Chagas Cardiomyopathy: A disease of the CARDIAC MUSCLE developed subsequent to the initial protozoan infection by TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI. After infection, less than 10% develop acute illness such as MYOCARDITIS (mostly in children). The disease then enters a latent phase without clinical symptoms until about 20 years later. Myocardial symptoms of advanced CHAGAS DISEASE include conduction defects (HEART BLOCK) and CARDIOMEGALY.Trypanosoma cruzi: The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.Triatoma: A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Several species are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.Triatominae: A subfamily of assassin bugs (REDUVIIDAE) that are obligate blood-suckers of vertebrates. Included are the genera TRIATOMA; RHODNIUS; and PANSTRONGYLUS, which are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, the agent of CHAGAS DISEASE in humans.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.BoliviaTrypanocidal Agents: Agents destructive to the protozoal organisms belonging to the suborder TRYPANOSOMATINA.Rhodnius: A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Rhodnius prolixus is a vector for TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.NitroimidazolesNifurtimox: A nitrofuran thiazine that has been used against TRYPANOSOMIASIS.Latin America: The geographic area of Latin America in general and when the specific country or countries are not indicated. It usually includes Central America, South America, Mexico, and the islands of the Caribbean.Megacolon: Dilatation of the COLON, often to alarming dimensions. There are various types of megacolon including congenital megacolon in HIRSCHSPRUNG DISEASE, idiopathic megacolon in CONSTIPATION, and TOXIC MEGACOLON.Xenodiagnosis: A method for diagnosing a disease in one organism by inoculating the putative causative organism in a second animal of a different species. It has been used for the detection of parasites (Trypanosoma cruzi and Trichinella spiralis) when peripheral blood smears are negative. (Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995)Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.ArgentinaBrazilSouth AmericaGuatemalaVenezuelaMummies: Bodies preserved either by the ancient Egyptian technique or due to chance under favorable climatic conditions.Panstrongylus: A genus of cone-nosed bugs of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Its species are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.Housing: Living facilities for humans.Central AmericaEndemic Diseases: The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)ParaguayPan American Health Organization: WHO regional office for the Americas acting as a coordinating agency for the improvement of health conditions in the hemisphere. The four main functions are: control or eradication of communicable diseases, strengthening of national and local health services, education and training, and research.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Didelphis: A genus of large OPOSSUMS in the family Didelphidae, found in the Americas. The species Didelphis virginiana is prominent in North America.MexicoSeroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.DNA, Kinetoplast: DNA of kinetoplasts which are specialized MITOCHONDRIA of trypanosomes and related parasitic protozoa within the order KINETOPLASTIDA. Kinetoplast DNA consists of a complex network of numerous catenated rings of two classes; the first being a large number of small DNA duplex rings, called minicircles, approximately 2000 base pairs in length, and the second being several dozen much larger rings, called maxicircles, approximately 37 kb in length.DNA, Protozoan: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.HondurasPanamaPaleopathology: The study of disease in prehistoric times as revealed in bones, mummies, and archaeologic artifacts.ChileAntiprotozoal Agents: Substances that are destructive to protozoans.Nymph: The immature stage in the life cycle of those orders of insects characterized by gradual metamorphosis, in which the young resemble the imago in general form of body, including compound eyes and external wings; also the 8-legged stage of mites and ticks that follows the first moult.Octodon: A genus of diurnal rats in the family Octodonidae, found in South America. The species Octodon degus is frequently used for research.Neglected Diseases: Diseases that are underfunded and have low name recognition but are major burdens in less developed countries. The World Health Organization has designated six tropical infectious diseases as being neglected in industrialized countries that are endemic in many developing countries (HELMINTHIASIS; LEPROSY; LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS; ONCHOCERCIASIS; SCHISTOSOMIASIS; and TRACHOMA).Americas: The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.Food Parasitology: The presence of parasites in food and food products. For the presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food, FOOD MICROBIOLOGY is available.Pyrethrins: The active insecticidal constituent of CHRYSANTHEMUM CINERARIIFOLIUM flowers. Pyrethrin I is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemummonocarboxylic acid and pyrethrin II is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemumdicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester.PeruInsecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and parasitic diseases. The parasitic infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Parasitemia: The presence of parasites (especially malarial parasites) in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)Radioimmunoprecipitation Assay: Sensitive assay using radiolabeled ANTIGENS to detect specific ANTIBODIES in SERUM. The antigens are allowed to react with the serum and then precipitated using a special reagent such as PROTEIN A sepharose beads. The bound radiolabeled immunoprecipitate is then commonly analyzed by gel electrophoresis.Indians, South American: Individual members of South American ethnic groups with historic ancestral origins in Asia.Trypanosomiasis: Infection with protozoa of the genus TRYPANOSOMA.Protozoan Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed protozoa administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious protozoan disease.