Unstable isotopes of cesium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cs atoms with atomic weights of 123, 125-132, and 134-145 are radioactive cesium isotopes.
A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.
Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Stable cesium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cesium, but differ in atomic weight. Cs-133 is a naturally occurring isotope.
Unstable isotopes of zinc that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Zn atoms with atomic weights 60-63, 65, 69, 71, and 72 are radioactive zinc isotopes.
Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Unstable isotopes of strontium that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. Sr 80-83, 85, and 89-95 are radioactive strontium isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of krypton that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Kr atoms with atomic weights 74-77, 79, 81, 85, and 87-94 are radioactive krypton isotopes.
Pollutants, present in soil, which exhibit radioactivity.
Unstable isotopes of indium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. In atoms with atomic weights 106-112, 113m, 114, and 116-124 are radioactive indium isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of sodium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Na atoms with atomic weights 20-22 and 24-26 are radioactive sodium isotopes.
The spontaneous transformation of a nuclide into one or more different nuclides, accompanied by either the emission of particles from the nucleus, nuclear capture or ejection of orbital electrons, or fission. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Unstable isotopes of barium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ba atoms with atomic weights 126-129, 131, 133, and 139-143 are radioactive barium isotopes.
The production of an image obtained by cameras that detect the radioactive emissions of an injected radionuclide as it has distributed differentially throughout tissues in the body. The image obtained from a moving detector is called a scan, while the image obtained from a stationary camera device is called a scintiphotograph.
Determination of the energy distribution of gamma rays emitted by nuclei. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Unstable isotopes of yttrium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Y atoms with atomic weights 82-88 and 90-96 are radioactive yttrium isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of tin that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Sn atoms with atomic weights 108-111, 113, 120-121, 123 and 125-128 are tin radioisotopes.
Pollutants, present in water or bodies of water, which exhibit radioactivity.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of iron that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Fe atoms with atomic weights 52, 53, 55, and 59-61 are radioactive iron isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of copper that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cu atoms with atomic weights 58-62, 64, and 66-68 are radioactive copper isotopes.
Nuclear power accident that occurred following the Tohoku-Kanto earthquake of March 11, 2011 in the northern region of Japan.
Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.
High energy POSITRONS or ELECTRONS ejected from a disintegrating atomic nucleus.
The first artificially produced element and a radioactive fission product of URANIUM. Technetium has the atomic symbol Tc, atomic number 43, and atomic weight 98.91. All technetium isotopes are radioactive. Technetium 99m (m=metastable) which is the decay product of Molybdenum 99, has a half-life of about 6 hours and is used diagnostically as a radioactive imaging agent. Technetium 99 which is a decay product of technetium 99m, has a half-life of 210,000 years.
Radioactive food contamination refers to the presence of radioactive substances in food or water supplies, often resulting from nuclear accidents, nuclear weapons testing, or improper disposal of radioactive waste, leading to potential health risks including radiation sickness and cancer upon consumption.
Unstable isotopes of mercury that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Hg atoms with atomic weights 185-195, 197, 203, 205, and 206 are radioactive mercury isotopes.
A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in the gastrointestinal system, liver, and spleen.
Unstable isotopes of cerium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ce atoms with atomic weights 132-135, 137, 139, and 141-148 are radioactive cerium isotopes.
Stable cobalt atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cobalt, but differ in atomic weight. Co-59 is a stable cobalt isotope.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Hafnium. A metal element of atomic number 72 and atomic weight 178.49, symbol Hf. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Detection and counting of scintillations produced in a fluorescent material by ionizing radiation.
Unstable isotopes of potassium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. K atoms with atomic weights 37, 38, 40, and 42-45 are radioactive potassium isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of gold that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Au 185-196, 198-201, and 203 are radioactive gold isotopes.
Facilities that convert NUCLEAR ENERGY into electrical energy.
Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.
Unstable isotopes of lead that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Pb atoms with atomic weights 194-203, 205, and 209-214 are radioactive lead isotopes.
Metals that constitute group 1(formerly group Ia) of the periodic table. They are the most strongly electropositive of the metals. Note that HYDROGEN is not considered an alkali metal even though it falls under the group 1 heading in the periodic table.
Any diagnostic evaluation using radioactive (unstable) isotopes. This diagnosis includes many nuclear medicine procedures as well as radioimmunoassay tests.
Stable zinc atoms that have the same atomic number as the element zinc, but differ in atomic weight. Zn-66-68, and 70 are stable zinc isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of sulfur that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. S 29-31, 35, 37, and 38 are radioactive sulfur isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of cadmium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cd atoms with atomic weights 103-105, 107, 109, 115, and 117-119 are radioactive cadmium isotopes.
Astatine. A radioactive halogen with the atomic symbol At, atomic number 85, and atomic weight 210. Its isotopes range in mass number from 200 to 219 and all have an extremely short half-life. Astatine may be of use in the treatment of hyperthyroidism.
A form species of spore-producing CYANOBACTERIA, in the family Nostocaceae, order Nostocales. It is an important source of fixed NITROGEN in nutrient-depleted soils. When wet, it appears as a jelly-like mass.
A number of different cardioactive glycosides obtained from Strophanthus species. OUABAIN is from S. gratus and CYMARINE from S. kombe. They are used like the digitalis glycosides.
Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).
Lutetium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Lu, atomic number 71, and atomic weight 175.
Rhenium. A metal, atomic number 75, atomic weight 186.2, symbol Re. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Juvenile hypothyroidism among two populations exposed to radioiodine. (1/207)

We found an epidemic of juvenile hypothyroidism among a population of self-defined "downwinders" living near the Hanford nuclear facility located in southeast Washington State. The episode followed massive releases of 131I. Self-reported data on 60 cases of juvenile hypothyroidism (<20 years of age) among a group of 801 Hanford downwinders are presented, as well as data concerning the thyroid status of approximately 160,000 children exposed to radioiodine before 10 years of age as a result of the 26 April 1986 Chernobyl explosion in the former Soviet Union. These children were residents of five regions near Chernobyl. They were examined by standardized screening protocols over a period of 5 years from 1991 to 1996. They are a well-defined group of 10 samples. Fifty-six cases of hypothyroidism were found among boys and 92 among girls. Body burdens of 137Cs have been correlated with hypothyroidism prevalence rates. On the other hand, the group of juvenile (<20 years of age) Hanford downwinders is not a representative sample. Most of the 77 cases of juvenile hypothyroidism in the Hanford group were diagnosed from 1945 to 1970. However, the ratio of reported cases to the county population under 20 years of age is roughly correlated with officially estimated mean levels of cumulative thyroid 131I uptake in these counties, providing evidence that juvenile hypothyroidism was associated with radioiodine exposures. Because even subtle hypothyroidism may be of clinical significance in childhood and can be treated, it may be useful to screen for the condition in populations exposed to radioiodine fallout. Although radiation exposure is associated with hypothyroidism, its excess among fallout-exposed children has not been previously quantified.  (+info)

Fibroblast radiosensitivity measured using the comet DNA-damage assay correlates with clonogenic survival parameters. (2/207)

A study was made of the neutral comet assay as a potential method for measuring normal cell radiosensitivity. Eleven fibroblast strains were studied comprising nine derived from vaginal biopsies from pretreatment cervical cancer patients and two strains from radiosensitive individuals. DNA double strand break (dsbs) dose-response curves for both initial and residual (20-h repair time) damage were obtained over the dose range 0-240 Gy, with slopes varying 3.2 and 8-fold respectively. Clonogenic cell survival parameters were available for all the cell strains following both high- and low-dose rate irradiation. There were no correlations between the dose-response slope of the initial level of DNA dsbs and parameters that mainly describe the initial portion of clonogenic radiation survival curves (SF2, alpha, D). A significant correlation (r = -0.63, P = 0.04) was found between the extent of residual DNA dsbs and clonogenicity for all 11 fibroblast strains. The parameter showing the highest correlation with fibroblast cell killing (D) for the nine normal fibroblasts alone was the ratio of initial/residual DNA dsb dose-response slope (r = 0.80, P = < 0.01). A significant correlation (r = -0.67, P = 0.03) with clonogenic radiosensitivity was also found for all 11 cell strains when using the ratio of initial/residual DNA dsb damage at a single dose of 180 Gy. This study shows that fibroblast radiosensitivity measured using the neutral comet assay correlates with clonogenic radiation survival parameters, and therefore may have potential value in predictive testing of normal tissue radiosensitivity.  (+info)

Activation of the CD95 (APO-1/Fas) pathway in drug- and gamma-irradiation-induced apoptosis of brain tumor cells. (3/207)

Chemotherapeutic agents and gamma-irradiation used in the treatment of brain tumors, the most common solid tumors of childhood, have been shown to act primarily by inducing apoptosis. Here, we report that activation of the CD95 pathway was involved in drug- and gamma-irradiation-induced apoptosis of medulloblastoma and glioblastoma cells. Upon treatment CD95 ligand (CD95-L) was induced that stimulated the CD95 pathway by crosslinking CD95 via an autocrine/paracrine loop. Blocking CD95-L/receptor interaction using F(ab')2 anti-CD95 antibody fragments strongly reduced apoptosis. Apoptosis depended on activation of caspases (interleukin 1beta-converting enzyme/Ced-3 like proteases) as it was almost completely abrograted by the broad range caspase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethyl ketone. Apoptosis was mediated by cleavage of the receptor proximal caspase FLICE/MACH (caspase-8) and the downstream caspase CPP32 (caspase-3, Apopain) resulting in cleavage of the prototype caspase substrate PARP. Moreover, CD95 was upregulated in wild-type p53 cells thereby increasing responsiveness towards CD95 triggering. Since activation of the CD95 system upon treatment was also found in primary medulloblastoma cells ex vivo, these findings may have implications to define chemosensitivity and to develop novel therapeutic strategies in the management of malignant brain tumors.  (+info)

Regulation of the human poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase promoter by the ETS transcription factor. (4/207)

