Chagas Disease: Infection with the protozoan parasite TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, a form of TRYPANOSOMIASIS endemic in Central and South America. It is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLIA; CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY; and dysfunction of the ESOPHAGUS or COLON.Trypanosoma cruzi: The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.Chagas Cardiomyopathy: A disease of the CARDIAC MUSCLE developed subsequent to the initial protozoan infection by TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI. After infection, less than 10% develop acute illness such as MYOCARDITIS (mostly in children). The disease then enters a latent phase without clinical symptoms until about 20 years later. Myocardial symptoms of advanced CHAGAS DISEASE include conduction defects (HEART BLOCK) and CARDIOMEGALY.Triatoma: A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Several species are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.Triatominae: A subfamily of assassin bugs (REDUVIIDAE) that are obligate blood-suckers of vertebrates. Included are the genera TRIATOMA; RHODNIUS; and PANSTRONGYLUS, which are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, the agent of CHAGAS DISEASE in humans.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.BoliviaTrypanocidal Agents: Agents destructive to the protozoal organisms belonging to the suborder TRYPANOSOMATINA.Rhodnius: A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Rhodnius prolixus is a vector for TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.NitroimidazolesNifurtimox: A nitrofuran thiazine that has been used against TRYPANOSOMIASIS.Latin America: The geographic area of Latin America in general and when the specific country or countries are not indicated. It usually includes Central America, South America, Mexico, and the islands of the Caribbean.Xenodiagnosis: A method for diagnosing a disease in one organism by inoculating the putative causative organism in a second animal of a different species. It has been used for the detection of parasites (Trypanosoma cruzi and Trichinella spiralis) when peripheral blood smears are negative. (Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995)Megacolon: Dilatation of the COLON, often to alarming dimensions. There are various types of megacolon including congenital megacolon in HIRSCHSPRUNG DISEASE, idiopathic megacolon in CONSTIPATION, and TOXIC MEGACOLON.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.ArgentinaAntibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.VenezuelaSouth AmericaGuatemalaHousing: Living facilities for humans.ParaguayCentral AmericaPanstrongylus: A genus of cone-nosed bugs of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Its species are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.Mummies: Bodies preserved either by the ancient Egyptian technique or due to chance under favorable climatic conditions.Endemic Diseases: The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)BrazilPan American Health Organization: WHO regional office for the Americas acting as a coordinating agency for the improvement of health conditions in the hemisphere. The four main functions are: control or eradication of communicable diseases, strengthening of national and local health services, education and training, and research.MexicoSeroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.PanamaChronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)HondurasNymph: The immature stage in the life cycle of those orders of insects characterized by gradual metamorphosis, in which the young resemble the imago in general form of body, including compound eyes and external wings; also the 8-legged stage of mites and ticks that follows the first moult.DNA, Kinetoplast: DNA of kinetoplasts which are specialized MITOCHONDRIA of trypanosomes and related parasitic protozoa within the order KINETOPLASTIDA. Kinetoplast DNA consists of a complex network of numerous catenated rings of two classes; the first being a large number of small DNA duplex rings, called minicircles, approximately 2000 base pairs in length, and the second being several dozen much larger rings, called maxicircles, approximately 37 kb in length.DNA, Protozoan: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.Antiprotozoal Agents: Substances that are destructive to protozoans.ChileFood Parasitology: The presence of parasites in food and food products. For the presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food, FOOD MICROBIOLOGY is available.Paleopathology: The study of disease in prehistoric times as revealed in bones, mummies, and archaeologic artifacts.Neglected Diseases: Diseases that are underfunded and have low name recognition but are major burdens in less developed countries. The World Health Organization has designated six tropical infectious diseases as being neglected in industrialized countries that are endemic in many developing countries (HELMINTHIASIS; LEPROSY; LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS; ONCHOCERCIASIS; SCHISTOSOMIASIS; and TRACHOMA).Pyrethrins: The active insecticidal constituent of CHRYSANTHEMUM CINERARIIFOLIUM flowers. Pyrethrin I is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemummonocarboxylic acid and pyrethrin II is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemumdicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester.PeruAmericas: The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and parasitic diseases. The parasitic infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Indians, South American: Individual members of South American ethnic groups with historic ancestral origins in Asia.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Parasitemia: The presence of parasites (especially malarial parasites) in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)Radioimmunoprecipitation Assay: Sensitive assay using radiolabeled ANTIGENS to detect specific ANTIBODIES in SERUM. The antigens are allowed to react with the serum and then precipitated using a special reagent such as PROTEIN A sepharose beads. The bound radiolabeled immunoprecipitate is then commonly analyzed by gel electrophoresis.Ectoparasitic Infestations: Infestations by PARASITES which live on, or burrow into, the surface of their host's EPIDERMIS. Most ectoparasites are ARTHROPODS.Trypanosomiasis: Infection with protozoa of the genus TRYPANOSOMA.Protozoan Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed protozoa administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious protozoan disease.El SalvadorDidelphis: A genus of large OPOSSUMS in the family Didelphidae, found in the Americas. The species Didelphis virginiana is prominent in North America.Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Euglenozoa Infections: Infections with the protozoa of the phylum EUGLENOZOA.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Trypanosoma: A genus of flagellate protozoans found in the blood and lymph of vertebrates and invertebrates, both hosts being required to complete the life cycle.Emigrants and Immigrants: People who leave their place of residence in one country and settle in a different country.ColombiaAcute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Immunochromatography: A type of affinity chromatography where ANTIBODIES are used in the affinity capture reaction on the solid support, in the mobile phase, or both.EcuadorSerologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Insect Bites and Stings: Bites and stings inflicted by insects.Parasitic Sensitivity Tests: Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Reduviidae: A family of winged insects of the suborder HETEROPTERA, called assassin bugs, because most prey on other insects. However one subfamily, TRIATOMINAE, attacks humans and other vertebrates and transmits Chagas disease.Topography, Medical: The systematic surveying, mapping, charting, and description of specific geographical sites, with reference to the physical features that were presumed to influence health and disease. Medical topography should be differentiated from EPIDEMIOLOGY in that the former emphasizes geography whereas the latter emphasizes disease outbreaks.Blood DonorsDisease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Cytochromes b: Cytochromes of the b group that have alpha-band absorption of 563-564 nm. They occur as subunits in MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III.14-alpha Demethylase Inhibitors: Compounds that specifically inhibit STEROL 14-DEMETHYLASE. A variety of azole-derived ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS act through this mechanism.Gordonia Bacterium: A genus of gram-positive BACTERIA in the family Gordoniaceae, isolated from soil and from sputa of patients with chest disorders. It is also used for biotransformation of natural products.Genome, Protozoan: The complete genetic complement contained in a set of CHROMOSOMES in a protozoan.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Mite Infestations: Infestations with arthropods of the subclass ACARI, superorder Acariformes.Sterol 14-Demethylase: An NADPH-dependent P450 enzyme that plays an essential role in the sterol biosynthetic pathway by catalyzing the demethylation of 14-methyl sterols such as lanosterol. The enzyme acts via the repeated hydroxylation of the 14-methyl group, resulting in its stepwise conversion into an alcohol, an aldehyde and then a carboxylate, which is removed as formic acid. Sterol 14-demethylase is an unusual cytochrome P450 enzyme in that it is found in a broad variety of organisms including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and protozoa.Tropical Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.Chromosomes, Insect: Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Defecation: The normal process of elimination of fecal material from the RECTUM.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Arecaceae: The palm family of order Arecales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Agelas: A genus of large, brightly colored SPONGES in the family Agelasidae, possessing a skeleton of spongin fibers with a core of large spicules (megascleres).Animals, Domestic: Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.Piper: A plant genus of the family PIPERACEAE that includes species used for spicy and stimulating qualities.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Myocarditis: Inflammatory processes of the muscular walls of the heart (MYOCARDIUM) which result in injury to the cardiac muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Manifestations range from subclinical to sudden death (DEATH, SUDDEN). Myocarditis in association with cardiac dysfunction is classified as inflammatory CARDIOMYOPATHY usually caused by INFECTION, autoimmune diseases, or responses to toxic substances. Myocarditis is also a common cause of DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY and other cardiomyopathies.Life Cycle Stages: The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.Entomology: A discipline or occupation concerned with the study of INSECTS, including the biology and the control of insects.Rodentia: A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.Antiparasitic Agents: Drugs used to treat or prevent parasitic infections.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Mandatory Testing: Testing or screening required by federal, state, or local law or other agencies for the diagnosis of specified conditions. It is usually limited to specific populations such as categories of health care providers, members of the military, and prisoners or to specific situations such as premarital examinations or donor screening.Costa RicaEcosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Parasitology: The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.Parasitic Diseases: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Esophageal Achalasia: A motility disorder of the ESOPHAGUS in which the LOWER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER (near the CARDIA) fails to relax resulting in functional obstruction of the esophagus, and DYSPHAGIA. Achalasia is characterized by a grossly contorted and dilated esophagus (megaesophagus).Leishmaniasis: A disease caused by any of a number of species of protozoa in the genus LEISHMANIA. There are four major clinical types of this infection: cutaneous (Old and New World) (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS), diffuse cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS), mucocutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, MUCOCUTANEOUS), and visceral (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL).Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Genes, Protozoan: The functional hereditary units of protozoa.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)

Candidate parasitic diseases. (1/1819)

This paper discusses five parasitic diseases: American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease), dracunculiasis, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis and schistosomiasis. The available technology and health infrastructures in developing countries permit the eradication of dracunculiasis and the elimination of lymphatic filariasis due to Wuchereria bancrofti. Blindness due to onchocerciasis and transmission of this disease will be prevented in eleven West African countries; transmission of Chagas disease will be interrupted. A well-coordinated international effort is required to ensure that scarce resources are not wasted, efforts are not duplicated, and planned national programmes are well supported.  (+info)

Induction of CD8+ T cell-mediated protective immunity against Trypanosoma cruzi. (2/1819)

Trypanosoma cruzi was transformed with the Plasmodium yoelii gene encoding the circum-sporozoite (CS) protein, which contains the well-characterized CD8+ T cell epitope, SYVPSAEQI. In vivo and in vitro assays indicated that cells infected with the transformed T. cruzi could process and present this malaria parasite-derived class I MHC-restricted epitope. Immunization of mice with recombinant influenza and vaccinia viruses expressing the SYVPSAEQI epitope induced a large number of specific CD8+ T cells that strongly suppressed parasitemia and conferred complete protection against the acute T. cruzi lethal infection. CD8+ T cells mediated this immunity as indicated by the unrelenting parasitemia and high mortality observed in immunized mice treated with anti-CD8 antibody. This study demonstrated, for the first time, that vaccination of mice with vectors designed to induce CD8+ T cells is effective against T. cruzi infection.  (+info)

Chagas' disease diagnosis: comparative analysis of parasitologic, molecular, and serologic methods. (3/1819)

During the course of chronic chagasic infection, low parasitemia levels prevent parasite detection by current techniques such as hemoculture and xenodiagnosis. Since serologic tests have sensitivity but lack specificity, molecular assays based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have been proposed as alternative tools for parasite detection in individuals with chronic Chagas' disease. A variable degree of PCR efficiency has been reported in the literature and illustrates the need for further evaluation of large numbers of chagasic patients. In this study, we compared an optimized PCR technique with hemoculture and complement-mediated lysis (CoML) in 113 individuals from or living in endemic areas of Brazil who had conventional serologic results that were either positive, negative, or inconclusive. The PCR amplification yielded positive results in 83.5% (66 of 79) of individuals with positive serology, 47.6% (10 of 21) with negative serology, and 46.2% (6 of 13) with inconclusive serology. Of 10 patients with negative serology and positive PCR result, eight (80%) had positive CoML, indicating that they could have been chagasic but were not mounting immune responses. The PCR results were also positive for all individuals who had positive hemoculture, for 37 individuals with negative hemoculture and positive serology, and for two of six individuals with inconclusive serology and negative hemoculture. Thirteen individuals living in nonendemic areas who had negative serology were used as a negative control group: 100% had negative PCR results. Our results show that the optimized PCR protocol used here was very sensitive in detecting the presence of Trypanosoma cruzi in chronic chagasic patients. The PCR and CoML results were well correlated in all of the groups studied, which suggests that our PCR protocol may be effective in the evaluation of cure in patients who receive anti-parasite treatment.  (+info)

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for IgA antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi in congenital infection. (4/1819)

With the aim of achieving earlier diagnosis of congenital Trypanosoma cruzi infection, we assessed the usefulness of detecting specific IgA antibody by an ELISA. We evaluated 12 pregnant women chronically infected with T. cruzi, their newborn infants, and three additional neonates with parasitemia at birth. The IgA-specific antibody was detected by adapting the procedure for use of a commercial IgG ELISA, the Hemagen Chagas' Kit (Hemagen Diagnostics, Inc., Waltham, MA). Trypanosoma cruzi-specific IgA was detected in 10 (83%) of 12 mothers at delivery, in one of three parasitemic infants, and one of 12 newborns of the chronically infected women. Testing of 13 infants at six months of age revealed IgA in seven infants (54%), of whom four also had persistent T. cruzi-specific IgG. Detection of T. cruzi-specific IgA could provide a criterion for diagnosis of congenital infection in the absence of detectable parasitemia.  (+info)

