, diagnosis, and treatment over the past few years, but there is still much to ...
... announced their plans to join forces to address the needs of Chagas disease patients. The Global Chagas Disease Coalition ... a group of the key actors in the field of Chagas disease - from R&D to treatment access and prevention - ... calls for increased collaboration to change the course of this disease that affects millions throughout Latin America and ... announced their plans to join forces to address the needs of Chagas disease patients. The Global Chagas Disease Coalition ...
Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is caused by infection with the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. ... are endemic for Chagas disease. Chagas disease is not endemic in any of the Caribbean Islands. Women who were born in Chagas ... Diseases & Conditions Chagas Disease (American Trypanosomiasis) * 2003/viewarticle/do-statins-have-effect-severe-disease-people ... encoded search term (Chagas Disease (American Trypanosomiasis)) and Chagas Disease (American Trypanosomiasis) What to Read Next ...
... CONICET scientists work with the communities of Llanos del Sur of La Rioja ... For the researchers, although in La Rioja vectorial transmission of Chagas disease through vinchucas is currently suspended - ... Descubren posibles fármacos eficaces contra la enfermedad de Chagas * Un estudio avanza en la prevención de la infección del ... "We have good communication with the Chagas programme of La Rioja. Everytime we carry out an evaluation, we immediately provide ...
Researchers from the University of Georgia have discovered a potential treatment for Chagas disease, marking the first ... Chagas disease poses significant risk to pets. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates around 300,000 people ... Chagas disease common in Latin American countries. Tens of millions of people across the Americas are infected with the ... The new drug works by targeting the parasite that causes Chagas disease, Trypanosoma cruzi, which is carried by kissing bugs ...
Chagas Stat Pak) was developed using recombinant proteins in an immunochromatographic assay. This cassette format test was ... Chagas disease diagnosis: a multicentric evaluation of Chagas Stat-Pak, a rapid immunochromatographic assay with recombinant ... The Chagas Stat-Pak identified 197 infected (98.5% sensitivity) and 183 non-infected individuals (94.8% specificity). A second ... A rapid serologic test for diagnosis of T. cruzi infection (Chagas Stat Pak) was developed using recombinant proteins in an ...
... 2020. Fanny E Eberhard , Sarah Cunze , Judith ... The Triatominae are vectors for Trypanosoma cruzi, the aetiological agent of the neglected tropical Chagas disease. Their ...
... of therapeutic drug monitoring in BNZ treatment and suggest that the use of higher doses may be useful for Chagas disease CNS ... While drug-drug and drug-disease interactions may be in part responsible, the factors leading to low CSF BNZ levels remain to ... Chagas disease reactivation in HIV-positive people is an opportunistic infection with 79 to 100% mortality. It commonly ... Chagas disease reactivation in HIV-positive people is an opportunistic infection with 79 to 100% mortality. It commonly ...
... causing serious human diseases including Chagas disease (Trypanosoma cruzi), sleeping s ... Trypanosomatids are a group of flagellated unicellular eukaryotes, causing serious human diseases including Chagas disease ( ... causing serious human diseases including Chagas disease (Trypanosoma cruzi), sleeping sickness (Trypanosoma brucei spp.) and ... Aguilera, E.; Alvarez, G.; Cerecetto, H.; Gonzalez, M. Polypharmacology in the treatment of chagas disease. Curr. Med. Chem., ...
Trypanosoma cruzi infection causes Chagas disease, which affects 7 million people worldwide. Two drugs are available to treat ... In silico Design of an Epitope-Based Vaccine Ensemble for Chagas Disease. ... Although both are efficacious against the acute stage of the disease, this is usually asymptomatic and goes undiagnosed and ... a vaccine to prevent infection and/or the development of symptoms would be a breakthrough in the management of the disease. ...
... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.) "Chagas disease : life ... Title : Chagas disease : life cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi Corporate Authors(s) : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.) "Chagas disease : life cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi" , 2014. Export RIS ... Chagas disease is cased by the parastie Trypanosoma Cruzi and is spread by infected triatomine bugs. It can cause serious heart ...
