Cestoda: A subclass of segmented worms comprising the tapeworms.Cestode Infections: Infections with true tapeworms of the helminth subclass CESTODA.Diphyllobothriasis: Infection with tapeworms of the genus Diphyllobothrium.Diphyllobothrium: A genus of tapeworm containing several species which occurs in the intestine of fish, birds, and mammals including man. Infection in humans is usually by eating uncooked fish. The larval stage is known as SPARGANUM.Platyhelminths: A phylum of acoelomate, bilaterally symmetrical flatworms, without a definite anus. It includes three classes: Cestoda, Turbellaria, and Trematoda.Hymenolepis: A genus of small tapeworms of birds and mammals.Helminthiasis, Animal: Infestation of animals with parasitic worms of the helminth class. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.Paleopathology: The study of disease in prehistoric times as revealed in bones, mummies, and archaeologic artifacts.DNA, Helminth: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of helminths.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Genitalia, Female: The female reproductive organs. The external organs include the VULVA; BARTHOLIN'S GLANDS; and CLITORIS. The internal organs include the VAGINA; UTERUS; OVARY; and FALLOPIAN TUBES.Rectal Fistula: An abnormal anatomical passage connecting the RECTUM to the outside, with an orifice at the site of drainage.Trematoda: Class of parasitic flukes consisting of three subclasses, Monogenea, Aspidogastrea, and Digenea. The digenetic trematodes are the only ones found in man. They are endoparasites and require two hosts to complete their life cycle.Retinal Ganglion Cells: Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.Ectoderm: The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.Dolphins: Mammals of the families Delphinidae (ocean dolphins), Iniidae, Lipotidae, Pontoporiidae, and Platanistidae (all river dolphins). Among the most well-known species are the BOTTLE-NOSED DOLPHIN and the KILLER WHALE (a dolphin). The common name dolphin is applied to small cetaceans having a beaklike snout and a slender, streamlined body, whereas PORPOISES are small cetaceans with a blunt snout and rather stocky body. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, pp978-9)Sharks: A group of elongate elasmobranchs. Sharks are mostly marine fish, with certain species large and voracious.Electric Organ: In about 250 species of electric fishes, modified muscle fibers forming disklike multinucleate plates arranged in stacks like batteries in series and embedded in a gelatinous matrix. A large torpedo ray may have half a million plates. Muscles in different parts of the body may be modified, i.e., the trunk and tail in the electric eel, the hyobranchial apparatus in the electric ray, and extrinsic eye muscles in the stargazers. Powerful electric organs emit pulses in brief bursts several times a second. They serve to stun prey and ward off predators. A large torpedo ray can produce of shock of more than 200 volts, capable of stunning a human. (Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p672)Torpedo: A genus of the Torpedinidae family consisting of several species. Members of this family have powerful electric organs and are commonly called electric rays.BoliviaDissertations, Academic as Topic: Dissertations embodying results of original research and especially substantiating a specific view, e.g., substantial papers written by candidates for an academic degree under the individual direction of a professor or papers written by undergraduates desirous of achieving honors or distinction.Sigmodontinae: A subfamily of the family MURIDAE comprised of 69 genera. New World mice and rats are included in this subfamily.Ethnobotany: The study of plant lore and agricultural customs of a people. In the fields of ETHNOMEDICINE and ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY, the emphasis is on traditional medicine and the existence and medicinal uses of PLANTS and PLANT EXTRACTS and their constituents, both historically and in modern times.Echinococcus: A genus of very small TAPEWORMS, in the family Taeniidae. The adult form is found in various CARNIVORA but not humans. The larval form is seen in humans under certain epidemiologic circumstances.Echinococcosis: An infection caused by the infestation of the larval form of tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus. The liver, lungs, and kidney are the most common areas of infestation.Echinococcus granulosus: A species of hydatid tapeworm (class CESTODA) in the family Taeniidae, whose adult form infects the DIGESTIVE TRACT of DOGS, other canines, and CATS. The larval form infects SHEEP; PIGS; HORSES; and may infect humans, where it migrates to various organs and forms permanent HYDATID CYSTS.Anticestodal Agents: Agents used to treat tapeworm infestations in man or animals.Echinococcus multilocularis: A north temperate species of tapeworm (CESTODA) whose adult form infects FOXES and wild RODENTS. The larval form can infect humans producing HEPATIC HYDATID CYSTS.Central AmericaRetrospective Moral Judgment: The application of current standards of morality to past actions, institutions, or persons.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.EuropeTurbellaria: A class of free-living freshwater flatworms of North America.Planarians: Nonparasitic free-living flatworms of the class Turbellaria. The most common genera are Dugesia, formerly Planaria, which lives in water, and Bipalium, which lives on land. Geoplana occurs in South America and California.Digestive System Physiological Phenomena: Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.United States Government Agencies: Agencies of the FEDERAL GOVERNMENT of the United States.PrintingTrematode Infections: Infections caused by infestation with worms of the class Trematoda.Taeniasis: Infection with tapeworms of the genus Taenia.