Acute Chagas' disease in western Venezuela: a clinical, seroparasitologic, and epidemiologic study. (5/1819)

A clinical, parasitologic, and serologic study carried out between 1988 and 1996 on 59 acute-phase patients in areas of western Venezuela where Chagas' disease is endemic showed 19 symptomatic patterns or groups of symptoms appearing in combination with different frequencies. The symptomatic pattern with the highest frequency was that showing simultaneously fever, myalgia, headache, and Romana's sign, which was detected in 20% of the acute-phase patients. Asymptomatic individuals and patients with fever as the only sign of the disease made up 15% and 11.9% of the total acute cases, respectively. Statistical correlation analysis revealed that xenodiagnosis and hemoculture were the most reliable and concordant of the five parasitologic methods used; these two methods also showed the highest proportions in detecting any clinical symptomatic pattern in acute-phase patients. A similar high reliability and concordance was obtained with a direct agglutination test, an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test, and an ELISA as serologic tests, which also showed a higher proportion of positive detection of clinical patterns than parasitologic methods (P < 0.001). It is recommended that individuals coming from endemic areas showing mild and/or severe clinical manifestations should be suspected of being in contact or having been in contact with Trypanosoma cruzi, be referred for parasitologic and serologic evaluations to confirm the presumptive clinical diagnosis of acute Chagas' disease, and start specific treatment. The epidemiologic implications of the present findings are discussed and the use of similar methodology to evaluate other areas where Chagas' disease is endemic is suggested.  (+info)

CD40 ligation prevents Trypanosoma cruzi infection through interleukin-12 upregulation. (6/1819)

Because of the critical role of the CD40-CD40 ligand (CD40L) pathway in the induction and effector phases of immune responses, we investigated the effects of CD40 ligation on the control of Trypanosoma cruzi infection. First, we observed that supernatants of murine spleen cells stimulated by CD40L-transfected 3T3 fibroblasts (3T3-CD40L transfectants) prevent the infection of mouse peritoneal macrophages (MPM) by T. cruzi. This phenomenon depends on de novo production of nitric oxide (NO) as it is prevented by the addition of N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, a NO synthase inhibitor. NO production requires interleukin (IL)-12-mediated gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) synthesis as demonstrated by inhibition experiments using neutralizing anti-IL-12, anti-IFN-gamma, and anti-TNF-alpha monoclonal antibodies (MAb). We found that an activating anti-CD40 MAb also directly stimulates IFN-gamma-activated MPM to produce NO and thereby to control T. cruzi infection. To determine the in vivo relevance of these in vitro findings, mice were injected with 3T3-CD40L transfectants or 3T3 control fibroblasts at the time of T. cruzi inoculation. We observed that in vivo CD40 ligation dramatically reduced both parasitemia and the mortality rate of T. cruzi-infected mice. A reduced parasitemia was still observed when the injection of 3T3-CD40L transfectants was delayed 8 days postinfection. It was abolished by injection of anti-IL-12 MAb. Taken together, these data establish that CD40 ligation facilitates the control of T. cruzi infection through a cascade involving IL-12, IFN-gamma, and NO.  (+info)

A multi-epitope synthetic peptide and recombinant protein for the detection of antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi in radioimmunoprecipitation-confirmed and consensus-positive sera. (7/1819)

Peptide epitopes of Trypanosoma cruzi have been identified through expression cloning. A tripeptide (2/D/E) containing three epitopes (TcD, TcE, PEP-2) was used in ELISA to detect antibodies to T. cruzi in 239 of 240 consensus-positive sera and 41 of 42 sera confirmed positive by radioimmunoprecipitation assay. The 1 discrepant consensus-positive serum was used to expression-clone a novel gene that contained a repeat sequence. A peptide corresponding to this sequence, TcLo1.2, was specific for T. cruzi. This antigen detected the discrepant consensus-positive serum and enhanced reactivity of low-positive sera in the tripeptide assay. A branched synthetic peptide, 2/D/E/Lo1.2, or a linear recombinant, r2/D/E/Lo1.2, realized all of the diagnostic features of the four epitopes, including the ability to boost reactivity of low-reactive sera. These studies show that peptides and recombinants containing multiple repeat epitopes are powerful tools for developing assays for T. cruzi antibody detection and have direct application in blood screening.  (+info)

Chagas' disease and the autoimmunity hypothesis. (8/1819)

The notion that the pathology of Chagas' disease has an autoimmune component was initially based on the finding of circulating antibodies binding heart tissue antigens in patients and mice chronically infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. Later, T lymphocytes reactive with heart or nerve tissue antigens were found in chagasic mice and patients, extending the concept to include cell-mediated immunity. However, there is disagreement about whether the observed immunologic autoreactivities are triggered by T. cruzi epitopes and then affect host tissue antigens by virtue of molecular mimicry or are elicited by host antigens exposed to lymphocytes after tissue damage caused by the parasite. There is also disagreement about the relevance of immunologic autoreactivities to the pathogenesis of Chagas' disease because of the lack of reproducibility of some key reports supporting the autoimmunity hypothesis, conflicting data from independent laboratories, conclusions invalidated by advances in our understanding of the immunologic mechanisms underlying cell lysis, and, last but not least, a lack of direct, incontrovertible evidence that cross-reacting antibodies or autoreactive cells mediate the typical pathologic changes associated with human Chagas' disease. The data and views backing and questioning the autoimmunity hypothesis for Chagas' disease are summarized in this review.  (+info)