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Ectoparasitic Infestations: Infestations by PARASITES which live on, or burrow into, the surface of their host's EPIDERMIS. Most ectoparasites are ARTHROPODS.Blood DonorsAntigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Immunochromatography: A type of affinity chromatography where ANTIBODIES are used in the affinity capture reaction on the solid support, in the mobile phase, or both.El SalvadorInfectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Trypanosoma: A genus of flagellate protozoans found in the blood and lymph of vertebrates and invertebrates, both hosts being required to complete the life cycle.Euglenozoa Infections: Infections with the protozoa of the phylum EUGLENOZOA.Emigrants and Immigrants: People who leave their place of residence in one country and settle in a different country.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Parasitic Sensitivity Tests: Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.Insect Bites and Stings: Bites and stings inflicted by insects.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.EcuadorTopography, Medical: The systematic surveying, mapping, charting, and description of specific geographical sites, with reference to the physical features that were presumed to influence health and disease. Medical topography should be differentiated from EPIDEMIOLOGY in that the former emphasizes geography whereas the latter emphasizes disease outbreaks.Reduviidae: A family of winged insects of the suborder HETEROPTERA, called assassin bugs, because most prey on other insects. However one subfamily, TRIATOMINAE, attacks humans and other vertebrates and transmits Chagas disease.Chromosomes, Insect: Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Central Nervous System Protozoal Infections: Infections of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges by single celled organisms of the former subkingdom known as protozoa. The central nervous system may be the primary or secondary site of protozoal infection. These diseases may occur as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS or arise in immunocompetent hosts.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Myocarditis: Inflammatory processes of the muscular walls of the heart (MYOCARDIUM) which result in injury to the cardiac muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Manifestations range from subclinical to sudden death (DEATH, SUDDEN). Myocarditis in association with cardiac dysfunction is classified as inflammatory CARDIOMYOPATHY usually caused by INFECTION, autoimmune diseases, or responses to toxic substances. Myocarditis is also a common cause of DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY and other cardiomyopathies.Arecaceae: The palm family of order Arecales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Tropical Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.Cytochromes b: Cytochromes of the b group that have alpha-band absorption of 563-564 nm. They occur as subunits in MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Monodelphis: A genus of short-tailed OPOSSUMS in the family Didelphidae found in South American, chiefly Brazil. They are opossums least well-adapted to arboreal life.Life Cycle Stages: The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.14-alpha Demethylase Inhibitors: Compounds that specifically inhibit STEROL 14-DEMETHYLASE. A variety of azole-derived ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS act through this mechanism.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Gordonia Bacterium: A genus of gram-positive BACTERIA in the family Gordoniaceae, isolated from soil and from sputa of patients with chest disorders. It is also used for biotransformation of natural products.Genome, Protozoan: The complete genetic complement contained in a set of CHROMOSOMES in a protozoan.Mite Infestations: Infestations with arthropods of the subclass ACARI, superorder Acariformes.Sterol 14-Demethylase: An NADPH-dependent P450 enzyme that plays an essential role in the sterol biosynthetic pathway by catalyzing the demethylation of 14-methyl sterols such as lanosterol. The enzyme acts via the repeated hydroxylation of the 14-methyl group, resulting in its stepwise conversion into an alcohol, an aldehyde and then a carboxylate, which is removed as formic acid. Sterol 14-demethylase is an unusual cytochrome P450 enzyme in that it is found in a broad variety of organisms including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and protozoa.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Ventricular Dysfunction: A condition in which HEART VENTRICLES exhibit impaired function.Blood Banks: Centers for collecting, characterizing and storing human blood.Defecation: The normal process of elimination of fecal material from the RECTUM.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Donor Selection: The procedure established to evaluate the health status and risk factors of the potential DONORS of biological materials. Donors are selected based on the principles that their health will not be compromised in the process, and the donated materials, such as TISSUES or organs, are safe for reuse in the recipients.Agelas: A genus of large, brightly colored SPONGES in the family Agelasidae, possessing a skeleton of spongin fibers with a core of large spicules (megascleres).Parasitology: The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.Animals, Domestic: Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.Piper: A plant genus of the family PIPERACEAE that includes species used for spicy and stimulating qualities.