Atrial Natriuretic Factor: A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.Receptors, Atrial Natriuretic Factor: Cell surface proteins that bind ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. They contain intrinsic guanylyl cyclase activity.Natriuretic Agents: Endogenous or exogenous chemicals that regulate the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in the body. They consist of peptides and non-peptide compounds.Natriuretic Peptide, Brain: A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.Natriuresis: Sodium excretion by URINATION.Cyclic GMP: Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Natriuretic Peptide, C-Type: A PEPTIDE of 22 amino acids, derived mainly from cells of VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM. It is also found in the BRAIN, major endocrine glands, and other tissues. It shares structural homology with ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR. It has vasorelaxant activity thus is important in the regulation of vascular tone and blood flow. Several high molecular weight forms containing the 22 amino acids have been identified.Guanylate Cyclase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of GTP to 3',5'-cyclic GMP and pyrophosphate. It also acts on ITP and dGTP. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.6.1.2.Cardiomegaly: Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.Natriuretic Peptides: Peptides that regulate the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in the body, also known as natriuretic peptide hormones. Several have been sequenced (ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR; BRAIN NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE; C-TYPE NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE).Heart Atria: The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Diuresis: An increase in the excretion of URINE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Aldosterone: A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Renin: A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.Phenylephrine: An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.Neprilysin: Enzyme that is a major constituent of kidney brush-border membranes and is also present to a lesser degree in the brain and other tissues. It preferentially catalyzes cleavage at the amino group of hydrophobic residues of the B-chain of insulin as well as opioid peptides and other biologically active peptides. The enzyme is inhibited primarily by EDTA, phosphoramidon, and thiorphan and is reactivated by zinc. Neprilysin is identical to common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA Antigen), an important marker in the diagnosis of human acute lymphocytic leukemia. There is no relationship with CALLA PLANT.Atrial Function: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART ATRIA.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Electrolytes: Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)PurinonesReceptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Rats, Inbred WKY: A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).3',5'-Cyclic-GMP Phosphodiesterases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of cyclic GMP to yield guanosine-5'-phosphate.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Rats, Inbred SHR: A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Renin-Angiotensin System: A BLOOD PRESSURE regulating system of interacting components that include RENIN; ANGIOTENSINOGEN; ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME; ANGIOTENSIN I; ANGIOTENSIN II; and angiotensinase. Renin, an enzyme produced in the kidney, acts on angiotensinogen, an alpha-2 globulin produced by the liver, forming ANGIOTENSIN I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme, contained in the lung, acts on angiotensin I in the plasma converting it to ANGIOTENSIN II, an extremely powerful vasoconstrictor. Angiotensin II causes contraction of the arteriolar and renal VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE, leading to retention of salt and water in the KIDNEY and increased arterial blood pressure. In addition, angiotensin II stimulates the release of ALDOSTERONE from the ADRENAL CORTEX, which in turn also increases salt and water retention in the kidney. Angiotensin-converting enzyme also breaks down BRADYKININ, a powerful vasodilator and component of the KALLIKREIN-KININ SYSTEM.Blood Volume: Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Arginine Vasopressin: The predominant form of mammalian antidiuretic hormone. It is a nonapeptide containing an ARGININE at residue 8 and two disulfide-linked cysteines at residues of 1 and 6. Arg-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.Protein PrecursorsNorepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Renal Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.GATA4 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is expressed in the MYOCARDIUM of developing heart and has been implicated in the differentiation of CARDIAC MYOCYTES. GATA4 is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION and regulates transcription of cardiac-specific genes.Hematocrit: The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.Endothelins: 21-Amino-acid peptides produced by vascular endothelial cells and functioning as potent vasoconstrictors. The endothelin family consists of three members, ENDOTHELIN-1; ENDOTHELIN-2; and ENDOTHELIN-3. All three peptides contain 21 amino acids, but vary in amino acid composition. The three peptides produce vasoconstrictor and pressor responses in various parts of the body. However, the quantitative profiles of the pharmacological activities are considerably different among the three isopeptides.Hypotension: Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Consciousness: Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Adrenal Cortex: The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Hypertrophy: General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).Glomerular Filtration Rate: The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.Diuretics: Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Sodium, Dietary: Sodium or sodium compounds used in foods or as a food. The most frequently used compounds are sodium chloride or sodium glutamate.