Ewing's sarcoma (EWS) cells accumulate elevated steady-state levels of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) mRNA and protein. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying PARP upregulation, we cloned and analysed the 5'-flanking region of the PARP gene from EWS cells. Nucleotide sequence analysis demonstrated no variations in the PARP promoter region in EWS cells. The PARP promoter encompasses multiple binding motifs for the ETS transcription factor. We have also observed that there is a coordinated up-regulation of the expression of both PARP and ETS1, relative to cells of other human tumor types expressing lower levels of PARP. Transient co-expression of ETS1 in EWS cells resulted in a strong enhancement of PARP-promoter activity. The participation of ETS in the regulation of PARP gene expression was further demonstrated in EWS cells stably transfected with Ets1 antisense cDNA constructs. Antisense-mediated down-regulation of endogenous ETS1 resulted in the inhibition of PARP expression in EWS cells, and sensitized these cells to ionizing radiation. These data provide support for ETS regulation of PARP expression levels, and implicate ETS transcription factors in the radiation response of EWS cells.  (+info)

Clinical evaluation of processing techniques for attenuation correction with 137Cs in whole-body PET imaging. (5/207)

Transmission scanning can be successfully performed with a 137Cs single-photon emitting point source for three-dimensional PET imaging. However, the attenuation coefficients provided by this method are underestimated because of the energy difference between 662- and 511-keV photons, as well as scatter and emission contamination when the transmission data are acquired after injection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate, from a clinical perspective, the relative benefits of various processing schemes to resolve these issues. METHODS: Thirty-eight whole-body PET studies acquired with postinjection singles transmission scans were analyzed. The transmission images were processed and applied to the emission data for attenuation correction. Three processing techniques were compared: simple segmentation (SEG) of the transmission scan, emission contamination subtraction with scaling (ECS) of the resulting data to 511-keV attenuation coefficient values and a hybrid technique performing partial segmentation of some tissue densities on the ECS scan (THR). The corrected emission scans were blindly assessed for image noise, the presence of edge artifacts at the lung-soft-tissue interface and for overall diagnostic confidence using a semiquantitative scoring system. The count densities and the SDs in uniform structures were compared among the various techniques. The observations for each method were compared using a paired t test. RESULTS: The SEG technique produced images that were visually less noisy than the ECS method (P < 0.0001) and the THR technique, but at the expense of increased edge artifacts at the boundaries between the lungs and surrounding tissues. The THR technique failed to eliminate these artifacts compared with the ECS technique (P < 0.0001) but preserved the activity gradients in the hilar areas. The count densities (and thus, the standardized uptake values) were similar among the three techniques, but the SEG method tended to underestimate the activity in the lung fields and in chest tumors (slope = 0.79 and 0.94, respectively). CONCLUSION: For many clinical applications, SEG data remain an efficient method for processing 137Cs transmission scans. The ECS method produced noisier images than the other two techniques but did not introduce artifacts at the lung boundaries. The THR technique, more versatile in complex anatomic areas, allowed good preservation of density gradients in the lungs.  (+info)

Environmental radioactivity, population exposure and related health risks in the east Baltic region. (6/207)

The paper considers radioactive contamination of the east Baltic region, population exposures, and the risk of damage to human health. Principal sources include global fallout, the Chernobyl accident, and marine transport of radionuclides. A mean annual exposure of 2-3 mSv comes from environmental radioactivity. Main contributors are primarily radon and its decay products. The Chernobyl accident brought an additional dose of about 0.5 mSv in southern Finland and 1.4 mSv in the most contaminated districts of the Leningrad region, Russia. Both external and internal exposure via contaminated food contributed. Currently, significant long-term radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident include persistent radioactive contamination of natural terrestrial (forest) and freshwater (oligotrophic lakes) ecosystems and food products. Radiation health risks are lung cancer among the general population from indoor exposure to radon, acute radiation syndrome from occupational exposure, thyroid cancer among children in heavily contaminated non-Baltic areas, and mutations among offspring of exposed parents.  (+info)

Remote afterloading endocurie therapy for carcinoma of the cervix. (7/207)

Since October 1975, 41 cancer patients were treated with a remote afterloading device using fractionated high dose-rate intracavitary radiation. Nineteen of these 41 patients were treated for carcinoma of the cervix. Remote afterloading high dose-rate fractionated intracavitary radiation was given in combination with external irradiation. The dose fractionation and rad equivalent therapeutic (RET) values and various points of interest are discussed.  (+info)

Radiation-induced apoptosis of endothelial cells in the murine central nervous system: protection by fibroblast growth factor and sphingomyelinase deficiency. (8/207)

Injury to the central nervous system (CNS) by ionizing radiation may be a consequence of damage to the vascular endothelium. Recent studies showed that radiation-induced apoptosis of endothelial cells in vitro and in the lung in vivo is mediated by the lipid second messenger ceramide via activation of acid sphingomyelinase (ASM). This apoptotic response to radiation can be inhibited by basic fibroblast growth factor or by genetic mutation of ASM. In the CNS, single-dose radiation has been shown to result in a 15% loss of endothelial cells within 24 h, but whether or not this loss is associated with apoptosis remains unknown. In the present studies, dose- and time-dependent induction of apoptosis was observed in the C57BL/6 mouse CNS. Apoptosis was quantified by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling, and specific endothelial apoptosis was determined by histochemical double labeling with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling and Lycopersicon esculentum lectin. Beginning at 4 h after single-dose radiation, apoptosis was ongoing for 24 h and peaked at 12 h at an incidence of 0.7-1.4% of the total cells in spinal cord sections. Up to 20% of the apoptotic cells were endothelial. This effect was also seen in multiple regions of the brain (medulla, pons, and hippocampus). A significant reduction of radiation-induced apoptosis was observed after i.v. basic fibroblast growth factor treatment (0.45-4.5 microg/mouse). Identical results were noted in C3H/HeJ mice. Furthermore, irradiated ASM knockout mice displayed as much as a 70% reduction in endothelial apoptosis. This study demonstrates that ionizing radiation induces early endothelial cell apoptosis throughout the CNS. These data are consistent with recent evidence linking radiation-induced stress with ceramide and suggest approaches to modify the apoptotic response in control of radiation toxicity in the CNS.  (+info)

Cesium radioisotopes are different forms of the element cesium that have unstable nuclei and emit radiation. Some commonly used medical cesium radioisotopes include Cs-134 and Cs-137, which are produced from nuclear reactions in nuclear reactors or during nuclear weapons testing.

In medicine, cesium radioisotopes have been used in cancer treatment for the brachytherapy of certain types of tumors. Brachytherapy involves placing a small amount of radioactive material directly into or near the tumor to deliver a high dose of radiation to the cancer cells while minimizing exposure to healthy tissues.

Cesium-137, for example, has been used in the treatment of cervical, endometrial, and prostate cancers. However, due to concerns about potential long-term risks associated with the use of cesium radioisotopes, their use in cancer therapy is becoming less common.

It's important to note that handling and using radioactive materials requires specialized training and equipment to ensure safety and prevent radiation exposure.

Cesium is a chemical element with the symbol "Cs" and atomic number 55. It is a soft, silvery-golden alkali metal that is highly reactive. Cesium is never found in its free state in nature due to its high reactivity. Instead, it is found in minerals such as pollucite.

In the medical field, cesium-137 is a radioactive isotope of cesium that has been used in certain medical treatments and diagnostic procedures. For example, it has been used in the treatment of cancer, particularly in cases where other forms of radiation therapy have not been effective. It can also be used as a source of radiation in brachytherapy, a type of cancer treatment that involves placing radioactive material directly into or near tumors.

However, exposure to high levels of cesium-137 can be harmful and may increase the risk of cancer and other health problems. Therefore, its use in medical treatments is closely regulated and monitored to ensure safety.

Radioisotopes, also known as radioactive isotopes or radionuclides, are variants of chemical elements that have unstable nuclei and emit radiation in the form of alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, or conversion electrons. These isotopes are formed when an element's nucleus undergoes natural or artificial radioactive decay.

Radioisotopes can be produced through various processes, including nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, and particle bombardment in a cyclotron or other types of particle accelerators. They have a wide range of applications in medicine, industry, agriculture, research, and energy production. In the medical field, radioisotopes are used for diagnostic imaging, radiation therapy, and in the labeling of molecules for research purposes.

It is important to note that handling and using radioisotopes requires proper training, safety measures, and regulatory compliance due to their ionizing radiation properties, which can pose potential health risks if not handled correctly.

Cesium is a chemical element with the atomic number 55 and the symbol Cs. There are several isotopes of cesium, which are variants of the element that have different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei. The most stable and naturally occurring cesium isotope is cesium-133, which has 78 neutrons and a half-life of more than 3 x 10^20 years (effectively stable).

However, there are also radioactive isotopes of cesium, including cesium-134 and cesium-137. Cesium-134 has a half-life of about 2 years, while cesium-137 has a half-life of about 30 years. These isotopes are produced naturally in trace amounts by the decay of uranium and thorium in the Earth's crust, but they can also be produced artificially in nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons tests.

Cesium isotopes are commonly used in medical research and industrial applications. For example, cesium-137 is used as a radiation source in cancer therapy and industrial radiography. However, exposure to high levels of radioactive cesium can be harmful to human health, causing symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and potentially more serious effects such as damage to the central nervous system and an increased risk of cancer.

Zinc radioisotopes are unstable isotopes or variants of the element zinc that undergo radioactive decay, emitting radiation in the process. These isotopes have a different number of neutrons than the stable isotope of zinc (zinc-64), which contributes to their instability and tendency to decay.

Examples of zinc radioisotopes include zinc-65, zinc-70, and zinc-72. These isotopes are often used in medical research and diagnostic procedures due to their ability to emit gamma rays or positrons, which can be detected using specialized equipment.

Zinc radioisotopes may be used as tracers to study the metabolism and distribution of zinc in the body, or as therapeutic agents to deliver targeted radiation therapy to cancer cells. However, it is important to note that the use of radioisotopes carries potential risks, including exposure to ionizing radiation and the potential for damage to healthy tissues.

The Radioisotope Dilution Technique is a method used in nuclear medicine to measure the volume and flow rate of a particular fluid in the body. It involves introducing a known amount of a radioactive isotope, or radioisotope, into the fluid, such as blood. The isotope mixes with the fluid, and samples are then taken from the fluid at various time points.

By measuring the concentration of the radioisotope in each sample, it is possible to calculate the total volume of the fluid based on the amount of the isotope introduced and the dilution factor. The flow rate can also be calculated by measuring the concentration of the isotope over time and using the formula:

Flow rate = Volume/Time

This technique is commonly used in medical research and clinical settings to measure cardiac output, cerebral blood flow, and renal function, among other applications. It is a safe and reliable method that has been widely used for many years. However, it does require the use of radioactive materials and specialized equipment, so it should only be performed by trained medical professionals in appropriate facilities.