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Colon, Sigmoid: A segment of the COLON between the RECTUM and the descending colon.Entomology: A discipline or occupation concerned with the study of INSECTS, including the biology and the control of insects.Rodentia: A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Leishmaniasis: A disease caused by any of a number of species of protozoa in the genus LEISHMANIA. There are four major clinical types of this infection: cutaneous (Old and New World) (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS), diffuse cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS), mucocutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, MUCOCUTANEOUS), and visceral (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL).Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Antiparasitic Agents: Drugs used to treat or prevent parasitic infections.Esophageal Achalasia: A motility disorder of the ESOPHAGUS in which the LOWER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER (near the CARDIA) fails to relax resulting in functional obstruction of the esophagus, and DYSPHAGIA. Achalasia is characterized by a grossly contorted and dilated esophagus (megaesophagus).Mandatory Testing: Testing or screening required by federal, state, or local law or other agencies for the diagnosis of specified conditions. It is usually limited to specific populations such as categories of health care providers, members of the military, and prisoners or to specific situations such as premarital examinations or donor screening.Costa RicaRaccoons: Carnivores of the genus Procyon of the family PROCYONIDAE. Two subgenera and seven species are currently recognized. They range from southern Canada to Panama and are found in several of the Caribbean Islands.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Genes, Protozoan: The functional hereditary units of protozoa.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Primate Diseases: Diseases of animals within the order PRIMATES. This term includes diseases of Haplorhini and Strepsirhini.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)TriazolesPhylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Ventricular Dysfunction, Left: A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Asymptomatic Diseases: Diseases that do not exhibit symptoms.Transients and Migrants: People who frequently change their place of residence.Cardiomyopathy, Dilated: A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease that is characterized by ventricular dilation, VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION, and HEART FAILURE. Risk factors include SMOKING; ALCOHOL DRINKING; HYPERTENSION; INFECTION; PREGNANCY; and mutations in the LMNA gene encoding LAMIN TYPE A, a NUCLEAR LAMINA protein.Autonomic Nervous System: The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Pericardial Effusion: Fluid accumulation within the PERICARDIUM. Serous effusions are associated with pericardial diseases. Hemopericardium is associated with trauma. Lipid-containing effusion (chylopericardium) results from leakage of THORACIC DUCT. Severe cases can lead to CARDIAC TAMPONADE.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Trypanosomiasis, African: A disease endemic among people and animals in Central Africa. It is caused by various species of trypanosomes, particularly T. gambiense and T. rhodesiense. Its second host is the TSETSE FLY. Involvement of the central nervous system produces "African sleeping sickness." Nagana is a rapidly fatal trypanosomiasis of horses and other animals.Communicable Diseases, Emerging: Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Leishmania: A genus of flagellate protozoa comprising several species that are pathogenic for humans. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and a promastigote stage in their life cycles. As a result of enzymatic studies this single genus has been divided into two subgenera: Leishmania leishmania and Leishmania viannia. Species within the Leishmania leishmania subgenus include: L. aethiopica, L. arabica, L. donovani, L. enrietti, L. gerbilli, L. hertigi, L. infantum, L. major, L. mexicana, and L. tropica. The following species are those that compose the Leishmania viannia subgenus: L. braziliensis, L. guyanensis, L. lainsoni, L. naiffi, and L. shawi.Nitriles: Organic compounds containing the -CN radical. The concept is distinguished from CYANIDES, which denotes inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Neuraminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Autoimmunity: Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.LouisianaDisease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Leishmaniasis, Visceral: A chronic disease caused by LEISHMANIA DONOVANI and transmitted by the bite of several sandflies of the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia. It is commonly characterized by fever, chills, vomiting, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, leukopenia, hypergammaglobulinemia, emaciation, and an earth-gray color of the skin. The disease is classified into three main types according to geographic distribution: Indian, Mediterranean (or infantile), and African.
Chagas information at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control. *Chagas information from the Drugs for Neglected Diseases ... "Enfermedad de Chagas - Mazza" (in Spanish). Asociación Lucha Contra el Mal de Chagas. Archived from the original on 16 ... Megazol in a study seems more active against Chagas than benznidazole but has not been studied in humans.[76] A Chagas vaccine ... See also: Timeline of Chagas disease. The disease was named after the Brazilian physician and epidemiologist Carlos Chagas, who ...
"Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis)". Retrieved 12 March 2014.. *^ a b c d e "World Health Day 2014: small bite, big ... Chagas disease is also known as American trypanosomiasis. There are approximately 15 million people infected with Chagas ... This is especially true in the cases of schistosomiasis, dengue, hookworm, and Chagas disease[dubious - discuss]. There is also ... Chagas disease was found in the US as early as the 1970s.[84] However, in the developed world, diseases that are associated ...