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Nitroprusside: A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Myosin Heavy Chains: The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.Endothelin-1: A 21-amino acid peptide produced in a variety of tissues including endothelial and vascular smooth-muscle cells, neurons and astrocytes in the central nervous system, and endometrial cells. It acts as a modulator of vasomotor tone, cell proliferation, and hormone production. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Vasopressins: Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.Hypertension, Renovascular: Hypertension due to RENAL ARTERY OBSTRUCTION or compression.Hyponatremia: Deficiency of sodium in the blood; salt depletion. (Dorland, 27th ed)Suspensions: Colloids with liquid continuous phase and solid dispersed phase; the term is used loosely also for solid-in-gas (AEROSOLS) and other colloidal systems; water-insoluble drugs may be given as suspensions.Desoxycorticosterone: A steroid metabolite that is the 11-deoxy derivative of CORTICOSTERONE and the 21-hydroxy derivative of PROGESTERONE.Rh Isoimmunization: The process by which fetal Rh+ erythrocytes enter the circulation of an Rh- mother, causing her to produce IMMUNOGLOBULIN G antibodies, which can cross the placenta and destroy the erythrocytes of Rh+ fetuses. Rh isoimmunization can also be caused by BLOOD TRANSFUSION with mismatched blood.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cardiomyopathy, Restrictive: A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease in which the ventricular walls are excessively rigid, impeding ventricular filling. It is marked by reduced diastolic volume of either or both ventricles but normal or nearly normal systolic function. It may be idiopathic or associated with other diseases (ENDOMYOCARDIAL FIBROSIS or AMYLOIDOSIS) causing interstitial fibrosis.Second Messenger Systems: Systems in which an intracellular signal is generated in response to an intercellular primary messenger such as a hormone or neurotransmitter. They are intermediate signals in cellular processes such as metabolism, secretion, contraction, phototransduction, and cell growth. Examples of second messenger systems are the adenyl cyclase-cyclic AMP system, the phosphatidylinositol diphosphate-inositol triphosphate system, and the cyclic GMP system.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Cardiac Output: The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Sympathectomy, Chemical: Sympathectomy using chemicals (e.g., 6-hydroxydopamine or guanethidine) which selectively and reversibly destroy adrenergic nerve endings while leaving cholinergic nerve endings intact.Enalaprilat: The active metabolite of ENALAPRIL and a potent intravenously administered angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. It is an effective agent for the treatment of essential hypertension and has beneficial hemodynamic effects in heart failure. The drug produces renal vasodilation with an increase in sodium excretion.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Sella Turcica: A bony prominence situated on the upper surface of the body of the sphenoid bone. It houses the PITUITARY GLAND.1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine: A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in tissue and thereby activates CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-REGULATED PROTEIN KINASESBinding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cell Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.Cardiomyopathy, Dilated: A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease that is characterized by ventricular dilation, VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION, and HEART FAILURE. Risk factors include SMOKING; ALCOHOL DRINKING; HYPERTENSION; INFECTION; PREGNANCY; and mutations in the LMNA gene encoding LAMIN TYPE A, a NUCLEAR LAMINA protein.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Exchange Transfusion, Whole Blood: Repetitive withdrawal of small amounts of blood and replacement with donor blood until a large proportion of the blood volume has been exchanged. Used in treatment of fetal erythroblastosis, hepatic coma, sickle cell anemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, septicemia, burns, thrombotic thrombopenic purpura, and fulminant malaria.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular: Enlargement of the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is attributed to sustained abnormal pressure or volume loads and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Aorta, Thoracic: The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.Pressoreceptors: Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.Ventricular Remodeling: The geometric and structural changes that the HEART VENTRICLES undergo, usually following MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. It comprises expansion of the infarct and dilatation of the healthy ventricle segments. While most prevalent in the left ventricle, it can also occur in the right ventricle.Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 5: A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is highly specific for CYCLIC GMP. It is found predominantly in vascular tissue and plays an important role in regulating VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction.Urination: Discharge of URINE, liquid waste processed by the KIDNEY, from the body.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Nephrons: The functional units of the kidney, consisting of the glomerulus and the attached tubule.Spinal Puncture: Tapping fluid from the subarachnoid space in the lumbar region, usually between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae.Affinity Labels: Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Hydrops Fetalis: Abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in two or more fetal compartments, such as SKIN; PLEURA; PERICARDIUM; PLACENTA; PERITONEUM; AMNIOTIC FLUID. General fetal EDEMA may be of non-immunologic origin, or of immunologic origin as in the case of ERYTHROBLASTOSIS FETALIS.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Antihypertensive Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Pulmonary Wedge Pressure: The blood pressure as recorded after wedging a CATHETER in a small PULMONARY ARTERY; believed to reflect the PRESSURE in the pulmonary CAPILLARIES.Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.
