Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.
A variety of anesthetic methods such as EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA used to control the pain of childbirth.
Extraction of the fetus by abdominal hysterotomy anytime following a previous cesarean.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A malpresentation of the FETUS at near term or during OBSTETRIC LABOR with the fetal cephalic pole in the fundus of the UTERUS. There are three types of breech: the complete breech with flexed hips and knees; the incomplete breech with one or both hips partially or fully extended; the frank breech with flexed hips and extended knees.
Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.
Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.
A nonreassuring fetal status (NRFS) indicating that the FETUS is compromised (American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists 1988). It can be identified by sub-optimal values in FETAL HEART RATE; oxygenation of FETAL BLOOD; and other parameters.
Delivery of an infant through the vagina in a female who has had a prior cesarean section.
Allowing a woman to be in LABOR, OBSTETRIC long enough to determine if vaginal birth may be anticipated.
Artificially induced UTERINE CONTRACTION. Generally, LABOR, OBSTETRIC is induced with the intent to cause delivery of the fetus and termination of pregnancy.
Medical problems associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR, such as BREECH PRESENTATION; PREMATURE OBSTETRIC LABOR; HEMORRHAGE; or others. These complications can affect the well-being of the mother, the FETUS, or both.
Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected into the epidural space.
Microsatellite repeats consisting of three nucleotides dispersed in the euchromatic arms of chromosomes.
A complete separation or tear in the wall of the UTERUS with or without expulsion of the FETUS. It may be due to injuries, multiple pregnancies, large fetus, previous scarring, or obstruction.
Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
The repetitive uterine contraction during childbirth which is associated with the progressive dilation of the uterine cervix (CERVIX UTERI). Successful labor results in the expulsion of the FETUS and PLACENTA. Obstetric labor can be spontaneous or induced (LABOR, INDUCED).
A method, developed by Dr. Virginia Apgar, to evaluate a newborn's adjustment to extrauterine life. Five items - heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color - are evaluated 60 seconds after birth and again five minutes later on a scale from 0-2, 0 being the lowest, 2 being normal. The five numbers are added for the Apgar score. A score of 0-3 represents severe distress, 4-7 indicates moderate distress, and a score of 7-10 predicts an absence of difficulty in adjusting to extrauterine life.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a cardiovascular disease. The disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.
Copies of DNA sequences which lie adjacent to each other in the same orientation (direct tandem repeats) or in the opposite direction to each other (INVERTED TANDEM REPEATS).
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
Extraction of the fetus by means of obstetrical instruments.
Drugs that stimulate contraction of the myometrium. They are used to induce LABOR, OBSTETRIC at term, to prevent or control postpartum or postabortion hemorrhage, and to assess fetal status in high risk pregnancies. They may also be used alone or with other drugs to induce abortions (ABORTIFACIENTS). Oxytocics used clinically include the neurohypophyseal hormone OXYTOCIN and certain prostaglandins and ergot alkaloids. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p1157)
The elimination of PAIN, without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, during OBSTETRIC LABOR; OBSTETRIC DELIVERY; or the POSTPARTUM PERIOD, usually through the administration of ANALGESICS.
Abnormal placentation in which the PLACENTA implants in the lower segment of the UTERUS (the zone of dilation) and may cover part or all of the opening of the CERVIX. It is often associated with serious antepartum bleeding and PREMATURE LABOR.
Physiologic or biochemical monitoring of the fetus. It is usually done during LABOR, OBSTETRIC and may be performed in conjunction with the monitoring of uterine activity. It may also be performed prenatally as when the mother is undergoing surgery.
The fibrous tissue that replaces normal tissue during the process of WOUND HEALING.
The position or orientation of the FETUS at near term or during OBSTETRIC LABOR, determined by its relation to the SPINE of the mother and the birth canal. The normal position is a vertical, cephalic presentation with the fetal vertex flexed on the NECK.
Thinly cut sections of frozen tissue specimens prepared with a cryostat or freezing microtome.
A widely used local anesthetic agent.
Surgical instrument designed to extract the newborn by the head from the maternal passages without injury to it or the mother.
Hospital department responsible for the administration and management of services provided for obstetric and gynecologic patients.
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
Excess blood loss from uterine bleeding associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR or CHILDBIRTH. It is defined as blood loss greater than 500 ml or of the amount that adversely affects the maternal physiology, such as BLOOD PRESSURE and HEMATOCRIT. Postpartum hemorrhage is divided into two categories, immediate (within first 24 hours after birth) or delayed (after 24 hours postpartum).
Disorders or diseases associated with PUERPERIUM, the six-to-eight-week period immediately after PARTURITION in humans.
An increased number of contiguous trinucleotide repeats in the DNA sequence from one generation to the next. The presence of these regions is associated with diseases such as FRAGILE X SYNDROME and MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY. Some CHROMOSOME FRAGILE SITES are composed of sequences where trinucleotide repeat expansion occurs.
A term used to describe pregnancies that exceed the upper limit of a normal gestational period. In humans, a prolonged pregnancy is defined as one that extends beyond 42 weeks (294 days) after the first day of the last menstrual period (MENSTRUATION), or birth with gestational age of 41 weeks or more.
Tandem arrays of moderately repetitive, short (10-60 bases) DNA sequences which are found dispersed throughout the GENOME, at the ends of chromosomes (TELOMERES), and clustered near telomeres. Their degree of repetition is two to several hundred at each locus. Loci number in the thousands but each locus shows a distinctive repeat unit.
A condition in which the HEAD of the FETUS is larger than the mother's PELVIS through which the fetal head must pass during a vaginal delivery.
Period from the onset of true OBSTETRIC LABOR to the complete dilatation of the CERVIX UTERI.
Protein motif that contains a 33-amino acid long sequence that often occurs in tandem arrays. This repeating sequence of 33-amino acids was discovered in ANKYRIN where it is involved in interaction with the anion exchanger (ANION EXCHANGE PROTEIN 1, ERYTHROCYTE). Ankyrin repeats cooperatively fold into domains that mediate molecular recognition via protein-protein interactions.
The process of giving birth to one or more offspring.
Labor and delivery without medical intervention, usually involving RELAXATION THERAPY.
The relief of pain without loss of consciousness through the introduction of an analgesic agent into the epidural space of the vertebral canal. It is differentiated from ANESTHESIA, EPIDURAL which refers to the state of insensitivity to sensation.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A sequential pattern of amino acids occurring more than once in the same protein sequence.
The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.
An infection occurring in PUERPERIUM, the period of 6-8 weeks after giving birth.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
The beginning of true OBSTETRIC LABOR which is characterized by the cyclic uterine contractions of increasing frequency, duration, and strength causing CERVICAL DILATATION to begin (LABOR STAGE, FIRST ).
The condition of carrying TWINS simultaneously.
Agents that are administered in association with anesthetics to increase effectiveness, improve delivery, or decrease required dosage.
Surgery which could be postponed or not done at all without danger to the patient. Elective surgery includes procedures to correct non-life-threatening medical problems as well as to alleviate conditions causing psychological stress or other potential risk to patients, e.g., cosmetic or contraceptive surgery.
Inflammation of the ENDOMETRIUM, usually caused by intrauterine infections. Endometritis is the most common cause of postpartum fever.
A phenethylamine found in EPHEDRA SINICA. PSEUDOEPHEDRINE is an isomer. It is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used for asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.
Procedures to block or remove all or part of the genital tract for the purpose of rendering individuals sterile, incapable of reproduction. Surgical sterilization procedures are the most commonly used. There are also sterilization procedures involving chemical or physical means.
A medical-surgical specialty concerned with management and care of women during pregnancy, parturition, and the puerperium.
The most common of the microsatellite tandem repeats (MICROSATELLITE REPEATS) dispersed in the euchromatic arms of chromosomes. They consist of two nucleotides repeated in tandem; guanine and thymine, (GT)n, is the most frequently seen.
Written or other literary works whose subject matter is medical or about the profession of medicine and related areas.
Removal of the fetus from the uterus or vagina at or near the end of pregnancy with a metal traction cup that is attached to the fetus' head. Negative pressure is applied and traction is made on a chain passed through the suction tube. (From Stedman, 26th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)
The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.
Abnormal placentation in which all or parts of the PLACENTA are attached directly to the MYOMETRIUM due to a complete or partial absence of DECIDUA. It is associated with POSTPARTUM HEMORRHAGE because of the failure of placental separation.
Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.
The period of OBSTETRIC LABOR that is from the complete dilatation of the CERVIX UTERI to the expulsion of the FETUS.
Maternal deaths resulting from complications of pregnancy and childbirth in a given population.
Hospital bed capacity, under 100, refers to the maximum number of hospital beds available in a facility with a capacity of less than 100 beds.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Copies of nucleic acid sequence that are arranged in opposing orientation. They may lie adjacent to each other (tandem) or be separated by some sequence that is not part of the repeat (hyphenated). They may be true palindromic repeats, i.e. read the same backwards as forward, or complementary which reads as the base complement in the opposite orientation. Complementary inverted repeats have the potential to form hairpin loop or stem-loop structures which results in cruciform structures (such as CRUCIFORM DNA) when the complementary inverted repeats occur in double stranded regions.
A nonapeptide hormone released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). It differs from VASOPRESSIN by two amino acids at residues 3 and 8. Oxytocin acts on SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, such as causing UTERINE CONTRACTIONS and MILK EJECTION.
Bleeding from blood vessels in the UTERUS, sometimes manifested as vaginal bleeding.
Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.
