Structurally-related alkaloids that contain the cevane carbon backbone.
An estrogenic steroid produced by HORSES. It has a total of four double bonds in the A- and B-ring. High concentration of euilin is found in the URINE of pregnant mares.
An aromatized C18 steroid with a 3-hydroxyl group and a 17-ketone, a major mammalian estrogen. It is converted from ANDROSTENEDIONE directly, or from TESTOSTERONE via ESTRADIOL. In humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries, PLACENTA, and the ADIPOSE TISSUE of men and postmenopausal women.
An estrogenic steroid produced by HORSES. It has a total of five double bonds in the A- and B-ring. High concentration of equilenin is found in the URINE of pregnant mares.
A pharmaceutical preparation containing a mixture of water-soluble, conjugated estrogens derived wholly or in part from URINE of pregnant mares or synthetically from ESTRONE and EQUILIN. It contains a sodium-salt mixture of estrone sulfate (52-62%) and equilin sulfate (22-30%) with a total of the two between 80-88%. Other concomitant conjugates include 17-alpha-dihydroequilin, 17-alpha-estradiol, and 17-beta-dihydroequilin. The potency of the preparation is expressed in terms of an equivalent quantity of sodium estrone sulfate.
Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.
Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.

Effects of Veratrum nigrum alkaloids on central catecholaminergic neurons of renal hypertensive rats. (1/8)

AIM: To study the central hypotensive mechanism of Veratrum nigrum L var ussurience Nakai alkaloids (VnA) in renal hypertensive rats(RHR). METHODS: The quantitative method of immunocytochemistry (ICC) was used to observe and detect the effect of VnA (30 micrograms.kg-1, i.v.) on activity of central catecholaminergic (CA) neurons of C1, C2, A1, and A5 areas in RHR. RESULTS: VnA increased the immunoreactivity (IR) of tyrosine 3-monooxygenase (TM)-immunopositive (IP) neurons of C1, C2, and A5 areas in RHR experimental group compared with RHR control group [positive units: (1.9 +/- 0.4), (1.18 +/- 0.23), (1.2 +/- 0.4) vs (0.15 +/- 0.22), (0.31 +/- 0.16), (0.69 +/- 0.20), respectively]; IR of TM-IP neurons of C1 and C2 areas in RHR control group was decreased compared with sham-operated group [positive units: (0.15 +/- 0.22), (0.31 +/- 0.16) vs (1.45 +/- 0.29), (1.36 +/- 0.25), respectively]. CONCLUSION: VnA increased the activity of central CA neurons in RHR to exert its hypotensive effect.  (+info)

Differentiation-inducing effects of verticinone, an isosteroidal alkaloid isolated from the bulbus of Fritillaria ussuriensis, on human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells. (2/8)

The inducer of differentiation of human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells is commonly accepted to have potential therapeutic importance. Verticinone, one of the major isosteroidal alkaloids from the bulbus of Fritillaria ussuriensis, was found to inhibit the growth of HL-60 cells by inducing these cells to differentiate toward granulocytes. Importantly, the combination of verticinone with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), a well-known inducer of HL-60 cells into granulocytic lineages, was more effective than either alone, suggesting its therapeutic use in minimizing the effective dose of ATRA.  (+info)

Synthesis and antitussive evaluation of verticinone-cholic acid salt, a novel and potential cough therapeutic agent. (3/8)