There are three distinct atrial natriuretic factor receptors identified so far in mammals: natriuretic peptide receptors 1, 2, ... ANP activation of the ANP catalytic receptor will stimulate its intracellular guanylyl cyclase activity to convert GTP to cGMP ... An atrial natriuretic peptide receptor is a receptor for atrial natriuretic peptide. NPRA and NPRB are linked to guanylyl ... Atrial Natriuretic Factor Receptors at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ...
This enzyme converts GTP to cGMP. Peptide hormones such as the atrial natriuretic factor activate membrane-bound GC, while ... cGMP, like cAMP, gets synthesized when olfactory receptors receive odorous input. cGMP is produced slowly and has a more ... Numerous cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDE) can degrade cGMP by hydrolyzing cGMP into 5'-GMP. PDE 5, -6 and -9 are cGMP ... Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is a cyclic nucleotide derived from guanosine triphosphate (GTP). cGMP acts as a second ...
The binding of ANP to its receptor causes the conversion of GTP to cGMP and raises intracellular cGMP. As a consequence, cGMP ... ANP is also called atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), atrial natriuretic hormone (ANH), cardionatrine, cardiodilatin (CDD), and ... a potent vasoconstrictor Three types of atrial natriuretic peptide receptors have been identified on which natriuretic peptides ... also known as natriuretic peptide receptor-B (NPRB/ANPB) or NPR2 natriuretic peptide clearance receptor (NPRC/ANPC) or NPR3 NPR ...
A stimulant, atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) increases cGMP production in the kidneys, which increases function of the ... Speract activates a receptor-type guanylate cyclase (GC) and stimulates a rise in intracellular cGMP concentrations. Speract ... All native CNG channels react to both cAMP and cGMP, but smaller concentrations of cGMP than of cAMP are needed to activate and ... In addition to cAMP gated ion channels, a small subset of OSNs also has cGMP-selective CNG channels. cAMP and cGMP mediate ...
Once released, BNP binds to and activates the atrial natriuretic factor receptor NPRA, and to a lesser extent NPRB, in a ... cGMP) dependent phosphorylation of ENaC. Its natriuretic effect is affected by dopamine and dopamine receptor D1 activity in ... 1992). "Receptor selectivity of natriuretic peptide family, atrial natriuretic peptide, brain natriuretic peptide, and C-type ... Kong X, Wang X, Hellermann G, Lockey RF, Mohapatra S (2007). "Mice Deficient in Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Receptor A (NPRA) ...
It has been shown that PDE2 lowers cAMP through increased cGMP caused by atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) resulting in ... Suvarna NU, O'Donnell JM (July 2002). "Hydrolysis of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-stimulated cAMP and cGMP by PDE4 and PDE2 ... It has been speculated that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) might regulate the function of PDE2 in endothelial cells and ... June 1997). "cGMP-stimulated cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase regulates the basal calcium current in human atrial myocytes ...
Atrial-natriuretic peptide (or atriopeptin). ANP. heart. ANP receptorcGMP. Brain natriuretic peptide. BNP. heart[dubious - ... Insulin-like growth factor (or somatomedin). IGF. liver. Hepatocytes. insulin receptor, IGF-1. insulin-like effects regulate ... melanocortin receptor → cAMP. melanogenesis by melanocytes in skin and hair Motilin. MLN. Small intestine. Motilin receptor. ... CT receptor → cAMP. Construct bone, reduce blood Ca2+ Cholecystokinin. CCK. duodenum. CCK receptor. Release of digestive ...
... and Atrial Natriuretic Peptide-Induced Relaxation of a Rat Conduit Artery". Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental ... Endothelium-derived relaxing factor was originally the name given to several proposed factors causing vasodilation. The major ... The soluble cGMP activates cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinase G (PKG or cGKI). PKG is a kinase that phosphorylates a ... nitrosylation of the Arabidopsis TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE 1 auxin receptor. The Plant Journal. Liu, W. Z.; Kong, D. D.; Gu ...
They include the chemokine CCL20, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), specific odorants,, natriuretic peptide type C (NPPC), and ... to its receptor, a guanylyl cyclase, activates cGMP synthesis (Figure 1). The resulting rise of cGMP possibly activates K+- ... Sperm attraction to a follicular factor(s) correlates with human egg fertilizability. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88, 2840- ... Zamir, N., Riven-Kreitman, R., Manor, M., Makler, A., Blumberg, S., Ralt, D. and Eisenbach, M. (1993) Atrial natriuretic ...