A historical and cultural entity dispersed across a wide geographical area under the administrative, intellectual, social, and cultural domination of the Arab empire. The Arab world, under the impetus of Islam, by the eighth century A.D., extended from Arabia in the Middle East to all of northern Africa, southern Spain, Sardinia, and Sicily. Close contact was maintained with Greek and Jewish culture. While the principal service of the Arabs to medicine was the preservation of Greek culture, the Arabs themselves were the originators of algebra, chemistry, geology, and many of the refinements of civilization. (From A. Castiglioni, A History of Medicine, 2d ed, p260; from F. H. Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed, p126)
Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.
Pathological processes involving any part of the UTERUS.
Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.
An increase number of repeats of a genomic, tandemly repeated DNA sequence from one generation to the next.
Situations or conditions requiring immediate intervention to avoid serious adverse results.
Special hospitals which provide care to women during pregnancy and parturition.
Free-standing facilities that provide prenatal, childbirth, and postnatal care and usually incorporate family-centered maternity care concepts and practices.
The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.
The outer margins of the ABDOMEN, extending from the osteocartilaginous thoracic cage to the PELVIS. Though its major part is muscular, the abdominal wall consists of at least seven layers: the SKIN, subcutaneous fat, deep FASCIA; ABDOMINAL MUSCLES, transversalis fascia, extraperitoneal fat, and the parietal PERITONEUM.
Hospitals controlled by various types of government, i.e., city, county, district, state or federal.
Onset of HYPERREFLEXIA; SEIZURES; or COMA in a previously diagnosed pre-eclamptic patient (PRE-ECLAMPSIA).
Insurance against loss resulting from liability for injury or damage to the persons or property of others.
Pregnancy in which the mother and/or FETUS are at greater than normal risk of MORBIDITY or MORTALITY. Causes include inadequate PRENATAL CARE, previous obstetrical history (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS), pre-existing maternal disease, pregnancy-induced disease (GESTATIONAL HYPERTENSION), and MULTIPLE PREGNANCY, as well as advanced maternal age above 35.
A complication of PREGNANCY, characterized by a complex of symptoms including maternal HYPERTENSION and PROTEINURIA with or without pathological EDEMA. Symptoms may range between mild and severe. Pre-eclampsia usually occurs after the 20th week of gestation, but may develop before this time in the presence of trophoblastic disease.
Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and NEOPLASMS. The neoplastic disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
Pathologic process consisting of a partial or complete disruption of the layers of a surgical wound.
The artificial alteration of the fetal position to facilitate birth.
Pain during the period after surgery.
A homolog of ERGONOVINE containing one more CH2 group. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).
CHILDBIRTH at the end of a normal duration of PREGNANCY, between 37 to 40 weeks of gestation or about 280 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period.
Monitoring of FETAL HEART frequency before birth in order to assess impending prematurity in relation to the pattern or intensity of antepartum UTERINE CONTRACTION.
The smooth muscle coat of the uterus, which forms the main mass of the organ.
Failure of the UTERUS to contract with normal strength, duration, and intervals during childbirth (LABOR, OBSTETRIC). It is also called uterine atony.
A plant species of the family CUCURBITACEAE that is a source of TRICHOSANTHIN (a ribosomal inhibitory protein).
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Measurement of the dimensions and capacity of the pelvis. It includes cephalopelvimetry (measurement of fetal head size in relation to maternal pelvic capacity), a prognostic guide to the management of LABOR, OBSTETRIC associated with disproportion.
Emesis and queasiness occurring after anesthesia.
Injection of an anesthetic into the nerves to inhibit nerve transmission in a specific part of the body.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Diagnostic, therapeutic, and investigative procedures prescribed and performed by health professionals, the results of which do not justify the benefits or hazards and costs to the patient.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
An opioid analgesic that is used as an adjunct in anesthesia, in balanced anesthesia, and as a primary anesthetic agent.
Excision of the uterus.
Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
Premature separation of the normally implanted PLACENTA from the UTERUS. Signs of varying degree of severity include UTERINE BLEEDING, uterine MUSCLE HYPERTONIA, and FETAL DISTRESS or FETAL DEATH.
Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.
Blocking of maternal circulation by AMNIOTIC FLUID that is forced into uterine VEINS by strong UTERINE CONTRACTION near the end of pregnancy. It is characterized by the sudden onset of severe respiratory distress and HYPOTENSION that can lead to maternal DEATH.
The practice of assisting women in childbirth.
The thin layers of tissue that surround the developing embryo. There are four extra-embryonic membranes commonly found in VERTEBRATES, such as REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. They are the YOLK SAC, the ALLANTOIS, the AMNION, and the CHORION. These membranes provide protection and means to transport nutrients and wastes.
Mechanical or anoxic trauma incurred by the infant during labor or delivery.
Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.
The condition of carrying two or more FETUSES simultaneously.
Deaths occurring from the 28th week of GESTATION to the 28th day after birth in a given population.
Human females who are pregnant, as cultural, psychological, or sociological entities.
An intense itching sensation that produces the urge to rub or scratch the skin to obtain relief.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.
An incision in the uterus, performed through either the abdomen or the vagina.
Onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR before term (TERM BIRTH) but usually after the FETUS has become viable. In humans, it occurs sometime during the 29th through 38th week of PREGNANCY. TOCOLYSIS inhibits premature labor and can prevent the BIRTH of premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE).
Contraction of the UTERINE MUSCLE.
The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.
The care of women and a fetus or newborn given before, during, and after delivery from the 28th week of gestation through the 7th day after delivery.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
A republic in eastern Africa bounded on the north by RWANDA and on the south by TANZANIA. Its capital is Bujumbura.
Preliminary administration of a drug preceding a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure. The commonest types of premedication are antibiotics (ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS) and anti-anxiety agents. It does not include PREANESTHETIC MEDICATION.
Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially to induce anesthesia. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
The state of PREGNANCY in women with DIABETES MELLITUS. This does not include either symptomatic diabetes or GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE induced by pregnancy (DIABETES, GESTATIONAL) which resolves at the end of pregnancy.
A clear, yellowish liquid that envelopes the FETUS inside the sac of AMNION. In the first trimester, it is likely a transudate of maternal or fetal plasma. In the second trimester, amniotic fluid derives primarily from fetal lung and kidney. Cells or substances in this fluid can be removed for prenatal diagnostic tests (AMNIOCENTESIS).
Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.
Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the mother.
A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)
The event that a FETUS is born alive with heartbeats or RESPIRATION regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE. Such liveborn is called a newborn infant (INFANT, NEWBORN).
The flexible rope-like structure that connects a developing FETUS to the PLACENTA in mammals. The cord contains blood vessels which carry oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the fetus and waste products away from the fetus.
The care provided to women and their NEWBORNS for the first few months following CHILDBIRTH.
A potentially life-threatening condition in which EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs outside the cavity of the UTERUS. Most ectopic pregnancies (>96%) occur in the FALLOPIAN TUBES, known as TUBAL PREGNANCY. They can be in other locations, such as UTERINE CERVIX; OVARY; and abdominal cavity (PREGNANCY, ABDOMINAL).
The technique of using a microtome to cut thin or ultrathin sections of tissues embedded in a supporting substance. The microtome is an instrument that hold a steel, glass or diamond knife in clamps at an angle to the blocks of prepared tissues, which it cuts in sections of equal thickness.
Diseases of newborn infants present at birth (congenital) or developing within the first month of birth. It does not include hereditary diseases not manifesting at birth or within the first 30 days of life nor does it include inborn errors of metabolism. Both HEREDITARY DISEASES and METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS are available as general concepts.
A condition in pregnant women with elevated systolic (>140 mm Hg) and diastolic (>90 mm Hg) blood pressure on at least two occasions 6 h apart. HYPERTENSION complicates 8-10% of all pregnancies, generally after 20 weeks of gestation. Gestational hypertension can be divided into several broad categories according to the complexity and associated symptoms, such as EDEMA; PROTEINURIA; SEIZURES; abnormalities in BLOOD COAGULATION and liver functions.
Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.
The innermost membranous sac that surrounds and protects the developing embryo which is bathed in the AMNIOTIC FLUID. Amnion cells are secretory EPITHELIAL CELLS and contribute to the amniotic fluid.
Brazil is a country in South America known for its high rates of infectious diseases such as dengue fever, Zika virus, and chikungunya, as well as its successful vaccination programs.
Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Infection occurring at the site of a surgical incision.
The bond or lack thereof between a pregnant woman and her FETUS.
A narcotic analgesic that can be used for the relief of most types of moderate to severe pain, including postoperative pain and the pain of labor. Prolonged use may lead to dependence of the morphine type; withdrawal symptoms appear more rapidly than with morphine and are of shorter duration.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The event that a FETUS is born dead or stillborn.
Regulatory sequences important for viral replication that are located on each end of the HIV genome. The LTR includes the HIV ENHANCER, promoter, and other sequences. Specific regions in the LTR include the negative regulatory element (NRE), NF-kappa B binding sites , Sp1 binding sites, TATA BOX, and trans-acting responsive element (TAR). The binding of both cellular and viral proteins to these regions regulates HIV transcription.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.
A change in the CERVIX UTERI with respect to its readiness to relax. The cervix normally becomes softer, more flexible, more distensible, and shorter in the final weeks of PREGNANCY. These cervical changes can also be chemically induced (LABOR, INDUCED).
Specialized arterial vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry waste and deoxygenated blood from the FETUS to the mother via the PLACENTA. In humans, there are usually two umbilical arteries but sometimes one.