Rainbow trout leucocyte activity: influence on the ectoparasitic monogenean Gyrodactylus derjavini. (1/109)

The ectoparasitic monogenean Gyrodactylus derjavini from rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss was exposed in vitro to macrophages isolated as peritoneal exudate cells or as pronephros cells from the host. Cells colonized the parasite especially in the mannose-rich regions in the cephalic ducts where ciliated structures were abundant. Opsonization with fresh serum, in contrast to heat-inactivated serum, enhanced colonization also on other body parts. The adverse effect of the activated macrophages towards G. derjavini was associated with a heat-labile component released from these cells to the culture medium. Analysis of substances released from the cells showed reactivity for a number of enzymes, complement factor C3, interleukin (Il-1) and reactive oxygen metabolites. Chemotaxis assays with pronephric leucocytes showed chemoattractants in G. derjavini, and the respiratory burst level of macrophages was slightly elevated due to parasite exposure. It is suggested that skin leucocytes contribute to an increased level of complement factors in the trout skin during the host response, whereby a hostile microenvironment for the parasites is created. In addition, the IL-1 production could affect mucous cell secretion and hyperplasia and add to the antiparasitic action of the epithelium. Likewise, reactive oxygen metabolites and various enzymes are likely to be involved in the skin response.  (+info)

Helminth fauna of carnivores distributed in north-western Tohoku, Japan, with special reference to Mesocestoides paucitesticulus and Brachylaima tokudai. (2/109)

In the winter of 1998-1999, we collected parasitological data from 54 wild carnivores in the north-western part of Tohoku region, Japan. These consisted of 38 martens (Martes melampus melampus), 14 raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus) and 2 foxes (Vulpes vulpes japonica). Collected helminth parasites were 11 nematode, 10 trematode, 3 cestode, and a single acanthocephalan species, including 5 hitherto unknown species for this research area or the mainland of Japan (Honshu). Mesocestoides paucitesticulus was for the first time recorded from martens as well as from carnivores distributed in Honshu. Brachylaima tokudai originally recorded from Urotrichus talpoides in the central part of Honshu was for the first time found from a raccoon dog.  (+info)

Redescription of Tejidotaenia appendiculata (Baylis, 1947) (Cestoda: proteocephalidea), a parasite of Tupinambis teguixin (Sauria: teiidae) from South America. (3/109)

The species Tejidotaenia appendiculata (Baylis, 1947), a parasite found in teju, Tupinambis teguixin is redescribed and a new diagnosis is provided. The species is characterized by the anterior position of the ovary and the peculiar shape of suckers. It is the first record of this species in Brazil.  (+info)

Parasite-associated growth enhancement in a fish-cestode system. (4/109)