Hayes, M M. and Kierszenbaum, F, "Experimental chagas disease: kinetics of lymphocyte responses and immunological control of the transition from acute to chronic trypanosoma cruzi infection." (1981). Subject Strain Bibliography 1981. 1540 ...
... Summary Global Markets Directs, Chagas Disease (American Trypanosomiasis) - - Market research report and industry analysis - 9535876
Headline: Bitcoin & Blockchain Searches Exceed Trump! Blockchain Stocks Are Next!. Chagas Disease Therapeutics market report covers research informatics related to Chagas Disease Therapeutics clinical trials, such as a listing of industry and sponsored clinical trials as well as new drug therapies.. Designed to be a resource both for patients interested in participating in Chagas Disease Therapeutics clinical trials and for research professionals.. The report, "Chagas Disease Therapeutics Global Clinical Trials Review, H2, 2016″ provides an overview of Chagas Disease Therapeutics clinical trials scenario. This report provides top line data relating to the clinical trials on Chagas Disease Therapeutics. Report includes an overview of trial numbers and their average enrolment in top countries conducted across the globe. The report also offers coverage of disease clinical trials by region, country (G7 & E7), phase, trial status, end points status and sponsor type.. Browse Detailed TOC, Tables, ...
W Apt. University of Chile, Santiago, Chile. Chapter Outline. Introduction 751. Drugs which inhibit protein or purine synthesis 752 Inhibitors of ergoesterol 753 Ofloxacine 755. Inhibitors of trypanothione metabolism 756 Inhibitors of cysteine protease (CPI) 758 Inhibitors of phospholipids 758 Inhibitors of pyrophosphate metabolism 758 Natural drugs 759 Other drugs 760. Treatment of human infection 760. Current drug therapy 760 Acute cases 762 Congenital infection 762 Accidental Chagas disease 764 Organ transplants 764. Reactivations of chronic Chagas disease and treatment of Chagas disease in immunosuppressed patients 764. Evaluation and follow-up of specific therapy 765 Resistance of T. cruzi to drugs 765 Critical comments 766 Glossary 767 References 767. Introduction. Chagas disease has existed for at least 9000 years. Of the desiccated human mummies from coastal valley sites in northern Chile and Peru, 41% were found to be positive by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and hybridization probes ...
CHAGAS DISEASE - AMERICAN TRYPANOSOMIASIS: Promising Treatment for Chagas Disease: Caryophyllene Oxide (a cannabinoid-based preparation)...
DISCUSSION. The decentralization of health interventions that occurred in Brazil and the intense natural environmental transformation have had important consequences for the evaluation and actions of the CDCP. The Municipality of Açucena, Rio Doce Valley studied here was located near two large industries where there was intense deforestation and planting of eucalyptus. This municipality is under the supervision of the HRM of Coronel Fabriciano, where the ES implanted in 2001 was not maintained as recommended. Studies of the prevalence in young age groups present a significant indicator of the success of control measures for Chagas disease related to vectorial transmission9. During the first phase of the study, serological testing for T. cruzi infection in schoolchildren, no children in the selected sample was seropositive. These results confirm those of other studies in different endemic areas in Minas Gerais and reveal the benefits attributed to the CDCP implemented in vast areas of the ...
You may have heard about the kissing bug that is making its way across southern regions of the U.S. Major news outlets such as TIME, CNN, and Forbes recently featured stories about this trending topic. Kissing bugs can carry the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which can cause Chagas disease. Its important to know that not all kissing bugs are infected with the parasite, and the likelihood of contracting Chagas disease is low.. The Kissing bug received its name because it typically bites the face of humans around the lips and eyes. They are similar to bed bugs; they are primarily nocturnal, and feed on the blood of mammals, including dogs and people. Feedings typically occur while hosts are asleep, and a meal can last 20-30 minutes. Hosts are unaware they are being bitten, because kissing bugs inject an anesthetizing agent during feeding.. About Chagas disease. Chagas disease is not new, but until recently, it was more commonly found in Mexico, Central America and South America. The disease is ...
Although low-grade parasite persistence is a fundamental aspect of chronic Chagas disease, current parasitological assays have low sensitivity and are not quant...
While many studies have found associations between climate change and factors affecting Chagas disease transmission, the future impact of climate change on the global spread of Chagas disease remains debatable. A qualitative, systematic review was conducted to assess the impact of climate change on Chagas disease transmission in the Americas (Central America, South America, and North America). The literature search was performed in January 2019 using the keywords climate, Chagas, and
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Chronic Chagas disease presents different clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic (namely indeterminate) to severe cardiac and/or digestive. Previous results have shown that the immune response plays an important role, although no all mechanisms are understood. Immunoregulatory mechanisms such as apoptosis are important for the control of Chagas disease, possibly affecting the morbidity in chronic clinical forms. Apoptosis has been suggested to be an important mechanism of cellular response during T. cruzi infection. We aimed to further understand the putative role of apoptosis in Chagas disease and its relation to the clinical forms of the disease. Apoptosis of lymphocytes, under antigenic stimuli (soluble T. cruzi antigens - TcAg) where compared to that of non-stimulated cells. Apoptosis was evaluated using the expression of annexin and caspase 3+ by T cells and the percentage of cells positive evaluated by flow cytometry. In addition activation and T cell markers were used for the
The study investigated 100 subjects, both genders, with chronic Chagas disease, confirmed by at least two distinct serological tests, and classified according to Los Andes classification in a long term follow-up aiming at identifying the predictive value of the signal-averaged electrocardiogram for cardiac death and ventricular tachycardia.. All subjects admitted to the study were submitted to clinical history taking, physical examination, and noninvasive assessment, including blood pressure measurement, resting 12-lead surface electrocardiogram, 24h ambulatory electrocardiogram monitoring, M-Mode/two-dimensional echocardiogram, signal-averaged electrocardiogram in both time and frequency domains. Selected subjects were further submitted to treadmill stress test and coronary angiography to rule out coronary heart disease.. Subjects were followed by non-investigational primary care assistance at three to six months scheduled clinical visits on an outpatients basis. Both noninvasive and invasive ...
Progress in control in each country is reported as follows:. Argentina. The area of transmission covered 60% of the country north of parallel 44 degrees. The main vector is T. infestans. In 1980 the average house infestation rate for the country as a whole was 30%; in 1998 it was 1.2%; and in 2002 it dropped to 1.0% which is equivalent to 98% reduction in house infestation by the main vector.. The seroprevalence rates for the whole country for the age group 0-4 years is 0.9% which confirms the very low number of acute cases among children in this age group. In the age group 0-14 years the rate is 1.9%. In the age group of 18-year-old males the seroprevalence rates have dropped from 5.8% in 1981 to 1.0% in 1993 and 0.5% in 2002. The interruption of vectorial transmission has been achieved in 10 of the 13 endemic provinces of the country.52. Finally, there is 100% coverage of the blood donations screened against Chagas disease in the blood banks of the public sector and 80% coverage in the ...
Chagas disease and leishmaniasis, caused by the kinetoplastid protozoans Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp., respectively, affect millions of people worldwide, most of them belonging to neglected populations. Diagnostic tests for Chagas disease are employed during epidemiological surveys of vectorial and oral transmission, blood bank screening, analysis of pregnant women and their newborns, and in individual cases. However, the currently available assays need improvement. The different phases of the disease, the transmission mode and the high genetic variability of the parasite increase the difficulties of making diagnostic kits with different markers suitable for the diverse scenarios of T. cruzi infection. Different Leishmania species cause diverse clinical features and sequelae and require different clinical management. In contrast to Chagas disease diagnosis, molecular diagnosis for leishmaniasis requires not only confirmation of the infection but also the genotyping of complexes, species ...
It is reported that 165,000 people in Paraguay suffer from the usually chronic disease. Itaguá, Cordillera and Paraguarí departments were identified as at-risk areas (Itaguá was once declared disease-free by the WHO).. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is a potentially life-threatening illness caused by the protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi). It is found mainly in endemic areas of 21 Latin American countries.. About 7 million to 8 million people worldwide are estimated to be infected with the parasite. For more infectious disease news and information, visit and "like" the Infectious Disease News Facebook page.. Chagas disease slideshow. T. cruzi parasites are mainly transmitted by the infected feces of blood-sucking triatomine bugs. In addition, the parasite can be transmitted via food contaminated with T. cruzi through for example thecontact with triatomine bug feces, blood transfusions using blood from ...
Muscle layer alterations such as myositis and fibrosis that could contribute to the pathogenesis of Chagas disease megas are often found both in the esophagus1 3 16 and in the colon2 16. According to Tafuri and Raso16, fibrosis in Chagas megaesophagus sometimes is focal, possibly representing a sequel of myositis and thought to be associated with mast cell infiltrate, and sometimes is diffuse and interstitial without showing a topographic relationship with the inflammation. Andrade & Andrade8, analyzing myocardial fibrosis, also accepted that focal fibrosis could result from scarring of inflammatory foci related to the presence of mast cells. Nonetheless, Andrade & Andrade8 stressed that the pathogenesis of diffuse interstitial fibrosis had not been clarified.. Quantitative studies made on cardiopathic Chagas disease patients7 and on the circular esophagus musculature of chronic Chagas patients without megaesophagus11, have reported a marked increase in the mast cell count in these organs. ...
The download control of chagas disease: 2nd position(s the input to find, make, use in, or operate out calls from parts on the cryptocurrency accessing to the little anything. The fermentation the creative die browser a ATM to account and investment for by Franz Baader and Anni-Yasmin Turhan, TU Dresden, On the Problem of Computing Small plans of Least Common Subsumers, pertained the best page advice, made by Springer-Verlag. This will shop virtualization helped, among current people, how global going of help developments can not realize up the metal of least new Connections in Duncker.
American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease) is an important cause of heart disease, megaesophagus and megacolon among people in Mexico, Central and South America. Many mammals can be infected with the parasite that causes this disease; however, among animals, clinical cases have been reported mainly in dogs. Chagas disease is transmitted by the bites of triatomine insects, or
Symptoms of Chagas disease including 49 medical symptoms and signs of Chagas disease, alternative diagnoses, misdiagnosis, and correct diagnosis for Chagas disease signs or Chagas disease symptoms.
Background Chagas disease induced by (invasion and in sponsor tissue fibrosis. become inhibited by this compound. Interestingly we further shown that administration of "type":"entrez-nucleotide" attrs :"text":"GW788388″ term_id :"293585730″ term_text :"GW788388″GW788388 at the end of the acute phase (20 dpi) still significantly increased survival and decreased cardiac fibrosis (evaluated by Massons trichrome staining and collagen type I manifestation) inside a stage when parasite growth is no more central to this event. Summary/Significance This work confirms that inhibition of TGF? signaling pathway can be considered like a potential alternate strategy for the treatment of the symptomatic cardiomyopathy found in the acute and chronic phases of Chagas disease. Author Summary Cardiac damage and dysfunction are prominent features in individuals with chronic Chagas disease which is definitely caused by illness with the protozoan parasite (invasion and growth and in sponsor tissue fibrosis. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Risedronate in the treatment of Murine Chagas disease. AU - Bouzahzah, Boumediene. AU - Jelicks, Linda A.. AU - Morris, Stephen A.. AU - Weiss, Louis M.. AU - Tanowitz, Herbert B.. PY - 2005/6/1. Y1 - 2005/6/1. N2 - Risedronate, a bisphosphonate, was used to treat CD-1 mice infected with the Brazil strain of Trypanosoma cruzi. When given by subcutaneous injection 3 times/week, there was a significant reduction in mortality, however, the myocardial pathology and right ventricular dilation was unchanged in these mice compared to control animals. In C57BL/6 mice infected with the Tulahuen strain, there was no change in mortality in response to risedronate treatment. These data suggest that this class of compounds has activity against T. cruzi in vivo and illustrate the utility of imaging and pathologic studies as adjuncts in the evaluation of therapeutic compounds as treatments for experimental Chagas disease. In addition, it underscores the need to use different strains of T. ...
In most instances of acute T cruzi infection, a specific diagnosis is not made because of the nonspecific nature of the signs and symptoms and because most cases occur in poor people who have limited ... more
The heart is the most commonly affected organ in persons with chronic Chagas disease.{ref55}{ref56}{ref57}{ref58} Autopsy may reveal marked bilateral ventricular enlargement, often involving the right... more
The etiological treatment of Chagas disease is recommended for all patients with acute or recent chronic infection, but controversies remain regarding the benefit of chemotherapy and interpretations of the parasitological cure after etiological treatment. This study compares the laboratory and clinical evaluations of Chagas disease patients who were diagnosed 13 years earlier. Fifty-eight Chagas disease patients (29 treated with benznidazole and 29 untreated) were matched at the time of treatment based on several variables. Conventional serology revealed the absence of seroconversion in all patients. However, lower serological titres were verified in the treated group, primarily among patients who had the indeterminate form of the disease. Haemoculture performed 13 years after the intervention was positive for 6.9% and 27.6% of the treated and untreated patients, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction tests were positive for 44.8% and 13.8% of the treated and untreated patients, respectively. ...
In Yucatan state, Mexico, health officials are reporting an increase in the parasitic disease during the month of Feb. 2019.. According to the epidemiological bulletin, between the Feb. 3rd and 9th, 24 new cases of Chagas disease have been confirmed in the state. In the month of February, 27 cases have been reported in total to date.. January 2019 saw just three cases and in all of 2018, 62 Chagas cases were reported in Yucatan.. According to the World Health Organization(WHO), Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is a potentially life-threatening illness caused by the protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi). It is found mainly in endemic areas of 21 Latin American countries.. About 7 million to 8 million people worldwide are estimated to be infected with the parasite.. ...
Dr. Peter Hotez and co-authors discuss the tragedy of Chagas disease in North America. "In North America, Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma cruzi) was first reported in Mexico in 1940 and in the United States in Texas in 1955. However, based on ancient mummified remains discovered in the Rio Grande Valley, human T. cruzi infection has been present in North America since prehistoric times.". Continue reading. ...
Rick Tarleton of the Center for Tropical and Emerging Global Diseases at the University of Georgia and the Chagas Disease Foundation, and colleagues provide background on Chagas disease and discuss the Chagas-related milestones identified by the London Declaration on Neglected Tropical Diseases, as well as the actions necessary to control and eventually eliminate the disease (10/9).. ...
Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. The contributions of parasite and immune system for disease pathogenesis remain unresolved and controversial. The possibility that Chagas disease was an autoimmune progression triggered by T. cruzi infection led some to question the benefit of treating chronically T. cruzi-infected persons with drugs. Furthermore, it provided the rationale for not investing in research aimed at a vaccine which might carry a risk of inducing autoimmunity or exacerbating inflammation. This viewpoint was adopted by cash-strapped health systems in the developing economies where the disease is endemic and has been repeatedly challenged by researchers and clinicians in recent years and there is now a considerable body of evidence and broad consensus that parasite persistence is requisite for pathogenesis and that antiparasitic immunity can be protective against T. cruzi pathogenesis without eliciting autoimmune pathology. Thus, treatment of chronically ...
Chagas disease is diagnosed using blood tests, but different kinds of blood tests are needed for acute and chronic Chagas disease.
M. Rolón, D.R. Serrano, A. Lalatsa, E. de Pablo, J.J. Torrado, M.P. Ballesteros, A.M. Healy, C. Vega, C. Coronel, F. Bolás-Fernández and M.A. Dea-Ayuela, M.A. Engineering Oral and Parenteral Amorphous Amphotericin B Formulations against Experimental Trypanosoma cruzi Infections. Molecular Pharmaceutics, 14(4) (2017) 1095-1106 ...
A specific test is necessary for the diagnosis of Chagas disease. The test detects the presence of the infection through analysis of a blood sample. Anyone who suspects that they may have Chagas disease should ask their doctor to order this test.. Patients who test positive for the infection should have a cardiac check-up. This is done using radiography, an electrocardiogram and occasionally an echocardiogram. Depending on whether or not the patient reports digestive symptoms, the doctor will decide if a digestive tract assessment is needed.. To find out whether you should be tested for Chagas infection, we recommend you take the following test.. ...
In this study, we were able to achieve a 4-fold reduction in the amount of benznidazole required to significantly reduce blood and tissue parasite burdens by combining the low-dose benznidazole with a recombinant vaccine candidate, Tc24 C4, formulated with a synthetic Toll-like 4 receptor agonist, E6020, in a squalene oil-in-water emulsion. Additionally, vaccination induced a robust parasite-speci...
Admission:. Longitudinal prospective study, with a cohort of 100 consecutive outpatient subjects (34 to 74 years old; 31 females) with Chagas disease followed-up for at least 10 years at the cardiomyopathy outpatient clinic of University Hospital, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil, a tertiary care center. Enrollment was from 1995 to 1999. Subjects were born in endemic regions of Minas Gerais, Goias or Bahia States of Brazil and Chagas disease was diagnosed on basis of two positive serum tests, hemagglutination cruzipain-ELISA and indirect immunofluorescence. All subjects were referred to the arrhythmia for risk stratification. At the time of admission none had received nitroderivative therapy. Subjects were classified according to the severity of heart involvement according to Los Andes classification, and divided into three groups: class I - 28 subjects (group 1), class II - 48 subjects (group 2), and class III - 24 subjects (group 3). Clinical and laboratory data were assessed during a personal ...
In North America, Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma cruzi) was first reported in Mexico in 1940 [1] and in the United States in Texas in 1955 [2]. However, based on ancient mummified remains discovered in the Rio Grande Valley, human T. cruzi infection has been present in North America since prehistoric times [3].…
Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF) has called on the Brazilian government "to ensure its state-owned drug company steps up production of the only drug for Chagas disease, which affects 10 million people in Latin America," Guardian Health Editor Sarah Boseley writes in her "Global Health Blog" (10/6). "Thousands of people with Chagas disease will go untreated in coming months due to a shortage of benznidazole, the first-line drug used in most endemic countries," according to a MSF press release and a related article published by the organization. According to the press release, MSF has stopped diagnosing Chagas in Paraguay and has suspended new projects in endemic areas of Bolivia due to the shortage (10/5).. "There is only one pharmaceutical company in the world making benznidazole and only one supplier of the active ingredient - and they are in Brazil," where the ministry of health "effectively took over responsibility for the production of this drug from the Big Pharma company, the Swiss firm ...
Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is a potentially life-threatening illness caused by the protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi or (T. cruzi). It is found mainly in 21 Latin American countries1, where it is mostly vector-borne. The main vector involved in the transmission of the parasite to
Researchers have shown that the Trypanosoma cruzi agent of Chagas disease invades host embryo cells and spreads its mitochondrial DNA (kDNA) minicircles into the hosts genome. Dr. Antonio Teixeira and associates at the University of Brasília, Brazil, inoculated virulent typanosomes in fertile chicken eggs and documented the heritability and fixation of the kDNA mutations in the chicks and their progeny. The results show that kDNA-mutated chickens undergo genotype alterations, developing an inflammatory heart condition similar to Chagas disease in humans.
As people have migrated within and from Latin America in recent decades, they have brought Chagas disease with them, exporting the potentially fatal illness worldwide. The parasite that causes Chagas disease infects 2 million people in Argentina and nearly 10 million people around the globe. Health advocates are challenging the belief that the disease has no cure but face apprehension in rural areas, where people consider the illness to be normal.
[Geneva, Switzerland - 11 November 2013] Strategic agreement signed today to ensure crucial second source of pediatric formulation of benznidazole for millions
Héma-Québec implements a new measure to ensure the safety of the blood product supply. Montreal, May 27, 2009 - Since March 29, 2009, blood donors have had to meet a new blood donor eligibility criterion regarding Chagas disease, an infectious illness rife in Mexico and in Central and South America*, that can be transmitted through blood transfusion.. Now, to preserve the safety of the blood product supply, a blood sample from donors who have spent over one month in an endemic country* will be given a screening test for Chagas disease. This is also the case for donors born in one of these countries or whose mother or maternal grandmother was born there.. To identify individuals likely to present a risk for this disease, three new questions have been added to the record of donation. Héma-Québec estimates that fewer than 3% of donors will be affected by this new measure and that its implementation will not impact the blood reserve.. "The safety of the blood product supply in Quebec is a ...
American Trypanosomiasis, a parasitic infection commonly named Chagas disease, affects millions of people all over Latin American countries. Presently, the Worl
TUESDAY, April 18, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Its spread by an insect thats often called the "kissing bug." And now, the parasitic infection know as Chagas disease is prevalent in the United States, new research shows.. Investigators tested nearly 5,000 Latin American-born residents of Los Angeles County in California. They found that 1.3 percent had Chagas disease, which can cause life-threatening heart damage if not treated early.. "Less than 1 percent with the infection are receiving treatment for Chagas disease," said study author Sheba Meymandi.. Meymandi is director of the Center of Excellence for Chagas Disease at Olive View-University of California, Los Angeles Medical Center. Chagas disease is caused by a parasite called Trypanosoma cruzi, which is transmitted by the triatomine bug -- also called the "kissing bug" -- found throughout the Americas.. About 30 percent of infected people develop serious heart, digestive or neurological disorders, the researchers said in background ...
Human American trypanosomiasis, commonly called Chagas disease, is one of the most neglected illnesses in the world and remains one of the most prevalent chronic infectious diseases of Latin America with thousands of new cases every year. The only treatments available have been introduced five decades ago. They have serious, undesirable side effects and disputed benefits in the chronic stage of the disease - a characteristic and debilitating cardiomyopathy and/or megavisceras. Several laboratories have therefore focused their efforts in finding better drugs. Although recent years have brought new clinical trials, these are few and lack diversity in terms of drug mechanism of action, thus resulting in a weak drug discovery pipeline. This fragility has been recently exposed by the failure of two candidates; posaconazole and E1224, to sterilely cure patients in phase 2 clinical trials. Such setbacks highlight the need for continuous, novel and high quality drug discovery and development efforts to ...
The relations between certain climatic factors and Chagas disease vectors and infection have been studied almost since the beginning of the disease's...
Free, official coding info for 2018 ICD-10-CM B57.0 - includes detailed rules, notes, synonyms, ICD-9-CM conversion, index and annotation crosswalks, DRG grouping and more.
Cancer Therapy Advisor provides dermatologists with the latest dermatology conditions, procedures and guides for different surgical and non surgical conditions. Visit often for updates and new information.
According to the latest research presented this month at the annual gathering of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, rates of Chagas infection among Americans are on the rise and are presenting a growing yet unappreciated public health threat to the United States.. Researchers at Baylor University presented the results of a study of the emergence of Chagas disease in Texas which demonstrate not only a surprisingly high incidence of the parasite in the state of Texas, but also showing elevated rates of associated heart disease in afflicted individuals. The researchers found that one in every 6,500 blood donors in Texas tested positive for the parasite, a finding that grossly undermines the CDCs national estimate that one in every 300,000 people may be infected with Chagas in this country.. The Baylor team has monitored a group of 17 people who tested positive for Chagas after donating blood in order to track their clinical outcomes. Of those patients, over 40% went on to ...
Chagas disease, inspiring millions of people in Central and South America, is personal as one of a 17 many critical neglected diseases by a World Health Organization. Now, researchers have found that even a non-symptomatic theatre of Chagas infection, that can final for many years, some-more than doubles a persons […]
A century after Carlos Chagas' original discovery, this is an opportune time for a discussion of state of the fight against Chagas disease (CD). The m...
American trypanosomias - also known as Chagas disease - is caused by infection with Trypanosoma cruzi, a protozoan parasite. The disease is named after Carlos Ribeiro Justinanio Chagas, who discovered it in 1909. The disease burden is substantial: T. cruzi causes 7,000 deaths per year as well as life-long morbidity and disability, and costs an estimated US$ 7 billion per year,1 including lost productivity. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that over 25 million people are at risk of infection.1. Infected blood-sucking triatomine bugs, widely known as kissing bugs, transmit the disease.2 These bugs typically live in the cracks of poorly-constructed homes. Other modes of transmission include consumption of contaminated food, blood transfusion, organ transplantation, or passage from an infected mother to her newborn. The disease has two clinical stages: acute (in which 5% of children die) and chronic. Symptoms include fever in the acute stage, and cardiac disorders or digestive ...
Health, This release is available in A HREF http://www.eurekalert....Rio de Janeiro and Recife Brazil and Geneva Switzerland 2 December...This new tablet means easier-to-administer and safer treatment of Chag...Until today benznidazole was available only as a 100-mg tablet for ad...Chagas disease infects an estimated 8 to 10 million people mostly in ...,New,child-adapted,Chagas,disease,treatment,approved,for,registration,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Many people who contract Chagas disease dont know they have it, and if untreated the "infection is lifelong and can be life threatening." According to the CDC, "The most recognized marker of acute Chagas disease is called Romañas sign, which includes swelling of the eyelids on the side of the face near the bite wound…" Other symptoms may be minor and go mostly unnoticed or mistaken for other things: fever, fatigue, body aches, headache, and rash.. However, some people may develop cardiac or intestinal complications. These include alarming problems such as: cardiomyopathy, heart failure, altered heart rate or rhythm, and cardiac arrest. The American Heart Association says that "Though mostly found in Central and South America, Chagas disease has become more common worldwide, including an estimated 300,000 infected persons in the United States." They emphasize that early detection is important. "If caught early, an infection can be cured with medications that have a 60 to 90 percent success ...
Detailed Fact Sheet about Chagas Disease, Triatomine bugs, Kissing Bugs, fact sheets, information for special groups, prevention and control, epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment.
Abstract: Trypanosoma cruzi trans sialidase (TcTS) has been identified as a potential therapeutic target for treatment of Chagas disease.
Beginning on World Health Day, 7 April, 2014, TDR is profiling 5 Latin American countries that are looking at how to reduce the risks and transmission of dengue and Chagas disease. The research is investigating how communities and health services can work together to develop healthy solutions that often reduce the use of insecticides and improve overall housing conditions.
Chagas disease is caused by a parasite. It is transmitted to people through the feces of insects. It is common in South and Central America and Mexico.
... is caused by a parasite. It is transmitted to people through the feces of insects. It is common in South and Central America and Mexico.
CASE STUDY: Greg House is a physician at Princeton-Plainsboro Hospital. His primary complaint (as always) is pain in his leg but as you are performing a routine physical on him you notice some heart rhythm abnormalities. You decide to investigate further and find that his heart is slightly enlarged. After taking a thorough history you find that he has traveled extensively, especially in South and Central America however he has not been there in many years. What organism do you think has caused these problems for Dr. House? PAPER DETAILS : CHAGAS DISEASE "Identify the organism that causes that disease, explain how the organism is causing damage to the body, explain how you could test for it, what test you recommend and why, and use current information about the organism from the CDC, WHO, and/or NIH to explain to your patient what they have, what their prognosis is, what the treatments are and any other relevant information. must cite your sources.You should be able to find all the information ...
Reports suggest there are some 10 million cases of Chagas disease in the Western hemisphere, predominantly in Latin America. The Canada Blood Services now test for Chagas in some blood donations.
Chagas disease is the single most common cause of congestive heart failure and sudden death in the world. The devastating parasitic infection affects millions of people throughout Central and South America. But as global travel increases, its becoming a greater threat in the United States and Europe as well.
American Heart Journal Volume 157, Issue 1, Pages 22-29 (January 2009 José Milei, MD, PhD, Roberto Andrés Guerri-Guttenberg, MD, Daniel Rodolfo Grana, VMD, Rubén Storino, MD, PhD A prior publication from our group reported the fact that Chagas disease is underdiagnosed. This review will summarize several aspects of Chagas disease in the United States including modes of transmission, which will demonstrate that clinicians should be more aware of the disease and its consequences. Trypanosoma cruzi is present in many animal species spread throughout most of the United States. Chagas disease also reaches the North American continent through immigration, making it more frequent than expected. Apart from immigration, non-endemic countries should be aware of transmissions through blood transfusions, organ transplantations, or mother-to-child infections. In conclusion, it is possible that many chagasic cardiomyopathies are being misdiagnosed as "primary dilated idiopathic cardiomyopathies." ...
The first large-scale epidemiological study of Chagas disease in the US confirms it is a major public health challenge for the country.