"Chagas". Sabin. Archived from the original on 12 July 2017. Retrieved 18 September 2017. Gillespie, Portia M.; Beaumier, Coreen ... "Texas Children's Hospital Center for Vaccine Development awarded grant to develop therapeutic vaccine for chagas disease". ... Chagas disease (Tc24, TSA-1), Leishmaniasis (Ld-NH36, PdSP15), Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)/Middle East respiratory ... "Status of vaccine research and development of vaccines for Chagas disease". Vaccine. 34 (26): 2996-3000. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine. ...
In Chagas disease it is a second line option to benznidazole. It is given by mouth. Common side effects include abdominal pain ... Nifurtimox has been used to treat Chagas disease, when it is given for 30 to 60 days. However, long term use of Nifurtimox does ... "CDC - Chagas Disease - Resources for Health Professionals - Antiparasitic Treatment". www.cdc.gov. Archived from the original ... "Chagas disease". World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 2014-02-27. Retrieved 2016-11-08. "Our Formulary , ...
Tiago Chagas. 14 January 2013. Retrieved 6 June 2014. Official website Apostolic Church Fullness of God's Throne on Facebook. ...
It use for Chagas in children was approved by the FDA in the US in 2017. Studies in animals have shown that benznidazole can ... "Treatment for Chagas: Enter Supplier Number Two , End the Neglect". endtheneglect.org. 21 March 2012. Archived from the ... "Chagas disease". World Health Organization. March 2016. Archived from the original on 27 February 2014. Retrieved 7 December ... "CDC - Chagas Disease - Resources for Health Professionals - Antiparasitic Treatment". www.cdc.gov. Archived from the original ...
Leite TF; Chagas CAA; Pires LAS; Cisne R; Babinski MA. "De Garengeot's hernia in an 82-year-old man: a case report and clinical ...
Kitajima, E.W.; Chagas, C.M.; Harakava, R.; Calegario, R.F.; Freitas-Astúa, J.; Rodrigues, J.C.V.; Childers, C.C. (2011). " ... Kitajima, E.W.; Chagas, C.M.; Rodrigues, J.C.V (2003). "Brevipalpus transmitted plant virus and virus-like diseases: ... Chagas, M; Rosseti, V; Chiavegato, L (1983). "Influence of the biological cycle of Brevipalpus phoenicis on leprosis ... Rodrigues, J.C.V.; Kitajima, E.W.; Childers, C.C; Chagas, C.M. (2003). "Citrus leprosis virus vectored by Brevipalpus Phoenisis ...
Chagas, A.; Costa, C. S. (2014). "Macroperipatus ohausi: redescription and taxonomic notes on its status (Onychophora: ...
Chagas, C.M.; Vicente,, Marly; Alba, A.P.C.; July, J.R. (October 1977). "Solanum atropurpureum Schrank, a Natural Reservoir of ...
Bonato, Lucio; Chagas Junior, Amazonas; Edgecombe, Gregory D.; Lewis, John G. E.; Minelli, Alessandro; Pereira, Luis A.; ...
Chagas disease and the US blood supply. Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis. 21: 476-482. CrossRef, PubMed Triatoma indictiva at the ... Chagas disease and the US blood supply. Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis. 21: 476-482. CrossRef, PubMed (WHO) World Health Organization ... Chagas disease. Lancet 375: 1388-1402. CrossRef, PubMed "ITIS Standard Report." ITIS Standard Report. N.p., 04 Nov. 2013. Web. ... T. indictiva is one of the main vectors of T. cruzi, the hemoflagellate protozoan that causes Chagas disease. T. cruzi is ...
Chagas, C.M. (1973). "A associacao do ácaro /Brevipalpus phoenicis/ (Geijskes) à mancha anular do cafeeiro". O Biológico (in ... Chagas, C.M.; E.W. Kitajima; J.C.V. Rodrigues (2003). "Coffee Ringspot Virus Vectored by Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: ...
Brazilian physician and infectologist Carlos Chagas first describes Chagas disease. In psychology, Edward B. Titchener makes ... Chagas, C. (1909). "Nova tripanozomiase humana: Estudos sobre a morfolojia e o ciclo evolutivo do Schizotrypanum cruzi n. gen ... Kropf, S. P.; Sá, Magali Romero (July 2009). "The discovery of Trypanosoma cruzi and Chagas disease (1908-1909): tropical ... ISBN 978-1-84724-008-8. Chagas, C. (1909). "Neue Trypanosomen". Vorläufige Mitteilung Archiv für Schiffs-und Tropenhygiene. 13 ...