Trial of labor versus elective repeat cesarean section for the women with a previous cesarean section: a decision analysis. (1/44)

In order to reduce the cesarean-delivery rate, more and more pregnant women are offered trials of labor (TOL) after their previous cesarean sections. TOL and elective repeat cesarean section (ERCS) have different risks and benefits. We constructed a decision analysis to explore this issue. Probabilities were derived from literature reviews. Health state utilities were derived from the authors' clinical judgement. The analysis considered the disutility of the procedures and the disutilities of the morbidity. Using the baseline assumption, ERCS was superior to TOL. One-way sensitivity analyses showed that the result was insensitive to all of the probability estimates and the disutilities of the morbidity. However, the result was sensitive to the patient's preference for ERCS, successful TOL, or failed TOL. The analysis indicates that the best delivery method for a woman who has had a previous cesarean section depends on patient's preference. More patients' preference studies are needed.  (+info)

Unwanted caesarean sections among public and private patients in Brazil: prospective study. (2/44)

OBJECTIVE: To assess and compare the preferences of pregnant women in the public and private sector regarding delivery in Brazil. DESIGN: Face to face structured interviews with women who were interviewed early in pregnancy, about one month before the due date, and about one month post partum. SETTING: Four cities in Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: 1612 pregnant women: 1093 public patients and 519 private patients. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rates of delivery by caesarean section in public and private institutions; women's preferences for delivery; timing of decision to perform caesarean section. RESULTS: 1136 women completed all three interviews; 476 women were lost to follow up (376 public patients and 100 private patients). Despite large differences in the rates of caesarean section in the two sectors (222/717 (31%) among public patients and 302/419 (72%) among private patients) there were no significant differences in preferences between the two groups. In both antenatal interviews, 70-80% in both sectors said they would prefer to deliver vaginally. In a large proportion of cases (237/502) caesarean delivery was decided on before admission: 48/207 (23%) in women in the public sector and 189/295 (64%) in women in the private sector. CONCLUSIONS: The large difference in the rates of caesarean sections in women in the public and private sectors is due to more unwanted caesarean sections among private patients rather than to a difference in preferences for delivery. High or rising rates of caesarean sections do not necessarily reflect demand for surgical delivery.  (+info)

Laparoscopic repair of a uteroperitoneal fistula. (3/44)

Repairs of pelvic fistulas using abdominal, vaginal, and laparoscopic approaches have been described. In the present case report, we describe our experience with the laparoscopic repair of a uteroperitoneal fistula.  (+info)

Ectopic pregnancies in Caesarean section scars: the 8 year experience of one medical centre. (4/44)

BACKGROUND: Our aim was to supplement the mostly individual case reports on the rarely occurring and life-threatening condition of ectopic pregnancy developing in a Caesarean section scar. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eight of all the patients treated in our department between 1995 and 2002 had been diagnosed for ectopic pregnancy that developed in a Caesarean section scar. They comprised this case series group. Four of them underwent methotrexate treatment; one had expectant management, one transcervical aspiration of the gestational sac and two by open surgery. All the non-surgically treated women had an uneventful outcome. One underwent a term Caesarean hysterectomy and the other first trimester hysterotomy and excision of the pregnancy located in the scarred uterus. Analysis of all these women's obstetric history revealed that five of them (63%) had been previously operated because of breech presentation, one had a cervical pregnancy and one had placenta previa. Four of them (50%) had multiple (> or = 2) Caesarean sections. CONCLUSIONS: The women at risk for pregnancy in a Caesarean section scar appear to be those with a history of placental pathology, ectopic pregnancy, multiple Caesarean sections and Caesarean breech delivery. Heightened awareness of this possibility and early diagnosis by means of transvaginal sonography can improve outcome and minimize the need for emergency extended surgery.  (+info)

Sonographic imaging of cervical scars after Cesarean section. (5/44)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether uterine contractions at the time of a Cesarean section have an impact on future presence and location of a cervical Cesarean scar. METHODS: A targeted transvaginal ultrasound examination of the fetus, uterus and cervix was done in 2973 consecutive women at 14-16 weeks' gestation. The sonographer was blinded to the women's previous obstetric histories. The presence and location of a sonographic cervical hypoechogenic line, which probably represented a Cesarean scar, was recorded. RESULTS: There were 180 women with a previous Cesarean section performed before the start of uterine contractions and 173 with a Cesarean section performed during contractions in labor. The cervical hypoechogenic line was more common in sections performed during contractions (75.7% vs. 52.7%; P < 0.001) and was more distally located from the internal os (17.9 +/- 9.4 vs. 14.6 +/- 9.1 mm; P = 0.01). A hypoechogenic line was observed in 21/2620 women without a previous Cesarean section, representing a false-positive rate of 0.8%. CONCLUSION: Cesarean sections, especially those done during uterine contractions, are actually performed through cervical tissue. This finding is in agreement with the physiological process of cervical effacement during contractions.  (+info)

Maternal and perinatal outcomes associated with a trial of labor after prior cesarean delivery. (6/44)

BACKGROUND: The proportion of women who attempt vaginal delivery after prior cesarean delivery has decreased largely because of concern about safety. The absolute and relative risks associated with a trial of labor in women with a history of cesarean delivery, as compared with elective repeated cesarean delivery without labor, are uncertain. METHODS: We conducted a prospective four-year observational study of all women with a singleton gestation and a prior cesarean delivery at 19 academic medical centers. Maternal and perinatal outcomes were compared between women who underwent a trial of labor and women who had an elective repeated cesarean delivery without labor. RESULTS: Vaginal delivery was attempted by 17,898 women, and 15,801 women underwent elective repeated cesarean delivery without labor. Symptomatic uterine rupture occurred in 124 women who underwent a trial of labor (0.7 percent). Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy occurred in no infants whose mothers underwent elective repeated cesarean delivery and in 12 infants born at term whose mothers underwent a trial of labor (P<0.001). Seven of these cases of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy followed uterine rupture (absolute risk, 0.46 per 1000 women at term undergoing a trial of labor), including two neonatal deaths. The rate of endometritis was higher in women undergoing a trial of labor than in women undergoing repeated elective cesarean delivery (2.9 percent vs. 1.8 percent), as was the rate of blood transfusion (1.7 percent vs. 1.0 percent). The frequency of hysterectomy and of maternal death did not differ significantly between groups (0.2 percent vs. 0.3 percent, and 0.02 percent vs. 0.04 percent, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: A trial of labor after prior cesarean delivery is associated with a greater perinatal risk than is elective repeated cesarean delivery without labor, although absolute risks are low. This information is relevant for counseling women about their choices after a cesarean section.  (+info)

Predicting cesarean section and uterine rupture among women attempting vaginal birth after prior cesarean section. (7/44)