It has been shown that PDE2 lowers cAMP through increased cGMP caused by atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) resulting in ... receptor activated increase in cGMP, but has no effect on cAMP concentrations.[12] EHNA is also a very potent adenosine ... It has been speculated that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) might regulate the function of PDE2 in endothelial cells and ... "cGMP-stimulated cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase regulates the basal calcium current in human atrial myocytes". J. Clin. ...
This enzyme converts GTP to cGMP. Peptide hormones such as the atrial natriuretic factor activate membrane-bound GC, while ... cGMP, like cAMP, gets synthesized when olfactory receptors receive odorous input. cGMP is produced slowly and has a more ... Numerous cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDE) can degrade cGMP by hydrolyzing cGMP into 5'-GMP. PDE 5, -6 and -9 are cGMP ... Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is a cyclic nucleotide derived from guanosine triphosphate (GTP). cGMP acts as a second ...
... atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP). Particulate guanylate ... ATDC5 cells produced cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) in response to natriuretic peptides. CNP was far more potent than ... and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP). Particulate guanylate cyclases, GC-A, and GC-B, are the receptors for these peptides to ... atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP). Particulate guanylate ...
Atrial Natriuretic Factor. Receptors, Atrial Natriuretic Factor. Cardiovascular Diseases--therapy. Kidney Diseases--therapy ... The effect of ANP gene delivery is mediated by a cGMP-signaling pathway. Successful application of this technology may have ... Human atrial natriuretic peptide gene delivery in hypertension, cardiovascular and renal diseases ... The administration of exogenous atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) resulted in numerous physiological responses, including a ...
Radioligand binding studies disclosed one class of high affinity atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) receptors on human fibroblast ... Measurement of cAMP, cGMP, and free cytosolic Ca2+ in response to STa suggested that cGMP alone mediated the Cl- secretory ... Atrial natriuretic factor reduces cyclic adenosine monophosphate content of human fibroblasts by enhancing phosphodiesterase ... Atrial natriuretic factor reduces cyclic adenosine monophosphate content of human fibroblasts by enhancing phosphodiesterase ...
Nambi P, Whitman M, Gessner G, Aiyar N, Crooke ST: Vasopressin-mediated inhibition of atrial natriuretic factor-stimulated cGMP ... atrial natriuretic factor endothelin atrial natriuretic factor receptor guanylate cyclase endothelin receptor protein kinase C ... Interaction of atrial natriuretic factor and endothelin-1 signals through receptor guanylate cyclase in pulmonary artery ... Paul AK, Marala RB, Jaiswal RK, Sharma RK: Coexistence of atrial natriuretic factor receptor and guanylate cyclase in a Mr ...
Receptor for the C-type natriuretic peptide NPPC/CNP hormone. Has guanylate cyclase activity upon binding of its ligand. May ... cellular response to granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor stimulus Source: Ensembl. *cGMP biosynthetic process ... Atrial natriuretic peptide receptor 2Add BLAST. 1031. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. ... Atrial natriuretic peptide receptor 2 (EC:4.6.1.2*Search proteins in UniProtKB for this EC number. ...
To investigate the cGMP pathway, we examined the effect of atrial natriuretic factor known to activate the receptor linked to ... atrial natriuretic factor. SNP. sodium nitroprusside. GC. guanylate cyclase. cGMP. cyclic GMP. ... isoproterenol and atrial natriuretic factor without any effect on that of forskolin, sodium nitroprusside, NO and CO. ... Characterization of the Histamine H2 Receptor Structural Components Involved in Dual Signaling ...
There are three distinct atrial natriuretic factor receptors identified so far in mammals: natriuretic peptide receptors 1, 2, ... ANP activation of the ANP catalytic receptor will stimulate its intracellular guanylyl cyclase activity to convert GTP to cGMP ... An atrial natriuretic peptide receptor is a receptor for atrial natriuretic peptide. NPRA and NPRB are linked to guanylyl ... Atrial Natriuretic Factor Receptors at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ...
By comparison, the atrial natriuretic factor/B-type natriuretic peptide (ANF/BNP) receptor generates cGMP that can also ... Nitric oxide, atrial natriuretic peptide, and cyclic GMP inhibit the growth-promoting effects of norepinephrine in cardiac ... Myocyte enhancer factors 2A and 2C induce dilated cardiomyopathy in transgenic mice. J. Biol. Chem. 281:9152-9162. View this ... Putting the brakes on cardiac hypertrophy: exploiting the NO-cGMP counter-regulatory system. Hypertension. 45:341-346. View ...