Strontium radioisotopes are radioactive isotopes of the element strontium. Strontium is an alkaline earth metal that is found in nature and has several isotopes, some of which are stable and some of which are radioactive. The radioactive isotopes of strontium, also known as strontium radionuclides, decay and emit radiation in the form of beta particles.

Strontium-89 (^89Sr) and strontium-90 (^90Sr) are two common radioisotopes of strontium that are used in medical applications. Strontium-89 is a pure beta emitter with a half-life of 50.5 days, which makes it useful for the treatment of bone pain associated with metastatic cancer. When administered, strontium-89 is taken up by bones and irradiates the bone tissue, reducing pain and improving quality of life in some patients.

Strontium-90, on the other hand, has a longer half-life of 28.8 years and emits more powerful beta particles than strontium-89. It is used as a component in radioactive waste and in some nuclear weapons, but it is not used in medical applications due to its long half-life and high radiation dose.

It's important to note that exposure to strontium radioisotopes can be harmful to human health, especially if ingested or inhaled. Therefore, handling and disposal of strontium radioisotopes require special precautions and regulations.

Iodine radioisotopes are radioactive isotopes of the element iodine, which decays and emits radiation in the form of gamma rays. Some commonly used iodine radioisotopes include I-123, I-125, I-131. These radioisotopes have various medical applications such as in diagnostic imaging, therapy for thyroid disorders, and cancer treatment.

For example, I-131 is commonly used to treat hyperthyroidism and differentiated thyroid cancer due to its ability to destroy thyroid tissue. On the other hand, I-123 is often used in nuclear medicine scans of the thyroid gland because it emits gamma rays that can be detected by a gamma camera, allowing for detailed images of the gland's structure and function.

It is important to note that handling and administering radioisotopes require specialized training and safety precautions due to their radiation-emitting properties.

Krypton is a noble gas with the symbol Kr and atomic number 36. It exists in various radioisotopes, which are unstable isotopes of krypton that undergo radioactive decay. A few examples include:

1. Krypton-81: This radioisotope has a half-life of about 2.1 x 10^5 years and decays via electron capture to rubidium-81. It is produced naturally in the atmosphere by cosmic rays.
2. Krypton-83: With a half-life of approximately 85.7 days, this radioisotope decays via beta decay to bromine-83. It can be used in medical imaging for lung ventilation studies.
3. Krypton-85: This radioisotope has a half-life of about 10.7 years and decays via beta decay to rubidium-85. It is produced as a byproduct of nuclear fission and can be found in trace amounts in the atmosphere.
4. Krypton-87: With a half-life of approximately 76.3 minutes, this radioisotope decays via beta decay to rubidium-87. It is not found naturally on Earth but can be produced artificially.

It's important to note that while krypton radioisotopes have medical applications, they are also associated with potential health risks due to their radioactivity. Proper handling and safety precautions must be taken when working with these substances.

Radioactive soil pollutants refer to radioactive substances that contaminate and negatively impact the chemical, physical, and biological properties of soil. These pollutants can arise from various sources such as nuclear accidents, industrial activities, agricultural practices, and military testing. They include radionuclides such as uranium, plutonium, cesium-137, and strontium-90, among others.

Exposure to radioactive soil pollutants can have serious health consequences for humans and other living organisms. Direct contact with contaminated soil can result in radiation exposure, while ingestion or inhalation of contaminated soil particles can lead to internal radiation exposure. This can increase the risk of cancer, genetic mutations, and other health problems.

Radioactive soil pollutants can also have negative impacts on the environment, such as reducing soil fertility, disrupting ecosystems, and contaminating water sources. Therefore, it is essential to monitor and regulate radioactive soil pollution to protect human health and the environment.

Indium radioisotopes refer to specific types of radioactive indium atoms, which are unstable and emit radiation as they decay. Indium is a chemical element with the symbol In and atomic number 49. Its radioisotopes are often used in medical imaging and therapy due to their unique properties.

For instance, one commonly used indium radioisotope is Indium-111 (^111In), which has a half-life of approximately 2.8 days. It emits gamma rays, making it useful for diagnostic imaging techniques such as single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In clinical applications, indium-111 is often attached to specific molecules or antibodies that target particular cells or tissues in the body, allowing medical professionals to monitor biological processes and identify diseases like cancer.

Another example is Indium-113m (^113mIn), which has a half-life of about 99 minutes. It emits low-energy gamma rays and is used as a source for in vivo counting, typically in the form of indium chloride (InCl3) solution. This radioisotope can be used to measure blood flow, ventilation, and other physiological parameters.

It's important to note that handling and using radioisotopes require proper training and safety measures due to their ionizing radiation properties.

Sodium radioisotopes are unstable forms of sodium, an element naturally occurring in the human body, that emit radiation as they decay over time. These isotopes can be used for medical purposes such as imaging and treatment of various diseases. Commonly used sodium radioisotopes include Sodium-22 (^22Na) and Sodium-24 (^24Na).

It's important to note that the use of radioisotopes in medicine should be under the supervision of trained medical professionals, as improper handling or exposure can pose health risks.

Radioactivity is not typically considered within the realm of medical definitions, but since it does have medical applications and implications, here is a brief explanation:

Radioactivity is a natural property of certain elements (referred to as radioisotopes) that emit particles or electromagnetic waves due to changes in their atomic nuclei. This process can occur spontaneously without any external influence, leading to the emission of alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, or neutrons. These emissions can penetrate various materials and ionize atoms along their path, which can cause damage to living tissues.

In a medical context, radioactivity is used in both diagnostic and therapeutic settings:

1. Diagnostic applications include imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) scans and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), where radioisotopes are introduced into the body to visualize organ function or detect diseases like cancer.
2. Therapeutic uses involve targeting radioisotopes directly at cancer cells, either through external beam radiation therapy or internal radiotherapy, such as brachytherapy, where a radioactive source is placed near or within the tumor.

While radioactivity has significant medical benefits, it also poses risks due to ionizing radiation exposure. Proper handling and safety measures are essential when working with radioactive materials to minimize potential harm.

Barium radioisotopes are radioactive forms of the element barium, which are used in medical imaging procedures to help diagnose various conditions. The radioisotopes emit gamma rays that can be detected by external devices, allowing doctors to visualize the inside of the body. Barium sulfate is often used as a contrast agent in X-rays and CT scans, but when combined with a radioisotope such as barium-133, barium-198, or barium-207, it can provide more detailed images of specific organs or systems.

For example, barium sulfate mixed with barium-133 may be used in a lung scan to help diagnose pulmonary embolism or other respiratory conditions. Barium-207 is sometimes used in bone scans to detect fractures, tumors, or infections.

It's important to note that the use of radioisotopes carries some risks, including exposure to radiation and potential allergic reactions to the barium compound. However, these risks are generally considered low compared to the benefits of accurate diagnosis and effective treatment.

Radionuclide imaging, also known as nuclear medicine, is a medical imaging technique that uses small amounts of radioactive material, called radionuclides or radiopharmaceuticals, to diagnose and treat various diseases and conditions. The radionuclides are introduced into the body through injection, inhalation, or ingestion and accumulate in specific organs or tissues. A special camera then detects the gamma rays emitted by these radionuclides and converts them into images that provide information about the structure and function of the organ or tissue being studied.

Radionuclide imaging can be used to evaluate a wide range of medical conditions, including heart disease, cancer, neurological disorders, gastrointestinal disorders, and bone diseases. The technique is non-invasive and generally safe, with minimal exposure to radiation. However, it should only be performed by qualified healthcare professionals in accordance with established guidelines and regulations.

Gamma spectrometry is a type of spectrometry used to identify and measure the energy and intensity of gamma rays emitted by radioactive materials. It utilizes a device called a gamma spectrometer, which typically consists of a scintillation detector or semiconductor detector, coupled with electronic circuitry that records and analyzes the energy of each detected gamma ray.

Gamma rays are a form of ionizing radiation, characterized by their high energy and short wavelength. When they interact with matter, such as the detector in a gamma spectrometer, they can cause the ejection of electrons from atoms or molecules, leading to the creation of charged particles that can be detected and measured.

In gamma spectrometry, the energy of each detected gamma ray is used to identify the radioactive isotope that emitted it, based on the characteristic energy levels associated with different isotopes. The intensity of the gamma rays can also be measured, providing information about the quantity or activity of the radioactive material present.

Gamma spectrometry has a wide range of applications in fields such as nuclear medicine, radiation protection, environmental monitoring, and nuclear non-proliferation.

Yttrium radioisotopes are radioactive isotopes or variants of the element Yttrium, which is a rare earth metal. These radioisotopes are artificially produced and have unstable nuclei that emit radiation in the form of gamma rays or high-speed particles. Examples of yttrium radioisotopes include Yttrium-90 and Yttrium-86, which are used in medical applications such as radiotherapy for cancer treatment and molecular imaging for diagnostic purposes.

Yttrium-90 is a pure beta emitter with a half-life of 64.1 hours, making it useful for targeted radionuclide therapy. It can be used to treat liver tumors, leukemia, and lymphoma by attaching it to monoclonal antibodies or other targeting agents that selectively bind to cancer cells.

Yttrium-86 is a positron emitter with a half-life of 14.7 hours, making it useful for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. It can be used to label radiopharmaceuticals and track their distribution in the body, providing information on the location and extent of disease.

It is important to note that handling and use of radioisotopes require specialized training and equipment due to their potential radiation hazards.

Tin radioisotopes refer to specific variants of the element tin that have unstable nuclei and emit radiation as they decay towards a more stable state. These isotopes are often produced in nuclear reactors or particle accelerators and can be used in a variety of medical applications, such as:

1. Medical Imaging: Tin-117m, for example, is used as a radiopharmaceutical in medical imaging studies to help diagnose various conditions, including bone disorders and liver diseases.
2. Radiation Therapy: Tin-125 can be used in the treatment of certain types of cancer, such as prostate cancer, through brachytherapy - a type of radiation therapy that involves placing a radioactive source directly into or near the tumor.
3. Radioisotope Production: Tin-106 is used as a parent isotope in the production of other medical radioisotopes, such as iodine-125 and gallium-67.

It's important to note that handling and using radioisotopes requires specialized training and equipment due to their potential radiation hazards.