Chagas disease. MAXIMUM 150 WORDS: Remember: front load your paragraphs! This content should include a strong opening sentence ...
The study evaluated the performance of Human Chagas-Flow ATE-IgG1 for universal and DTU-specific diagnosis of Chagas disease. A ... Human Chagas-Flow ATE-IgG1 for advanced universal and Trypanosoma cruzi Discrete Typing Units-specific serodiagnosis of Chagas ... Human Chagas-Flow ATE-IgG1 for advanced universal and Trypanosoma cruzi Discrete Typing Units-specific serodiagnosis of Chagas ... of Human Chagas-Flow ATE-IgG1 qualifies its use for universal and TcI/TcVI/TcII-specific diagnosis of Chagas disease. These ...
It is the first treatment approved in the United States for the treatment of Chagas disease. ... Drug Administration today granted accelerated approval to benznidazole for use in children ages 2 to 12 years old with Chagas ... These designations were granted because Chagas disease is a rare disease, and until now, there were no approved drugs for ... While Chagas disease primarily affects people living in rural parts of Latin America, recent estimates are that there may be ...
Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is caused by infection with the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. ... encoded search term (Chagas Disease (American Trypanosomiasis)) and Chagas Disease (American Trypanosomiasis) What to Read Next ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Blood donor screening for chagas disease--United States, 2006-2007. MMWR Morb ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Chagas disease after organ transplantation--United States, 2001. MMWR Morb Mortal ...
Keywords : Chronic Chagas Disease; Stress; Resilience; Health psychology. · abstract in Portuguese · text in Portuguese · ... Stress and Resilience in Chagas Disease. Aletheia [online]. 2006, n.24, pp. 57-68. ISSN 1413-0394. ... verifies the symptomatology of stress and other aspects related to resilience in people suffering from chronic Chagas Disease ( ... Several studies show that stress changes the immunity system and may affect the disease s etiology, progression and severity. ...
Chagas Disease - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the MSD Manuals - Medical Consumer Version. ... Transmission of Chagas disease Chagas disease is most commonly spread when a kissing bug bites an infected person or animal ( ... Symptoms of Chagas Disease Chagas disease occurs in three stages. Symptoms can occur in the first and third stages. ... Diagnosis of Chagas Disease *. During the first stage, examination of a blood sample using a microscope or blood tests ...
Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is caused by infection with the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. ... encoded search term (Chagas Disease (American Trypanosomiasis)) and Chagas Disease (American Trypanosomiasis) What to Read Next ... Approximately 12,000 deaths attributable to Chagas disease occur annually, typically due to heart disease [85, 86, 87, 88] or, ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Blood donor screening for chagas disease--United States, 2006-2007. MMWR Morb ...
On a recent flight, a simple meal turned into a much-talked-about topic, highlighting how peoples eating habits can clash in tight spaces like airplanes. A ...
Chagas disease is an emerging public health threat across a broad swath of the southern United States and is largely ... "About one-third of people with Chagas disease will develop heart disease from it," she noted in an interview with Reuters ... Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) is a tropical parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi transmitted ... "When we speak with cardiologists, the majority know of Chagas disease but its not in their differential," she said. "There are ...