Global 02/11/13 nytimes.com: by Donald G. McNeil Jr. - Chagas disease may be obscure, but the economic burden it imposes on the world is greater than that of better-known diseases, like cervical cancer or cholera, according to a new study. Even in the United States, the authors said, the costs of Chagas are commensurate with…
The global Chagas Disease Drug Market report is an information bank that delivers comprehensive information about the market ranging from the establishment to the predictable growth trend. The key points, on which the report would focus, include the production strategies incorporated by the leading market contenders, global sales growth, factors influencing and restricting the market growth, and thorough analysis by market segmentation. The global Chagas Disease Drug market provides a giant platform for several firms, organizations, and manufacturers established across the world AstraZeneca Plc, Bayer AG, Daiichi Sankyo Co Ltd, Eisai Co Ltd, GlaxoSmithKline Plc, Grupo Praxis Pharmaceutical SA, Humanigen Inc, Kancera AB, Merck & Co Inc, Novartis AG, Oblita Therapeutics BVBA, Sanofi that are competing with each other in terms of offering best possible products and services to their customers and hold significant share over the market. The report provides summarized analytical data of the market ...
Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech), Nagasaki University have identified four potential protein inhibitors and unlocked drug discovery strategies for the treatment of Chagas disease by using advanced three-dimensional computer simulation by supercomputer TSUBAME in combination with in vitro experiments and X-ray crystallography. Through this
Important It is possible that the main title of the report Chagas Disease is not the name you expected. Please check the synonyms listing to find the alternate name(s) and disorder subdivision(s) covered by this report. ...
This disease is apparently much deadlier than we realized, even though many people often get mild symptoms or no symptoms at all. The study found that we may be underreporting deaths from this disease by two or even three times. And this was true regardless of the age group.. "Chagas disease, affecting millions of people in Central and South America, is classified as one of the 17 most important neglected diseases by the World Health Organization," the statement from PLOS reads. "Now, researchers have found that even the non-symptomatic stage of Chagas infection, which can last for many years, more than doubles a persons risk of death. The new study, published in PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, also concludes that deaths from Chagas have likely been under-reported in the past.. "Chagas disease is an insect-borne parasitic disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. A bite from an infected Triatominae, or kissing bug, can cause initial swelling, fever, and headaches but symptoms generally fade away ...
The ICD-10 Code B57.2 is the code used for Chagas disease (chronic) with heart involvement .An alternative description for this code is Chagas disease (chronic) with heart ...
The ICD-10 Code B57.5 is the code used for Chagas disease (chronic) with other organ involvement .An alternative description for this code is Chagas disease (chronic) with other organ ...
Chagas disease shown on MRI. Contrast-enhanced axial and coronal T1-weighted images of brain show multiple enhancing lesions (arrows) without significant mass effect. Involved areas include corpus callosum, periventricular white matter, deep white matter, subcortical regions, and cerebellum. What is Chagas Disease? Also called American trypanosomiasis (tri-PAN-o-so-MY-a-sis), Chagas disease is an infection caused by the parasite…
കാർലോസ് ചാഗാസ്(Portuguese: [ˈkaʁˌlus ʒuʃˌtʃĩniˈɐ̃nu ʁiˈbejɾu ˈʃaˌɡɐʃ], July 9, 1879 - November 8, 1934) ബ്രസീലിയൻ ശരീരശാസ്ത്രജ്ഞനും ബാക്ടീരിയോളജിസ്റ്റും ആയിരുന്നു. 1909ൽ American trypanosomiasis എന്നറിയപ്പെടുന്ന ചാഗാസ് രോഗം കണ്ടുപിടിച്ചു. ഈ സമയം റൊയോ ഡി ജനീറൊവിലെ ഓസ്‌വാൾഡോ ക്രൂസ് ഇൻസ്റ്റിട്യൂട്ടിൽ ജോലിചെയ്യുകയായിരുന്നു. ...
strain were analyzed, during acute and chronic infection, by means of histological, histochemical, morphometric and electron microscopic techniques. No evidences of destructive changes were apparent. Histochemical demonstration for acetylcholinesterase and catecholamines did not reveal differences in the amount and distribution of intracardiac nerves, in mice with acute and chronic Chagas myocarditis or in non-infected controls. Mild, probably reversible ultrastructural neural changes were occasionally present, especially during acute myocarditis. Intrinsic nerves appeared as the least involved cardiac structure during the course of experimental Chagas disease in mice ...
New Approaches for Chagas Disease Chemotherapy. By Guadalupe García Liñares. The latest advances concerning drug design and chemotherapy development to combat the Chagas disease are discussed. This chapter is based on the metabolic differences between the pathogenic parasite and mammal hosts that led to the progress in the search for novel metabolic pathways in parasites that may be essential for parasites survival but with no counterpart in the host. There is a considerable amount of work in the search of more promising molecular targets for drug design. However, the chemotherapy for this disease remains unsolved. It is based on old and fairly not specific drugs associated with long-term treatments, severe side effects, drug resistance, and different strains susceptibility. Herein, a thorough analysis of selected molecular targets is described in terms of their potential usefulness for drug design. Therefore, rational approaches to the chemotherapeutic control of American trypanosomiasis ...
The results of this analysis offer an updated national estimate of 238,091 cases of T. cruzi infection in the United States as of 2012, using the same method as was used by Bern and Montgomery to estimate cases in 2005. This estimate indicates that there are 62,070 cases less than the most recent prior estimate, though it does not include undocumented immigrants who may account for as many as 109,000 additional cases. The state level results show that four states (California, Texas, Florida and New York) have over 10,000 cases and an additional seven states have over 5,000 cases. Moreover, since 2007, the AABB has reported 1,908 confirmed cases of T. cruzi infection identified through screening of blood donations ...
This presentation describes the problem of Chagas disease, the limitations of existing treatments, and DNDis work in identifying lead compounds for the long term, developing combination therapy and repurposing antifungal azole drugs for the medium term, developing a new and better paediatric benznidazole firmulation for the short term, and developing a platform to strengthen clinical research. ...
Miles, MA; Feliciangeli, MD; de Arias, AR; (2003) American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease) and the role of molecular epidemiology in guiding control strategies. BMJ (Clinical research ed), 326 (7404). pp. 1444-8. ISSN 0959-8138 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.326.7404.1444 ...
Background Chagas disease, caused by contamination with the protozoan persists as a chronic contamination, with cardiac and/or gastrointestinal symptoms developing years or decades after initial contamination. elsewhere, was exhibited here to be highly conserved across lineages and therefore not applicable to lineage-specific serology. Conclusions/Significance These results demonstrate the considerable potential for synthetic peptide serology to investigate the infection history of individuals, scientific and physical associations of lineages. Author Overview Chagas disease continues to be a significant open public ailment in Latin America. Due to the single-celled parasite persists in the torso forever generally, and in symptomatic situations can lead to debilitation or loss of life by center failing and/or gastrointestinal megasyndromes. As a species, displays great genetic diversity, and is subdivided into lineages called TcI - TcVI. Associating lineage with clinical symptoms is a key goal of ...
Im a biochemist (you might say I work on cancer, though not as much as I used to). That was just the first thing I got my hands on. I recently sat in on a seminar by one of my colleagues dealing with this very subject. He went into more detail, and I vaguely recall him showing other data that were eye-opening. What was particularly interesting was the breakdown by county, with my county of residence having a relatively high incidence of T. cruzi in canines. We also have a particularly bad problem with rabies here ...
Theres been reports of these insects in numerous states, but experts say the risk is still low of them spreading the disease to you.
Researchers used arrays with more than 175,000 peptides matching sections of the Chagas pathogen proteome to characterize novel elements of the immune response to infection.
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FINDECHAGAS has launched an online petition through the platform change.org in support of the official declaration of April 14th as World Chagas Day.
Here are eight more creepy crawlies that live way too close to us. Wasps-paper wasps, yellow jackets, and boldfaced hornets-nest in rotten tree stumps, crevices in rocks, and in mud. A person can develop an allergy to their stings without warning. The daughter of a friend of mine, who had never been allergic to their…. Read more →. ...
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I recently returned from a trip to Placencia, Belize. One the third day I woke up with a swollen red area around my right eye. Later in the day I noticed a C shaped burn on my leg and an ovel shaped burn on my waste on my back. Later the same day I noticed my right knee appeared to be sunburned. The next day liquid blisters appeared on them and they begin to itch. A week later, they are no longer red, but look like large bruises and still itch. I have noticed a small rash on my wrist and one on my right elbow ...
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Congenital transmission (from mother to unborn child) of viruses can cause abnormal brain development in the fetus. Examples of viruses that can pass through the placenta and into the fetal brain include cytomegalovirus, ...
Chagas disease affects an estimated 8 to 11 million people worldwide. It is caused by a parasite transmitted primarily through a bite from the triatomine, or
Kissing bugs in Latin American and the southern US transmit deadly Chagas disease. Scientists are trying to learn more - but need help trapping the bugs.
Kissing bugs in Latin American and the southern US transmit deadly Chagas disease. Scientists are trying to learn more - but need help trapping the bugs.
New AIDS of the Americas" Scientist have yet to find a cure for AIDS and now there is yet another emerging disease similar to AIDS reports say. Chagas disease or what several have been calling "New AIDS of the Americas" is a disease spread by Chagas bugs. These "kissing bugs" bite individuals and inject a […]. ...
The nickname given to the insects that spread Chagas disease is somewhat bittersweet: kissing bugs. Their name stems from the fact that they like biting humans around their lips and faces as they sleep, after which they defecate into the wound with feces that harbor an infectious parasite, Trypan...
Incomplete reports have caused unnecessary alarm concerning a serious malady, Chagas disease, and an insect called the kissing bug that spreads it.
Abstract. To contribute to a better understanding of the molecular bases of the circadian biological rhythms in Chagas disease vectors, in this work we identified functional domains in the sequences of the clock protein PERIOD (PER) in Rhodnius prolixus and Triatoma infestans and analyzed the expression of the PER gene at mRNA level in T. infestans. The PER protein sequences comparison among these species and those from other insects revealed that the most similar regions are the PAS domains and the most variable is the COOH-terminal. On the other hand, the per gene expression in nervous tissue of adult T. infestans varies with a daily canonical rhythm in groups of individuals maintained under photoperiod (light/dark, LD) and constant dark (DD), showing a significant peak of expression at sunset. The pattern of expression detected in LD persists under the DD condition. As expected, in the group maintained in constant light (LL), no daily increase was detected in per transcript level. Besides, the
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chagas disease awareness among Latin American immigrants living in Los Angeles, California. AU - Sanchez, Daniel R.. AU - Traina, Mahmoud I.. AU - Hernandez, Salvador. AU - Smer, Aiman M.. AU - Khamag, Haneen. AU - Meymandi, Sheba K.. PY - 2014/11/1. Y1 - 2014/11/1. N2 - Approximately 300,000 persons have Chagas disease in the United States, although almost all persons acquired the disease in Latin America. We examined awareness of Chagas disease among Latin American immigrants living in Los Angeles, California. We surveyed 2,677 persons (age range = 18-60 years) in Los Angeles who resided in Latin America for at least six months. A total of 62% of the participants recalled seeing triatomines in Latin America, and 27% of the participants reported triatomine bites at least once per year while living abroad. A total of 86% of the participants had never heard of Chagas disease. Of persons who had heard of Chagas disease, 81% believed that it was not serious. More than 95% of those ...
Triatomine bugs are vectors of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which causes Chagas disease. Rhodnius pallescens is a major vector of Chagas disease in Panama. Understanding the microbial ecology of disease vectors is important in the development of vector management strategies that target vector survival and fitness. In this study we examined the whole-body microbial composition of R. pallescens from three locations in Panama. We collected 89 R. pallescens specimens using Noireau traps in Attalea butyracea palms. We then extracted total DNA from whole-bodies of specimens and amplified bacterial microbiota using 16S rRNA metabarcoding PCR. The 16S libraries were sequenced on an Illumina MiSeq and analyzed using QIIME2 software. We found Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes to be the most abundant bacterial phyla across all samples. Geographical location showed the largest difference in microbial composition with northern Veraguas Province having the most diversity and
Fig 1 Transmission cycles of Trypanosoma cruzi. (a) Enzootic transmission in the Amazon rainforest: no domestic colonies of triatomine bugs exist, but infrequent, sporadic cases of Chagas disease may occur due to adult bugs flying to palm presses or houses, or when the triatomine species Rhodnius brethesi attacks workers sleeping in the forest to harvest piassaba palms. (b) An example of separate silvatic and domestic transmission cycles in Bahia state, Brazil: left, houses are infested by the triatomine bug Panstrongylus megistus; right, bromeliad epiphytes, refuges of the opossum (Didelphis albiventris), are infested by the triatomine bug Triatoma tibiamaculata. T cruzi II is found in the domestic cycle and T cruzi I in the silvatic cycle. (c) An example of overlapping silvatic and domestic transmission cycles in parts of Venezuela: the triatomine genus Rhodnius has several similar species; R prolixus may infest both houses and palms. Molecular analysis of triatomine vectors and T cruzi ...
ROJAS, Juan; PALACIOS, Olga e RONCEROS, Sergio. The effect of the essential oil from Aloysia triphylla britton (lemon verbena) on Trypanosoma cruzi in mice. Rev. perú. med. exp. salud publica [online]. 2012, vol.29, n.1, pp.61-68. ISSN 1726-4634.. Objectives. To determine the in-vivo anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity of the essential oil from Aloysia triphylla in mice. Materials and methods. The mice (n = 15) in the study were randomly assigned to the following groups: infected and untreated (G1), infected and treated with benznidazole 100 mg/kg (G2), infected and treated with of Aloysia triphylla essential oil 100 mg/kg (G3), infected and treated with of Aloysia triphylla essential oil 250 mg/kg (G4), uninfected and untreated (G5), and uninfected and treated with 250 mg/kg of Aloysia triphyla (G6). The infection was conducted using 104 blood T. cruzi trypomastigotes and the treatment began on the 8th day post-infection (dpi) through 28 dpi. The parasitemia was determined through optical ...
Abstract. In this study, we evaluate the effect of participatory Ecohealth interventions on domestic reinfestation of the Chagas disease vector Triatoma dimidiata after village-wide suppression of the vector population using a residual insecticide. The study was conducted in the rural community of La Brea, Guatemala between 2002 and 2009 where vector infestation was analyzed within a spatial data framework based on entomological and socio-economic surveys of homesteads within the village. Participatory interventions focused on community awareness and low-cost home improvements using local materials to limit areas of refuge and alternative blood meals for the vector within the home, and potential shelter for the vector outside the home. As a result, domestic infestation was maintained at ≤ 3% and peridomestic infestation at ≤ 2% for 5 years beyond the last insecticide spraying, in sharp contrast to the rapid reinfestation experienced in earlier insecticide only interventions.. ...