BACKGROUND: There is currently no validated method for antepartum prediction of the risk of failed vaginal birth after cesarean section and no information on the relationship between the risk of emergency cesarean delivery and the risk of uterine rupture. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We linked a national maternity hospital discharge database and a national registry of perinatal deaths. We studied 23,286 women with one prior cesarean delivery who attempted vaginal birth at or after 40-wk gestation. The population was randomly split into model development and validation groups. The factors associated with emergency cesarean section were maternal age (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.22 per 5-y increase, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16 to 1.28), maternal height (adjusted OR = 0.75 per 5-cm increase, 95% CI: 0.73 to 0.78), male fetus (adjusted OR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.08 to 1.29), no previous vaginal birth (adjusted OR = 5.08, 95% CI: 4.52 to 5.72), prostaglandin induction of labor (adjusted OR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.26 to 1.60), and birth at 41-wk (adjusted OR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.18 to 1.42) or 42-wk (adjusted OR = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.17 to 1.62) gestation compared with 40-wk. In the validation group, 36% of the women had a low predicted risk of caesarean section (< 20%) and 16.5% of women had a high predicted risk (> 40%); 10.9% and 47.7% of these women, respectively, actually had deliveries by caesarean section. The predicted risk of caesarean section was also associated with the risk of all uterine rupture (OR for a 5% increase in predicted risk = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.14 to 1.31) and uterine rupture associated with perinatal death (OR for a 5% increase in predicted risk = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.73). The observed incidence of uterine rupture was 2.0 per 1,000 among women at low risk of cesarean section and 9.1 per 1,000 among those at high risk (relative risk = 4.5, 95% CI: 2.6 to 8.1). We present the model in a simple-to-use format. CONCLUSIONS: We present, to our knowledge, the first validated model for antepartum prediction of the risk of failed vaginal birth after prior cesarean section. Women at increased risk of emergency caesarean section are also at increased risk of uterine rupture, including catastrophic rupture leading to perinatal death.  (+info)

Asymptomatic abdominal wall endometrioma 15 years after cesarean section. (8/44)

Abdominal wall endometriosis is rare and its diagnosis is difficult. However, the consequences may be serious, like recurrences or even malignant transformation. We report a rarer case of asymptomatic abdominal wall endometrioma, accidentally found during a surgical procedure for a second cesarean section, in a 39-years old patient, without any relevant history of endometriosis. The tumor was subcutaneous, 3/3 cm in size, located in the left angle of the incision from the 15 years previously performed cesarean section and freely mobile in relation with the skin and the fascia. It was excised, with clear margins (to prevent recurrences), during the procedure. The patient was discharged after five days. The postoperative period and the follow-up at one and three months were uneventful. The pathological examination clarified the diagnosis by revealing an endometrioma with decidual reaction. Such a condition may be, therefore, evoked before an abdominal wall tumor, even without specific symptoms, even in a 39-years old woman and longtime after the possible causal surgery. Pathological examination remains the ultimate diagnostic tool. Relevant prophylactic attitude at the end of the cesarean section may be considered.  (+info)

A Cesarean section, also known as a C-section, is a surgical procedure in which a baby is delivered through an incision made in the mother's abdomen and uterus. It is typically performed when a vaginal delivery is not possible or poses a significant risk to the health of the mother or baby. Cesarean sections can be planned (elective) or unplanned (emergency). They are one of the most common surgical procedures performed in the United States, with about one-third of all births being delivered by C-section.

Anesthesia, Obstetrical refers to the administration of anesthesia during childbirth or other obstetric procedures. Obstetrical anesthesia is a specialized field of anesthesia that focuses on providing safe and effective pain relief for women during pregnancy, labor, delivery, and postpartum recovery. There are several types of obstetrical anesthesia, including: 1. Epidural anesthesia: This is the most common type of obstetrical anesthesia, in which a catheter is placed in the epidural space (the space between the spinal cord and the outer layer of the spinal canal) to deliver an anesthetic medication that numbs the lower half of the body. 2. Spinal anesthesia: This type of anesthesia involves injecting an anesthetic medication directly into the spinal canal, which numbs the entire body below the level of the injection. 3. General anesthesia: This type of anesthesia involves administering a medication that puts the patient to sleep and numbs the entire body. 4. Local anesthesia: This type of anesthesia involves numbing a specific area of the body, such as the cervix or the skin during a cesarean section. Obstetrical anesthesia is administered by an anesthesiologist or a certified registered nurse anesthetist (CRNA) who has specialized training in obstetric anesthesia. The goal of obstetrical anesthesia is to provide safe and effective pain relief for the mother while ensuring the safety of the mother and the baby.

A Cesarean Section, Repeat (also known as a repeat Cesarean Section or RCS) is a surgical procedure in which a woman who has previously undergone a Cesarean Section (C-section) delivers her baby through a surgical incision in her abdomen. This procedure is typically performed when a vaginal delivery is considered too risky for the mother or the baby, or when the mother requests a repeat C-section for personal reasons. During a repeat Cesarean Section, the surgeon will make an incision in the lower part of the abdomen, just above the pubic bone, and then carefully separate the layers of muscle and tissue to access the uterus. The baby will then be delivered through the incision, and the uterus will be closed with sutures. The incision will be closed with staples or sutures, and the woman will be taken to a recovery room to recover from the surgery. Repeat Cesarean Sections carry a slightly higher risk of complications compared to first-time C-sections, such as bleeding, infection, and damage to the uterus or other organs. However, with proper medical care and attention, the risks can be minimized, and the procedure can be performed safely.

Breech presentation is a term used in obstetrics to describe a fetal position in which the baby's buttocks or feet are positioned at the front of the mother's pelvis, rather than the head. This is in contrast to cephalic presentation, in which the baby's head is positioned at the front of the mother's pelvis. Breech presentation can occur in any gestational age, but it is more common in full-term pregnancies. It is important for healthcare providers to be aware of the fetal position during labor and delivery, as breech presentation can pose challenges for vaginal delivery and may require a cesarean section (C-section). There are several types of breech presentation, including frank breech, complete breech, and footling breech. Each type has its own characteristics and management considerations.

Delivery, Obstetric refers to the process of bringing a baby from the mother's womb to the outside world. It is a medical procedure that is typically performed by obstetricians, who are medical doctors specializing in pregnancy, childbirth, and the care of newborns. Obstetric delivery can be performed in a variety of ways, including vaginal delivery (also known as childbirth) and cesarean section (also known as C-section). The choice of delivery method depends on a variety of factors, including the health of the mother and baby, the stage of labor, and the position of the baby in the womb.

Anesthesia, spinal, also known as spinal anesthesia, is a type of regional anesthesia that numbs the lower half of the body, including the legs and lower abdomen. It is commonly used for surgeries on the lower half of the body, such as cesarean sections, hip replacements, and knee replacements. During spinal anesthesia, a small amount of anesthetic medication is injected into the spinal fluid, which surrounds the spinal cord. The medication numbs the nerves in the lower half of the body, causing a loss of sensation and pain relief. The patient is awake and able to communicate during the procedure, but they will not feel any pain or discomfort in their lower body. Spinal anesthesia is typically performed by an anesthesiologist or a trained nurse anesthetist. The procedure is usually done in a hospital setting and takes about 10-15 minutes to perform. The patient will need to lie on their back with their legs bent and feet flat on the table. The anesthetic medication is injected into the lower back, and the patient may feel a brief prick or pressure as the medication is injected. After spinal anesthesia, the patient may experience some side effects, such as headache, nausea, and low blood pressure. However, these side effects are usually temporary and can be managed with medication. Spinal anesthesia is a safe and effective method of anesthesia for many types of surgeries on the lower half of the body.

Fetal distress is a medical condition that occurs when a fetus is not receiving enough oxygen or nutrients from the mother's placenta, leading to a decrease in the fetus's health and well-being. This can result in a range of symptoms, including decreased fetal heart rate, decreased fetal movement, and abnormal fetal growth. Fetal distress can be caused by a variety of factors, including maternal health problems such as high blood pressure or diabetes, placental problems such as placenta previa or placental abruption, and fetal problems such as chromosomal abnormalities or congenital heart defects. If fetal distress is suspected, medical professionals may use a variety of diagnostic tools to monitor the fetus's health, including ultrasound, non-stress tests, and electronic fetal monitoring. Treatment for fetal distress may include changes in the mother's position or activity, oxygen therapy, or cesarean delivery, depending on the severity of the condition and the underlying cause.

Obstetric labor complications refer to any problems that arise during pregnancy, labor, or delivery that can potentially harm the mother or the baby. These complications can range from minor issues that can be easily managed to life-threatening emergencies that require immediate medical attention. Some common obstetric labor complications include: 1. Preterm labor: This occurs when labor starts before 37 weeks of pregnancy, which can lead to premature birth and associated health risks for the baby. 2. Fetal distress: This occurs when the baby is not getting enough oxygen, which can lead to low birth weight, brain damage, or even death. 3. Uterine rupture: This occurs when the uterus tears during labor, which can be life-threatening for both the mother and the baby. 4. Postpartum hemorrhage: This occurs when the mother experiences excessive bleeding after delivery, which can lead to shock and even death if not treated promptly. 5. Placenta previa: This occurs when the placenta covers the cervix, which can lead to bleeding during pregnancy or delivery. 6. Gestational diabetes: This occurs when the mother develops high blood sugar during pregnancy, which can increase the risk of complications for both the mother and the baby. 7. Preeclampsia: This is a serious condition that can develop during pregnancy and is characterized by high blood pressure and damage to organs such as the liver and kidneys. These are just a few examples of the many obstetric labor complications that can occur. It is important for healthcare providers to be aware of these potential complications and to take appropriate steps to prevent and manage them when they do occur.