AIM: To seek a novel and potent antitussive drug based on Shedan-Chuanbei powder, a complex of traditional Chinese medicine preparation for cough therapy. METHODS: Verticinone-cholic acid (Ver-CA) salt, a novel, salifying derivative of verticinone and cholic acid, both of which are the major bioactive components in Shedan-Chuanbei powder, was synthesized. We then evaluated the antitussive activity and the acute toxicity of the salt. RESULTS: The new compound, with good solubility in water, has much more potent antitussive activity in comparison with the same dose of single verticinone and single cholic acid. The administration 3 mg/kg of Ver-CA could result in over 50% reduction of a citric acid-induced cough. Pretreatment with naloxone (0.8 mg/kg, ip) can only partially antagonize its antitussive effect. On the other hand, glybenclamide (3 mg/kg, ip), an ATP-sensitive K+ channel blocker, can also significantly reduce the antitussive effect of Ver-CA. A further acute toxicity study showed that the LD(50) values of Ver-CA were 3 times that of verticinone. CONCLUSION: Based on the studies of pharmacology and acute toxicity, the salt has a synergic and attenuated toxicity compared with single verticinone and cholic acid. Moreover, the present study also suggests that Ver-CA, a potential novel antitussive agent, may exert its antitussive effect via both the peripheral (modulated by ATP-sensitive K+ channels) and central mechanisms (modulated by the opioid receptor).  (+info)

Addictive evaluation of cholic acid-verticinone ester, a potential cough therapeutic agent with agonist action of opioid receptor. (4/8)

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Antinociceptive efficacy of verticinone in murine models of inflammatory pain and paclitaxel induced neuropathic pain. (5/8)

Verticinone, an isosteroidal alkaloid separated from Bulbus Fritillaria (Chinese name "Bei-mu"), was evaluated for its analgesic activities in murine models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. It was shown that oral administarion of verticinone could significantly inhibit acetic acid-induced writhing response in a dose-dependent way, and the writhing inhibition of 3 mg/kg verticinone was 66.2%, which was approximately higher than that of 200 mg/kg aspirin. In the formalin test, a high dose of (3 mg/kg) verticinone could inhibit the nociceptive response of both phases, but the lower dose (1.5 mg/kg) could only inhibit the second phase response, which suggested that verticinone might exert its analgesic effect through both central and peripheral mechanisms. In addition, in formalin and acetic acid tests, the spontaneous locomotive activities of the mice treated with verticinone were transiently greatly decreased when compared with the vehicle group. In the rat model of paclitaxel induced neuropathic pain, in contrast to the declined analgesic effect of morphine after repeated administration with the same dose, a relatively constant analgesic effect of verticinone was observed. These investigations suggested that verticinone could exert a good antinociceptive effect on inflammatory pain and cancer-related neuropathic pain probably through both peripheral and central mechanisms, and it might be partly involved with some sedation effects. Verticinone is expected to become a potentially novel sedative-analgesic agent without producing tolerance and dependence, but further studies are still urgently needed to elucidate the precise mechanisms and activities of it.  (+info)

Tetrodotoxin block of single germitrine-activated sodium channels in cultured rat cardiac cells. (6/8)

1. The open time of single Na+ channels in excised (outside-out) patches from cultured late-fetal rat ventricular myocytes was prolonged to several minutes by germitrine (0.5 mM) in order to analyse tetrodotoxin (TTX) blocking kinetics. 2. The germitrine modification appeared during depolarizing pulses that activated normal Na+ channels. Following repolarization to -100 mV, the modified Na+ channel remained activated for 136 +/- 186 s (mean +/- S.D., n = 54) with an open-channel current amplitude of -0.5 pA. The predominant open state with a mean open time of 0.13 s was interrupted by brief closing events lasting for milliseconds. Replacing extracellular Na+ by Cs+ decreased the current amplitude to -0.1 pA. 3. Extracellular superfusion with TTX (3 x 10(-7) M) of a single germitrine-activated Na+ channel induced full channel closures lasting seconds (blocked events) separated by channel reopenings (unblocked events) that were indistinguishable in terms of amplitude and gating kinetics from the germitrine-activated state in the absence of TTX. 4. Cumulative probability histograms of blocked and unblocked events (n greater than 140) collected during long-lasting germitrine modifications at 10(-7) and 3 x 10(-7) M-TTX are well described by single exponentials. The 3-fold increase in [TTX] decreased the time constant of the unblocked state, tau o, from 11.9 to 4.7 s, while the time constant of the blocked state, tau c, was not significantly altered from 8.6 to 9.7 s. A microscopic association rate constant of 7.7 x 10(5) M-1 s-1, dissociation rate constant of 0.11 s-1, and equilibrium dissociation constant of 1.4 x 10(-7) M (at -100 mV) were calculated (20 degrees C). 5. Increasing [TTX] to 10(-5) M decreased tau o to 86 ms. This argues against the existence of a slower conformational step interposed between the binding of TTX to an open channel and the resultant channel closure. 6. Setting the membrane potential to -50 or 0 mV subsequent to a germitrine modification at -100 mV did not significantly alter TTX (3 x 10(-7) M) blocking kinetics: tau o was 6.7 s at -50 mV and 5.2 s at 0 mV; tau c was 8.9 and 8.1 s, respectively. 7. These results suggest that blocked events correspond to the random times that a TTX molecule resides on the Na+ channel before it dissociates, and unblocked events correspond to the random waiting times of an unoccupied channel before it binds another toxin molecule.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)  (+info)