Radioactive water pollutants refer to contaminants in water sources that contain radioactive materials. These materials can include substances such as radium, uranium, and cesium, which emit ionizing radiation. This type of pollution can occur through various means, including the disposal of radioactive waste from nuclear power plants, hospitals, and research facilities; oil and gas drilling operations; and mining activities.

Exposure to radioactive water pollutants can have serious health consequences, as ionizing radiation has been linked to an increased risk of cancer, genetic mutations, and other harmful effects. Therefore, it is essential to regulate and monitor radioactive water pollution to protect public health and the environment.

Carbon radioisotopes are radioactive isotopes of carbon, which is an naturally occurring chemical element with the atomic number 6. The most common and stable isotope of carbon is carbon-12 (^12C), but there are also several radioactive isotopes, including carbon-11 (^11C), carbon-14 (^14C), and carbon-13 (^13C). These radioisotopes have different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei, which makes them unstable and causes them to emit radiation.

Carbon-11 has a half-life of about 20 minutes and is used in medical imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) scans. It is produced by bombarding nitrogen-14 with protons in a cyclotron.

Carbon-14, also known as radiocarbon, has a half-life of about 5730 years and is used in archaeology and geology to date organic materials. It is produced naturally in the atmosphere by cosmic rays.

Carbon-13 is stable and has a natural abundance of about 1.1% in carbon. It is not radioactive, but it can be used as a tracer in medical research and in the study of metabolic processes.

"Iron radioisotopes" refer to specific forms of the element iron that have unstable nuclei and emit radiation. These isotopes are often used in medical imaging and treatment procedures due to their ability to be detected by specialized equipment. Common iron radioisotopes include Iron-52, Iron-55, Iron-59, and Iron-60. They can be used as tracers to study the distribution, metabolism, or excretion of iron in the body, or for targeted radiation therapy in conditions such as cancer.

Copper radioisotopes are radioactive isotopes or variants of the chemical element copper. These isotopes have an unstable nucleus and emit radiation as they decay over time. Copper has several radioisotopes, including copper-64, copper-67, and copper-60, among others. These radioisotopes are used in various medical applications such as diagnostic imaging, therapy, and research. For example, copper-64 is used in positron emission tomography (PET) scans to help diagnose diseases like cancer, while copper-67 is used in targeted radionuclide therapy for cancer treatment. The use of radioisotopes in medicine requires careful handling and regulation due to their radiation hazards.

The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident refers to the series of equipment failures, nuclear meltdowns, and releases of radioactive materials at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Ōkuma, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. It is considered the most significant nuclear incident since the Chernobyl disaster in 1986 and the second disaster (along with Chernobyl) to be given the Level 7 event classification of the International Nuclear Event Scale.

The accident was initiated by the tsunami following the Tōhoku earthquake on March 11, 2011. The tsunami disabled the power supply and cooling of three Fukushima Daiichi reactors, causing a nuclear meltdown that led to hydrogen-air explosions. Over 450,000 residents were evacuated from the surrounding area due to the high radioactive release.

The cleanup process is expected to take decades, with the plant's operator, Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO), estimating that the complete decommissioning of the power plant will take around 40 years. The accident has had significant social and economic impacts on the region, including contamination of land and water, loss of homes and businesses, and long-term health effects for those exposed to radiation.

Phosphorus radioisotopes are radioactive isotopes or variants of the element phosphorus that emit radiation. Phosphorus has several radioisotopes, with the most common ones being phosphorus-32 (^32P) and phosphorus-33 (^33P). These radioisotopes are used in various medical applications such as cancer treatment and diagnostic procedures.

Phosphorus-32 has a half-life of approximately 14.3 days and emits beta particles, making it useful for treating certain types of cancer, such as leukemia and lymphoma. It can also be used in brachytherapy, a type of radiation therapy that involves placing a radioactive source close to the tumor.

Phosphorus-33 has a shorter half-life of approximately 25.4 days and emits both beta particles and gamma rays. This makes it useful for diagnostic procedures, such as positron emission tomography (PET) scans, where the gamma rays can be detected and used to create images of the body's internal structures.

It is important to note that handling and using radioisotopes requires specialized training and equipment to ensure safety and prevent radiation exposure.

Beta particles, also known as beta rays, are a type of ionizing radiation that consist of high-energy electrons or positrons emitted from the nucleus of certain radioactive isotopes during their decay process. When a neutron in the nucleus decays into a proton, it results in an excess energy state and one electron is ejected from the atom at high speed. This ejected electron is referred to as a beta particle.

Beta particles can have both positive and negative charges, depending on the type of decay process. Negative beta particles (β−) are equivalent to electrons, while positive beta particles (β+) are equivalent to positrons. They possess kinetic energy that varies in range, with higher energies associated with greater penetrating power.

Beta particles can cause ionization and excitation of atoms and molecules they encounter, leading to chemical reactions and potential damage to living tissues. Therefore, appropriate safety measures must be taken when handling materials that emit beta radiation.

Technetium is not a medical term itself, but it is a chemical element with the symbol Tc and atomic number 43. However, in the field of nuclear medicine, which is a branch of medicine that uses small amounts of radioactive material to diagnose or treat diseases, Technetium-99m (a radioisotope of technetium) is commonly used for various diagnostic procedures.

Technetium-99m is a metastable nuclear isomer of technetium-99, and it emits gamma rays that can be detected outside the body to create images of internal organs or tissues. It has a short half-life of about 6 hours, which makes it ideal for diagnostic imaging since it decays quickly and reduces the patient's exposure to radiation.

Technetium-99m is used in a variety of medical procedures, such as bone scans, lung scans, heart scans, liver-spleen scans, brain scans, and kidney scans, among others. It can be attached to different pharmaceuticals or molecules that target specific organs or tissues, allowing healthcare professionals to assess their function or identify any abnormalities.

Radioactive food contamination refers to the presence of radioactive substances in food or agricultural products. This can occur through various means such as nuclear accidents, improper disposal of radioactive waste, or use of phosphate fertilizers that contain low levels of radioactivity. The consumption of radioactively contaminated food can lead to internal exposure to radiation, which may pose risks to human health, including increased risk of cancer and other diseases. It's important to note that regulatory bodies set limits on the acceptable levels of radioactivity in food to minimize these risks.

Mercury radioisotopes refer to specific variants of the element mercury that have unstable nuclei and emit radiation as they decay towards a more stable state. These isotopes are often produced in nuclear reactors or particle accelerators for various medical, industrial, and research applications. In the medical field, mercury-203 (^203Hg) and mercury-207 (^207Hg) are used as gamma emitters in diagnostic procedures and therapeutic treatments. However, due to environmental and health concerns associated with mercury, its use in medical applications has significantly decreased over time.

Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid is a radioactive tracer used in medical imaging procedures, specifically in nuclear medicine. It is composed of tiny particles of sulfur colloid that are labeled with the radioisotope Technetium-99m. This compound is typically injected into the patient's body, where it accumulates in certain organs or tissues, depending on the specific medical test being conducted.

The radioactive emissions from Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid are then detected by a gamma camera, which produces images that can help doctors diagnose various medical conditions, such as liver disease, inflammation, or tumors. The half-life of Technetium-99m is approximately six hours, which means that its radioactivity decreases rapidly and is eliminated from the body within a few days.

Cerium is a naturally occurring element found in the Earth's crust, and it has several radioisotopes, which are radioactive isotopes or forms of cerium. These isotopes have unstable nuclei that emit radiation as they decay into more stable forms. Here are some examples of cerium radioisotopes:

* Cerium-134: This radioisotope has a half-life of about 3.12 days, which means that half of its atoms will decay into other elements in this time period. It decays by emitting beta particles and gamma rays.
* Cerium-137: This is a long-lived radioisotope with a half-life of about 2.5 years. It decays by emitting beta particles and gamma rays, and it can be used in medical imaging and cancer treatment. However, if released into the environment, it can pose a radiation hazard to humans and other organisms.
* Cerium-141: This radioisotope has a half-life of about 32.5 days, and it decays by emitting beta particles and gamma rays. It is produced in nuclear reactors and can be used for research purposes.
* Cerium-144: This radioisotope has a half-life of about 284 days, and it decays by emitting beta particles and gamma rays. It is produced in nuclear reactors and can be used for research purposes.

It's important to note that handling and working with radioisotopes requires proper training and protective measures to ensure safety and prevent radiation exposure.

Cobalt isotopes are variants of the chemical element Cobalt (Co) that have different numbers of neutrons in their atomic nuclei. This results in the different isotopes having slightly different masses and varying levels of stability.

The most naturally occurring stable cobalt isotope is Co-59, which contains 27 neutrons in its nucleus. However, there are also several radioactive isotopes of cobalt, including Co-60, which is a commonly used medical and industrial radioisotope.

Co-60 has 30 neutrons in its nucleus and undergoes beta decay, emitting gamma rays and becoming Nickel-60. It has a half-life of approximately 5.27 years, making it useful for a variety of applications, including cancer treatment, industrial radiography, and sterilization of medical equipment.

Other radioactive isotopes of cobalt include Co-57, which has a half-life of 271.8 days and is used in medical imaging, and Co-56, which has a half-life of just 77.2 seconds and is used in research.

Centrifugation, Density Gradient is a medical laboratory technique used to separate and purify different components of a mixture based on their size, density, and shape. This method involves the use of a centrifuge and a density gradient medium, such as sucrose or cesium chloride, to create a stable density gradient within a column or tube.

The sample is carefully layered onto the top of the gradient and then subjected to high-speed centrifugation. During centrifugation, the particles in the sample move through the gradient based on their size, density, and shape, with heavier particles migrating faster and further than lighter ones. This results in the separation of different components of the mixture into distinct bands or zones within the gradient.

This technique is commonly used to purify and concentrate various types of biological materials, such as viruses, organelles, ribosomes, and subcellular fractions, from complex mixtures. It allows for the isolation of pure and intact particles, which can then be collected and analyzed for further study or use in downstream applications.

In summary, Centrifugation, Density Gradient is a medical laboratory technique used to separate and purify different components of a mixture based on their size, density, and shape using a centrifuge and a density gradient medium.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but Hafnium is not a medical term. It is a chemical element with the symbol Hf and atomic number 72. Hafnium is a lustrous, silvery, tetravalent transition metal that chemically resembles zirconium and is found in zirconium minerals.