Physiological role of silent receptors of atrial natriuretic factor. Science. 1987;238:675-678. ... in shunted rats did not change atrial natriuretic peptide plasma levels or cGMP excretion. Nevertheless, the diuretic and ... Possible regulation of atrial natriuretic factor by neutral endopeptidase 24.11 and clearance receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. ... Inactivation of atrial natriuretic factor by the renal brush border. Biochem Biophys Acta. 1987;901:97-100. ...
receptors, atrial natriuretic factor. Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), synthesized primarily by atria, produces profound ... The formation of cGMP by guanylate cyclase requires two processes: the binding of GTP to the active site and the catalytic ... Two distinct forms of receptors for atrial natriuretic factor in bovine adrenocortical cells. J Biol Chem. 1987;262:12104-12113 ... Abstract Guanylate cyclase-A, the receptor for atrial natriuretic factor, contains a protein kinase-like domain and a catalytic ...
In part 1 of the review we discussed the structure and function of the various vasopressin receptors. In part 2 we discuss ... Vasopressin-mediated inhibition of atrial natriuretic factor-stimulated cGMP accumulation in an established smooth muscle cell ... Oxytocin releases atrial natriuretic peptide by combining with oxytocin receptors in the heartProc Natl Acad Sci USA 1997;94: ... In contrast, vasodilators such as atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and NO activate a cGMP-dependent kinase that, by interacting ...
The receptor has intrinsic guanylate cyclase activity, and the guanylyl cyclase converts GTP to cGMP. The cGMP then activates ... The ventricles and the atria release atrial natriuretic peptide and B-type brain natriuretic peptide in response to increased ... endothelium-derived relaxing factor, or EDRF). These hormones either bind to their receptors on the cell membrane or their ... cGMP dependent protein kinase, cGMP gated cation channels, and cGMP regulated phosphodiesterase. ...
Nitric oxide and atrial natriuretic factor stimulate cGMP-dependent membrane insertion of aquaporin 2 in renal epithelial cells ... Osmoregulatory thirst in mice lacking the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) and/or type 4 (TRPV4) receptor ... Liedtke W, Choe Y, Marti-Renom MA, Bell AM, Denis CS, Sali A, Hudspeth AJ, Friedman JM, Heller S (2000) Vanilloid receptor- ... Berrout J, Jin M, Mamenko M, Zaika O, Pochynyuk O, ONeil RG (2012) Function of transient receptor potential cation channel ...
Nitric oxide and C-type atrial natriuretic peptide stimulate primary aortic smooth muscle cell migration via a cGMP-dependent ... receptor β/insulin-like growth factor receptor and bFGF-stimulated phosphorylation of phosphofibroblast growth factor receptor ... Growth factors, such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and fibroblast growth factor, released during vascular injury ... antiphospho insulin receptor β/insulin-like growth factor receptor (1:1000), and anti-phospho Akt (Thr308). Appropriate ...
This enzyme converts GTP to cGMP. Peptide hormones such as the atrial natriuretic factor activate membrane-bound GC, while ... cGMP, like cAMP, gets synthesized when olfactory receptors receive odorous input. cGMP is produced slowly and has a more ... Numerous cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDE) can degrade cGMP by hydrolyzing cGMP into 5-GMP. PDE 5, -6 and -9 are cGMP ... Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is a cyclic nucleotide derived from guanosine triphosphate (GTP). cGMP acts as a second ...
... cGMP is also the intracellular messenger responsible for transducing atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) signaling (Garbers and ... Turko IV, Francis SH and Corbin JD (1998) Binding of cGMP to both allosteric sites of cGMP‐binding cGMP‐specific phospho ... There are two main structural classes of cGMP receptor in mammalian cells. The first includes the regulatory domain of the cGMP ... The second group of cGMP receptors are the cGMP‐regulated families of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs; Corbin and ...
The natriuretic peptides (atrial, brain and C-type natriuretic peptides; ANP, BNP and CNP, respectively) have been studied ... platelet-derived growth factor; HGF: hepatocyte growth factor; PPARγ: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ; STAT3: ... Other factors that signal through cGMP have attracted interest for their contribution to the pathophysiology of PH. ... vascular endothelial growth factor; bFGF: basic fibroblast growth factor; TGF-α: transforming growth factor-α; PDGF: ...