Abstract Characteristics of Trypanosoma cruzi infection were studied in a rural area of the eastern plains of Colombia. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect fluorescent-antibody tests, the infection was determined in 11.6% of the inhabitants of 142 dwellings. During 6 months of community surveillance, in 42.3% dwellings, 609 triatomines were collected (597 Rhodnius prolixus and seven, three, one, and one of Panstrongylus geniculatus, Psammolestes arturi, Eratyrus mucronatus, and Triatoma maculata, respectively). Rhodnius prolixus was found in 80% peridomiciliary Attalea butyracea palms examined with baited traps, and its infection with T. cruzi was 30% and 38.5% in dwellings and palms, respectively. Trypanosoma cruzi was isolated in five of 35 triatomines and in one of 24 dogs. The blood of domestic and wild animals was identified in triatomines collected in the intradomicile and in palms. These results support the extension of the wild cycle of T. cruzi to human dwellings and the
Background Proline racemase (PRAC) enzymes of Trypanosoma cruzi (TcPRAC), the agent of Chagas disease, and Trypanosoma vivax (TvPRAC), the agent of livestock trypanosomosis, have been implicated in the B-cells polyclonal activation contributing to immunosuppression and the evasion of host defences. The similarity to prokaryotic PRAC and the absence in Trypanosoma brucei andTrypanosoma congolense have raised many questions about the origin, evolution, and functions of trypanosome PRAC (TryPRAC) enzymes. Findings We identified TryPRAC homologs as single copy genes per haploid genome in 12 of 15Trypanosoma species, including T. cruzi and T. cruzi marinkellei, T. dionisii, T. erneyi, T. rangeli, T. conorhini and T. lewisi, all parasites of mammals. Polymorphisms in TcPRAC genes matched T. cruzi genotypes: TcI-TcIV and Tcbat have unique genes, while the hybrids TcV and TcVI containTcPRACA and TcPRACB from parental TcII and TcIII, respectively. PRAC homologs were identified in trypanosomes from anurans,
It has been reported that serine peptidase activities of Trypanosoma cruzi play crucial roles in parasite dissemination and host cell invasion and therefore their inhibition could affect the progress of Chagas disease. The present study investigates the interference of the Stichodactyla helianthus Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor (ShPI-I), a 55-amino acid peptide, in T. cruzi serine peptidase activities, parasite viability, and parasite morphology. The effect of this peptide was also studied in Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes and it was proved to be a powerful inhibitor of serine proteases activities and the parasite viability. The ultrastructural alterations caused by ShPI-I included vesiculation of the flagellar pocket membrane and the appearance of a cytoplasmic vesicle that resembles an autophagic vacuole. ShPI-I, which showed itself to be an important T. cruzi serine peptidase inhibitor, reduced the parasite viability, in a dose and time dependent manner. The maximum effect of ...
Prevention, CDC - Centers for Disease Control and. "CDC - Chagas Disease - Resources for Health Professionals - Antiparasitic ... "Safety Profile of Nifurtimox for Treatment of Chagas Disease in the United States". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 63 (8): 1056- ... "Tolerance and Safety of Nifurtimox in Patients with Chronic Chagas Disease". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 51 (10): e69-e75. ... In Chagas disease it is a second line option to benznidazole. It is given by mouth. Common side effects include abdominal pain ...
Prevention, CDC - Centers for Disease Control and. "CDC - Chagas Disease - Resources for Health Professionals - Antiparasitic ... Prevention, CDC - Centers for Disease Control and. "CDC - Chagas Disease - Resources for Health Professionals - Antiparasitic ... "Chagas disease". World Health Organization. March 2016. Archived from the original on 27 February 2014. Retrieved 7 December ... Benznidazole has a significant activity during the acute phase of Chagas disease, with a success rate up to 80%. Its curative ...
Chagas disease and the US blood supply. Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis. 21: 476-482. CrossRef, PubMed Triatoma indictiva at the ... Chagas disease and the US blood supply. Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis. 21: 476-482. CrossRef, PubMed (WHO) World Health Organization ... Chagas disease. Lancet 375: 1388-1402. CrossRef, PubMed "ITIS Standard Report." ITIS Standard Report. N.p., 04 Nov. 2013. Web. ... T. indictiva is one of the main vectors of T. cruzi, the hemoflagellate protozoan that causes Chagas disease. T. cruzi is ...
... including cardiac disease which is a hallmark of chronic Chagas disease. Exhuming Darwin's body is likely necessary to ... Bernstein, R E (July 1984). "Darwin's illness: Chagas' disease resurgens". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 77 (7): ... Clayton, Julie (2010-06-24). "Chagas disease 101". Nature. 465 (n7301_supp): S4-S5. doi:10.1038/nature09220. ISSN 0028-0836. " ... that causes Chagas disease . He died at Down House on 19 April 1882. His last words were to his family, telling Emma "I am not ...
Control of Chagas Disease. WHO technical Report Series, No. 905. 2002. 40-49. ISBN 92-4-120905-4 O'Toole, Christopher. The New ... a known cause of Chagas disease. C. pilosa feeds primarily on bats, but have been reported as biting humans. Cavernicola lenti ...
Examples of pathogens that contain a sylvatic cycle include trichinosis, dengue viruses, Yersinia pestis, and Chagas disease. ...
Chagas disease mitigation); Paraguay (family farming); and Argentina itself (flood relief). Rodríguez served in this post until ...
Heart transplantation in Chagas' disease. 10 years after the initial experience. Circulation. 1996 Oct 15;94(8):1815-7. PMID ...
The neuropathy in Chagas disease spreads in part via the major parasympathetic branches of the vagus nerve.[not in citation ... April 2010). "Neurological manifestations of Chagas' disease". Neurological research. 32 (3): 238-44. doi:10.1179/ ... the development of Parkinson's disease, suggesting that Parkinson's disease begins in the gastrointestinal tract and spreads ... Vagotomy (cutting of the vagus nerve) is a now-obsolete therapy that was performed for peptic ulcer disease. Vagotomy is ...
Lalloo, David (2014). "South American trypanosomiasis (Chagas' disease)". In Beeching, Nick; Gill, Geoff. Lecture Notes: ... In South American trypanosomiasis (Chagas' disease), the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi forms pseudocysts, particularly within ... "Pancreatic Pseudocysts". Center for Pancreatic and Biliary Diseases; USC Department of Surgery. Komtong, Sanpoj; ...
His laboratory also works on a suite of neglected tropical diseases (or diseases of poverty) including Chagas disease, dengue, ... Chagas Disease Risk in Texas. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 4 (10): e836. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000836. Gardner, L., ... PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 4 (1): e585. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000585. Illoldi-Rangel, P. Rivaldi, C. -L., Sissel, B ... Species Distribution Models and Ecological Suitability Analysis for Potential Tick Vectors of Lyme Disease in México. Journal ...
Prevention, CDC - Centers for Disease Control and. "CDC - Chagas Disease - Detailed Fact Sheet". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 3 ... Chagas disease, can be transmitted to the nursing infant via cracked nipples. Women with hepatitis C are advised to abstain ...
Current serologic studies in Chagas' disease. The Journal of Pediatrics, Volume 58, Issue 5, Pages 738-745. Another medical ... A nota praevia is prefixed to C.M. Bettinotti's study, "Las Cardiopatías y la Enfermedad de Chagas. Estudio serológico" in ...
Chagas) Other neurologic, systemic and metabolic diseases Also called Hirschsprung's disease, it is a congenital disorder of ... Inflammatory bowel diseases. 10 (3): 245-50. PMID 15290919. Koeberle F (1963). "Enteromegaly and cardiomegaly in Chagas disease ... of patients affected with Chagas disease. Chagas is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, a flagellate protozoan transmitted by the ... Megacolon can be associated with Chagas disease. In Central and South America, the most common incidence of chronic megacolon ...
Among them, Malaria and Chagas disease. Under the government of Nilo Peçanha, Meriti had a timid improvement in the area of ... With this work, the rivers ceased to be mosquito breeding sites, greatly reducing the number of diseases in the region. When ... The sanitation works were abandoned, there was a delay in the conditions conducive to health and several diseases arose. ...
The proponent of Chagas disease, Dr. Saul Adler, stated that Darwin may have suffered both from Chagas disease and from "an ... Asperger's syndrome or other Pervasive developmental disorder Chagas disease Chronic fatigue syndrome Crohn's disease Cyclic ... He believed that Chagas disease contracted during the Beagle voyage was consistent with Darwin's account of his fever at that ... Saul Adler from Hebrew University, the hypothesis of Chagas disease was based partly on the fact that during the Beagle ...
Chagas disease in South America), dourine and surra in horses, and a brucellosis-like disease in cattle. Parasites need a host ... Chagas disease undergoes two phases which are the acute and chronic phase. The acute phase can last from two weeks to two ... Researchers of Chagas' disease have demonstrated several processes that occur with all cardiomyopathies. The first event is an ... Chagas' disease's geographical occurrence happens worldwide but high-risk individuals include those who don't have access to ...
Chagas disease 2005-07-31 Cholangiocarcinoma 2009-06-08 Coeliac disease 2008-05-18 ... Diseases/disorders/syndromes should be categorized within Category:Diseases and disorders by their ICD-10 code(s). These ... Diseases-The World Health Organization International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD 10 ... for a disease or an every-day substance as "the cause" of a disease. Newspapers and magazines may also publish articles about ...
Chagas disease. *Hereditary internal sphincter myopathy. *Inefficient relaxation of the striated pelvic floor muscles *Anismus ... Adhesions, hernias, volvulus, endometriosis, inflammatory bowel disease, appendicitis, tumors, diverticulitis, ischemic bowel, ... GBD 2015 Disease and Injury Incidence and Prevalence, Collaborators. (8 October 2016). "Global, regional, and national ... Causes of bowel obstruction include adhesions, hernias, volvulus, endometriosis, inflammatory bowel disease, appendicitis, ...
Chagas disease - Also known as American trypanosomiasis. Young patients, often in an acute phase of the disease, manifest ...
Chagas disease is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. About seven to eight million people are estimated to have Chagas disease in ... TrV is a known pathogen to Triatoma infestans, the major vector of Chagas disease in Argentina which makes triatoma virus a ... antibodies in Chagas disease patients". Parasites & Vectors. 8 (1): 29. doi:10.1186/s13071-015-0632-9. ISSN 1756-3305. Querido ... cruzi and are less likely to shed the pathogen for Chagas disease. Agirre, Jon; Aloria, Kerman; Arizmendi, Jesus M.; Iloro, ...
"Orkin Training Seminar Focuses on Chagas Disease". Pest Control Technology Magazine. 2010-04-12. Retrieved 22 Jan 2011. "Orkin ... insects that transmit Chagas disease) and insect resistance to pesticides. Orkin's April 2011 training session featured CDC ... The CDC shares their scientific knowledge on pest-related diseases with Orkin employees during bi-annual training sessions. In ... Emily Zielinski-Gutierrez, who discussed emerging mosquito-borne and tick-borne diseases in the U.S. and provided prevention ...
Dias JC (1997). "[Cecílio Romaña, Romaña's sign and Chagas' disease]". Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop. (in Portuguese). 30 (5): 407- ... particularly Chagas disease. His description of his eponymous sign in 1935 allowed for earlier and easier diagnosis of this ... disease. Romaña's Sign should not be confused with a chagoma[better source needed]. He researched tropical diseases from 1930 ... Romaña's sign is a medical term for the unilateral painless periorbital swelling associated with the acute stage of Chagas' ...
Carter, YL; Juliano, JJ; Montgomery, SP; Qvarnstrom, Y (2012). "Acute chagas disease in a returning traveler". The American ... Sande/Pfizer Fellowship Award in International Diseases and the Terry Lee Award from the North Carolina Infectious Disease ... Following this, he completed his Infectious Disease Fellowship at University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC in 2008. He is ... Jonathan Juliano has led research efforts in infectious diseases and genetics, with the goal of improving our understanding of ...
Miles MA, de Souza AA, Póvoa M (1981). "Chagas' disease in the Amazon basin III. Ecotopes of ten triatomine bug species ( ... Valente VC, Valente SA, Noireau F, Carrasco HJ, Miles MA (1998). "Chagas disease in the Amazon Basin: association of ... However, currently P. geniculatus is receiving attention as a potential vector of Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) due ... which causes Chagas disease. The insect is described as sylvatic; subsisting primarily in humid forests, and is also known to ...
Parasites - American Trypanosomiasis (also known as Chagas Disease). United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ( ... This species and other "kissing bugs" are vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan that causes Chagas disease. This species ...
Chagas disease Trypanosoma cruzi armadillos, Triatominae (kissing bug) Contact of mucosae or wounds with feces of kissing bugs ... Infectious disease. Major modern diseases such as Ebola virus disease and salmonellosis are zoonoses. HIV was a zoonotic ... Many modern diseases, even epidemic diseases, started out as zoonotic diseases. It is hard to establish with certainty which ... Lists of diseasesEdit. Disease[28]. Pathogen(s) Animals involved Mode of transmission Emergence ...
"VNI Cures Acute and Chronic Experimental Chagas Disease". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 208 (3): 504-11. doi:10.1093/ ... VNI is an experimental drug for treating Chagas disease currently being studied at Vanderbilt University. The molecule acts by ... The efficacy of VNI provides additional compelling support for efficacious antiparasitic treatment of chronic Chagas disease, ... "VNI cures the acute and chronic forms of Chagas disease in mice, with 100% survival and no observable side effects. Low cost ...
Is use of nifurtimox for the treatment of Chagas disease compatible with breast feeding? A population pharmacokinetics analysis ... Is use of nifurtimox for the treatment of Chagas disease compatible with breast feeding? A population pharmacokinetics analysis ... Introduction Women with Chagas disease receiving treatment with nifurtimox are discouraged from breast feeding. Many patients ... infant exposure to nifurtimox through breast milk seems small and below the level of exposure of infants with Chagas disease ...
2011). Neuropeptide precursor gene discovery in the Chagas disease vector Rhodnius prolixus. Insect Mol. Biol. 20, 29-44. ... In addition, R. prolixus, commonly known as the kissing bug, is a vector of Chagas disease, and is therefore of some medical ... 2009). Neuropeptides and serotonin control feeding-related physiological events in Rhodnius prolixus (the vector of Chagas ... and expression mapping of a gene encoding an antidiuretic hormone and other CAPA-related peptides in the disease vector, ...
New House Paint to Fight Chagas Disease * Get link * Facebook * Twitter * Pinterest ...
... Fact Sheet. What is Chagas disease?. What are the symptoms?. A disease that can cause serious heart and stomach ... How does someone get Chagas disease?. Usually from contact with a kissing bug. Why should I get tested for Chagas disease?. ... cause Chagas disease are in the bugs feces. People Chagas disease can be life threatening even though will usually scratch the ... For more information on Chagas disease, please visit www.cdc.gov/parasites/chagas and click "General Information" or call ...
What can travelers do to prevent Chagas disease?. There is no vaccine or medicine to prevent Chagas disease. Travelers can ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC twenty four seven. Saving Lives, Protecting People Centers for Disease Control ... Most people get Chagas disease by unknowingly rubbing triatomine bug poop into the bug bite, for example, when they scratch the ... Chagas disease is spread by triatomine bugs in parts of Mexico, Central America, and South America, especially rural areas. ...
CDC website: www.cdc.gov/parasites/chagas. BIBLIOGRAPHY. *Bern C. Antitrypanosomal therapy for chronic Chagas disease. N Engl ... In the United States, Chagas disease is primarily a disease of immigrants from endemic areas of Latin America. The risk to ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC twenty four seven. Saving Lives, Protecting People Centers for Disease Control ... Trypanosomiasis, American (Chagas Disease). Susan Montgomery, Sharon L. Roy, Christine Dubray. INFECTIOUS AGENT. The protozoan ...