  • Chagas disease is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi . (cdc.gov)
  • About 20 to 30% of people with chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection eventually develop clinical disease, predominantly cardiac. (cdc.gov)
  • When people become infected by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi , they can get Chagas disease. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi is the cause of Chagas disease (CD), also known as American trypanosomiasis, a chronic, systemic, parasitic illness with substantial risk factors associated with low socioeconomic status. (globenewswire.com)
  • Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is a tropical parasitic disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is caused by infection with the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi . (medscape.com)
  • This mechanism of transmission contrasts with that of the two subspecies of African trypanosomes that cause human disease, Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense , which are transmitted via the saliva of their vectors, and with the mechanism by which a nonpathogenic trypanosome found in the Americas, Trypanosoma rangeli , is transmitted to its mammalian hosts. (medscape.com)
  • The new drug works by targeting the parasite that causes Chagas disease, Trypanosoma cruzi, which is carried by kissing bugs like the one shown above. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The new drug works by targeting the parasite that causes the disease, Trypanosoma cruzi, also known as T. cruzi. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Ramírez JD, Guhl F, Rendón LM, Rosas F, Marin-Neto JA, Morillo CA. Chagas cardiomyopathy manifestations and Trypanosoma cruzi genotypes circulating in chronic Chagasic patients. (medscape.com)
  • Chagas disease is an infection caused by the protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi , which is transmitted by the bite of a kissing bug (also called an assassin or Triatominae bug). (msdmanuals.com)
  • Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) is a tropical parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi transmitted by blood sucking triatomine insects, also known as "kissing" bugs for their habit of feeding on people's faces while they sleep. (medscape.com)
  • Background: Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, displays significant genetic variability revealed by six Discrete Typing Units (TcI-TcVI). (urosario.edu.co)
  • Chagas disease American trypanosomiasis is caused by a flagellated parasite: Trypanosoma cruzi, transmitted by an insect of the genus Triatoma and also by blood transfusions. (upc.edu)
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (cdc.gov)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. (cdc.gov)
  • Healthcare providers can consult with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) personnel regarding patient care, and for the most part, therapy does not require hospitalization. (globenewswire.com)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates around 300,000 people infected with the parasite currently live in the U.S. But because the condition isn't a huge threat in places with good housing options, Chagas disease treatment and prevention doesn't get much research funding. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.) (2014). (cdc.gov)
  • See Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Epidemiology & Risk Factors . (msdmanuals.com)
  • That rate is consistent with other studies in the southern U.S., she noted, but is 50 times higher than the national rate of one in 300,000 put forth by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (medscape.com)
  • Announcer] This program is presented by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (cdc.gov)
  • I'm Dana Woodhall, a Medical Officer at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (cdc.gov)
  • What causes Chagas disease? (medlineplus.gov)
  • Tens of millions of people across the Americas are infected with the parasite that causes Chagas disease. (medicalxpress.com)
  • In the chronic phase of the disease, the parasite gets inside your heart muscle. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Diagnosis of early disease is by finding the parasite in the blood using a microscope or detecting its DNA by polymerase chain reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since 2007, all potential blood donors in the U.S. are screened for exposure to the Chagas parasite. (medscape.com)
  • In a study of Texas blood donors between 2008 and 2012, about one in 6,500 tested positive for the Chagas parasite, reported Melissa N. Garcia, epidemiologist at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston. (medscape.com)
  • The Baylor team followed 17 Houston-area blood donors infected with the Chagas parasite and found that seven (41%) had undiagnosed electrocardiographic abnormalities consistent with Chagas cardiomyopathy. (medscape.com)
  • While it's unclear how many triatomine bugs in the United States may carry the Chagas parasite, a pilot study conducted by the Baylor team may shed some light on the issue. (medscape.com)
  • Cardiac disease usually begins with conduction abnormalities such as right bundle branch block and/or left anterior fascicular block, which may be followed years later by dilated cardiomyopathy. (cdc.gov)