Reversal of dantrolene sodium-induced depression of skeletal muscle in the cat. (7/8)

Dantrolene sodium, a muscle relaxant, does not have a clinically useful antagonist. The present study was undertaken to test the efficacies of germine monoacetate, 4-aminopyridine, neostigmine, and calcium chloride as possible agents for the reversal of the direct skeletal muscle depression produced by dantrolene sodium in the cat anesthetized with alpha-chloralose. Depression of the indirectly elicited twitch responses (0.1 Hz) of the tibialis anterior muscle by 25, 50, 75 and 84 per cent was produced by dantrolene, 0.16, 0.36, 0.88 and 1.13 mg/kg respectively; spontaneous recovery of twitch tension during the subsequent 30 min was negligible. After the 30-min observation period had elapsed, one of the reversal agents under study was given (iv) in divided doses at intervals of 10 min (five cats for each agent). Germine monoacetate (2 X 0.5 mg/kg) immediately reversed the dantrolene-induced twitch depression, with an over-shoot that persisted for an hour. 4-Aminopyridine (4 X 0.5 mg/kg) caused a steady but incomplete reversal to 17 per cent depression, 30 min after the last dose. Neostigmine (4 X 0.04 mg/kg) caused an immediate, but transient, reversal of the twitch depression, with overshoot. Calcium chloride (4 X 10 mg/kg) was without effect. It is concluded that germine monoacetate is the drug of choice for reversal of the muscle depression produced by dantrolene sodium in the cat.  (+info)

Sarcolemmal sodium permeability and contractile force of guinea pig papillary muscle: effects of germitrine. (8/8)

The action potential of guinea pig papillary muscle exposed to the ceveratrum alkaloid germitrine (2 mugM) is followed by a long-lasting after-depolarization (maximal amplitude, 8 mV; half-time of decay, 32 seconds; total duration, approximately 75 seconds). This after-depolarization interrupts the terminal phase of repolarization. During repetitive stimulation (0.1-1.0 Hz; 80 nM germitrine) the after-depolarizations that follow consecutive action potentials are summed, causing persistent depolarization of up to 10 mV. The after-depolarization is reversibly abolished by tetrodotoxin (TTX). Test contractions evoked at various times during or after the germitrine-induced after-depolarization reveal a phase during which the ability of the muscle to develop force is transiently increased. This positive inotropic influence reaches its maximum 1 minute after the conditioning stimulus and thereafter decays with a half-time 4.8 times longer than the half-time of decay of the after depolarization. It is reversibly abolished by TTX and augmented by dihydro-ouabain (DHO). We conclude: Germitrine induces an after-depolarization by prolonging dramatically the Na permeability component which is mediated by the fast Na channels and normally restricted to the first few milliseconds of the action potential. The germitrine-induced selective and persistent increase of sarcolemmal sodium permeability (PNA) causes a positive inotropic effect, probably because intracellularly accumulating Na ions exchange for extracellular Ca ions.  (+info)