Bernstein, R E (July 1984). "Darwin's illness: Chagas' disease resurgens". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 77 (7): ... Clayton, Julie (2010-06-24). "Chagas disease 101". Nature. 465 (n7301_supp): S4-S5. doi:10.1038/nature09220. ISSN 0028-0836. " ... that causes Chagas disease . He died at Down House on 19 April 1882. His last words were to his family, telling Emma "I am not ... Today it is speculated that Darwin was suffering from chronic Chagas disease. This speculation is based on a journal entry ...
Chagas disease undergoes two phases which are the acute and chronic phase. The acute phase can last from two weeks to two ... Chagas, C. 1909b. Nouvelle espèce de trypanosomiase humaine. Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique, Paris, v. 2, n. 6, ... Researchers of Chagas' disease have demonstrated several processes that occur with all cardiomyopathies. The first event is an ... Chagas' disease's geographical occurrence happens worldwide but high-risk individuals include those who don't have access to ...
Control of Chagas Disease. WHO technical Report Series, No. 905. 2002. 40-49. ISBN 92-4-120905-4 O'Toole, Christopher. The New ... a known cause of Chagas disease. C. pilosa feeds primarily on bats, but have been reported as biting humans. Cavernicola lenti ...
Examples of pathogens that contain a sylvatic cycle include trichinosis, dengue viruses, Yersinia pestis, and Chagas disease. ...
Illustrated by Carlos Chagas. Oxford: Osprey. ISBN 9781846031236. - (2008). The Proud 6th: An Illustrated History of the 6th ...
Ibelli, A. M. G.; Ribeiro, A. R. B.; Giglioti, R.; Regitano, L. C. A.; Alencar, M. M.; Chagas, A. C. S.; Paço, A. L.; Oliveira ...
Chagas disease mitigation); Paraguay (family farming); and Argentina itself (flood relief). Rodríguez served in this post until ...
Pinheiro Chagas, Manuel (1873). "Francisco Dias Gomes." In: Portuguezes Illustres. Lisboa: Livraria de A. Ferin, p. 142. ...
"Zanqın özünüqiymətləndirmə depressiya cədvəli" (in Azerbaijani). Chagas, Marcos Hortes Nisihara; Tumas, Vitor; Loureiro, Sonia ...
CHAGAS, Ofir Renato das. Tavira, Memórias de uma Cidade, Edição do Author, 2004.. ...
Chagas disease 2005-07-31 Cholangiocarcinoma 2009-06-08 Coeliac disease 2008-05-18 ...
I am wondering if this bug carries the deadly Chagas disease or is it just an assassin bug with a painful bite.I never expected ...
... Fact Sheet. What is Chagas disease?. What are the symptoms?. A disease that can cause serious heart and stomach ... For more information on Chagas disease, please visit www.cdc.gov/parasites/chagas and click "General Information" or call ... How does someone get Chagas disease?. Usually from contact with a kissing bug. Why should I get tested for Chagas disease?. ... cause Chagas disease are in the bugs feces. People Chagas disease can be life threatening even though will usually scratch the ...
Treatment for Chagas disease is recommended for people diagnosed early in the course of infection (acute phase), babies with ... Your health-care provider can talk with CDC staff about treatment options for Chagas disease. ... Article (MMWR - July 6, 2012): Congenital Transmission of Chagas Disease � Virginia, 2010 ... Evidence for Vector-borne Transmission of the Parasite That Causes Chagas Disease Among United States Blood Donorsexternal ...
CDC website: www.cdc.gov/parasites/chagas. BIBLIOGRAPHY. *Bern C. Antitrypanosomal therapy for chronic Chagas disease. N Engl ... Trypanosomiasis, American (Chagas Disease). Susan Montgomery, Sharon L. Roy, Christine Dubray. INFECTIOUS AGENT. The protozoan ... Carter YL, Juliano JJ, Montgomery SP, Qvarnstrom Y. Acute Chagas disease in a returning traveler. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2012 Dec; ... In the United States, Chagas disease is primarily a disease of immigrants from endemic areas of Latin America. The risk to ...
Chagas. * Research Priorities for Chagas Disease, Human African Trypanosomiasis and Leishmaniasis. Technical Report of the TDR ... Reporte sobre la enfermedad de Chagas. Grupo de trabajo científico 17-20 de abril de 2005 - Actualizado en julio de 2007 - ... Disease Reference Group on Chagas Disease, Human African Trypanosomiasis and Leishmaniasis. 27 November 2012. ...