It has no relevance to medical terminology or healthcare. If you have any questions related to medical definitions or health-related topics, I'd be happy to try to help with those instead!

Scintillation counting is a method used in medical physics and nuclear medicine to detect and quantify radioactivity. It relies on the principle that certain materials, known as scintillators, emit light flashes (scintillations) when they absorb ionizing radiation. This light can then be detected and measured to determine the amount of radiation present.

In a scintillation counting system, the sample containing radioisotopes is placed in close proximity to the scintillator. When radiation is emitted from the sample, it interacts with the scintillator material, causing it to emit light. This light is then detected by a photomultiplier tube (PMT), which converts the light into an electrical signal that can be processed and counted by electronic circuits.

The number of counts recorded over a specific period of time is proportional to the amount of radiation emitted by the sample, allowing for the quantification of radioactivity. Scintillation counting is widely used in various applications such as measuring radioactive decay rates, monitoring environmental radiation levels, and analyzing radioisotopes in biological samples.

Potassium radioisotopes refer to unstable isotopes or variants of the element potassium that emit radiation as they decay towards a stable form. A common example is Potassium-40 (40K), which occurs naturally in small amounts in potassium-containing substances. It decays through beta decay and positron emission, as well as electron capture, with a half-life of approximately 1.25 billion years.

Radioisotopes like 40K have medical applications such as in dating archaeological artifacts or studying certain biological processes. However, exposure to high levels of radiation from potassium radioisotopes can be harmful and potentially lead to health issues like radiation sickness or cancer.

Gold radioisotopes are unstable forms of gold that emit radiation as they decay into more stable elements. They are not typically used for medical purposes, but there have been some experimental uses in the treatment of cancer. For example, Gold-198 is a radioisotope that has been used in the brachytherapy (internal radiation therapy) of certain types of tumors. It releases high-energy gamma rays and is often used as a sealed source for the treatment of cancer.

It's important to note that the use of radioisotopes in medicine, including gold radioisotopes, should only be performed under the supervision of trained medical professionals and radiation safety experts due to the potential risks associated with radiation exposure.

I believe there might be some confusion in your question. "Nuclear power plants" and "medical definitions" are two separate concepts that don't typically intersect.

A nuclear power plant is a facility that utilizes the process of nuclear fission to generate electricity on a large scale. In a nuclear power plant, heat is produced when a neutron strikes the nucleus of a uranium-235 atom, causing it to split and release energy. This heat is used to produce steam, which drives a turbine connected to an electrical generator.

On the other hand, medical definitions pertain to terms related to medicine, healthcare, human health conditions, treatments, and procedures.

If you have any questions about nuclear medicine, which is a branch of medicine that uses small amounts of radioactive materials to diagnose and treat various diseases, I would be happy to help with that.

Isotope labeling is a scientific technique used in the field of medicine, particularly in molecular biology, chemistry, and pharmacology. It involves replacing one or more atoms in a molecule with a radioactive or stable isotope of the same element. This modified molecule can then be traced and analyzed to study its structure, function, metabolism, or interaction with other molecules within biological systems.

Radioisotope labeling uses unstable radioactive isotopes that emit radiation, allowing for detection and quantification of the labeled molecule using various imaging techniques, such as positron emission tomography (PET) or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). This approach is particularly useful in tracking the distribution and metabolism of drugs, hormones, or other biomolecules in living organisms.

Stable isotope labeling, on the other hand, employs non-radioactive isotopes that do not emit radiation. These isotopes have different atomic masses compared to their natural counterparts and can be detected using mass spectrometry. Stable isotope labeling is often used in metabolic studies, protein turnover analysis, or for identifying the origin of specific molecules within complex biological samples.

In summary, isotope labeling is a versatile tool in medical research that enables researchers to investigate various aspects of molecular behavior and interactions within biological systems.

Lead radioisotopes refer to specific types of radioactive isotopes (or radionuclides) of the element lead. These isotopes have unstable nuclei and emit radiation as they decay over time, changing into different elements in the process. Examples of lead radioisotopes include lead-210, lead-212, and lead-214. These isotopes are often found in the decay chains of heavier radioactive elements such as uranium and thorium, and they have various applications in fields like nuclear medicine, research, and industrial radiography. However, exposure to high levels of radiation from lead radioisotopes can pose significant health risks, including damage to DNA and increased risk of cancer.

Metals and alkalis are two types of chemical species with different properties and behaviors. Here are the definitions for each:

1. Metals: In general, metals are elements that are shiny, solid (with some exceptions like mercury), good conductors of heat and electricity, and malleable (can be beaten into thin sheets) and ductile (can be drawn into wires). They tend to lose electrons easily and form positively charged ions called cations. Many metals are also reactive, meaning they can react with other elements or compounds to form new substances. Examples of metals include iron, copper, silver, gold, aluminum, and sodium.

2. Alkalis: Alkalis are basic compounds that have a pH greater than 7. They can neutralize acids and form salts. Alkalis can be soluble in water or insoluble, and they tend to react with acids to produce water and a salt. Examples of alkalis include sodium hydroxide (lye), potassium hydroxide, and calcium hydroxide.

It's worth noting that not all metals are alkalis, and not all alkalis are metals. Some metals, like aluminum and zinc, can react with strong bases to form alkali solutions, but they are not themselves alkalis. Similarly, some non-metallic elements, like hydrogen and carbon, can form basic compounds, but they are not considered alkalis either.

Diagnostic techniques using radioisotopes, also known as nuclear medicine, are medical diagnostic procedures that use small amounts of radioactive material, called radioisotopes or radionuclides, to diagnose and monitor various diseases and conditions. The radioisotopes are introduced into the body through different routes (such as injection, inhalation, or ingestion) and accumulate in specific organs or tissues.

The gamma rays or photons emitted by these radioisotopes are then detected by specialized imaging devices, such as gamma cameras or PET scanners, which generate images that provide information about the structure and function of the organ or tissue being examined. This information helps healthcare professionals to make accurate diagnoses, monitor disease progression, assess treatment response, and plan appropriate therapies.

Common diagnostic techniques using radioisotopes include:

1. Radionuclide imaging (also known as scintigraphy): A gamma camera is used to produce images of specific organs or tissues after the administration of a radioisotope. Examples include bone scans, lung scans, heart scans, and brain scans.
2. Positron emission tomography (PET) scans: A PET scanner detects pairs of gamma rays emitted indirectly by a positron-emitting radionuclide, such as fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), which is often used in oncology to assess metabolic activity and identify cancerous lesions.
3. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT): A specialized gamma camera rotates around the patient, acquiring multiple images from different angles that are then reconstructed into a 3D image, providing detailed information about organ function and structure.

Diagnostic techniques using radioisotopes offer several advantages, including high sensitivity, non-invasiveness, and the ability to assess both anatomical and functional aspects of organs and tissues. However, they also involve exposure to ionizing radiation, so their use should be balanced against potential risks and benefits, and alternative diagnostic methods should be considered when appropriate.

Zinc isotopes refer to variants of the chemical element zinc, each with a different number of neutrons in their atomic nucleus. Zinc has five stable isotopes: zinc-64, zinc-66, zinc-67, zinc-68, and zinc-70. These isotopes have naturally occurring abundances that vary, with zinc-64 being the most abundant at approximately 48.6%.

Additionally, there are also several radioactive isotopes of zinc, including zinc-65, zinc-71, and zinc-72, among others. These isotopes have unstable nuclei that decay over time, emitting radiation in the process. They are not found naturally on Earth and must be produced artificially through nuclear reactions.

Medical Definition: Zinc isotopes refer to variants of the chemical element zinc with different numbers of neutrons in their atomic nucleus, including stable isotopes such as zinc-64, zinc-66, zinc-67, zinc-68, and zinc-70, and radioactive isotopes such as zinc-65, zinc-71, and zinc-72.

Sulfur radioisotopes are unstable forms of the element sulfur that emit radiation as they decay into more stable forms. These isotopes can be used in medical imaging and treatment, such as in the detection and treatment of certain cancers. Common sulfur radioisotopes used in medicine include sulfur-35 and sulfur-32. Sulfur-35 is used in research and diagnostic applications, while sulfur-32 is used in brachytherapy, a type of internal radiation therapy. It's important to note that handling and usage of radioisotopes should be done by trained professionals due to the potential radiation hazards they pose.

Cadmium radioisotopes are unstable forms of the heavy metal cadmium that emit radiation as they decay into more stable elements. These isotopes can be created through various nuclear reactions, such as bombarding a cadmium atom with a high-energy particle. Some common cadmium radioisotopes include cadmium-109, cadmium-113, and cadmium-115.

These radioisotopes have a wide range of applications in medicine, particularly in diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy. For example, cadmium-109 is used as a gamma ray source for medical imaging, while cadmium-115 has been studied as a potential therapeutic agent for cancer treatment.

However, exposure to cadmium radioisotopes can also be hazardous to human health, as they can cause damage to tissues and organs through ionizing radiation. Therefore, handling and disposal of these materials must be done with care and in accordance with established safety protocols.

Astatine is a naturally occurring, radioactive, semi-metallic chemical element with the symbol At and atomic number 85. It is the rarest naturally occurring element in the Earth's crust, and the heaviest of the halogens. Astatine is not found free in nature, but is always found in combination with other elements, such as uranium and thorium.

Astatine is a highly reactive element that exists in several allotropic forms and is characterized by its metallic appearance and chemical properties similar to those of iodine. It has a short half-life, ranging from a few hours to a few days, depending on the isotope, and emits alpha, beta, and gamma radiation.

Due to its rarity, radioactivity, and short half-life, astatine has limited practical applications. However, it has been studied for potential use in medical imaging and cancer therapy due to its ability to selectively accumulate in tumors.

"Nostoc commune" is not a medical term, but a scientific name for a type of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). It's commonly found in various environments such as freshwater, soil, and on rocks. This organism can form colonies that appear as slimy, dark green or black mats.

While not a direct medical term, certain species of cyanobacteria, including Nostoc commune, can produce toxins that may pose health risks to humans and animals if ingested, inhaled, or contact skin. These toxins can cause various symptoms, such as rashes, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and liver damage. However, not all strains of Nostoc commune produce toxins, and the health risks associated with this specific species are relatively low compared to other cyanobacteria.

Nonetheless, it is essential to be aware of potential health hazards when encountering cyanobacterial blooms in recreational water bodies or drinking water sources and follow local guidelines for reporting and managing such incidents.