  • As the disease progresses, the heart's ventricles become enlarged (dilated cardiomyopathy), which reduces its ability to pump blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early treatment for Chagas disease is the most successful. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Researchers from the University of Georgia have discovered a potential treatment for Chagas disease, marking the first medication with promise to successfully and safely target the parasitic infection in more than 50 years. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Less frequently, patients with Chagas disease experience gastrointestinal disease (megasyndromes). (cdc.gov)
  • The 2 drugs used to treat Chagas disease are benznidazole and nifurtimox. (cdc.gov)
  • The first initiative was launched in Colombia, where DND i and the Ministry of Health organized a joint seminar in April 2015 to discuss the elimination of barriers to diagnose and treat Chagas disease patients in Colombia. (dndi.org)
  • In an attempt to contribute to changing this paradigm and address current challenges, DND i has been working with local partners to identify the most appropriate context-specific access strategies and delivery models to scale up access to diagnosis and treatment in Chagas disease. (dndi.org)
  • Aligned with the Global Chagas Coalition, Ministries of Health, academia, international organizations, and other key stakeholders, the objective is to implement country-specific collaborative pilot projects, applying available tools and assessing the feasibility of implementing diagnosis and treatment for infected individuals in selected health centres, and of course to measure the impact. (dndi.org)
  • I have seen many important and positive changes around Chagas disease awareness, diagnosis, and treatment over the past few years, but there is still much to do. (cdc.gov)
  • Garcia and her colleagues have been working with physicians in Texas to increase awareness and diagnosis of Chagas disease. (medscape.com)
  • Early infections are treatable with the medications benznidazole or nifurtimox, which usually cure the disease if given shortly after the person is infected, but become less effective the longer a person has had Chagas disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • But the CDC provided only 422 courses of benznidazole or nifurtimox used to treat Chagas during this period. (medscape.com)
  • Is use of nifurtimox for the treatment of Chagas disease compatible with breast feeding? (unil.ch)
  • However, you could get the disease if you receive blood, or an organ from a family member or anyone else with the infection. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The organism T cruzi and infection in humans were first described in 1909 by the Brazilian physician Carlos RJ Chagas. (medscape.com)
  • A minority of persons with long-standing T cruzi infection develop the serious cardiac and gastrointestinal problems that characterize chronic symptomatic Chagas disease. (medscape.com)
  • As a result, about one in five people being treated for the disease stop taking their medications before they have a chance to cure the infection. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Transmission of T. cruzi infection via liver transplantation to a nonreactive recipient for Chagas' disease. (medscape.com)
  • Fortunately, measures to control the spread of infection are reducing the number of Chagas cases. (msdmanuals.com)
  • We've actually had a long history of Chagas in the state of Texas and in the United States," said Garcia, adding that the first case of locally acquired infection dates back to 1955. (medscape.com)
  • We observed patterns of super-infection and/or co-infection with a tailored association with the severe forms of myocarditis in the acute phase of the disease. (urosario.edu.co)
  • Toxocariasis is a human disease caused by infection with the larval stages of the dog or cat roundworm. (cdc.gov)
  • It is estimated that 6.5 million people, mostly in Mexico, Central America and South America, have Chagas disease as of 2019, resulting in approximately 9,490 annual deaths. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is named for Carlos Chagas, the Brazilian doctor who first identified the disease in 1909. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The disease was first described in 1909 by Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, after whom it is named. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chagas disease, or American trypanosomiasis, is an illness that can cause serious heart and stomach problems. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Dublin, Feb. 09, 2024 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- The "Chagas Disease: American trypanosomiasis Market" report has been added to ResearchAndMarkets.com's offering. (globenewswire.com)
  • Prevalence of American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease) among dogs in Oklahoma. (medscape.com)
  • Applied medical geography : American trypanosomiasis, Chagas disease / by Alfonso Torress. (who.int)
  • Die privaten und sozialen Kosten der Chagas-Krankheit (Amerikanische Trypanosomiasis : Diskussion und Anwendung auf Brasilien, Argentinien und Bolivien / Felix W. Bossert. (who.int)
  • Current epidemiological trends for Chagas disease in Latin America and future challenges in epidemiology, surveillance and health policy. (medscape.com)
  • Globally, houses of mud walls and floors combined with poor sanitation create an environment for life-threatening diseases like Chagas , severe diarrhea, cholera, typhoid, and malaria. (qgiv.com)