Receptor selectivity of natriuretic peptide family, atrial natriuretic peptide, brain natriuretic peptide, and C-type ... Significance and therapeutic potential of the natriuretic peptides/cGMP/cGMP-dependent protein kinase pathway in vascular ... Calcineurin-nuclear factor of activated T cells pathway-dependent cardiac remodeling in mice deficient in guanylyl cyclase A, a ... a receptor for atrial and brain natriuretic peptides TOKUDOME T ... Important roles of endogenous atrial and brain natriuretic ...
cGMP Is a Second Messenger in Retinal Rod Cells Receptors for Insulin and Growth Factors Are Tyrosine-Specific ... Atrial Natriuretic Factor Acts through a Membrane-Bound Guanylate Cyclase Nitric Oxide Stimulates a Soluble Guanylate Cyclase ... The NRF2 Transcription Factor Coordinates Defenses against Reactive Oxygen Species Phagocytic Cells Use Reactive Oxygen Species ...
cGMP Is a Second Messenger in Retinal Rod Cells Receptors for Insulin and Growth Factors Are Tyrosine-Specific ... Atrial Natriuretic Factor Acts through a Membrane-Bound Guanylate Cyclase Nitric Oxide Stimulates a Soluble Guanylate Cyclase ... The NRF2 Transcription Factor Coordinates Defenses against Reactive Oxygen Species Phagocytic Cells Use Reactive Oxygen Species ...
Buy our Recombinant Human Natriuretic peptides A protein. Ab114317 is a full length protein produced in Wheat germ and has been ... Atrial natriuretic factor: Cleaved by MME. The cleavage initiates degradation of the factor and thereby regulate its activity. ... Specifically binds and stimulates the cGMP production of the NPR1 receptor. Binds the clearance receptor NPR3. ...
Publications] H.Itoh et al.: Basic fibroblast growth factor decrease clearance receptor of natriuretic peptide feto-placental ... Publications] J.Ozaki et al.: Enzymatic inactivation of major circulating forms of atrial and brain natriuretic peptides.Eur. ... Publications] N.Sawada et al.: cGMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylated and inactivates RhoA.Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun ... Publications] H.Itoh et al.: Basic fibroblast growth factor decrease clearance receptor of natriuretic peptide feto-placental ...
... which acts as a receptor for brain and atrial natriuretic peptides. Activation of NPR1 reduces blood pressure via an increase ... after correction for traditional risk factors, the third most significant SNP in this study is found in natriuretic peptide ... in intracellular cGMP inducing natriuresis, diuresis, and vasodilation. Sequence variation in NPR1 has been associated with ... NPR1 indicates natriuretic peptide receptor 1; HDAC4, histone deacetylase 4; COL1A2, alpha 2 type 1 collagen; SH3GL2, SH3- ...
Closely related are receptors linked to guanylate cyclase such as the atrial natriuretic factor receptor. Type IV - Receptors ... The receptor itself is the first messenger. Examples of second messengers are cAMP, cGMP, Ca2+, G-Proteins, IP3, DAG etc. cAMP ... TYPES OF RECEPTORS Type I - Channel linked receptors (ligand-gated ion channels or inotropic receptor) - These are also known ... FactorsFactors that play a role in peptic ulcer formation in gastric and duodenal ulcers: o Ulcerogenic factors include  ...
Receptors, Atrial Natriuretic Factor/antagonists & inhibitors/genetics*/metabolism*. *Tyrosine/genetics*/metabolism. Minor ... whereas Y808E and Y808S mutations rather elevated cGMP production. Tyr808 is conserved in all membrane-bound GCs and located in ... In this study, Tyr808 in GC-B (guanylate cyclase-B), a receptor of the CNP (C-type natriuretic peptide), has been shown to be a ... In this study, Tyr808 in GC-B (guanylate cyclase-B), a receptor of the CNP (C-type natriuretic peptide), has been shown to be a ...