Strophanthins are a type of cardiac glycosides that are derived from the seeds of various plants in the genus Strophanthus. These compounds have been used in traditional medicine for their cardiotonic and arrhythmogenic effects. They work by inhibiting the sodium-potassium pump in heart muscle cells, which leads to an increase in intracellular calcium levels and a strengthening of heart contractions. Strophanthins are also known to have a negative chronotropic effect, meaning they can slow down the heart rate. They are used in some countries for the treatment of heart failure and arrhythmias, but their use is limited due to their narrow therapeutic index and potential toxicity.

Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is a medical treatment that combines the specificity of antibodies and the therapeutic effects of radiation to target and destroy cancer cells. It involves the use of radioactive isotopes, which are attached to monoclonal antibodies, that recognize and bind to antigens expressed on the surface of cancer cells. Once bound, the radioactivity emitted from the isotope irradiates the cancer cells, causing damage to their DNA and leading to cell death. This targeted approach helps minimize radiation exposure to healthy tissues and reduces side effects compared to conventional radiotherapy techniques. RIT has been used in the treatment of various hematological malignancies, such as non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and is being investigated for solid tumors as well.

Lutetium is a chemical element with the symbol Lu and atomic number 71. It is a rare earth metal that belongs to the lanthanide series. In its pure form, lutetium is a silvery-white metal that is solid at room temperature.

Medically, lutetium is used in the form of radioactive isotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. For example, lutetium-177 (^177Lu) is a radiopharmaceutical agent that can be used to treat certain types of cancer, such as neuroendocrine tumors. The radioactivity of ^177Lu can be harnessed to destroy cancer cells while minimizing damage to healthy tissue.

It's important to note that the use of lutetium in medical treatments should only be performed under the supervision of trained medical professionals, and with appropriate safety measures in place to protect patients and healthcare workers from radiation exposure.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Rhenium" is not a medical term. It is a chemical element with the symbol "Re" and atomic number 75. Rhenium is a heavy, silvery-white, metallic element that is highly resistant to corrosion and is used in high-temperature alloys and electronics.

It does not have any direct medical relevance or application as a drug, treatment, or diagnostic tool in human medicine. However, like many other elements, rhenium compounds are being studied for their potential medicinal uses, such as in cancer therapy. But it's important to note that these are still in the research phase and have not yet been approved for use in humans.