Dystocia is a medical term used to describe a difficult or prolonged labor that is not progressing normally. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including the size or position of the baby, the mother's body size or shape, or any underlying medical conditions that may affect the labor process. Dystocia can lead to complications for both the mother and the baby, such as fetal distress, birth injuries, and even death. Treatment for dystocia may involve medical interventions such as forceps or vacuum extraction, or in severe cases, a cesarean section may be necessary.

Anesthesia, Epidural is a type of regional anesthesia that numbs the lower half of the body, including the legs, pelvis, and lower abdomen. It is commonly used during childbirth, surgeries involving the lower back, abdomen, or pelvis, and other procedures that require anesthesia for the lower body. During an epidural, a small catheter is inserted into the epidural space, which is a space between the spinal cord and the outer layer of the spinal canal. The catheter is then attached to a pump that delivers a local anesthetic solution to the area around the spinal cord, which numbs the nerves that control sensation in the lower body. Epidural anesthesia is generally considered safe and effective, but like all forms of anesthesia, it carries some risks, including bleeding, infection, and nerve damage. It is important for patients to discuss the risks and benefits of epidural anesthesia with their healthcare provider before undergoing the procedure.

Uterine rupture is a serious medical condition that occurs when the wall of the uterus breaks or tears during pregnancy or childbirth. This can be a life-threatening situation for both the mother and the baby, as it can lead to severe bleeding, infection, and other complications. Uterine rupture is most commonly associated with previous cesarean deliveries, but it can also occur in women who have had a history of uterine surgery or who have certain medical conditions that increase the risk of uterine weakness. Symptoms of uterine rupture may include severe abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding, and a high-pitched fetal heart rate. If left untreated, uterine rupture can lead to severe maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Treatment for uterine rupture typically involves emergency surgery to repair the damaged uterus and remove the baby, if necessary. In some cases, a hysterectomy may be necessary to remove the uterus and prevent further bleeding.

The Apgar Score is a simple method used to assess the health of a newborn baby immediately after birth. It was developed by Dr. Virginia Apgar in 1952 as a way to quickly evaluate the baby's condition and identify any potential problems that may require immediate medical attention. The Apgar Score is based on five criteria: heart rate, breathing, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color. Each criterion is assigned a score of 0, 1, or 2, with 0 indicating the worst possible score and 2 indicating the best possible score. The scores for each criterion are then added together to give an overall Apgar Score, which ranges from 0 to 10. A baby with an Apgar Score of 7 or above is considered to be in good health and does not require immediate medical attention. However, a baby with a score of 4 or below may require medical intervention, such as resuscitation or transfer to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The Apgar Score is typically performed by a healthcare provider within the first minute of the baby's life, and again at 5 minutes to assess the baby's progress. It is a quick and easy way to evaluate the baby's condition and ensure that any potential problems are identified and addressed promptly.

Pregnancy complications refer to any medical conditions or problems that arise during pregnancy that can potentially harm the mother or the developing fetus. These complications can range from minor issues that can be easily managed to life-threatening conditions that require immediate medical attention. Some common examples of pregnancy complications include gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, placenta previa, preterm labor, and miscarriage. Other complications may include infections, such as urinary tract infections or sexually transmitted infections, as well as conditions that can affect the baby, such as congenital anomalies or birth defects. Pregnancy complications can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lifestyle choices, underlying medical conditions, and environmental factors. Proper prenatal care and regular check-ups with a healthcare provider can help identify and manage pregnancy complications early on, reducing the risk of complications and improving outcomes for both the mother and the baby.

Pregnancy complications, cardiovascular refers to medical conditions that affect the cardiovascular system of a pregnant woman and can potentially harm her or her developing fetus. These complications can include hypertension (high blood pressure), gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and heart disease. These conditions can lead to serious complications such as preterm labor, fetal growth restriction, and even maternal death if not properly managed. It is important for pregnant women to receive regular prenatal care and to inform their healthcare provider of any pre-existing medical conditions or risk factors for cardiovascular complications.

Analgesia, obstetrical refers to the use of medications or other interventions to relieve pain during childbirth. Obstetrical analgesia can be administered in various forms, including: 1. Epidural analgesia: A type of regional anesthesia that involves injecting a local anesthetic into the epidural space around the spinal cord. This can provide pain relief for the duration of labor and delivery. 2. Spinal analgesia: A type of regional anesthesia that involves injecting a local anesthetic into the spinal cord. This can provide immediate pain relief, but the effects wear off more quickly than with epidural analgesia. 3. Nitrous oxide: A gas that can be inhaled to produce a feeling of relaxation and pain relief. It is often used in combination with other forms of analgesia. 4. Non-pharmacological interventions: These include techniques such as breathing exercises, massage, and hydrotherapy, which can help to reduce pain and promote relaxation during labor. Obstetrical analgesia is typically used to manage the pain of labor and delivery, but it can also be used to manage pain during other procedures related to pregnancy and childbirth, such as a cesarean section. It is important to note that while analgesia can help to reduce pain, it may not completely eliminate it, and there may be some side effects associated with its use.

Placenta previa is a medical condition that occurs during pregnancy when the placenta partially or completely covers the cervix. This means that the placenta is located lower down in the uterus than it should be, which can cause bleeding during pregnancy and childbirth. Placenta previa is a relatively common complication of pregnancy, affecting about 1 in 200 pregnancies. It is more common in women who have had previous pregnancies, multiple pregnancies, or who have a history of uterine surgery. Symptoms of placenta previa may include vaginal bleeding during pregnancy, especially after intercourse or a bowel movement. In some cases, there may be no symptoms until bleeding occurs during childbirth. Treatment for placenta previa depends on the severity of the condition and the stage of pregnancy. In some cases, the bleeding may be managed with bed rest and medications to stop the bleeding. In more severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the placenta and prevent further bleeding. Placenta previa can be a serious condition, but with proper medical care, most women with this condition can have a healthy pregnancy and a safe delivery.

In the medical field, a cicatrix is a scar that forms after the healing of a wound or injury. It is typically a raised, thickened area of skin that is usually pale or lighter in color than the surrounding skin. Cicatrices can be caused by a variety of factors, including surgery, burns, acne, and skin infections. They can range in size and appearance, and may be permanent or fade over time. In some cases, cicatrices may cause discomfort or interfere with the function of the affected area. Treatment options for cicatrices may include topical creams, laser therapy, or surgical procedures.

Bupivacaine is a local anesthetic medication that is commonly used in the medical field for spinal and epidural anesthesia. It is a type of amide local anesthetic that is derived from cocaine and is used to numb a specific area of the body, such as the lower back or limbs, during surgery or other medical procedures. Bupivacaine is available in various forms, including solutions, gels, and injections, and is typically administered by a healthcare professional. It is a powerful local anesthetic that can provide long-lasting pain relief, but it can also have side effects, such as nausea, vomiting, and allergic reactions.

Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is a medical emergency that occurs when a woman experiences excessive bleeding after giving birth. It is defined as blood loss of 500 milliliters or more within the first 24 hours after delivery, or blood loss of 1000 milliliters or more within the first 24-48 hours after delivery. PPH can be caused by a variety of factors, including uterine atony (inadequate contraction of the uterus), retained placenta (failure of the placenta to fully separate from the uterus), and tears or lacerations in the vaginal walls or cervix. PPH can be life-threatening if not treated promptly and effectively, and it is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality worldwide.

Puerperal disorders refer to a group of medical conditions that occur during the postpartum period, which is the time immediately following childbirth. These disorders can affect the mother's physical and mental health and can be life-threatening if left untreated. Some common puerperal disorders include: 1. Postpartum hemorrhage: This is the most common cause of maternal mortality worldwide and occurs when there is excessive bleeding after childbirth. 2. Infection: Infections such as endometritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, and sepsis can occur after childbirth and can be life-threatening if left untreated. 3. Puerperal fever: This is a fever that occurs within the first week after childbirth and can be caused by infection. 4. Postpartum depression: This is a mood disorder that can occur after childbirth and can affect the mother's ability to care for herself and her baby. 5. Postpartum psychosis: This is a rare but serious mental health disorder that can occur after childbirth and can cause hallucinations, delusions, and mood swings. 6. Breastfeeding difficulties: Many new mothers experience difficulties breastfeeding, which can lead to stress and anxiety. 7. Postpartum thyroiditis: This is an autoimmune disorder that can occur after childbirth and can cause symptoms such as fatigue, weight gain, and depression. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of puerperal disorders are essential to ensure the health and well-being of the mother and her baby.