Looking for Fritillaria? Find out information about Fritillaria. The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia . It might be outdated or ideologically biased. , a genus of bulbous plants of the family... Explanation of Fritillaria
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (eCAM) is an international peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that seeks to understand the sources and to encourage rigorous research in this new, yet ancient world of complementary and alternative medicine.
Bulb: 1.5 cm in diameter, ovoid, without bulbils or stolons. Stem: 15-51 cm, 12-3-(-45) cm above ground, smooth. Leaves: 4-7, somewhat glaucous, all alternate, the lowest 5-11 × 1.5-2 cm, narrowly oblanceolate to elliptic-oblong, usually folded at fruiting time; bract leaves 2-5 cm long, linear to narrowly lanceolate, acute. Flowers: 1-2, narrowly campanulate; perianth segments purplish outside, paler inside with median yellowish-green bands extending to apices, sometimes tinged or sparsely green-dotted towards margins, outer segments 12 × 16-46 mm, elliptic-narrowly oblong, obtuse, inner segments 6.5-8 mm wide, lanceolate obtuse. Nectaries: broadly lanceolate to narrowly elliptic, 2.5-4 mm long placed 0.5-1 mm above base of tepals, green. Filaments: 7-8 mm, yellow-brown, stout, glabrous to sparsely papillose at base, densely papillose in upper part; anthers 5-7 mm long before dehiscence, ellipsoid, brown-purplish, basifixed. Style: 6-8 mm, entire, stout, greenish-yellow, densely papillose. ...
Flower generally bisexual, generally radial; perianth often showy, segments generally 6 in two petal-like whorls (outer sometimes sepal-like), free or fused at base; stamens 6 (or 3 + generally 3 ± petal-like staminodes), filaments sometimes attached to perianth or fused into a tube or crown; ovary superior or inferior, chambers 3, placentas generally axile, style generally 1, stigmas generally ...
The nuclear cycle in plants and animals consists in the alternation of two mechanically stable systems, the resting nucleus and the metaphase chromosomes. The regularity of this alternation and the constancy of the bodies taking part in it has led to the assumption that it depends on a permanence of the positional relationship of essential elements in these bodies, that is, on a property of passing on the same structure from mother to daughter nucleus and from mother to daughter organism by the structure reproducing its like without change. This assumption has been vindicated by the demonstration at a particular nuclear division, meiosis, in the transitional and generally unstable stages of prophase between the resting nucleus and the metaphase chromosomes, of a linear arrangement of particles which is constant both in individuals and in races. The inference of this constant arrangement of particles depends on evidence of form and of function. When the inference is from form the particles are ...
While we have our share of daffodils, tulips, hyacinths and the like, there is also an attraction here to the little oddballs of the bulb world, the Fritillaria ssp. Fritillaria is a genus in the Liliaceae family distributed throughout Europe and North Africa (especially around the Mediterranean), temperate Asia and North America. Most of them…
Looking for online definition of bulbus olfactorius in the Medical Dictionary? bulbus olfactorius explanation free. What is bulbus olfactorius? Meaning of bulbus olfactorius medical term. What does bulbus olfactorius mean?
STUDIES ON THE CONSTITUENTS OF THE CRUDE DRUG FRITILLARIAE BULBUS. III: ON THE DITERPENOID CONSTITUENTS OF FRESH BULBS OF FRITILLARIA THUNBERGII MIQKITAJIMA J; KOMORI T; KAWASAKI T et al.1982; CHEMICAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL BULLETIN; ISSN 0009-2363; JPN; DA. 1982; VOL. 30; NO 11; PP. 3912-3921; BIBL. 21 REF.Article ...