Chagas information at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control. *Chagas information from the Drugs for Neglected Diseases ... "Enfermedad de Chagas - Mazza" (in Spanish). Asociación Lucha Contra el Mal de Chagas. Archived from the original on 16 ... Megazol in a study seems more active against Chagas than benznidazole but has not been studied in humans.[76] A Chagas vaccine ... See also: Timeline of Chagas disease. The disease was named after the Brazilian physician and epidemiologist Carlos Chagas, who ...
Important It is possible that the main title of the report Chagas Disease is not the name you expected. Please check the ... Chagas Disease. Important It is possible that the main title of the report Chagas Disease is not the name you expected. Please ... Chagas Disease occurs primarily in Central and South America.. Resources. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1600 ... about 10 to 30 percent of people with Chagas Disease develop the more severe symptoms associated with "chronic" Chagas Disease ...
Chagas disease, also called American trypanosomiasis, is a disease caused by a parasite. It is mainly spread by kissing bugs, ... Can Chagas disease be prevented?. There are no vaccines or medicines to prevent Chagas disease. If you travel to areas where it ... What causes Chagas disease?. Chagas disease is caused by the Trypanosoma cruzi parasite. It is usually spread by infected blood ... What is Chagas disease?. Chagas disease, or American trypanosomiasis, is an illness that can cause serious heart and stomach ...
Sheba Meymandi, center, of the Olive View-UCLA Medical Center, which specializes in Chagas' disease, talks with a patient ... Sheba Meymandi, center, of the Olive View-UCLA Medical Center, which specializes in Chagas disease, talks with a patient at a ... Sheba Meymandi, center, of the Olive View-UCLA Medical Center, which specializes in Chagas disease, talks with a patient at a ... Sheba Meymandi, center, of the Olive View-UCLA Medical Center, which specializes in Chagas disease, talks with a patient at a ...
For emergencies (for example, acute Chagas disease with severe manifestations, Chagas disease in a newborn, or Chagas disease ... Chagas disease (T. cruzi) was named after a Brazilian physician, Carlos Chagas, who first discovered the disease (1909). It is ... It may not be safe to breastfeed if the mother has Chagas disease. However, Chagas disease is currently not known to be ... Chagas disease has two phases, an acute and chronic phase. Both phases can be symptom free or life threatening. ...
Chagas may refer to: Chagas disease 9483 Chagas, a main-belt asteroid a Portuguese-language family name, translating to wounds ... a Brazilian bridge player Manuel Chagas (possibly living), a Portuguese Olympic fencer Marco Chagas (born 1956), a Portuguese ... writing teacher and public speaker Dyanfres Douglas Chagas Matos (born 1987), a Brazilian football player António Chagas Rosa ( ... a Brazilian retired football player Ana Beatriz Francisco das Chagas (born 1971), a Brazilian volleyball player Carlos Chagas, ...
Chagas disease is an illness caused by tiny parasites and spread by insects. The disease is common in South and Central America ... Chagas disease is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. It is spread by the bite of reduviid bugs, or kissing bugs, and is ... Chagas disease has two phases: acute and chronic. The acute phase may have no symptoms or very mild symptoms, including:. * ... Chagas disease is an illness caused by tiny parasites and spread by insects. The disease is common in South and Central America ...
American trypanosomiasis Chagas disease is an important parasitic disease resulting from the infection with Trypanosoma cruzi ... In 1909, Carlos Chagas, from The Oswaldo Cruz Institute, announced the discovery of a new human disease. Chagas was the only ... Koberle, F. (1961). Patologia y anatomia patológica de la enfermedadde Chagas. Bol Ofic Sanit Panamer, 51, 404-428.PubMedGoogle ... Chagas disease is an important parasitic disease resulting from the infection with Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), a ...
Chagas disease, infection with the flagellate protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. It is transmitted to humans by bloodsucking reduviid ... More About Chagas disease. 6 references found in Britannica articles. Assorted References. *carried by assassin bug* In ... Chagas disease, also called American trypanosomiasis, infection with the flagellate protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. It is ... is a major vector of Chagas disease in South and Central America. It also has been much used in insect physiology and disease ...
Chagas disease Chagas disease. Chagas disease, disease of South and Central America caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi ... The incidence of Chagas disease in the United States has increased since the 1970s, possibly because of increased immigration ... In immunosuppressed patients (see AIDS ) Chagas disease can form a mass in the cranial cavity that mimics a tumor, presumably ...