Pregnancy, prolonged, is a medical condition that occurs when a woman's pregnancy lasts longer than the normal gestational period of 40 weeks. This can be due to a variety of factors, including a slow rate of fetal growth, a prolonged pregnancy, or a multiple pregnancy. Prolonged pregnancy can increase the risk of complications for both the mother and the baby. For example, the baby may be at risk of developing health problems such as low birth weight, respiratory distress syndrome, or jaundice. The mother may also be at risk of developing complications such as high blood pressure, gestational diabetes, or postpartum hemorrhage. Treatment for prolonged pregnancy may involve monitoring the mother and baby closely, administering medications to induce labor, or performing a cesarean section if necessary. It is important for women who are pregnant to receive regular prenatal care and to discuss any concerns about their pregnancy with their healthcare provider.

Cephalopelvic disproportion (CPD) is a medical condition that occurs during pregnancy when the size of the baby's head is larger than the mother's pelvis. This can lead to difficulties during childbirth, as the baby's head may not be able to pass through the birth canal easily. CPD can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic factors, maternal health conditions, and the baby's size and position. It is typically diagnosed through ultrasound and other imaging tests during pregnancy. Treatment for CPD may include induction of labor, cesarean section, or other interventions to help the baby pass through the birth canal safely.

Ankyrin repeats are a type of protein domain that is composed of tandem repeats of a specific amino acid sequence. These repeats are characterized by a high degree of structural similarity and are often involved in protein-protein interactions. In the medical field, ankyrin repeats are found in a variety of proteins that play important roles in cell signaling, adhesion, and trafficking. For example, ankyrin repeats are found in the spectrin family of proteins, which are involved in the maintenance of cell shape and the organization of the cytoskeleton. They are also found in the ankyrin repeat domain-containing proteins, which are involved in a variety of cellular processes, including the regulation of gene expression and the assembly of multi-protein complexes. Ankyrin repeats are often used as a structural motif for the design of small molecule inhibitors of protein-protein interactions, which have potential therapeutic applications in the treatment of a variety of diseases.

Epidural analgesia is a type of regional anesthesia that involves injecting a local anesthetic solution into the epidural space, which is the space between the outer layer of the spinal cord (dura mater) and the surrounding bony canal (vertebral column). This technique is commonly used to relieve pain during childbirth, as well as for postoperative pain management after surgery. During epidural analgesia, a small catheter is inserted into the epidural space through a small incision in the lower back. The catheter is then attached to a pump that delivers a continuous or intermittent dose of local anesthetic solution to the epidural space. The solution can also be combined with other medications, such as opioids, to provide additional pain relief. Epidural analgesia is generally considered safe and effective, but like any medical procedure, it carries some risks, including infection, bleeding, and nerve damage. It is important for patients to discuss the potential risks and benefits of epidural analgesia with their healthcare provider before undergoing the procedure.

Puerperal infection, also known as postpartum infection, is an infection that occurs in the reproductive tract of a woman during or after childbirth. It can affect the uterus, vagina, cervix, or other parts of the reproductive system. Puerperal infection is a serious medical condition that can lead to complications such as sepsis, abscesses, and even death if left untreated. It is caused by bacteria that can enter the reproductive tract during childbirth, or by bacteria that are already present in the body but become more virulent after childbirth. Risk factors for puerperal infection include prolonged labor, multiple pregnancies, and certain medical conditions such as diabetes or hypertension. Treatment typically involves antibiotics and supportive care, and may require hospitalization.

Adjuvants, anesthesia are substances that are used to enhance the effectiveness of an anesthetic agent. They are typically used in conjunction with the anesthetic to provide a more complete and effective block of pain and other sensations during surgery or other medical procedures. There are several different types of adjuvants that can be used with anesthesia, including opioids, non-opioid analgesics, and local anesthetics. Opioids, such as morphine or fentanyl, are used to provide pain relief and sedation during surgery. Non-opioid analgesics, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen, can also be used to provide pain relief. Local anesthetics, such as lidocaine or bupivacaine, are used to numb a specific area of the body before surgery or other procedures. Adjuvants can be administered in a variety of ways, including intravenously, orally, or topically. They are typically used in combination with an anesthetic agent to provide a more complete and effective block of pain and other sensations during surgery or other medical procedures.

Endometritis is an inflammation of the endometrium, which is the inner lining of the uterus. It is usually caused by an infection, but can also be caused by other factors such as surgery, trauma, or hormonal changes. Symptoms of endometritis may include pelvic pain, fever, vaginal discharge, and abnormal bleeding. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to treat the underlying infection, and in some cases, surgery may be necessary. Endometritis can be a serious condition if left untreated, as it can lead to complications such as infertility, chronic pelvic pain, and even sepsis.

Ephedrine is a stimulant drug that is derived from the Ephedra plant. It is commonly used in over-the-counter medications to treat symptoms of allergies, colds, and flu. Ephedrine works by constricting blood vessels in the nasal passages, reducing inflammation, and opening airways, which can help to relieve congestion and other respiratory symptoms. In addition to its use in over-the-counter medications, ephedrine is also used in some prescription medications to treat asthma and other respiratory conditions. It is also sometimes used as a recreational drug, particularly in combination with other stimulants such as amphetamines. Ephedrine is a Schedule IV controlled substance in the United States, meaning that it has a low potential for abuse and dependence, but it can still be misused if not used as directed. It is important to follow the instructions on the label and to talk to a healthcare provider before using ephedrine or any other medication.

In the medical field, a base sequence refers to the specific order of nucleotides (adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine) that make up the genetic material (DNA or RNA) of an organism. The base sequence determines the genetic information encoded within the DNA molecule and ultimately determines the traits and characteristics of an individual. The base sequence can be analyzed using various techniques, such as DNA sequencing, to identify genetic variations or mutations that may be associated with certain diseases or conditions.

In the medical field, fetal death, also known as stillbirth, refers to the death of a fetus that occurs after 20 weeks of gestation. This means that the fetus has died before it is born, either spontaneously or as a result of medical intervention. Fetal death can occur for a variety of reasons, including genetic abnormalities, infections, maternal health problems, and complications during pregnancy such as placental abruption or preterm labor. In cases of fetal death, medical professionals will typically perform an autopsy to determine the cause of death and to rule out any potential medical conditions that may have contributed to the death. This information can be important for both the mother and the family, as it can help to identify any underlying health issues and prevent similar complications from occurring in future pregnancies.

Placenta accreta is a condition in which the placenta attaches abnormally to the uterine wall, causing it to grow too deeply into the muscle layers of the uterus. This can lead to bleeding during pregnancy, childbirth, or after delivery, which can be severe and potentially life-threatening. Placenta accreta is a type of placenta previa, which is a condition in which the placenta partially or completely covers the opening of the cervix. It is a relatively rare condition, occurring in about 1 in 200 pregnancies, but it is more common in women who have had previous cesarean sections or who have placenta previa in a previous pregnancy. Treatment for placenta accreta typically involves cesarean section, and in some cases, the uterus may need to be removed (hysterectomy) to stop the bleeding.

Anesthetics, Local are medications that are used to numb a specific area of the body, such as a tooth or a surgical site, to reduce pain and discomfort during a procedure. These medications work by blocking the transmission of pain signals from the nerves in the affected area to the brain. Local anesthetics are typically administered by injection, cream, or spray, and their effects can last for several hours. There are several types of local anesthetics, including lidocaine, benzocaine, and novocaine, each with its own specific properties and uses. Local anesthetics are commonly used in dentistry, surgery, and other medical procedures where a patient needs to be numbed for a specific area of the body.

In the medical field, birth weight refers to the weight of a newborn baby at the time of delivery. It is typically measured in grams or ounces and is an important indicator of a baby's health and development. Birth weight is influenced by a variety of factors, including the mother's health, nutrition, and lifestyle, as well as the baby's genetics and gestational age. Babies who are born with a low birth weight (less than 2,500 grams or 5.5 pounds) are considered premature or small for gestational age, which can increase their risk of health problems such as respiratory distress syndrome, jaundice, and infections. On the other hand, babies who are born with a high birth weight (greater than 4,000 grams or 8.8 pounds) may be at risk for complications such as shoulder dystocia, which can lead to nerve damage or other injuries during delivery. Overall, birth weight is an important measure of a baby's health and development, and healthcare providers closely monitor it during pregnancy and delivery to ensure the best possible outcomes for both the mother and baby.