There is so much going on in the garden now, that it really needs a number of instalments. Much as the woodland plants look their best when allowed to merge and self-seed together, bulbs look stunning when combined in one area in the garden - the ultimate example is the amazing bulb-walk at Sissinghurst which was and is created over decades of careful addition and subtraction, and includes no-bulbous plants like pulsatillas, primroses, euphorbias and a few others. At its height in spring I dont think there can be a planting to compare with it anywhere, and it would be true to say that it is a work of art. This is all by way of preamble for our relatively feeble attempt to make something similar in a small circular bed in the middle of the lawn. Maybe in 20 years time... None the less there are some very nice plants flowering - Fritillaria kotschyana came from Kath Dryden and is steadily building up; the second picture shows it at the bottom, before the tulips have really got going. What the bed ...
0047]Cardiac cells isolated from normal (N) or failing (F) hearts were subjected to trains of depolarizations to assess the main mechanisms of Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release (CICR), i.e., trigger Ca2+ entry through L-type Ca2+ channels (ICa,L), the rate of rise (ΔCa/Δt) and amplitude (ΔCa) of the [Ca2+]i transient, and the SR Ca2+ load (CaSR, measured as the integral of NCX current during caffeine application [Hobai, 2000 #371; FIG. 2). The experimental protocol consisted of a train of 0.5 sec depolarizations from -80 mV to +10 mV, applied at 0.5 Hz until steady-state, followed by a rapid application of caffeine, to measure SR Ca2+ load. Myocytes from failing hearts cells showed the characteristic Ca2+ handling deficit, with depressed [Ca2+]i transients and CaSR, and a normal ICa,L (FIGS. 2-3). Internal equilibration with 10 μM XIP induced a large increase in the steady-state CaSR and [Ca2+]i transients, in the absence of any change in ICa,L. FIG. 2 shows the XIP effects on Ca2-induced Ca2+ ...
The snakes head fritillary is an unmistakeable naturalised wildflower. Distributed around Europe and West Asia, its usually seen in grasslands, damp
Fritillaria poluninii is a much less imposing miniature from north-eastern Iraq and just across the border into Iran, though one with a great attraction for the enthusiast. Cyril Lafongs example of this diminutive species was grown from his own seed sown in 1996 and subsequently given his standard bulb treatment, i.e. a rich gritty compost with plenty of water (including an occasional half-strength high potash feed) while the plants are in growth with, then dryish following their early summer return to dormancy. The species was discovered by Oleg Polunin during his Iraq expedition of 1958 and originally classified as a subspecies of Fritillaria crassifolia: this view was maintained when it was subsequently found in Irans Kordestan Province by Per Wendelbo 20 years later. Now generally accepted as a distinct species on account of its narrow, glossy green leaves, its short stems and the one or two (rarely three) whitish, green-veined bells each supports, some publications (including the AGS ...
These images exist as archived TIFF images and one or more JPEG versions for general use. They were scanned at 2710 dpi, 24-bit from the original using an Nikon CoolScan V ED scanner, default color configuration ...
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I bergamaschi Veratrum sono ormai amici di vecchia data: li abbiamo ospitati su queste pagine (ma anche in sede di intervista radiofonica) in occasione del demo cd Sangue e successivamente per il debut album Sentieri Dimenticati. Dopo una chiacchierata face to face prenatalizia e lascolto di alcune tracce del nuovo disco, eccomi qui a parlare più dettagliatamente di Mondi Sospesi, il secondo lavoro sulla lunga distanza, per il terzetto guidato da Haiwas. Ancora una volta vorrei partire elogiando lartwork estremamente curato e suggestivo, un artwork che cela misteri, simboli e profezie qui espressi palesemente dalla torre di Babele che cappeggia nella parte destra della cover. Passando alla musica, qualche novità rispetto al passato è riscontrabile nei contenuti di Mondi Sospesi, ma andiamo con ordine e partiamo da quelle che sono le certezze dei nostri. Si parte con lassalto sonoro di Un Canto, che ricorda, qualora ce ne fosse bisogno, di che pasta sono fatti i nostri: ritmiche ...
Lilies (Lilium species and hybrids), giant lilies (Cardiocrinum species) and fritillaries (Fritillaria species) can be defoliated by the common and widespread lily beetle.