He was born in Rio de Janeiro, the eldest son of Carlos Chagas (1879-1934), noted physician and scientist who discovered Chagas ... Evandro Chagas died at an air crash in Rio de Janeiro on November 8, 1940, at only 35 years of age. Page in the Oswaldo Cruz ... In 1926 Evandro Chagas got diploma from the Faculty of Medicine of Rio de Janeiro and made residence at Hospital São Francisco ... Evandro Serafim Lobo Chagas (August 10, 1905 - November 8, 1940), was a Brazilian physician and biomedical scientist ...
Chagas disease. American trypanosomiasis.. Kirchhoff LV1.. Author information. 1. Department of Internal Medicine, University ... Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, is a major source of morbidity and death in Latin America ...
... mais-o-ministerio/646-secretaria-svs/vigilancia-de-a-a-z/doenca-de-chagas/l2-doenca-de-chagas/11121-perguntas-e-repostas-chagas ... Chagas disease is not endemic in any of the Caribbean Islands. Women who were born in Chagas endemic countries or who have ... Drugs & Diseases , Infectious Diseases , Chagas Disease (American Trypanosomiasis) Q&A What causes Chagas disease (American ... Guia para la atencion al paciente infectado con (Trypanosoma cruzi) ENFERMEDAD DE CHAGAS. Chagas PNd, ed. GUIA PARA EL EQUIPO ...
CHAGAS DISEASE. I. Microbiology and epidemiology. *Caused by a flagellated protozoan, Trypanosoma cruzi ... As of 2012 the medications for Chagas disease are available only from CDC under investigational protocols ...
... Fernando A. Botoni,1,2,3 Antonio Luiz P. Ribeiro,1,2 Carolina Coimbra Marinho,4 Marcia ... Chagas disease (ChD), caused by the protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), was discovered and described by the Brazilian ... Therefore, the objective of this review is to describe the treatment of Chagas cardiomyopathy with emphasis on its ... Despite its importance, chronic chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC) pathophysiology is yet poorly understood, and independently of its ...
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... the WHO Global Network for Chagas Elimination will focus on several key aspects of the Chagas problem including: ... Chagas disease is a serious, potentially life-threatening illness caused by a protozoan parasite called T. cruzi. Early ... While Chagas disease is controlled in many countries in the Americas, commitment must be strengthened as elimination of the ... 3 July 2007 , Geneva - A new effort to eliminate Chagas disease by 2010 will be launched tomorrow at a WHO meeting of disease ...
... Page Content. Overview. Chagas disease, a serious and potentially fatal infection, is caused by Trypanosoma ... Home , Advocacy , Regulatory Affairs , Blood Donor Screening and Testing , Chagas Disease Home , Advocacy , Regulatory Affairs ... AABB has established the Web-based Chagas Biovigilance Network to track the results of the testing (screening as well as ...
... Antonio C. Campos de Carvalho,1,2,3 Regina C. S. Goldenberg,3 Linda A. Jelicks,4 Milena B. P. ... C. Chagas, "Nova entidade mórbida do homem: resumo geral de estudos etiológicos e clínicos," Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz ... C. Chagas, "Nova tripanosomíase humana: estudos sobre a morfologia e o ciclo evolutivo do Schizotrypanum cruzi n. gen., n.sp., ... F. Kierszenbaum, "Where do we stand on the autoimmunity hypothesis of Chagas disease?" Trends in Parasitology, vol. 21, no. 11 ...
Chagas disease is caused by a parasite. It is transmitted to people through the feces of insects. It is common in South and ... Chagas Disease. Facebook Twitter Linkedin Pinterest Print. Infectious Diseases What is Chagas disease? Chagas disease is a ... Chagas disease is a disease caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi.. *Youre most at risk for Chagas disease if you have ... What causes Chagas disease? When people become infected by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, they can get Chagas disease. The ...