Oxytocin is a hormone produced by the hypothalamus and released by the posterior pituitary gland. It plays a crucial role in various physiological processes, including childbirth, lactation, and social bonding. In the medical field, oxytocin is often used to induce labor and to facilitate delivery in cases of prolonged labor. It is also used to stimulate milk production in breastfeeding mothers and to treat conditions such as postpartum hemorrhage. In addition to its physiological effects, oxytocin has been shown to have a significant impact on social behavior and emotional regulation. It is often referred to as the "love hormone" or "cuddle hormone" because it is released during social interactions, such as hugging, kissing, and sexual activity, and is thought to promote feelings of trust, empathy, and bonding. Research has also suggested that oxytocin may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of a variety of conditions, including anxiety disorders, depression, and autism spectrum disorder. However, more research is needed to fully understand the role of oxytocin in these conditions and to develop effective treatments based on its effects.

Uterine hemorrhage, also known as uterine bleeding, is a medical condition characterized by excessive bleeding from the uterus. It can occur in women of all ages and can be caused by a variety of factors, including pregnancy, childbirth, hormonal imbalances, uterine fibroids, uterine polyps, uterine cancer, and other medical conditions. Uterine hemorrhage can be classified as either acute or chronic. Acute uterine hemorrhage is a sudden and severe episode of bleeding that requires immediate medical attention, while chronic uterine hemorrhage is a persistent and gradual bleeding that occurs over a longer period of time. Symptoms of uterine hemorrhage may include heavy bleeding, abdominal pain, dizziness, weakness, and fainting. Treatment for uterine hemorrhage depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, surgery, or other medical interventions. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage the bleeding and prevent complications.

The term "Arab World" in the medical field generally refers to the countries and regions where Arabic is the primary language and where the majority of the population is of Arab descent. This includes countries such as Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, the United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. In the medical field, the Arab World is often studied in terms of its unique health challenges and healthcare systems. For example, the Arab World has a high prevalence of certain chronic diseases, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease, and there may be cultural and linguistic barriers to accessing healthcare services. Additionally, the Arab World has a diverse range of healthcare systems, with some countries having universal healthcare coverage and others relying on private insurance or out-of-pocket payments. Overall, the Arab World is an important region to study in the medical field due to its unique cultural, linguistic, and health challenges.

Anesthesia, General is a medical procedure that involves the administration of drugs to induce a state of unconsciousness and analgesia (pain relief) during a surgical or medical procedure. The goal of general anesthesia is to render the patient unconscious and unable to feel pain or respond to stimuli, allowing the surgical or medical team to perform the procedure without the patient experiencing discomfort or distress. During general anesthesia, the patient is typically administered a combination of medications, including anesthetics, muscle relaxants, and sedatives, through an intravenous (IV) line or through inhalation. The anesthetics used during general anesthesia can vary depending on the patient's age, weight, medical history, and the type of procedure being performed. After the procedure, the patient is typically awakened by administering a reversal agent to counteract the effects of the anesthetics. The patient will then be monitored for a period of time to ensure that they have fully recovered from the anesthesia before being discharged from the hospital or surgical center.

Uterine diseases refer to medical conditions that affect the uterus, which is the female reproductive organ responsible for carrying and nourishing a developing fetus during pregnancy. These diseases can be classified into several categories, including: 1. Infections: Infections of the uterus can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi. Examples include bacterial vaginosis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and pelvic inflammatory disease. 2. Endometriosis: Endometriosis is a condition in which the tissue that normally lines the uterus grows outside of it, causing pain and inflammation. 3. Fibroids: Fibroids are non-cancerous growths that develop in the uterus. They can cause heavy bleeding, pain, and other symptoms. 4. Polyps: Polyps are small growths that develop on the lining of the uterus. They can cause bleeding and other symptoms. 5. Cancer: Uterine cancer, also known as endometrial cancer, is a rare but serious condition that develops in the lining of the uterus. 6. Miscarriage: Miscarriage is the loss of a pregnancy before the 20th week of gestation. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including uterine abnormalities. 7. Adenomyosis: Adenomyosis is a condition in which the tissue that normally lines the uterus grows into the muscle wall of the uterus, causing pain and heavy bleeding. 8. Uterine prolapse: Uterine prolapse is a condition in which the uterus drops down into the vagina, causing discomfort and other symptoms. Treatment for uterine diseases depends on the specific condition and its severity. It may include medications, surgery, or other interventions.

Hypotension is a medical condition characterized by low blood pressure. Blood pressure is the force exerted by the blood against the walls of the arteries as the heart pumps blood. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and is typically expressed as two numbers, systolic pressure (the pressure when the heart beats) and diastolic pressure (the pressure when the heart is at rest between beats). Hypotension is defined as a systolic blood pressure below 90 mmHg or a diastolic blood pressure below 60 mmHg. In some cases, a lower blood pressure may be considered normal or even desirable, depending on the individual's age, health status, and other factors. Hypotension can be caused by a variety of factors, including dehydration, medication side effects, heart problems, blood loss, and certain medical conditions such as diabetes, kidney disease, and hormonal imbalances. Symptoms of hypotension may include dizziness, lightheadedness, fainting, and fatigue. Treatment for hypotension depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle changes, or medical procedures.

In the medical field, an emergency is a situation that requires immediate medical attention and intervention to prevent serious harm or death. Emergencies can be caused by a variety of factors, including accidents, trauma, illness, or medical conditions that suddenly worsen. Examples of medical emergencies include heart attacks, strokes, severe allergic reactions, respiratory distress, severe bleeding, and traumatic injuries such as broken bones or severe lacerations. In these situations, medical professionals must act quickly to stabilize the patient and provide life-saving treatment. The response to medical emergencies typically involves a team of healthcare providers, including emergency medical technicians (EMTs), paramedics, and doctors, who work together to assess the patient's condition, provide necessary medical interventions, and transport the patient to a hospital for further treatment if necessary.

A birthing center is a healthcare facility that provides non-hospital-based maternity care services for low-risk pregnant women. These centers are designed to provide a comfortable and supportive environment for women to give birth, with a focus on natural childbirth and minimal intervention. Birthing centers typically offer a range of services, including prenatal care, labor and delivery, postpartum care, and newborn care. They are staffed by a team of healthcare professionals, including midwives, nurses, and obstetricians, who work together to provide personalized care to each woman and her baby. Birthing centers are often located in community settings, such as medical offices or standalone buildings, and are designed to be more intimate and less intimidating than a hospital setting. They typically have fewer medical interventions and procedures available, such as epidurals and cesarean sections, and focus on providing natural childbirth options whenever possible. Overall, birthing centers provide a safe and supportive environment for low-risk pregnant women to give birth, with a focus on natural childbirth and personalized care.

The abdominal wall is the outer layer of muscles and connective tissue that covers the abdominal cavity. It is composed of three layers: the superficial fascia, the rectus sheath, and the transversalis fascia. The abdominal wall serves as a protective barrier for the organs within the abdominal cavity and plays a role in supporting the trunk and maintaining posture. It also contains several muscles, including the rectus abdominis, external obliques, internal obliques, and transversus abdominis, which are responsible for movements such as breathing, digestion, and posture. Injuries or conditions that affect the abdominal wall can cause pain, weakness, and other symptoms.

Eclampsia is a serious complication of pregnancy that can occur in women who have high blood pressure (hypertension) during pregnancy. It is characterized by seizures, usually grand mal seizures, which can be life-threatening for both the mother and the baby. Eclampsia is caused by a combination of factors, including high blood pressure, protein in the urine (proteinuria), and swelling (edema). These factors can lead to damage to the placenta, which can cause the baby to receive less oxygen and nutrients. Symptoms of eclampsia can include severe headaches, blurred vision, abdominal pain, and sudden changes in blood pressure. If left untreated, eclampsia can lead to seizures, coma, and even death. Treatment for eclampsia typically involves managing the high blood pressure with medication, administering anticonvulsant drugs to prevent seizures, and closely monitoring the mother and baby for any signs of complications. In severe cases, hospitalization and delivery of the baby may be necessary.

Pre-eclampsia is a pregnancy-related condition characterized by high blood pressure and damage to organs, particularly the liver and kidneys. It typically develops after 20 weeks of pregnancy and can be a serious condition if left untreated. Pre-eclampsia can also be a sign of underlying health problems, such as diabetes or kidney disease. Symptoms of pre-eclampsia may include severe headaches, vision changes, upper abdominal pain, and protein in the urine. Treatment typically involves hospitalization and close monitoring of the mother and baby, and may include medication to lower blood pressure and prevent seizures. In severe cases, pre-eclampsia can lead to complications such as eclampsia, HELLP syndrome (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets), and preterm birth.