Julian P. Meeks is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Ex Vivo Bereidingen van de Intact Vomeronasal en accessoires bulbus olfactorius
The genus Nomocharis includes bulbous plants with high ornamental value. It is inextricably linked with the genera Lilium and Fritillaria in evolution. Nomocharis is distributed in the Hengduan Mountains of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, including high-altitude areas in Yunnan, Sichuan and Tibet, China. Plants usually grow on the edge of forests or sunny alpine slopes. There are nine species in the genus, and, besides Nomocharis synaptica, the other eight species are distributed in China. Through intensive investigation on Nomocharis in recent years, a new species named Nomocharis gongshanensis has been discovered in Gongshan county of Yunnan province. The typical morphological characteristics of Nomocharis are as follows: widely opened perianth or perigonium and saucer-shaped flower; dark blotches in the bases of tepals, a series of thin tissue flanges standing erect and flabellately on both sides of the basal channel or nectaries of inner tepals, but not on outer tepals; fleshy, cylindrical or ...
Also known as devils dung, stinking gum, food of the gods, and giant fennel, hing has a varied and suprising diversity of uses. Along the Tex-Mex border hing was used for wolf bait. The odor attracts wolves. In Jamaica, hing is used to protect the ...
Veratrum Album 30C by Boiron 30696077513. We carry every Boiron product at discount prices. 80 Pellet 23% off, $5.14. Over 500 brands, 30000 products at discount prices 20-70% off.
Plasma kinetics of dextromethorphan (as dextrorphan ) and codeine were investigated after acute oral doses in 8 patients with pathological cough; after which the patients participated in an acute dose-response study of the antitussive effects of each drug administered as syrups. Maximum plasma codeine concentrations averaged 384 ng.ml-1 (s.d. +/- 78.3) occurring between 0.75 and 2h after ingestion of 60 mg codeine phosphate; in comparison mean peak plasma dextrorphan levels were 386 ng.ml-1 (s.d. +/- 107.2) and 388 ng.ml-1 (s.d. +/- 101.3) respectively, after administration of 60 mg dextromethorphan syrup and tablet formulations. Bioavailability of dextromethorphan tablets was comparable to syrup. No correlation emerged between instantaneous plasma concentrations of either dextrorphan or codeine and antitussive responses; however, peak antitussive effect was significantly related to log dose with both drugs. Antitussive effects of 30 mg codeine phosphate and 60 mg dextromethorphan hydrobromide ...
Aftercontractions, delayed afterdepolarizations, and automaticity occurred in guinea pig papillary muscles that were reoxygenated after hypoxic conditioning. The emergence of dysfunction was dependent on the severity of hypoxic conditioning and on stimulation during reoxygenation. After 60 minutes of substrate-free hypoxia, reoxygenation induced automaticity in a high proportion of stimulated muscles; the automaticity appeared within 1 minute and lasted for 10-20 minutes. After similar conditioning, muscles reoxygenated for 7-15 minutes were stimulated at various cycle lengths. The incidence of automaticity and the amplitudes of delayed events had W-shaped dependencies on cycle length (200-1,000 msec), whereas coupling intervals had M-shaped dependencies. In ventricular myocytes that displayed automaticity after reoxygenation, extrasystolic upstrokes arose smoothly from delayed afterdepolarizations that reached threshold. In tissue, extrasystolic upstrokes usually rose sharply from delayed ...
  Fritillaria roylei Hook. (Liliacece) is an important medicinal herb of the Astavarga group, distributed in sub-alpine to alpine regions of the Himalayas. Its bulbs are an important constituent of many medicines and health tonics. Over exploitation for medicinal uses has decreased the availability of F. roylei in natural habitats and brought this species into endangered, making conservation and cultivation studies necessary. Variability studies may serve as an important tool for effective conservation and for a crop improvement program. Therefore, natural populations of Garhwal Himalaya were analyzed for variability on the basis of morphological, biochemical and isoenzyme patterns. The studied populations were grouped into three clusters based on D2 values. Geographical isolation is responsible for variability among these populations. Existing variability among different populations opens up new areas for conservation and perspectives for a genetic improvement program of