  • We analyzed the downstream signaling events resulting from the binding of ANP to its receptor, NPRA, and sought to determine what aspects of this signaling modulate DC function. (biomedcentral.com)
  • ANP binds to a cell surface receptor, natriuretic peptide receptor A (NPRA), which is found on cells in the lung and airways as well as kidney and other tissues. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Besides expression in heart atria, ANP is also produced in various lymphoid organs [ 5 ], and the NPRA receptor is found on immune cells of numerous species highlighting the importance of NPRA signaling in the immune response [ 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The objective of the present study was to delineate the mechanisms of GC-A/natriuretic peptide receptor-A (GC-A/NPRA) gene ( Npr1 ) expression in vivo. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Most of the biological actions of ANP, BNP, and URO are mediated by activation of the natriuretic peptide receptor type A (NPRA), also designated as guanylyl cyclase-A/ natriuretic peptide receptor type A (GC-A/NPRA). (springer.com)
  • The insights gained from domain mapping of cDNA clones and biochemical analysis of the receptor will be used to elucidate those receptor areas that can be further analyzed by site- directed mutagenesis in transfected cells in vitro and transgenic mouse models in vivo to learn what structural components are involved in the functioning of NPRA. (grantome.com)
  • The proposed studies will delineate a comprehensive assessment of the mode of functioning of NPRA at the molecular level, in which detailed information about receptor structure and signaling will provide the basis for understanding receptor function and regulation. (grantome.com)
  • GAF domains are ubiquitous motifs present in cyclic GMP (cGMP)‐regulated cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases, certain adenylyl cyclases, the bacterial transcription factor FhlA, and hundreds of other signaling and sensory proteins from all three kingdoms of life. (embopress.org)
  • The allosteric cGMP binding sites on these PDEs have been mapped to two homologous repeats in the N‐terminal halves of the proteins. (embopress.org)
  • d) G proteins couple cell surface receptors with intracellular effectors. (blogspot.com)
  • The fold of the ligand binding domain is that of a bilobal periplasmic binding protein (PBP) very similar to that of the Leu/Ile/Val binding protein, AmiC, multi-domain transmembrane metabotropic glutamate receptors, and several DNA binding proteins such as the lactose repressor. (nih.gov)
  • Specifically binds and stimulates the cGMP production of the NPR1 receptor. (abcam.com)
  • En effet, suite à une stimulation à l'ANP, le NPR1/GCA peut inhiber l'activité transcriptionnelle de son propre gène par un mécanisme dépendant du cGMP. (umontreal.ca)
  • La liaison de GREBP au cGMP-RE inhibe l'expression du gène rapporteur luciférase sous contrôle du promoteur de npr1/gca. (umontreal.ca)
  • ZnPP IX caused concentration-dependent attenuation of the relaxant effect of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, isoproterenol and atrial natriuretic factor without any effect on that of forskolin, sodium nitroprusside, NO and CO. Interestingly, ZnPP IX had no significant effect on the LES relaxation caused by NANC nerve stimulation and the smooth muscle contraction by bethanechol. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The sodium ion channels in photoreceptors are cGMP-gated, so degradation of cGMP causes sodium channels to close, which leads to the hyperpolarization of the photoreceptor's plasma membrane and ultimately to visual information being sent to the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • c GH3 cells were treated as before with 100 nM CNP from 0 to 15 m in the presence or absence of either the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) inhibitor, okadaic acid (OA, 100 nM), the PP2B inhibitor, cypermethrin (1 nM), or the protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, sodium orthovanadate (Na3VO4, 1 mM) and assayed for total cGMP concentration. (nih.gov)
  • The balance between vasoconstrictor/sodium-retaining and vasodilator/natriuretic systems is essential for maintaining body fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. (physiology.org)
  • In the medullary collecting duct, ANP reduces sodium reabsorption by inhibiting the cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channels, the epithelial sodium channel, and the heteromeric channel transient receptor potential-vanilloid 4 and -polycystin 2 and diminishes vasopressin-induced water reabsorption. (physiology.org)
  • Concerted action of ANP and dopamine D1-receptor to regulate sodium homeostasis in nephrotic syndrome. (nih.gov)
  • Urinary excretion of sodium (a) and cGMP (b) in control and PAN-NS rats before ( t = 0-120 min, Basal), during ( t = 120-150 min, VE), and after ( t = 150-180 min, R-VE) volume expansion (VE), seven days after injection. (nih.gov)
  • This is particularly important in the vasculature, where vascular smooth muscle will bind ANP released as a result of increasing right atrial pressure and will cause the walls of the vasculature to relax. (wikipedia.org)
  • Growth factors, such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and fibroblast growth factor, released during vascular injury plays a pivotal role in regulating these events. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1,2 Although the mechanisms responsible for migration and proliferation of VSMCs are not fully understood, several factors produced in response to vascular injury have been implicated in this process. (ahajournals.org)
  • Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is a potent growth factor produced by platelets, VSMCs, and endothelial cells in the injured vascular wall. (ahajournals.org)