  • The establishment of the WHO Global Network to combat Chagas disease occurs in the broader context of the WHO's renewed fight against neglected tropical diseases. (who.int)
  • BUENOS AIRES (GPI)-- Dr. Ana Cristina Pereiro frequently changes her position in her seat while talking about her work to combat Chagas disease, a parasitic illness that has spread in recent decades from Latin America to the rest of the world. (upi.com)
  • According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), an estimated 300,000 Americans have Chagas disease, 5 including 40,000 pregnant women, 6 and prevalence is believed to be on the rise. (mercola.com)
  • Stages of the triatomine insect or "kissing bug," the vector of Chagas disease. (discovermagazine.com)
  • The first systematic study of surveillance techniques for the insect vector of Chagas disease in Amazonia, conducted by researchers from the Fiocruz Instituto Leà ´nidas e Maria Deane, the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and colleagues, concludes that tall palm trees with large amounts of debris on their crowns and stems should be targets for disease surveillance and control. (redorbit.com)
  • From 300,000 to 1 million people in the U.S. and Canada, mostly immigrants from nations farther south, are believed to carry the Chagas parasite. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Sept. 19 (UPI) -- Scientists have identified a new carrier of Chagas disease. (upi.com)
  • If you were born outside of Canada or your mother or maternal grandmother was born outside of Canada, or if you have travelled or resided in Latin America, including Mexico, for 30 or more consecutive days, the blood you donate will be tested to determine whether you are a carrier of Chagas disease. (hema-quebec.qc.ca)
  • Chagas Disease is transmitted by the Triatoma insect in rural and suburban areas of Mexico, Central America, South America, and the southern United States. (iamat.org)
  • Chagas disease, which is caused by parasites transmitted to humans by a tiny insect called the "kissing bug", is "the New HIV/AIDS of the Americas", according to a leading expert in tropical diseases. (thestar.com)
  • Whereas residents of rural areas, where the insect that carries the parasite lives, consider Chagas disease to be normal, those infected in urban areas face stigma because of the disease's association with poverty. (upi.com)
  • An insect sometimes known as the kissing bug, or Rhodnius prolixus , transmits the Chagas parasite when it bites someone's face or lips, especially while victims are sleeping, and leaves behind its fecal matter. (speroforum.com)
  • It's called Chagas' disease, and it's transmitted by the so-called kissing bug, a bloodsucking insect that bites your face and lips. (nhpr.org)
  • While Chagas is not transmissible via person-to-person contact, you can contract it via blood transfusion, organ transplantation and/or eating food in which the insect has defecated. (mercola.com)
  • In South and Central America - where Chagas disease is most prevalent - an estimated 12 million people are infected, 10 and while it is not transmissible via person-to-person contact, you can contract it via blood transfusion, organ transplantation and/or eating food in which the insect has defecated. (mercola.com)
  • The most important Chagas transmission vector in the region is Triatoma dimidiata, a native insect with the capacity to re-infest houses a few months after chemical spraying. (idrc.ca)
  • Chagas disease is transmitted to people by the bite of an insect called the triatomine bug. (verywellhealth.com)
  • In 1926 Evandro Chagas got diploma from the Faculty of Medicine of Rio de Janeiro and made residence at Hospital São Francisco de Assis and at Hospital Oswaldo Cruz. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1931 he held the position of Human Pathology Section (in Portuguese: Seção de Patologia Humana) of the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz and, in 1935, represented the institution at the Ninth Meeting of the Argentine Society of Pathology North Regional, held in the city of Mendoza to honor the memory of Carlos Chagas, newly deceased. (wikipedia.org)
  • C. Chagas, "Nova entidade mórbida do homem: resumo geral de estudos etiológicos e clínicos," Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , vol. 3, pp. 219-257, 1911. (hindawi.com)
  • There are also an estimated 300,000 people living in the United States who carry the disease, but only a handful of cases of Chagas transmission have been reported in the States. (healthline.com)
  • The researchers found that one in every 6,500 blood donors in Texas tested positive for the parasite, a finding that grossly undermines the CDC's national estimate that one in every 300,000 people may be infected with Chagas in this country. (discovermagazine.com)
  • The UCR study not only increases our knowledge of Chagas disease transmission in rural environments, but also provides the most comprehensive review of animal hosts of the kissing bugs that spread Chagas disease. (news-medical.net)
  • Following the recommendations of the Intergovernmental Committee for Chagas Control in Central America and Mexico, novel control interventions, including house improvements, will soon start in priority disease hotspots. (idrc.ca)
  • Screening blood and organs for Chagas disease prevents transmission via transfusion or transplantation. (cdc.gov)
  • Chagas disease can also spread through contaminated food, a blood transfusion, a donated organ, or from mother to baby during pregnancy. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Screening of blood donations for Chagas is another way to help prevent transfusion-acquired disease. (google.com)
  • She noted that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved diagnostic tools that blood banks can use to test for Chagas, as the disease can be transmitted by blood transfusion. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Chagas can also be transmitted from a pregnant woman to her child, from infected blood or organs during transfusion/transplant, and potentially by ingesting food or water contaminated with kissing bug poop. (maricopa.gov)