standard-size trees; they make good small garden trees and even grow well in wine half- barrels. Pear trees make excel- lent espaliers. All types have leathery, glossy bright green leaves and bear handsome clusters of white fl owers in early spring. Fruit is produced on knobby spurs that remain pro- ductive for up to 5 years. To produce good crops, pears need winter chill: 600 hours below 45°F (7°C) is a minimum, and most do better still with 900 hours. In cold climates, their early bloom makes them prone to damage from spring frosts. Hybrids between Euro- pean pears and the hardy P. ussuriensis, such as Ure, are worth trying in the coldest regions. Where winters are very mild, choose varieties needing little winter chill. Some low-chill types are Asian hybrids, crosses between European and ...
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RESEPTOR dan PENGINDERAAN Reseptor : struktur yang menerima stimulus/rangsangan. Terbagi atas : Eksteroreseptor Reseptor yang menerima rangsang/impuls dari luar tubuh. Umum/biasa : suhu, tekanan. Khusus : reseptor indera pengelihatan : retina penghidu : bulbus olfactorius pengecap : gema gustatoria Pendengaran : cocchlea Taktil : paccini, meissner
Robin Bennett 08. Rønsted, N., Law, S., Thornton, H., Fay, M. F. & Chase M. W. (2005). Molecular phylogenetic evidence for the monophyly of Fritillaria and Lilium (Liliaceae; Liliales) and the infrageneric classification of Fritillaria. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 35: 509-527. Fay, M. F., Qamaruz-Zaman, F., Cowan, R. S. & Thornton, H. (2002). Molecular techniques for orchid conservation genetic studies. In J. Clark, W. M. Elliott, G. Tingley & J. Biro (eds.) Proceedings of the 16th World Orchid Conference, Vancouver Orchid Society, Vancouver. 152-157.. Ingrouille, M. J., Bowman, D., Fay, M. F., van der Bank, M. & Chase, M. W. (2002). Systematics of Vitaceae from the viewpoint of plastid rbcL DNA sequence data. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 138: 421-432.. Maunder, M., Cowan, R. S., Stranc, P. & Fay, M. F. (2001). The genetic status and conservation management of two cultivated bulb species extinct in the wild:Tecophilaea cyanocrocus (Chile) and Tulipa sprengeri (Turkey). ...
They take shelter with Mallorys friends, who are happy to help until they discover where they rank in relation to Mallorys fevered thirst for revenge. Unable to hear their words over the roar of his obsession, rationalizing his every betrayal, Mallory makes a bargain with another vampire: Aethe for Veratrum. [How can this other vampire deliver Veratrum? Veratrum is stronger. Is it just because its two against one? In an entire century of trying to kill Veratrum, this is the first time Mallorys thought of enlisting help? What about Veratrums minions? Theyre not going to stand by while Mallory and Claud kill Veratrum. Why isnt there an e on the end of Clauds name?] Can he go through with it? At what price vengeance ...
They take shelter with Mallorys friends, who are happy to help until they discover where they rank in relation to Mallorys fevered thirst for revenge. Unable to hear their words over the roar of his obsession, rationalizing his every betrayal, Mallory makes a bargain with another vampire: Aethe for Veratrum. [How can this other vampire deliver Veratrum? Veratrum is stronger. Is it just because its two against one? In an entire century of trying to kill Veratrum, this is the first time Mallorys thought of enlisting help? What about Veratrums minions? Theyre not going to stand by while Mallory and Claud kill Veratrum. Why isnt there an e on the end of Clauds name?] Can he go through with it? At what price vengeance ...
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Specially, Veratrum Album medicine is used in the symptom of sweating on the forehead. Homeopathic remedy, Potencies of Veratrum Album Medicine