  • Chronic disease is diagnosed by finding antibodies for T. cruzi in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other diseases such as Chagas disease, leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis affect hundreds of millions of people worldwide. (natren.com)
  • Chagas disease affects people in Mexico and Central and South America, mainly in rural areas where poverty is widespread. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Traditionally, when physicians think of Chagas disease they think of someone from Latin or South America. (medscape.com)
  • Bibliografia brasileira sobre doenðca de Chagas (1909-1979 = Brazilian bibliography on Chagas' disease (1909-1979 / Aluizio Prata, Eurydice Pires de Santâanna. (who.int)
  • Brazilian bibliography on Chagas' disease (1909-1979). (who.int)
  • Up to 45% of people with chronic infections develop heart disease 10-30 years after the initial illness, which can lead to heart failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most chronic infections are asymptomatic, which is referred to as indeterminate chronic Chagas disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experts believe that as many as 11 million people in South and Central America and Mexico have the disease. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • By electrocardiogram, people with Chagas heart disease most frequently have arrhythmias. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lutte contre la maladie de Chagas : rapport d' un comité d' experts de l' OMS [réuni à Buenos Aires du 16 au 21 octobre 1989]. (who.int)
  • Chagas disease causes the highest disease burden of any parasitic disease in the Western hemisphere. (dndi.org)
  • The effects of CD extend beyond Latin American rural communities where vector-borne transmission - diseases spread by insects - occurs. (globenewswire.com)
  • Chagas disease occurs in two stages: an acute stage, which develops one to two weeks after the insect bite, and a chronic stage, which develops over many years. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common long-term manifestation is heart disease, which occurs in 14-45% of people with chronic Chagas disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chagas disease occurs in three stages. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Symptomatic disease occurs when dead or dying larvae cause a reaction in the body. (cdc.gov)
  • DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Alzheimer's disease (AD) occurs in one out of eight Americans of age 65 and affects 43% of the elderly over 85. (sbir.gov)
  • Chagas disease can be more severe in people with these conditions and may lead to earlier death. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • In rare cases (less than 1-5%), infected individuals develop severe acute disease, which can involve inflammation of the heart muscle, fluid accumulation around the heart, and inflammation of the brain and surrounding tissues, and may be life-threatening. (wikipedia.org)
  • While some cases are mild, these diseases can be severe and have lasting consequences. (cdc.gov)
  • The two more severe forms of the disease are visceral toxocariasis and ocular toxocariasis. (cdc.gov)
  • Chagas disease can also spread through contaminated food, a blood transfusion, a donated organ, or from the pregnant parent to the baby during pregnancy. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The disease may also be spread through blood transfusion, organ transplantation, consuming food or drink contaminated with the parasites, and vertical transmission (from a mother to her baby). (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood transfusion has been and continues to be a possible source of disease transmission. (medscape.com)
  • In 2009, the American Association of Blood Banks (AABB) published a detailed description of 68 infectious agents capable of being transmitted by blood transfusion and prioritizing emerging infectious diseases for which there was not yet an implemented intervention. (medscape.com)
  • What are the symptoms of Chagas disease? (medlineplus.gov)
  • Symptoms of Chagas disease vary and might be hard to distinguish from another illness. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The symptoms of Chagas disease may look like other medical conditions or problems. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • After four to eight weeks, untreated individuals enter the chronic phase of disease, which in most cases does not result in further symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • When used in chronic disease, medication may delay or prevent the development of end-stage symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • When present, the symptoms are typically minor and not specific to any particular disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chagas disease symptoms usually start 1 to 2 weeks after the protozoa enter the body, usually through the bite wound or tissues around an eye. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Despite the potential for disease transmission through transfused blood, the safety of the blood supply in the United States continues to improve and, in fact, is the greatest that it has ever been. (medscape.com)
  • BRAMU specialises in neglected tropical diseases, such as dengue and Chagas, and other infectious diseases. (msf.org)