Parasites impose an energetic cost upon their hosts, yet, paradoxically instances have been reported in which infection is associated with enhanced, rather than diminished, host growth rates. Field studies of these parasite effects are problematic, since the pre-infection condition of the hosts is generally unknown. Here, we describe a laboratory experiment in which the growth rate and body condition of 76 laboratory-reared three-spined stickleback fishes were examined before, during and after each fish was fed the infective stage of the parasitic cestode Schistocephalus solidus. Twenty-one of these fishes went on to become infected by the cestode. Fishes were individually housed and provided with an abundant food supply to eliminate the potentially masking effects of variable competitive ability. Infection occurred independently of fish gender, size, body condition or pre-exposure growth rate. After exposure to the cestode, infected fishes grew faster (excluding parasite weight) and maintained a similar or better body condition compared with uninfected fishes, despite developing enlarged spleens. The accelerated growth could not be explained by reduced gonadal development. This result, one of few demonstrations of parasite-associated growth enhancement in fishes, is discussed with respect to other such parasite systems.  (+info)

Occurrence of Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in cyprinid fish from three lakes in the flood plain of the Yangtze River, China. (5/109)

Cyprinid fish, Hemiculter leucisculus, Cultrichthys erythropterus and Culter dabryi, were sampled from Liangzi, Honghu and Tangxun lakes in the flood plain of the Yangtze River. The cestode Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934 was found in the 3 lakes, but C. erythropterus sampled from Liangzi lake was found uninfected due probably to the small sample size. Findings of the cestode in the 3 lakes represent the first record of the parasite in the flood plain of the Yangtze River, indicating that B. acheilognathi may be distributed much wider in China than previously recognized.  (+info)

Aspects of the ecology of proteocephalid cestodes parasites of Sorubim lima (Pimelodidae) of the upper Parana River, Brazil: I. Structure and influence of host's size and sex. (6/109)

Between March 1992 and February 1996, 107 specimens of Sorubim lima were collected in the floodplain of the upper Parana river. Ninety-five (88.78%) specimens were parasitized with at least one species of proteocephalid cestodes. 7,573 specimens of four different species were collected (average intensity 79.71 parasites/host): Paramonticellia itaipuensis Pavanelli & Rego, 1991; Nupelia portoriquensis Pavanelli & Rego, 1991; Spatulifer maringaensis Pavanelli & Rego, 1989 and Spasskyellina spinulifera Woodland, 1935. S. maringaensis was the most prevalent and abundant. There were three dominant species P. itaipuensis, S. maringaensis and N. portoriquensis) and one co-dominant species (S. spinulifera). The three environments (lotic, semilotic and lentic) in which collection was undertaken showed high similarity with regard to parasitic fauna. A high Simpson index value (0.359) indicates dominance tendency among species of parasites. Concerning S. maringaensis significant positive correlation was observed between parasite intensity and standard length of hosts. No species had negative correlation. With regard to S. maringaensis and N. portoriquensis prevalence was positive and significantly correlated with standard length of hosts. No species had negative correlation. In the case of S. maringaensis and N. portoriquensis influence of host's sex was noted on parasite intensity. There was no sex influence on parasite prevalence in any species.  (+info)

Aspects of the ecology of proteocephalid cestodes, parasites of Sorubim lima (Pimelodidae), of the upper Parana River, Brazil: II. Interspecific associations and distribution of gastrintestinal parasites. (7/109)

One hundred and seven specimens of Sorubim lima (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) were collected in the floodplain of the upper Parana River, Brazil between March 1992 and February 1996. Ninety-five specimens (88.78%) were parasited by at least a species of proteocephalid cestode. 7,573 parasites specimens of four different species were collected (average intensity 79.71 parasites/host): Paramonticellia itaipuensis Pavanelli & Rego, 1991; Nupelia portoriquensis Pavanelli & Rego, 1991; Spatulifer maringaensis Pavanelli & Rego, 1989 and Spasskyellina spinulifera (Woodland, 1935). The two most prevalent species, Spatulifer maringaensis and Paramonticellia itaipuensis, were parasiting the entire gastrointestinal tract. Nupelia portoriquensis parasited only the anterior and posterior intestine of the host.  (+info)

Complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta: gene arrangements indicate that Platyhelminths are Eutrochozoans. (8/109)

Using "long-PCR," we amplified in overlapping fragments the complete mitochondrial genome of the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda) and determined its 13,900-nt sequence. The gene content is the same as that typically found for animal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) except that atp8 appears to be lacking, a condition found previously for several other animals. Despite the small size of this mtDNA, there are two large noncoding regions, one of which contains 13 repeats of a 31-nt sequence and a potential stem-loop structure of 25 bp with an 11-member loop. Large potential secondary structures were identified also for the noncoding regions of two other cestode mtDNAS: Comparison of the mitochondrial gene arrangement of H. diminuta with those previously published supports a phylogenetic position of flatworms as members of the Eutrochozoa, rather than placing them basal to either a clade of protostomes or a clade of coelomates.  (+info)

  • On the genus Dinobothrium van Beneden (Cestoda), with a description of two new species from sharks, and a note on Monorygma sp. (cambridge.org)
  • Marilyn A. McNeill and Manfred E. Rau " ECHINOCOCCUS GRANULOSUS (CESTODA: TAENIIDAE) INFECTIONS IN MOOSE ( ALCES ALCES ) FROM SOUTHWESTERN QUEBEC," Journal of Wildlife Diseases 23(3), 418-421, (1 July 1987). (bioone.org)
  • This dataset contains the digitized treatments in Plazi based on the original journal article Rossin, María A., Timi, Juan T., Hoberg, Eric P. (2010): An endemic Taenia from South America: validation of T. tali c ei Dollfus, 1960 (Cestoda: Taeniidae) with characterization of metacestodes and adults. (gbif.org)
  • Phylogenetic tree of members of the genus Versteria (Cestoda: Taeniidae). (cdc.gov)
  • Breeding systems in Echinococcus granulosus (Cestoda, Taeniidae): Selfing or outcrossing? (cdc.gov)
  • The main purpose of this study was to characterize the helmintological fauna of three commensal rodents from Argentina, with the final goal of finding Strobilocercus fasciolaris (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea) , discussing possible reasons of the maintenance of the cycle in the study areas. (scielo.org.ar)
  • Phylogenetic relationships and taxonomic revision of Paranoplocephala Lühe, 1910 sensu lato (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea, Anoplocephalidae). (semanticscholar.org)
  • Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea). (evira.fi)
  • Dezfuli BS, Giari L, Squerzanti S, Lui A, Lorenzoni M, Sakalli S & Shinn A (2011) Histological damage and inflammatory response elicited by Monobothrium wageneri (Cestoda) in the intestine of Tinca tinca (Cyprinidae), Parasites and Vectors, 4, p. 225. (stir.ac.uk)
  • Eckert J, Von Brand T, Voge M (1969) Asexual multiplication of Mesocestoides corti (Cestoda) in the intestine of dogs and skunks. (springer.com)
  • Davydov VG, Korneva JV (2000) Differentiation and structure of a uterus for Nippotaenia mogurndae Yamaguti et Myiata, 1940 (Cestoda: Nippotaeniidea). (springer.com)
  • Azzouz-Draoui N, Mokhtar-Maamouri F (1986/88) Ultrastructure comparée de la spermiogenèse et du spermatozoïde de Echinobothrium affine Diesing, 1863 et E. harfordi Mac Vicar, 1976 (Cestoda, Diphyllidea). (springer.com)
  • Effect of praziquantel and liposome-incorporated praziquantel on peritoneal macrophage activation in mice infected with Mesocestoides corti tetrathyridia (Cestoda). (semanticscholar.org)
  • A zoologist and paleontologist, he discovered the life cycle of the tapeworm ( Cestoda ). (roughlydaily.com)