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Radioisotopes of caesium require special precautions: the improper handling of caesium-137 gamma ray sources can lead to ... Because metallic caesium is too reactive to handle, it is normally offered as caesium azide (CsN3). Caesium hydroxide is formed ... Caesium compounds are rarely encountered by most people, but most caesium compounds are mildly toxic. Like rubidium, caesium ... Caesium was also thought to be radioactive in the early 20th century, although it has no naturally occurring radioisotopes. ( ...
"Radioisotope Brief: Cesium-137 (Cs-137)". Emergency Preparedness and Response. United States: Centers for Disease Control and ... The Agency detected radioactive caesium in both locations, and from the ratio of caesium-137 and caesium-134 and other ... This dust was found in Japanese car filters: they contained caesium-134 and caesium-137, and cobalt at levels as high as 3 nCi ... TEPCO have reported at three sites 500 meters from the reactors that the caesium-134 and caesium-137 levels in the soil are ...
... -137 is a radioisotope commonly used as a gamma-emitter in industrial applications. Its advantages include a half-life ... The high density of the caesium ion makes solutions of caesium chloride, caesium sulfate, and caesium trifluoroacetate (Cs(O ... Caesium-134, and to a lesser extent caesium-135, have also been used in hydrology to measure the caesium output by the nuclear ... It has only one stable isotope, caesium-133. Caesium is mined mostly from pollucite. Caesium-137, a fission product, is ...
The list cites air pollution by particulates, including radioisotopes strontium-90, and caesium-137; the metals nickel, copper ...
Longer-life radioisotopes, typically caesium-137 and strontium-90, present a long-term hazard. Intense beta radiation from the ... The bomb casing can be a significant sources of neutron-activated radioisotopes. The neutron flux in the bombs, especially ... The primary fallout hazard is gamma radiation from short-lived radioisotopes, which represent the bulk of activity. Within 24 ... Bioaccumulation influences the propagation of fallout radioisotopes in the biosphere. ...
"Cesium 'gun' - Byproduct used in new cancer weapon (1954) - on Newspapers.com". Newspapers.com. Retrieved 2016-11-12. "3 to ... Brucer told a conference that the use of radio-isotopes of iodine, gold and phosphorus was becoming increasingly commonplace. ... "Cesium-137 soon to fight cancer (1955) - on Newspapers.com". Newspapers.com. Retrieved 2016-11-13. "Tennessee Doctor Says ... In 1954, a new radiotherapy device using cesium as the gamma radiation source was scheduled to be tested in Rockford, Illinois ...
The caesium was found in the leaf veins, in the stem and in the apical leaves. It was found that 12% of the caesium entered the ... Just because a radioisotope is released it does not mean it will enter a human and then cause harm. For instance, the migration ... Caesium in humans normally has a biological half-life of between one and four months. An added advantage of the Prussian blue ... For example, caesium (Cs) binds tightly to clay minerals such as illite and montmorillonite, hence it remains in the upper ...
All other radioisotopes have half-lives shorter than two weeks. The longest-lived isomer is 133mBa, which has a half-life of ... The shorter-lived 137mBa (half-life 2.55 minutes) arises as the decay product of the common fission product caesium-137. Barium ... Primordial radioisotope Believed to undergo β+β+ decay to 132Xe with a half-life over 300×1018 years Theoretically capable of ... There are a total of thirty-three known radioisotopes in addition to 130Ba. The longest-lived of these is 133Ba, which has a ...
... associated with the use of cesium chloride in naturopathic medicine. Caesium chloride composed of radioisotopes such as 137CsCl ... Caesium hydroxide is obtained by electrolysis of aqueous caesium chloride solution: 2 CsCl + 2 H2O → 2 CsOH + Cl2 + H2 Caesium ... In the laboratory, CsCl can be obtained by treating caesium hydroxide, carbonate, caesium bicarbonate, or caesium sulfide with ... When enriched in radioisotopes, such as 137CsCl or 131CsCl, caesium chloride is used in nuclear medicine applications such as ...
A radiotherapy machine may have roughly 1000 Ci of a radioisotope such as caesium-137 or cobalt-60. This quantity of ...
In biological contexts, use of radioisotope tracers are sometimes called radioisotope feeding experiments. Radioisotopes of ... The caesium isotope produced is unstable and decays to 123I. The isotope is usually supplied as the iodide and hypoiodate in ... 99mTc is a very versatile radioisotope, and is the most commonly used radioisotope tracer in medicine. It is easy to produce in ... The commonly used radioisotopes have short half lives and so do not occur in nature in large amounts. They are produced by ...
20 to 40% of all core caesium-137 was released, 85 PBq in all. Caesium was released in aerosol form; caesium-137, along with ... The release of radioisotopes from the nuclear fuel was largely controlled by their boiling points, and the majority of the ... The four most harmful radionuclides spread from Chernobyl were iodine-131, caesium-134, caesium-137 and strontium-90, with half ... caesium and strontium. Iodine-131 was and caesium-137 remains the two most responsible for the radiation exposure received by ...
Stripping out the key radioisotope threatening health (caesium-137) from low-level waste could also dramatically decrease the ... The caesium is broken away from soil particles and then precipitated with ferric ferricyanide (Prussian blue). It would be the ... A goal is to find techniques that might be able to strip out 80 to 95% of the caesium from contaminated soil and other ...
Radioisotope heater unit Radioisotope rocket and nuclear electric rocket "A nuclear battery the size and thickness of a penny ... Caesium vapor is used to optimize the electrode work functions and provide an ion supply (by surface ionization) to neutralize ... An atomic battery, nuclear battery, radioisotope battery or radioisotope generator is a device which uses energy from the decay ... A Stirling radioisotope generator is a Stirling engine driven by the temperature difference produced by a radioisotope. A more ...
Caesium in fission products is almost equal parts Cs-135 and Cs-137, plus significant amounts of stable Cs-133 and, in "young" ... A radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG, RITEG), sometimes referred to as a radioisotope power system (RPS), is a type of ... NASA Radioisotope Power Systems website - RTG page NASA JPL briefing, Expanding Frontiers with Radioisotope Power Systems - ... not really an RTG, the ASRG uses a Stirling power device that runs on radioisotope (see Stirling radioisotope generator) The ...
As caesium 133, 135, and 137 are formed by the beta particle decay of the corresponding xenon isotopes, this causes the caesium ... The strontium radioisotopes are very important, as strontium is a calcium mimic which is incorporated in bone growth and ... Caesium-137, with a half-life of 30 years, is the main medium-lived fission product, along with Sr-90. Cs-137 is the primary ... Caesium-134 is found in spent nuclear fuel but is not produced by nuclear weapon explosions, as it is only formed by neutron ...
It is emitted by a radioisotope, usually cobalt-60 (60Co) or caesium-137 (137Cs), which have photon energies of up to 1.3 and ... Use of a radioisotope requires shielding for the safety of the operators while in use and in storage. With most designs, the ... Subatomic particles may be more or less penetrating and may be generated by a radioisotope or a device, depending upon the type ... One variant keeps the radioisotope under water at all times and lowers the product to be irradiated in the water in ...
Caesium-137 is one such radionuclide. It has a half-life of 30 years, and decays by beta decay without gamma ray emission to a ... With a short half-life of 8 days, this radioisotope is not of practical use in radioactive sources in industrial radiography or ... Cobalt-60 tends to be used in teletherapy units as a higher photon energy alternative to caesium-137, while iridium-192 tends ... Because both radium and radon are very radiotoxic and very expensive due to their natural rarity, these natural radioisotopes ...
... caesium-133. Caesium is mined mostly from pollucite, while the radioisotopes, especially caesium-137, a fission product, are ... Caesium or cesium is the chemical element with the symbol Cs and atomic number 55. It is a soft, silvery-gold alkali metal with ... Iridium radioisotopes are used in some radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Iridium is found in meteorites with an abundance ... Since then, caesium has been widely used in atomic clocks. Since the 1990s, the largest application of the element has been as ...
Gamma irradiation is produced from the radioisotopes cobalt-60 and caesium-137, which are produced by neutron irradiation of ... Conversely, caesium-137, is water-soluble and poses a risk of environmental contamination. Insufficient quantities are ... caesium-137 leaked into the source storage pool requiring NRC intervention has led to near elimination of this radioisotope. ... In most designs, the radioisotope, contained in stainless steel pencils, is stored in a water-filled storage pool which absorbs ...
The other xenon radioisotopes decay either to stable xenon, or to various caesium isotopes, some of them radioactive (a.o., the ... Any caesium atom present immediately oxidizes and passes into the water as Cs+. In order to eliminate any long-lived 135Cs and ... As with other radioisotopes of iodine, accidental iodine-125 uptake in the body (mostly by the thyroid gland) can be blocked by ... It is the second longest-lived radioisotope of iodine, after iodine-129. Its half-life is 59.49 days and it decays by electron ...
One of his primary research sites was the Cesium-137 tagged Liriodendron forest in Oak Ridge, TN. He soon realized that ... Reichle, David E. (November 1969). "Measurement of Elemental Assimilation by Animals from Radioisotope Retention Patterns". ... Auerbach, S. I.; Olson, J. S.; Waller, H. D. (February 1964). "Landscape Investigations Using Cæsium-137". Nature. 201 (4921): ... radioisotope transport was influenced by the metabolism of species and ecosystems, and he soon became captivated with ...
... instead involves the precise placement of short-range radiation-sources (radioisotopes, iodine-125 or caesium-131 ... The capsule may be removed later, or (with some radioisotopes) it may be allowed to remain in place.: Ch. 1 A feature of ... Brachytherapy contrasts with unsealed source radiotherapy, in which a therapeutic radionuclide (radioisotope) is injected into ... which allows the ionizing radiation to escape to treat and kill surrounding tissue but prevents the charge of radioisotope from ...
... caesium radioisotopes were released into the atmosphere where caesium is absorbed readily into solution and is returned to the ... Caesium-133 is the only stable isotope of caesium. The SI base unit of time, the second, is defined by a specific caesium-133 ... Caesium-136 undergoes beta decay (β−), producing 136Ba directly. Caesium-137, with a half-life of 30.17 years, is one of the ... Caesium-135 is a mildly radioactive isotope of caesium with a half-life of 2.3 million years. It decays via emission of a low- ...
Strontium-90 and caesium-137, with half-lives of about 30 years, are the largest radiation (including heat) emitters in used ... Some radioactive fission products can be converted into shorter-lived radioisotopes by transmutation. Transmutation of all ... The other two, zirconium-93 and caesium-135, are produced in larger quantities, but also not highly mobile in the environment. ... some long-lived fission products,[which?] including the nuclear waste product caesium-137, are unable to capture enough ...
Radioisotopes can be transformed directly through changes in valence state by acting as acceptors or by acting as cofactors to ... In this region of Ukraine, mustard greens could remove up to 22% of average levels of cesium activity in a single growing ... The radioisotope interact with binding sites of metabolically active cells and is used as terminal electron acceptor in the ... Several radioisotopes of strontium, for example, are recognized as analogs of calcium and incorporated within Micrococcus ...
... carbon radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.156.300 - cerium radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.180.300 - cesium radioisotopes MeSH D01.496. ... carbon radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.749.185 - cerium radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.749.190 - cesium radioisotopes MeSH D01.496. ... iron radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.749.540 - krypton radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.749.560 - lead radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.749.590 ... xenon radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.749.960 - yttrium radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.749.980 - zinc radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.807.800 ...
Caesium-137 can also be used for food irradiation. The academic journal Waste & Biomass Valorization publishes scholarship on ... Strontium-90 is suitable as a fuel for a radioisotope thermoelectric generator and has been extracted from spent nuclear fuel ... Caesium-137 or Strontium-90, as well as nonradioactive applications as some fission products decay quickly to stable or ... ". "An Overview of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators". "Food Irradiation". "Waste and Biomass Valorization , Volumes and ...
It is followed by caesium, iridium and palladium by mass and iridium, gold and platinum by volume. Of those elements, rhodium, ... The price listing for radioisotopes is not exhaustive. 2000s commodities boom Density for 0 °C, 101.325 kPa. For individual ... Per-kilogram prices of some synthetic radioisotopes range to trillions of dollars. While the difficulty of obtaining ... caesium and gold have only one stable isotope (133 Cs, 103 Rh and 197 Au respectively), iridium has two (191 Ir and 193 Ir) ...
... www.epa.gov/radiation/radionuclide-basics-cesium-137. ... Cesium-137 (Cs-137)plus icon *Radioisotope Brief. *Toxicology ...
"CDC Radiation Emergencies , Radioisotope Brief: Cesium-137 (Cs-137)". CDC. Retrieved 5 November 2013. "Cesium , Radiation ... Caesium-137 (137 55Cs ), cesium-137 (US), or radiocaesium, is a radioactive isotope of caesium that is formed as one of the ... Caesium-137 reacts with water, producing a water-soluble compound (caesium hydroxide). The biological behaviour of caesium is ... shape as caesium from used nuclear fuel contains stable caesium-133 and also long-lived caesium-135. Isotope separation is too ...
Running quietly on radioisotopes and geothermal power, maintained by self-replicating swarms of intelligent nanobots, the ... Author: Cesium. The stone fell to earth some distance west of the city, in the grassy valley of a stream running between two ... Author: Cesium. When we left work that evening, theyd started blocking out the murals in the stairwell already, so we had to ... Author : Cesium. By the late 21st century, nanotechnology had advanced to the point where it could not only synthesize almost ...
In particular, Cesium-137 is of concern in both sediment and soil as it has the ability to be introduced to the food chain ... Sediment samples are analyzed for specific radioisotopes such as gross alpha-, gross beta-, or gamma-emitting radionuclides as ...
Neutron-Gamma density is a new radioisotope-free measurement of density based on neutron-induced inelastic gamma rays. The ... However, Cesium 137 (Cs-137) is still mainly used to measure bulk density. ... However, Cesium 137 (Cs-137) is still mainly used to measure bulk density. Neutron-Gamma density is a new radioisotope-free ...
... is that one of the biggest reasons people fear nuclear accidents is that if radioisotopes like radioactive Cesium gets out into ...