  • In the United States, Chagas disease is primarily a disease of immigrants from endemic areas of Latin America. (cdc.gov)
  • One of the most important outcomes of this meeting was the future collaboration among DND i , the National Programme and the Colombian Network 'Red Chagas' to create the pilot project to enable the implementation of the Chagas Road Map in priority high endemic municipalities. (dndi.org)
  • Four endemic areas have been prioritized to yield the operational activities, validated diagnostic protocol, cost-effectiveness studies, and registration of benznidazole, as well as to establish indicators for Chagas disease: Boyacá, Casanare, Arauca, and Santander. (dndi.org)
  • I'm choosing to join an online community through which to stay active and address one of the largest causes of endemic diseases around the world: poor shelter. (qgiv.com)
  • Later cardiac disease is sometimes accompanied by apical aneurysm and thrombus formation. (cdc.gov)
  • There are very specific cardiac abnormalities associated with Chagas. (medscape.com)
  • Chagas disease is usually spread by triatomine bugs but can also be spread by an infected mother to her unborn baby. (cdc.gov)
  • The process started with the consolidation of available baseline information, revision of country morbidity and mortality data, epidemiological profile, and overall assessment of current policies and basic regulatory aspects of Chagas disease. (dndi.org)
  • To avoid Chagas disease, travelers should follow insect bite precautions (see Sec. 4, Ch. 6, Mosquitoes, Ticks & Other Arthropods ) and food and water precautions (see Sec. 2, Ch. 8, Food & Water Precautions ). (cdc.gov)
  • Lent H, Wygodzinsky P. Revision of the Triatominae (Hemiptera, Reduviidae), and their significance as vectors of Chagas' disease. (medscape.com)
  • In many cases the first sign of Chagas heart disease is heart failure, thromboembolism, or chest pain associated with abnormalities in the microvasculature. (wikipedia.org)
  • The heart disease is characterized by both electrical and structural abnormalities. (medscape.com)
  • The high rate of infectious bugs, combined with the high rate of feeding on humans, should be a cause of concern and should prompt physicians to consider the possibility of Chagas disease in U.S. patients with heart rhythm abnormalities and no obvious underlying conditions," Dr. Kristy Murray, associate professor of tropical medicine at Baylor, said in a statement. (medscape.com)
  • The disease affects more than 150 types of animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, over decades with the disease, approximately 30-40% of people develop organ dysfunction (determinate chronic Chagas disease), which most often affects the heart or digestive system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also common in chronic Chagas disease is damage to the digestive system, which affects 10-21% of people. (wikipedia.org)
  • DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive and invariably fatal degenerative dementia and the most common form of dementia that currently affects over 5 million Americans. (sbir.gov)
  • NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Chagas disease is an emerging public health threat across a broad swath of the southern United States and is largely underdiagnosed and treated, according to a series of studies presented today in New Orleans at the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (ASTMH) annual meeting. (medscape.com)
  • When we speak with cardiologists, the majority know of Chagas disease but it's not in their differential," she said. (medscape.com)
  • As cardiologists, we manage diseases once they have been established, but we should also always include work on preventing diseases, and as healthcare providers we should set an example of leading a healthy life, which obviously includes avoiding tobacco consumption. (world-heart-federation.org)
  • New drugs for Chagas disease are under development, and while experimental vaccines have been studied in animal models, a human vaccine has not been developed. (wikipedia.org)
  • DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Even though the association of -amyloid peptide (A ) deposition and Alzheimer's Disease (AD) underpins the major hypothesis for disease progression and possibly causation and several drugs addressing the formation or removal of -amyloid plaques have entered clinical trials, no effective therapy exists to date for AD. (sbir.gov)
  • We searched (December 2021) Cochrane, MEDLINE , EMBASE, LILACS and trial registries and contacted Chagas experts. (bvsalud.org)
  • There are no vaccines or medicines to prevent Chagas disease. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Check CDC Destinations pages to see what vaccines or medicines you may need and what diseases or health risks are a concern at your destination. (cdc.gov)
  • According to the latest WHO report, approximately 5.7 million people are infected by Chagas disease in Latin America, approximately 30% of which will develop a chronic heart condition that is estimated to cause more than 7,000 deaths annually. (dndi.org)
  • Vector-borne diseases account for more than 17% of all infectious diseases, causing more than 1 million deaths annually. (natren.com)
  • There are three clinical forms of the disease. (cdc.gov)
  • A scientometric evaluation of the Chagas disease implementation research programme of the PAHO and TDR. (medscape.com)