  • The endothelin (ET) system, like other vascular regulatory systems, consists of a parent peptide that undergoes enzymatic activation and exerts its biologic effects by modulating specific receptors. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1,2 ET-1 has vasoconstrictive and mitogenic effects, stimulates the production of growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor, and potentiates the effects of transforming growth factor-β and platelet-derived growth factor. (ahajournals.org)
  • ET-1 exerts its major vascular effects through activation of 2 distinct G protein coupled ET A and ET B receptors. (ahajournals.org)
  • In particular, the contribution of the direct vasodilating effect of ANP to the hypotensive actions remains controversial, because variable levels of the ANP receptor, guanylyl cyclase A (GC-A), are expressed in different vascular beds. (pnas.org)
  • Experiments were also performed to assess the effect of inhalational anesthetics on unstimulated endothelial cell-vascular smooth muscle co-cultures and on co-cultures in which nitric oxide synthase and subsequent cyclic GMP production had been activated by the receptor-mediated agonists bradykinin and adenosine triphosphate and by the non-receptor-mediated calcium ionophore A23187. (asahq.org)
  • In part 1 of the review we discussed the signaling pathways, distribution of vasopressin receptors, and the structural elements responsible for the functional diversity found within the vasopressin receptor family. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The etiology of asthma is complex and involves a number of signaling molecules and pathways as well as environmental factors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The objective of this chapter is to review current knowledge of NO/cGMP signaling pathways on neuroinflammation and the potential therapeutic use of PDE5 inhibitors (PDE5-Is) in neurological diseases. (intechopen.com)
  • Although the factors responsible for disease initiation differ somewhat between the subcategories of PH, vasoconstriction, endothelial dysfunction, dysregulated cell growth, inflammation and thrombosis all participate to a greater or lesser extent in driving disease progression ( fig. 1 ). (ersjournals.com)
  • ET B receptors are localized on endothelial cells and, to some extent, smooth muscle cells and macrophages. (ahajournals.org)
  • In normal states, it appears that stimulation of the ET A receptor on the smooth muscle cell causes vasoconstriction and mitogenic effects that are opposed by stimulation of the ET B receptor on the endothelial cell (see Figure 1 ). (ahajournals.org)
  • 24 There could also be underexpression of the ET B receptor on the endothelial cell. (ahajournals.org)
  • The interaction between ET-1 on endothelial and smooth muscle cells, and the ET A and ET B receptors is shown. (ahajournals.org)
  • Recent studies have shown that Ang II, via the AT1 receptor, increases IRS-1 phosphorylation at Ser312 and Ser616 via Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) and ERK1/2, respectively, in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (167). (diabetesaid.com)
  • Finally, attenuation of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling by ANP was studied using immortalized mouse endothelial cells stably expressing GC-A receptor. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Collectively, these data indicate common and distinct properties of particulate guanylyl cyclase receptors in somatotropes and reveal that independent mechanisms of homologous and heterologous desensitization occur involving either PP2A or PKC. (nih.gov)
  • To elucidate the impact of this anastomotic technique on atrial natriuretic peptide plasma levels at rest and with exercise, nine patients were submitted to a symptom-limited supine exercise test. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The autocrine and paracrine functions of the NPs are primarily mediated through the cellular membrane bound guanylyl cyclase-linked receptors GC-A (NPR-A) and GC-B (NPR-B). As the ligands and receptors each contain disulfide bonds, a regulatory role for the cell surface protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) was investigated. (elsevier.com)
  • Primary rat pituitary and GH3 somatolactotropes expressed functional GC-A and GC-B receptors that had similar EC50 properties in terms of cGMP production. (nih.gov)
  • CNP was far more potent than ANP in terms of cGMP production. (elsevier.com)
  • This result suggests the differential activation of BNP for natriuretic peptide receptor subtypes in different tissues. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The Arbor Assays cAMP Colorimetric EIA ( K019-H ) and Chemiluminescent CLIA ( K019-C ) assay kits, and cGMP Colorimetric EIA ( K020-H ) and Chemiluminescent CLIA ( K020-C ) assay kits, allow for simple, rapid determination of cAMP or cGMP in tissues, cells, saliva, urine, plasma or culture media. (arborassays.com)
  • The profibrotic cytokine transforming growth factor beta (TGF β ) is considered the foremost inducer of fibrosis, driving myofibroblast differentiation in diverse tissues. (hindawi.com)
  • Elevated NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4)-derived hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) supported by concomitant decreases in nitric oxide (NO) signaling and reactive oxygen species scavengers are central factors in the molecular pathogenesis of fibrosis in numerous tissues and organs. (hindawi.com)
  • Chronic exposure to either CNP or ANP caused a significant down-regulation of both GC-A- and GC-B-dependent cGMP accumulation in a ligand-specific manner. (nih.gov)
  • The membrane receptors present a) with the ligand binding domain b) the effector domain that triggers the response, c) region of the transmembrane anchor. (forumotion.com)