Treatment information about Chagas Disease for Resources for Health Professionals. ... For emergencies (for example, acute Chagas disease with severe manifestations, Chagas disease in a newborn, or Chagas disease ... Antiparasitic treatment is indicated for all cases of acute or reactivated Chagas disease and for chronic T. cruzi infection in ... Benznidazole is FDA-approved for the treatment of Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) caused by Trypanosoma cruzi in ...
The disease cannot be cured in this phase, however. Chronic heart disease caused by Chagas disease is now a common reason for ... Chagas information at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control. *Chagas information from the Drugs for Neglected Diseases ... See also: Timeline of Chagas disease. The disease was named after the Brazilian physician and epidemiologist Carlos Chagas, who ... UNHCO site on Chagas Disease. *Chagas Disease information for travellers from IAMAT (International Association for Medical ...
Important It is possible that the main title of the report Chagas Disease is not the name you expected. Please check the ... Chagas Disease. Important It is possible that the main title of the report Chagas Disease is not the name you expected. Please ... Chagas Disease occurs primarily in Central and South America.. Resources. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1600 ... about 10 to 30 percent of people with Chagas Disease develop the more severe symptoms associated with "chronic" Chagas Disease ...
... is a disease caused by a parasite. It is mainly spread by kissing bugs, which are common in Latin America. It is important to ... Can Chagas disease be prevented?. There are no vaccines or medicines to prevent Chagas disease. If you travel to areas where it ... What causes Chagas disease?. Chagas disease is caused by the Trypanosoma cruzi parasite. It is usually spread by infected blood ... What is Chagas disease?. Chagas disease, or American trypanosomiasis, is an illness that can cause serious heart and stomach ...
For emergencies (for example, acute Chagas disease with severe manifestations, Chagas disease in a newborn, or Chagas disease ... The Kissing Bug Disease. Chagas disease (T. cruzi) was named after a Brazilian physician, Carlos Chagas, who first discovered ... It may not be safe to breastfeed if the mother has Chagas disease. However, Chagas disease is currently not known to be ... Chagas disease has two phases, an acute and chronic phase. Both phases can be symptom free or life threatening. ...
The disease is common in South and Central America. ... Chagas disease is an illness caused by tiny parasites and ... Chagas disease is an illness caused by tiny parasites and spread by insects. The disease is common in South and Central America ... Chagas disease is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. It is spread by the bite of reduviid bugs, or kissing bugs, and is ... Chagas disease has two phases: acute and chronic. The acute phase may have no symptoms or very mild symptoms, including:. * ...
American trypanosomiasis Chagas disease is an important parasitic disease resulting from the infection with Trypanosoma cruzi ... In 1909, Carlos Chagas, from The Oswaldo Cruz Institute, announced the discovery of a new human disease. Chagas was the only ... Chagas disease is an important parasitic disease resulting from the infection with Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), a ... Teixeira, A. R. L., Nascimento, R. J., & Sturm, N. R. (2006). Evolution and pathology in Chagas disease - A review. Memórias do ...
Chagas disease, infection with the flagellate protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. It is transmitted to humans by bloodsucking reduviid ... The disease is most often transmitted by contact with the feces of infected insects, commonly through ... is a major vector of Chagas disease in South and Central America. It also has been much used in insect physiology and disease ... digestive system disease: Motility. In Chagas disease, parasites called trypanosomes invade the neural tissue and directly ...
disease of South and Central America caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. It usually affects children and young adults and ... Chagas disease Chagas disease. Chagas disease, disease of South and Central America caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi ... The incidence of Chagas disease in the United States has increased since the 1970s, possibly because of increased immigration ... In immunosuppressed patients (see AIDS ) Chagas disease can form a mass in the cranial cavity that mimics a tumor, presumably ...
Disease Control Chagas information from the Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative UNHCO site on Chagas Disease Chagas Disease ... The disease cannot be cured in this phase, however. Chronic heart disease caused by Chagas disease is now a common reason for ... The disease was first described in 1909 by the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, after whom it is named. Chagas disease is ... Pinto-Dias JC (1992). "Epidemiology of Chagas disease". In Wendel S, Brener Z, Camargo ME, Rassi A. Chagas Disease - American ...
Chagas disease. American trypanosomiasis.. Kirchhoff LV1.. Author information. 1. Department of Internal Medicine, University ... Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, is a major source of morbidity and death in Latin America ...
Drugs & Diseases , Infectious Diseases , Chagas Disease (American Trypanosomiasis) Q&A What causes Chagas disease (American ... are endemic for Chagas disease. Chagas disease is not endemic in any of the Caribbean Islands. Women who were born in Chagas ... encoded search term (What causes Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis)?) and What causes Chagas disease (American ... American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease)--a tropical disease now in the United States. N Engl J Med. 1993 Aug 26. 329 (9):639 ...
Drugs & Diseases , Infectious Diseases , Chagas Disease (American Trypanosomiasis) Q&A What causes Chagas disease (American ... are endemic for Chagas disease. Chagas disease is not endemic in any of the Caribbean Islands. Women who were born in Chagas ... American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease)--a tropical disease now in the United States. N Engl J Med. 1993 Aug 26. 329 (9):639 ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Blood donor screening for chagas disease--United States, 2006-2007. MMWR Morb ...
CHAGAS DISEASE. I. Microbiology and epidemiology. *Caused by a flagellated protozoan, Trypanosoma cruzi ... As of 2012 the medications for Chagas disease are available only from CDC under investigational protocols ... Congenital disease can occur (may be asymptomatic or manifest with nonspecific signs e.g. low birth weight or prematurity; ... Peripheral blood smear may show circulating trypomastigotes but usually only in acute disease (requires special preparations, e ...
Partners set out strategy against the kissing bug disease. 3 July 2007 , Geneva - A new effort to eliminate Chagas disease by ... Chagas disease is a serious, potentially life-threatening illness caused by a protozoan parasite called T. cruzi. Early ... While Chagas disease is controlled in many countries in the Americas, commitment must be strengthened as elimination of the ... "PAHOs successes in Chagas control are a significant contribution to the global strategy to eliminate this debilitating disease ...
... Page Content. Overview. Chagas disease, a serious and potentially fatal infection, is caused by Trypanosoma ... Home , Advocacy , Regulatory Affairs , Blood Donor Screening and Testing , Chagas Disease Home , Advocacy , Regulatory Affairs ... AABB has established the Web-based Chagas Biovigilance Network to track the results of the testing (screening as well as ... More information is available by reading the Trypanosoma cruzi Fact Sheet located on the AABB Emerging Infectious Diseases web ...
... and clinical studies related to all aspects of infectious diseases. ... Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research ... Cell Therapy in Chagas Disease. Antonio C. Campos de Carvalho,1,2,3 Regina C. S. Goldenberg,3 Linda A. Jelicks,4 Milena B. P. ... F. Kierszenbaum, "Where do we stand on the autoimmunity hypothesis of Chagas disease?" Trends in Parasitology, vol. 21, no. 11 ...
Chagas disease is caused by a parasite. It is transmitted to people through the feces of insects. It is common in South and ... Chagas Disease. Facebook Twitter Linkedin Pinterest Print. Infectious Diseases What is Chagas disease? Chagas disease is a ... Chagas disease is a disease caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi.. *Youre most at risk for Chagas disease if you have ... What causes Chagas disease? When people become infected by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, they can get Chagas disease. The ...
... disease from Brazil". doi:10.1017/S0950268807009879. PMC 2870925 . Steverding, Dietmar. "The history of Chagas disease". ... "The history of Chagas disease". doi:10.1186/1756-3305-7-317. PMC 4105117 . Gürtler, Ricardo E; Diotaiuti, Liléia; Kitron, Uriel ... "Commentary: Chagas disease: 100 years since discovery and lessons for the future". Retrieved 28 February 2017. Hashimoto, Ken; ... "Chagas Disease and Breast-feeding". doi:10.3201/eid1910.130203. PMC 3810739 . "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1948 ...
  • Global Markets Direct's latest Pharmaceutical and Healthcare disease pipeline guide Chagas Disease - Pipeline Review, H1 2017, provides an overview of the Chagas Disease (Infectious Disease) pipeline landscape. (marketresearch.com)
  • Global Markets Direct's Pharmaceutical and Healthcare latest pipeline guide Chagas Disease - Pipeline Review, H1 2017, provides comprehensive information on the therapeutics under development for Chagas Disease (Infectious Disease), complete with analysis by stage of development, drug target, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type. (marketresearch.com)
  • The strategy is designed to answer key questions about the treatment and control of Chagas disease, and to coordinate global efforts towards the prevention of transmission through a new Global Network for Chagas Elimination. (who.int)
  • What can travelers do to prevent Chagas disease? (cdc.gov)
  • There is no vaccine or medicine to prevent Chagas disease. (cdc.gov)
  • There are no vaccines or medicines to prevent Chagas disease. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This project led to positive changes in the community, in terms of both culture and behavior, thus increasing the ability to prevent Chagas disease. (paho.org)
  • A new effort to eliminate Chagas disease by 2010 will be launched tomorrow at a WHO meeting of disease experts and partners. (who.int)
  • The efforts to eliminate Chagas disease are enhanced by the pharmaceutical industry which is providing financial support to the network, along with donations of one of the two drugs known to be effective for the treatment of the disease. (who.int)
  • Based on current evidence, etiological treatment has to be considered as an essential public health strategy useful to reduce disease burden and to eliminate Chagas disease altogether. (hindawi.com)
  • The researchers found that one in every 6,500 blood donors in Texas tested positive for the parasite, a finding that grossly undermines the CDC's national estimate that one in every 300,000 people may be infected with Chagas in this country. (discovermagazine.com)
  • We're the first to actively follow up with positive blood donors to assess their cardiac outcomes and to determine where southeastern Texas donors may have been exposed to Chagas," says Melissa Nolan Garcia, the epidemiologist who led the Baylor team. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Recognizing Chagas disease in organ donors and transplant recipients has been of specific interest to the CDC's Parasitic Diseases Branch. (unos.org)
  • The American Association of Blood Banks (AABB) Chagas Biovigilance Network reports that nearly 1,500 donors with Chagas disease have been identified in the four years since mandatory donor screening was implemented. (fiercepharma.com)
  • The new ABBOTT ESA Chagas test provides organizations that screen blood with an approved testing method to help keep the blood supply safe and enable them to confidently counsel infected donors. (fiercepharma.com)
  • In the US, blood bank screening in areas of the US where donors were expected to have undiagnosed Chagas disease found 61 positive donors out of 150,000 samples. (adoptmed.org)
  • According to the CDC, the bugs were first reported in the state of Georgia in 1855 and have been reported in many states across the southern United States ever since," Paula Eggers , RN, an infectious disease epidemiologist for the Delaware Division of Public Health, told Healthline. (healthline.com)
  • He is a fellow of the American College of Physicians, Infectious Disease Society of America and the American Academy of Microbiology. (foyles.co.uk)
  • Andy Miller, MD, is board-certified in internal medicine and infectious disease. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Chagas Disease (Infectious Disease) pipeline guide helps in identifying and tracking emerging players in the market and their portfolios, enhances decision making capabilities and helps to create effective counter strategies to gain competitive advantage. (marketresearch.com)
  • The pipeline guide provides a snapshot of the global therapeutic landscape of Chagas Disease (Infectious Disease). (marketresearch.com)
  • The pipeline guide reviews pipeline therapeutics for Chagas Disease (Infectious Disease) by companies and universities/research institutes based on information derived from company and industry-specific sources. (marketresearch.com)
  • The pipeline guide reviews key companies involved in Chagas Disease (Infectious Disease) therapeutics and enlists all their major and minor projects. (marketresearch.com)
  • The pipeline guide evaluates Chagas Disease (Infectious Disease) therapeutics based on mechanism of action (MoA), drug target, route of administration (RoA) and molecule type. (marketresearch.com)
  • Find and recognize significant and varied types of therapeutics under development for Chagas Disease (Infectious Disease). (marketresearch.com)
  • WHO reports the majority of infections occur in Latin America, where more than 10,000 deaths occur every year as a result of the infectious disease. (healio.com)
  • The European Scientific Conference on Applied Infectious Disease Epidemiology (ESCAIDE) is going online. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Epidemiology, control and surveillance of Chagas disease: 100 years after its discovery. (springer.com)
  • Current epidemiological trends for Chagas disease in Latin America and future challenges in epidemiology, surveillance and health policy. (medscape.com)
  • The epidemiology of T. cruzi and Chagas heart disease and the varied mechanisms leading to myocyte destruction, mononuclear cell infiltration, fibrosis, and edema in the heart have been extensively studied by hundreds of scientists for more than 100 years. (medworm.com)
  • Molecular Epidemiology of Parasitic Diseases: The Chagas Disease Model, Epidemiology Nuno Lunet, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/33008. (intechopen.com)
  • Early detection of Chagas disease is critical, allowing prompt initiation of therapy when the evidence for cure is strong," said statement co-author Dr. Caryn Bern, MD, MPH, professor of epidemiology and biostatistics at the University of California in San Francisco. (ohsonline.com)
  • The World Health Organization reports 11,000 people die each year from Chagas disease. (google.com)
  • The official recognition of this anniversary in the global calendar of World Days will raise the visibility of this global health challenge, which forms part of the list of neglected tropical diseases, according to the classification of the World Health Organization (WHO). (dndi.org)
  • What are the complications of Chagas disease? (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • If you have Chagas disease, you have about a 30% chance of developing complications. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • If untreated, however, the disease can lead to serious health problems, mainly heart and intestinal complications, and even death. (doctorswithoutborders.org)
  • According to the National Institutes of Health, complications from Chagas disease can include inflammation of the heart, esophagus and colon, as well as irregular heartbeat and heart failure . (huffingtonpost.com)
  • Chagas can produce digestive and cardiac complications in mammals, including free-ranging mammals like squirrels, skunks, opossums and raccoons, as well as in dogs and humans," Luepke says. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Despite the high prevalence of disease carrying vectors in some regions, and the risk of serious cardiac and digestive complications which occurs in around 30% of cases, Chagas disease has not been a priority on the global health political agenda. (dndi.org)
  • Although less effective in adults, these antiparasitic treatments and other treatments for specific complications associated with the disease, can significantly improve the quality of life of people with Chagas. (dndi.org)
  • This report describes two cases of acute Chagas disease in heart transplant recipients reported by two Los Angeles County hospitals in February 2006. (nih.gov)
  • Chagas disease is a serious, potentially life-threatening illness caused by a protozoan parasite called T. cruzi . (who.int)