3 grams.. The grapefruit grapefruit Chinese medicine believes that the grapefruit is sweet and sour, cold, has the effect of qi and phlegm, moistening the lungs and clearing the intestines, nourishing the blood and strengthening the spleen. It is a good fruit for raising the lungs and relieving cough after a cold.. People who have frequent colds, coughs, and trachea-sensitive people can use fresh grapefruit to remove the skin, meat, with Zhengbei apricot, Fritillaria, so-called bleached snow fungus (or yellow ear) 50 grams each, plus 1000 to 1500 grams of honey.Sterilize for five or six hours after simmering in a small fire, and take it daily to strengthen the lungs.. Apple apple is also known as Ping Po. Its taste is sweet and cool. It has the effect of replenishing temper, nourishing the stomach, nourishing the thirst, and moistening the lungs. It is called the cardiovascular health protection god.. More food can improve the function of the respiratory system and lungs.. When you are nervous, ...
Feulgen bands can be obtained at the sites of constitutive heterochromatin in the chromosomes of Anemone blanda, Fritillaria lanceolata and Scilla siberica, simply by means of a short or extended acid hydrolysis. Extended hydrolysis gives positive bands in A. blanda and F. lanceolata and negative bands in S. siberica. Short hydrolysis gives no bands in A. blanda and S. siberica but gives negative bands in F. lanceolata. The kind of Feulgen banding obtained is not correlated with the type of base richness of the heterochromatin DNA; rather, it is probably due to differences in the associated nucleoproteins. ...
PRESS RELEASE. Iredell County Animal Services has confirmed another case of rabies. This case involved a raccoon in the area of the 400 block of East Monbo Rd. in Troutman.. It is important to make sure your pet has a current rabies vaccine that will prevent them from acquiring rabies. All dogs, cats, and ferrets are required by NC State law to be vaccinated against rabies starting at the age of 3 months. In Iredell County, there is a $75.00 citation per animal for owners who do not have their dog, cat or ferret immunized against rabies. Pets are not protected from rabies until 28 days after their first rabies vaccination.. If a pet is up to date on its rabies vaccine and is exposed to a rabid animal, the vaccinated animal must receive a booster vaccination within 5 days of the exposure. If they do not receive the booster within 5 days of the exposure they will either be euthanized (put to sleep) or quarantined for six months.. Rabies vaccinations for your dog, cat or ferret can be obtained at ...
... cevanes MeSH D03.132.920.256.310 - germine acetates MeSH D03.132.920.256.543 - protoveratrines MeSH D03.132.920.256.815 - ...
... cevanes MeSH D03.132.920.256.310 - germine acetates MeSH D03.132.920.256.543 - protoveratrines MeSH D03.132.920.256.815 - ...
Animals , Cevanes , Pharmacokinetics , Colon , Metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Female , Fritillaria , ... Alkaloids , Cevanes , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Fritillaria , Chemistry , Light ... Cevanes , China , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Methods , Ecosystem , Fritillaria , Chemistry , Light , Plants, ... Alkaloids , Cevanes , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Methods , Fritillaria , Chemistry , Light , Plant Roots , ...
D03.633.400.256 Cevanes .. D03.633.400.256.543 Protoveratrines .. D05 Macromolecular Substances .. D05.750 Polymers .. D05.750. ... D03.132.920.256 Cevanes .. D03.132.920.256.543 Protoveratrines .. D03.383 Heterocyclic Compounds, 1-Ring .. D03.383.773 ...
Alkaloids, isolation & purification, Cevanes, Drugs, Chinese Herbal, chemistry, Homosteroids, Steroids MEDLINE®/PubMed® ...
Alkaloids, analysis, Cevanes, Chromatography, Thin Layer, Densitometry, Drugs, Chinese Herbal, chemistry, classification, ...
Cevanes D3.549.256 D3.633.400.256 Chalcone D3.438.150.266.450.221.500 D3.633.100.150.266.450.221.500 Chalcones D3.438.150.266. ...
Animals , Cevanes , Pharmacokinetics , Colon , Metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Female , Fritillaria , ...
Probabil era ceva nes frecat cu cola, tin minte ca le mai faceam la ai mei cand eram micuta si sigur am "gustat" si eu. ...

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