Bottled water seems in demand in Tokyo even though, according to the Tokyo water board, caesium-131 and other radioisotopes are ...
Cesium Radioisotopes; Chernobyl Nuclear Accident; Models, Theoretical; Water Pollutants, Radioactive; Water Pollution, ...
Containing radioisotopes of cesium, such as 134Cs and 137Cs. Rats fed cesium, instead ,of potassium die. Cesium chloride (non- ...
Keywords:reconstruction, inhalation and oral intake of 131І, radioisotopes of cesium (137Cs; 134Cs), noble radioactive gases ( ... 90Sr 137Cs Belarus Bryansk Region Cesium CESIUM 137 Chernobyl exclusion zone Chernobyl fallout children contamination ... examine the role of angiogenesis in CCRCC carcinogenesis associated with CPLDIR in patients living more than 20 years in cesium ...
are used in gamma cameras used for nuclear medicine radioisotope imaging. NaI was the first known inorganic scintillator, ... CsI(Tl) (thallium doped cesium iodide) crystals are an alternative to NaI(Tl). They are more mechanically durable and have ...
MAG34-P01] Radioactive cesium-bearing particles in various environmental samples *Yuichi Kurihara1, Hikaru Miura1, Toshihiro ... 3.Radioisotope Center, The university of Tokyo, 4.Faculty of Pure and Applied Science, University of Tsukuba, 5.Center for ... MAG34-P01] Radioactive cesium-bearing particles in various environmental samples *Yuichi Kurihara1, Hikaru Miura1, Toshihiro ... 3.Radioisotope Center, The university of Tokyo, 4.Faculty of Pure and Applied Science, University of Tsukuba, 5.Center for ...
... including cesium-137, strontium-90, and iodine-131. All of these particular radioisotopes undergo beta decay, with cesium-137 ... Nuclear accidents, have emitted toxic radioisotopes into the environment and residential areas, ...
An isotope of cesium cesium 137 has a half life of 30 years. Look up the half life in table n the table of selected ... radioisotopes 12 4 h step 2. Linear models and more. If 100 mg of actinium 226 disintegrates over a. Set up a table showing the ... If 1 0 g of cesium 137 disintegrates over a period of 90 years how many g of cesium 137 would remain. If the half life is 23 9 ...
For the demolished reactors waste included the nuclear isotope Strontium-90. Radioisotopes such as Sr.-90 and Caesium 137 ...
Bromine Radioisotopes. *Cadmium Radioisotopes. *Calcium Radioisotopes. *Carbon Radioisotopes. *Cerium Radioisotopes. *Cesium ... "Radioisotopes" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Radioisotopes" by people in this website by year, and whether ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Radioisotopes" by people in Profiles. ...
The other xenon radioisotopes decay either to stable xenon, or to various caesium isotopes, some of them radioactive a. Maybe ...
In reality, the level of radioisotopes present today in most of the soil is generally quite low: in the center of Prypiat, the ... the chemical composition of the soil and microorganisms capable of metabolizing elements such as cesium and strontium. Over the ... And once they leave the Exclusion Zone, the soil and clothes impregnated with radioisotopes will release them outside it, ... containing considerable quantities of radioisotopes that are concentrated due to particular microclimates, ...
One important radioisotope not removed in this process is tritium - a radioactive form of hydrogen with a half-life of 12.3 ... such as cesium-137 and strontium-90. This can lead to fish being thousands of times more radioactive than the water they swim ... Of particular concern are long-lived radioisotopes (unstable chemical elements) and those which concentrate up the food chain, ... This means it takes 12.3 years for half of the radioisotope to decay. ...
Radioisotopes accumulate in muscle and bone. The causes of these tumors remain unknown, but a compelling possible explanation ... Among the isotopes that flooded into the Pacific Ocean are cesium-137 and strontium-90, both of which accumulate in the bodies ...
Cesium (Cs) is found at low levels in nature but does not confer any known benefit to plants. Cs and K compete in cells due to ... transport in plants is important to limit the entry of its radioisotopes from contaminated areas into the food chain. The ... Potential for biocolloid transport of cesium at high ionic strength. Zengotita, F E; Emerson, H P; Stanley, F E; Dittrich, T M ... Cesium (Cs) in the environment is primarily absorbed by a potassium (K) transporter. OsHAK5 is a KT/HAK/KUP family K- ...
In this accident, a variety of radioisotopes including iodine (131I), cesium (137Cs, 134Cs), and strontium (90Sr), were ...
Thanks to the use of brand-new technology, you can now control cesium radioisotopes and naturally occurring radioactive ...
Selected radionuclides : tritium, carbon-14, krypton-85, strontium-90, iodine, caesium-137, radon, plutonium / published under ... by Joint IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on the Medical Uses of Ionizing Radiation and Radioisotopes , World Health Organization , ... by Joint IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on the Medical Uses of Ionizing Radiation and Radioisotopes , World Health Organization , ... Utilisation des rayonnements ionisants et des radio-isotopes à des fins médicales : rapport d un comité mixte AIEA/OMS d ...
Calcium Radioisotopes (0) * Carbon Radioisotopes (0) * Cerium Radioisotopes (0) * Cesium Radioisotopes (0) ...
Last week, Estonia, Finland and Sweden reported levels of ruthenium-103, caesium-134 and caesium-137 isotopes in the air which ... Original article: nucnet.org/news/elevated-radioisotope-levels-in-nordic-region-likely-linked-to-nuclear-reactor-7-5-2020 Read ... The IAEA, in an effort to help identify the possible origin of the radioisotopes, contacted counterparts in Europe and asked ... The recent detection of slightly elevated levels of radioisotopes in northern Europe is likely related to a nuclear reactor ...
This is a concern because while Cesium has the potential to enter the food supply in fish that pick it up, Strontium enters the ... Strontium-90 (Half-life 28.79 years) has increased in proportion over various Cesium isotopes. ... of radioisotopes. ... In theory Cesium enters tissues and leaves tissues, and doesnt ... This is a concern because while Cesium has the potential to enter the food supply in fish that pick it up, Strontium enters the ...
... salmon caught in Osoyoos Lake in British Columbia was found to contain very low levels of a radioactive isotope called caesium- ... In 2016, caesium-134 from Fukushima was detected in the waters off the coast of northwestern US state of Oregon for the first ... The World Health Organisations recommended safe maximum limit for radioisotopes in food is 1,000 becquerels per kilogram. ... Because it has a half-life of about two years, any caesium-134 that was released into the atmosphere by previous bomb tests or ...
  • Caesium-137 (137 55Cs ), cesium-137 (US), or radiocaesium, is a radioactive isotope of caesium that is formed as one of the more common fission products by the nuclear fission of uranium-235 and other fissionable isotopes in nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons. (wikipedia.org)
  • The story grew from the fact that, in 2015, a single salmon caught in Osoyoos Lake in British Columbia was found to contain very low levels of a radioactive isotope called caesium-134. (cosmosmagazine.com)
  • As an almost purely human-made isotope, caesium-137 has been used to date wine and detect counterfeits and as a relative-dating material for assessing the age of sedimentation occurring after 1945. (wikipedia.org)
  • An isotope of cesium cesium 137 has a half life of 30 years. (askworksheet.com)
  • Among the isotopes that flooded into the Pacific Ocean are cesium-137 and strontium-90, both of which accumulate in the bodies of animals that ingest them. (somicom.com)
  • The habitation and environment are affected by the stable isotopes of caesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr), as well as by their radioactive isotopes. (bvsalud.org)
  • Last week, Estonia, Finland and Sweden reported levels of ruthenium-103, caesium-134 and caesium-137 isotopes in the air which were higher than usual. (finnuclear.fi)
  • Strontium-90 (Half-life 28.79 years) has increased in proportion over various Cesium isotopes. (scienceblogs.com)
  • 114 However, unlike group 2 radionuclides like radium and strontium-90, caesium does not bioaccumulate and is excreted relatively quickly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nuclear accidents, have emitted toxic radioisotopes into the environment and residential areas, including cesium-137, strontium-90, and iodine-131. (mytestingsolution.com)
  • All of these particular radioisotopes undergo beta decay, with cesium-137 and strontium-90 undergoing β- decay. (mytestingsolution.com)
  • Of particular concern are long-lived radioisotopes (unstable chemical elements) and those which concentrate up the food chain, such as cesium-137 and strontium-90. (bergensia.com)
  • The current work gives insight on Alstonia scholaris' capacity to phytoextract stable caesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr), as well as the plant's ability to protect against the toxicity of both elements. (bvsalud.org)
  • This is a concern because while Cesium has the potential to enter the food supply in fish that pick it up, Strontium enters the food supply in a different way. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Beta particles are high-energy electrons that are emitted from the nuclei of unstable atoms (eg, cesium-137, iodine-131). (msdmanuals.com)
  • 2001. Cesium hydroxide. (cdc.gov)
  • Caesium-137 reacts with water, producing a water-soluble compound (caesium hydroxide). (wikipedia.org)
  • Also the higher specific activity caesium sources tend to be made from very soluble caesium chloride (CsCl), as a result if a radiography source was damaged it would increase the spread of the contamination. (wikipedia.org)
  • In recent years, a water purification system - known as advanced liquid processing - has been used to treat the contaminated water accumulating in Fukushima to try to reduce the 62 most important contaminating radioisotopes. (bergensia.com)
  • Therefore, any caesium-134 found in anything at the moment can only have come from Fukushima. (cosmosmagazine.com)
  • In 2016, caesium-134 from Fukushima was detected in the waters off the coast of northwestern US state of Oregon for the first time. (cosmosmagazine.com)
  • Caesium-137 is not widely used for industrial radiography because it is hard to obtain a very high specific activity material with a well defined (and small) shape as caesium from used nuclear fuel contains stable caesium-133 and also long-lived caesium-135. (wikipedia.org)
  • In theory Cesium enters tissues and leaves tissues, and doesn't accumulate over time. (scienceblogs.com)
  • certainly, tough, Cesium does not accumulate in large amounts). (scienceblogs.com)
  • The biological behaviour of caesium is similar to that of potassium and rubidium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rats fed cesium, instead ,of potassium die. (englishphonetics.net)
  • Cesium (Cs) in the environment is primarily absorbed by a potassium (K) transporter. (bvsalud.org)
  • In particular, Cesium-137 is of concern in both sediment and soil as it has the ability to be introduced to the food chain where it stores in muscle tissue once entering an animal's body. (scdhec.gov)
  • Caesium-137 has a relatively low boiling point of 671 °C (1,240 °F) and easily becomes volatile when released suddenly at high temperature, as in the case of the Chernobyl nuclear accident and with atomic explosions, and can travel very long distances in the air. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study aimed to examine the role of angiogenesis in CCRCC carcinogenesis associated with CPLDIR in patients living more than 20 years in cesium 137 ( 137 Cs) contaminated areas after the Chernobyl accident in Ukraine. (chernobyldatabase.com)
  • Because it has a half-life of about two years, any caesium-134 that was released into the atmosphere by previous bomb tests or reactor disasters (such as Chernobyl) has long since decayed away. (cosmosmagazine.com)
  • Sediment samples are analyzed for specific radioisotopes such as gross alpha-, gross beta-, or gamma-emitting radionuclides as well as select metals. (scdhec.gov)
  • Bottled water seems in demand in Tokyo even though, according to the Tokyo water board, caesium-131 and other radioisotopes are below detection levels now. (joewein.net)
  • Caesium-137 has a half-life of about 30.05 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • If 1 0 g of cesium 137 disintegrates over a period of 90 years how many g of cesium 137 would remain. (askworksheet.com)
  • One important radioisotope not removed in this process is tritium - a radioactive form of hydrogen with a half-life of 12.3 years. (bergensia.com)
  • This means it takes 12.3 years for half of the radioisotope to decay. (bergensia.com)
  • If the water was stored for 120 years, tritium levels would decay to less than 1,000th of the starting amount, and levels of other radioisotopes would also reduce. (bergensia.com)
  • Neutron-Gamma density is a new radioisotope-free measurement of density based on neutron-induced inelastic gamma rays. (utexas.edu)
  • The World Health Organisation's recommended safe maximum limit for radioisotopes in food is 1,000 becquerels per kilogram. (cosmosmagazine.com)
  • The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) said on 2 July that the recent detection of slightly elevated levels of radioisotopes in northern Europe is likely related to a nuclear reactor that is either operating or undergoing maintenance, when very low radioactive releases can occur. (finnuclear.fi)
  • The Curie (Ci) or Microcurie (uCi) is the standard unit of measurement dealing with radioisotopes. (unitednuclear.com)
  • The slightly elevated levels of three different radioisotopes recently detected in northern Europe are probably related to a nuclear reactor which is either operating or undergoing maintenance, the International Atomic Energy Agency said in a statement on 3 July. (finnuclear.fi)
  • Termes sources en cas d' accident de réacteur nucléaire : rapport d'un Groupe d' experts de l' AEN, mars 1986. (who.int)
  • All our Radioisotope sources are NRC Exempt 'safety sealed' sources. (unitednuclear.com)
  • The biological half-life of caesium is about 70 days. (wikipedia.org)
  • A similar experiment in 1972 showed that when dogs are subjected to a whole body burden of 3800 μCi/kg (140 MBq/kg, or approximately 44 μg/kg) of caesium-137 (and 950 to 1400 rads), they die within 33 days, while animals with half of that burden all survived for a year. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in functional experiments ex vivo the HCN inhibitors ivabradine, ZD7288, and cesium failed to lower contraction frequency: conversely, all three antagonists induced a positive chronotropic effect with concurrent negative inotropic action, though these effects first occurred at concentrations regarded as supramaximal for HCN inhibition. (bvsalud.org)
  • The fact is that you can't go near this power plant without taking a serious health risk, and there is a moderate but real health risk because of the prior large scale dispersal of radioactive material and the ongoing lower level but still important outpouring (literally) of radioisotopes. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Since the quantities dealing with radioisotopes are so small (the actual amount of radioactive material in the disks is so small it is invisible to the eye), radioisotopes are sold by the 'microcurie' (uCi). (unitednuclear.com)
  • 1990. Seasonal concentrations of cesium-137 in rumen content, skeletal muscles and feces of caribou from the porcupine herd: lichen ingestion rates and implications for human consumption. (cdc.gov)
  • Look up the half life in table n the table of selected radioisotopes 12 4 h step 2. (askworksheet.com)
  • In contrast, this means that another transporter may contribute to cesium uptake in rice. (bvsalud.org)