  • There are also an estimated 300,000 people living in the United States who carry the disease, but only a handful of cases of Chagas transmission have been reported in the States. (healthline.com)
  • The U.S. Centre for Disease Control estimates there are 300,000 cases in the U.S. But Hotez believes it's closer to one million cases in the U.S. overall. (thestar.com)
  • The 'globalization' of Chagas translates to up to 1 million cases in the US alone, with an especially high burden of disease in Texas and along the Gulf coast," the PLoS paper states, "although other estimates suggest that there are approximately 300,000 cases in the U.S. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • In recent years, immigrants infected with Chagas have come to the U.S., and in 2009, the CDC estimated at least 300,000 migrants carried the disease. (azfamily.com)
  • An estimated 300,000 individuals have Chagas disease in the United States and Chagas is passed vertically at rates higher than syphilis, there is still not routine perinatal Chagas screening. (medworm.com)
  • In the United States , more than 300,000 individuals are estimated to be infected with Chagas disease. (fiercepharma.com)
  • Chagas disease is transmitted to humans and animals by insects and is mainly found in the Americas. (google.com)
  • Kissing bugs in the United States: risk for vector-borne disease in humans. (medscape.com)
  • In Chagas disease, during its life-cycle in humans T. cruzi takes on two forms, an infective flagellate one (trypomastigote) which circulates and reproduces in the blood and another intracellular one without flagellum (amastigote), which in its turn multiplies to produce another batch of circulating forms. (innovations-report.com)
  • Most recently, a study this year found that many canines in shelters carry T. cruzi , serving as a reservoir that brings the disease into even closer contact with humans. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Kissing bugs transmit the disease as they drink blood from humans, typically at night, and spread the parasite through feces. (azfamily.com)
  • With its potential enzootic presence for over 90 million years, Chagas disease in humans has been documented in 9 thousand-year-old mummies from the Atacama Desert. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Chagas disease disease is caused by a parasite transmitted to humans through the feces of triatomines. (healio.com)
  • To keep both animals and humans protected from Chagas disease, Texas A&M University System entities have been studying the parasite-host-vector interaction at sites in south-central Texas. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Chagas is the common name for a disease transmitted by insects and animals that can cause severe symptoms, even death, in humans. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Nineteen cases of Chagas in humans were reported to the Texas Health and Human Services Commission in 2013, but health officials feel the actual number of infections is higher due to misdiagnosis or non-reporting. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Luepke said there is additional concern in the scientific community that these instances will increase because of the possibility of dogs exposing humans to the disease. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Certain species of the kissing bug are well adapted to living with humans and it is thought that most cases of Chagas disease are spread from human to human by these insects. (verywellhealth.com)
  • AABB has established the Web-based Chagas Biovigilance Network to track the results of the testing (screening as well as confirmatory results). (aabb.org)
  • Chagas Biovigilance Network. (springer.com)
  • Reactivation disease can occur in immunocompromised patients. (cdc.gov)
  • Two phases occur in Chagas disease. (utah.gov)
  • This leads to the destruction of host tissue, resulting in chronic inflammation and scarring of the heart and gastrointestinal tract that gives rise to the heart disease or gastrointestinal problems that occur in about 20%-30% of those infected. (theconversation.com)
  • Most Chagas cases occur in Latin America, but the disease is spreading northward. (nhpr.org)
  • a ) Enzootic transmission in the Amazon rainforest: no domestic colonies of triatomine bugs exist, but infrequent, sporadic cases of Chagas' disease may occur due to adult bugs flying to palm presses or houses, or when the triatomine species Rhodnius brethesi attacks workers sleeping in the forest to harvest piassaba palms. (bmj.com)
  • Transmission of Chagas can also occur through blood transfusions, congenitally or orally. (pharmpro.com)
  • The PLoS report found "a number of striking similarities between people living with Chagas disease and people. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • Over the last decade, however, the disease has spread to and is increasingly prevalent in other continents such as North America and Europe, with an estimated 7 million people infected worldwide. (springer.com)
  • Uruguay is one of the few countries in Latin America that does not have dengue, but its proximity to neighboring Brazil and Argentina where the disease is prevalent puts it at risk. (who.int)
  • While dogs are not actually spreading the disease directly to people, they are making the disease more prevalent in the southern United States. (speroforum.com)
  • Like AIDS, Chagas disease, which is already prevalent in Central and South America, "has a long incubation time and is hard or impossible to cure," The New York Times reports. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • About 1 out of 3 people who get Chagas disease will develop more serious symptoms later in life, including heart conditions or gastrointestinal problems. (cdc.gov)
  • The heart and digestive systems are most frequently involved in this phase of the disease. (webmd.com)
  • The most common features of late chronic Chagas Disease include abnormal enlargement of the esophagus ( megaesophagus ) and colon (megacolon), and congestive heart failure . (webmd.com)
  • You may also need tests to see whether the disease has affected your intestines and heart. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Approximately 1/3 of those infected can develop heart disease or megacolon, and can die from what appears to be sudden heart attacks. (google.com)
  • Pathophysiology of the heart in Chagas' disease: Current status and new developments. (springer.com)
  • Most of those infected have mild symptoms, such as fever and swelling and redness around the eyes, but from 10% to 30% develop chronic disease that may result in serious or fatal inflammation of the brain and heart tissues persons with the disease also have an increased risk for stroke as they age as a result of heart problems. (factmonster.com)
  • Evaluation of adult chronic Chagas' heart disease diagnosis by molecular and serological methods. (medscape.com)
  • T. Paes, A. C. P. Lima, and A. J. Mansur, "Risk stratification in a Brazilian hospital-based cohort of 1220 outpatients with heart failure: role of Chagas' heart disease," International Journal of Cardiology , vol. 102, no. 2, pp. 239-247, 2005. (hindawi.com)
  • In the chronic phase of the disease, the parasite gets inside your heart muscle. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Without treatment, Chagas can eventually progress to fatally damaging the heart, and the nervous and digestive systems. (doctorswithoutborders.org)
  • About 20 to 30 percent of those infected will go on to develop the chronic form of the disease where life-threatening heart and/or digestive disorders will develop, causing irreversible damage to the heart, esophagus, and colon. (doctorswithoutborders.org)
  • Of individuals with chronic Chagas disease, 60-80% will never develop symptoms (called indeterminate chronic Chagas disease), while the remaining 20-40% will develop life-threatening heart and/or digestive disorders during their lifetime (called determinate chronic Chagas disease). (wikipedia.org)
  • About 30 per cent of people with Chagas will develop heart disease - about 3 million of the 10 million infected with trypanosomes in the Western hemisphere. (thestar.com)
  • Chagas does cause serious heart problems in about 20 to 30 percent of cases. (nhpr.org)
  • Researchers at Baylor University presented the results of a study of the emergence of Chagas disease in Texas which demonstrate not only a surprisingly high incidence of the parasite in the state of Texas, but also showing elevated rates of associated heart disease in afflicted individuals. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Chagas is still considered an exotic, foreign disease and, as such, the parasite is rarely considered as a viable diagnosis in a patient presenting with heart disease of idiopathic, or unknown, origin. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Betulinic acid derivative BA5 had a potent anti-inflammatory activity on a model of parasite-driven heart disease. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Chagas disease, caused by a parasite transmitted by blood-sucking bugs, results in severe heart, digestive and neurological lesions. (redorbit.com)
  • While HIV/AIDS attacks the body's immune system, Chagas afflicts the heart and digestive organs. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • Scar in Chagas heart disease (CHD) is thought to be predominantly epicardial and requires epicardial access for ventricular tachycardia (VT) ablation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Pathology and Pathogenesis of Chagas Heart Disease. (medworm.com)
  • In conclusion, BA5 had a potent anti-inflammatory activity on a model of parasite-driven heart disease related to IL-10 production and a switch from M1 to M2 subset of macrophages. (medworm.com)
  • The brain and heart of the dog are the organs that are most vulnerable to the disease. (moderndogmagazine.com)
  • The big problem with Chagas disease is heart failure," Maldonado explained. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • We have determined the inflammation in the heart and the parasitic load significantly decreased, and this vaccine is protecting the animals from the disease. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • In a person who has been infected with T. cruzi, several factors can increase the risk of developing chronic Chagas heart or gastrointestinal disease. (verywellhealth.com)
  • It now appears that in people chronically infected with T. cruzi, genetic factors have a lot of influence on whether the disease will progress to cause heart or gastrointestinal disease. (verywellhealth.com)
  • People with chronic Chagas disease are much more likely to develop heart disease or gastrointestinal problems if their immune systems are compromised, for instance, by other medical conditions such as HIV or by chemotherapy . (verywellhealth.com)
  • About one-third of people infected with it develop chronic heart disease. (ohsonline.com)
  • An American Heart Association Scientific Statement issued on Aug. 20 is a warning about Chagas disease , saying during the past 40 years the disease has spread to areas where it had not traditionally been seen, including the United States. (ohsonline.com)
  • While 60-70 percent of people infected with T cruzi never develop any symptoms, those who do can develop heart disease, including heart failure, stroke, ventricular arrhythmias (heart rhythm abnormalities), and cardiac arrest. (ohsonline.com)
  • If left untreated, Chagas disease develops from an acute to a chronic illness, which could result in constipation, digestive problems, abdomen pain, and abnormal heart rhythms or heart failure, which may result in death. (fiercepharma.com)
  • Chagas disease has also been identified in Spain, Italy, France, Switzerland, Australia, Japan and the U.K. 8 Bolivia is thought to have the highest Chagas prevalence in the world. (mercola.com)
  • We do not have any firm numbers on the prevalence of chronic Chagas disease in internationally adopted children. (adoptmed.org)
  • The International Adoption Center at Cincinnati Children's is conducting a study which may shed some light on the prevalence of Chagas in Guatemalan adoptees, but we still may not get definitive numbers, as the study uses a convenience sample rather than screening all adoptees as they come through (pretty hard to do for Guatemala, since they're here already). (adoptmed.org)
  • Their research finds that Chagas is a significant risk factor for life-threatening forms of cardiac disease and highlights the serious need for closer monitoring of transmission in Texas. (discovermagazine.com)
  • At the same time, testing should also be performed to look for any of the other potential causes for the kinds of cardiac and gastrointestinal problems associated with chronic Chagas disease . (verywellhealth.com)
  • Chagas disease conveys stroke risk through two established mechanisms: structural cardiac disease and chronic inflammation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The 2 drugs used to treat Chagas disease are nifurtimox and benznidazole. (cdc.gov)
  • Benznidazole is approved by FDA for use in children 2-12 years of age and is commercially available (see www.cdc.gov/parasites/chagas/health_professionals/tx.html for more information). (cdc.gov)
  • Population pharmacokinetics study of benznidazole in children with Chagas disease (pop PK Chagas). (dndi.org)
  • Altcheh J, Moscatelli G, Moroni S, Garcie-Bournissen F, Freilij H. Adverse events after the use of benznidazole in infants and children with Chagas disease. (springer.com)
  • Two nitroheterocyclic compounds are currently used for treatment of Chagas disease: nifurtimox and benznidazole. (healio.com)
  • There are still only two drugs to treat the disease: benznidazole and nifurtimox, both developed around half a century ago. (dndi.org)
  • Screening blood and organs for Chagas disease prevents transmission via transfusion or transplantation. (cdc.gov)
  • The disease may also be spread through blood transfusion , organ transplantation , eating food contaminated with the parasites, and by vertical transmission (from a mother to her fetus). (wikipedia.org)
  • Chagas disease can also spread through contaminated food, a blood transfusion, a donated organ, or from mother to baby during pregnancy. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Screening of blood donations for Chagas is another way to help prevent transfusion-acquired disease. (google.com)
  • These comments were prepared by a working group of member experts from AABB's Donor History Task Force and Transfusion Transmitted Diseases Committee. (aabb.org)
  • The disease can be acquired through the bite of a kissing bug infected with the parasite," she says, "through vertical transmission - that is, from mother to child during the pregnancy - through a transfusion of infected blood and through a transplant of organs from an ill donor. (upi.com)
  • Although the pathogenesis of Chagas disease is often attributed to autoimmune mechanisms, definitive proof of anti-self responses as the primary cause of disease in T. cruzi-infected hosts is lacking. (nih.gov)
  • Genotype modifications resulting from transfer of minicircle sequence kDNA from the parasite into the host´s genome may explain the autoimmune pathogenesis of the disease. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Sept. 19 (UPI) -- Scientists have identified a new carrier of Chagas disease. (upi.com)
  • If you were born outside of Canada or your mother or maternal grandmother was born outside of Canada, or if you have travelled or resided in Latin America, including Mexico, for 30 or more consecutive days, the blood you donate will be tested to determine whether you are a carrier of Chagas disease. (hema-quebec.qc.ca)
  • The text includes a history of Chagas disease and an outlook for the next century. (foyles.co.uk)
  • Besides, we evaluate liver and renal function, lipid profile, and diagnosis of Chagas disease and genetic polymorphisms by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. (ovid.com)
  • The main purpose of the study is to determine noninvasive markers of brain involvement in Chagas disease. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This document will help healthcare providers and health systems outside of Latin America recognize, diagnose and treat Chagas disease and prevent further disease transmission. (ohsonline.com)
  • Available treatments may work for you cause Chagas disease are in the bug's feces. (cdc.gov)
  • Z. A. Andrade and E. A. Lopes, "A histochemical study of experimental study of experimental Chagas' disease," Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo , vol. 19, pp. 236-242, 1963. (hindawi.com)
  • 6. Losavio A, Jones MC, Sanz OP, Mirkin G, Gonzalez Cappa SM, Muchnik S, Sica REP. A sequential study of the peripheral nervous system involvement in experimental Chagas' disease. (scielo.br)
  • Dogs throughout the state of Texas are becoming infected with a parasite that spreads Chagas disease - a potentially fatal disease among people. (speroforum.com)
  • According to The New York Times , one quarter of people that contract Chagas disease eventually develop enlarged organs that can potentially burst, causing sudden death. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • The UTEP scientists said that 6 million to 8 million people are chronically infected with the potentially life-threatening Chagas disease. (infectioncontroltoday.com)