Pregnancy complications, neoplastic refers to pregnancy-related complications that are caused by neoplasms, which are abnormal growths of cells. Neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). During pregnancy, neoplasms can cause a variety of complications, including: 1. Gestational trophoblastic disease: This is a group of rare tumors that develop from the placenta. It can cause bleeding, high blood pressure, and other complications. 2. Gestational choriocarcinoma: This is a rare type of cancer that develops from the placenta. It can spread quickly and cause high blood pressure, bleeding, and other complications. 3. Malignant melanoma: This is a type of skin cancer that can develop during pregnancy. It can spread quickly and cause complications for both the mother and the baby. 4. Breast cancer: While breast cancer is more common in non-pregnant women, it can also occur during pregnancy. It can cause complications for both the mother and the baby, including bleeding, infection, and the need for surgery. Treatment for pregnancy complications caused by neoplasms depends on the type and severity of the condition. It may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these treatments. In some cases, it may be necessary to terminate the pregnancy to treat the neoplasm.

Surgical wound dehiscence is a medical condition in which a surgical incision or wound opens up or separates from the surrounding tissue. This can occur due to various factors, including infection, poor wound healing, excessive tension on the wound, or underlying medical conditions such as diabetes or malnutrition. Surgical wound dehiscence can lead to a range of complications, including infection, bleeding, and damage to underlying organs or tissues. It may require prompt medical attention, including wound cleaning and dressing changes, antibiotics, and in severe cases, surgical repair. Preventing surgical wound dehiscence is an important aspect of post-operative care, and may involve measures such as proper wound care, maintaining good nutrition and hydration, managing underlying medical conditions, and avoiding activities that may put excessive strain on the wound.

Pain, Postoperative refers to the discomfort or pain experienced by a patient after undergoing surgery. It is a common and expected complication of surgery, and can range from mild to severe. Postoperative pain can be caused by a variety of factors, including tissue damage, inflammation, and nerve stimulation. It is typically managed with a combination of pain medications, such as opioids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and local anesthetics, as well as other treatments such as physical therapy, ice packs, and relaxation techniques. Proper management of postoperative pain is important for promoting healing, reducing the risk of complications, and improving the patient's overall comfort and quality of life.

Methylergonovine is a synthetic ergot alkaloid medication that is used to induce uterine contractions for the treatment of postpartum hemorrhage, as well as to prevent uterine atony after childbirth. It works by stimulating the uterine muscles to contract, which helps to stop bleeding and expel any remaining placenta or tissue from the uterus. Methylergonovine is usually administered as an injection, and its effects can be felt within 10-15 minutes. It is contraindicated in patients with certain medical conditions, such as preeclampsia, HELLP syndrome, and placenta previa, as well as in those who are allergic to ergot alkaloids.

Cardiotocography (CTG) is a medical procedure used to monitor the heart rate and contractions of a fetus during pregnancy. It involves placing sensors on the mother's abdomen to record the fetal heart rate and contractions, which are then displayed on a monitor for the healthcare provider to analyze. CTG is typically performed during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, and is often used to detect any problems with the fetus, such as fetal distress, fetal hypoxia (lack of oxygen), or fetal heart rate abnormalities. It can also be used to monitor the progress of labor and delivery, and to determine the need for interventions such as cesarean section. Overall, CTG is an important tool for ensuring the health and safety of both the mother and the fetus during pregnancy and childbirth.

Uterine inertia is a medical condition characterized by a failure of the uterus to contract effectively during labor. This can result in a prolonged labor, which can be dangerous for both the mother and the baby. Uterine inertia can be caused by a variety of factors, including hormonal imbalances, uterine muscle weakness, and certain medical conditions such as placenta previa or uterine fibroids. Treatment for uterine inertia may include the use of medications to stimulate contractions, the use of forceps or a vacuum extractor to help deliver the baby, or in severe cases, a cesarean section may be necessary.

In the medical field, an amino acid sequence refers to the linear order of amino acids in a protein molecule. Proteins are made up of chains of amino acids, and the specific sequence of these amino acids determines the protein's structure and function. The amino acid sequence is determined by the genetic code, which is a set of rules that specifies how the sequence of nucleotides in DNA is translated into the sequence of amino acids in a protein. Each amino acid is represented by a three-letter code, and the sequence of these codes is the amino acid sequence of the protein. The amino acid sequence is important because it determines the protein's three-dimensional structure, which in turn determines its function. Small changes in the amino acid sequence can have significant effects on the protein's structure and function, and this can lead to diseases or disorders. For example, mutations in the amino acid sequence of a protein involved in blood clotting can lead to bleeding disorders.

Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a common complication that occurs after surgery. It is characterized by feelings of nausea (an unpleasant sensation in the stomach) and vomiting (throwing up) that can occur within hours of surgery. PONV can be caused by a variety of factors, including anesthesia, pain medication, and the stress of surgery. It can be a distressing and uncomfortable experience for patients, and in severe cases, it can lead to dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and other complications. Treatment for PONV typically involves medications to prevent or relieve nausea and vomiting, as well as supportive care to help patients manage their symptoms.

Anesthesia, conduction is a type of regional anesthesia that involves numbing a specific area of the body by blocking the transmission of pain signals along a nerve pathway. This is achieved by injecting a local anesthetic solution into the tissue surrounding the nerve or by injecting the anesthetic directly into the nerve itself. Conduction anesthesia is commonly used for surgeries or procedures that require only a small area of the body to be numbed, such as dental procedures, certain types of orthopedic surgeries, and some types of gynecological procedures. It is also used for pain management in conditions such as shingles, postoperative pain, and chronic pain. There are several types of conduction anesthesia, including nerve blocks, plexus blocks, and spinal blocks. Each type of block targets a specific nerve or nerve pathway, providing anesthesia to the area supplied by that nerve.

Sufentanil is a synthetic opioid analgesic that is used in medicine for the relief of severe pain. It is a potent and short-acting opioid, with a rapid onset and a relatively brief duration of action. Sufentanil is often used in anesthesia and intensive care medicine, as well as for the management of acute pain in the emergency department. It is available in a variety of forms, including intravenous injection, intramuscular injection, and transdermal patch. Sufentanil is a Schedule II controlled substance in the United States, meaning that it has a high potential for abuse and dependence.

Abruptio placenta, also known as placental abruption, is a medical condition that occurs when the placenta separates from the uterine wall before the baby is born. This can happen at any time during pregnancy, but it is most common during the third trimester. Abruptio placenta can cause bleeding in the mother, which can be severe and life-threatening if not treated promptly. The bleeding can also cause the baby to be deprived of oxygen and nutrients, which can lead to serious complications or even death. There are several risk factors for abruptio placenta, including high blood pressure, multiple pregnancies, and previous history of the condition. Treatment typically involves hospitalization and close monitoring of the mother and baby, as well as blood transfusions and other medical interventions as needed. In some cases, delivery of the baby may be necessary to prevent further complications.

Fetal diseases refer to medical conditions that affect the developing fetus during pregnancy. These conditions can be genetic, infectious, or caused by environmental factors. Fetal diseases can range from minor abnormalities that do not affect the baby's health to life-threatening conditions that require medical intervention. Some common fetal diseases include chromosomal disorders such as Down syndrome, neural tube defects such as spina bifida, and congenital heart defects. Fetal infections such as rubella, cytomegalovirus, and Zika virus can also cause fetal diseases. Environmental factors such as exposure to certain medications, alcohol, or tobacco can also increase the risk of fetal diseases. Fetal diseases can be detected through prenatal testing, such as ultrasound, amniocentesis, or chorionic villus sampling. Early detection and intervention can help improve the outcome for the baby and the mother. Treatment options may include medication, surgery, or other medical interventions, depending on the specific condition and severity.

Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is a rare but life-threatening complication that occurs during pregnancy or childbirth. It occurs when amniotic fluid, which is the fluid that surrounds the fetus in the uterus, enters the mother's bloodstream. This can happen during childbirth, during an abortion, or during other procedures that involve the amniotic sac. AFE is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment. The symptoms of AFE can include shortness of breath, rapid heartbeat, rapid drop in blood pressure, shock, and loss of consciousness. If left untreated, AFE can be fatal. The exact cause of AFE is not fully understood, but it is thought to be related to the release of substances from the amniotic fluid into the mother's bloodstream. These substances can cause an allergic reaction or an inflammatory response in the mother's body, leading to the symptoms of AFE. Treatment for AFE typically involves supportive care to stabilize the mother's vital signs and manage her symptoms. Oxygen therapy may be used to help the mother breathe, and medications may be given to lower her blood pressure and prevent further complications. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the amniotic fluid from the mother's bloodstream. AFE is a rare but serious complication that can occur during pregnancy or childbirth. If you are pregnant or planning to become pregnant, it is important to discuss the risks and potential complications with your healthcare provider.

Birth injuries refer to physical injuries that occur to a newborn during delivery. These injuries can be caused by a variety of factors, including the size and position of the baby, the mother's health and medical history, and the delivery method used (e.g., vaginal delivery or cesarean section). Some common types of birth injuries include: 1. Cerebral palsy: A group of disorders that affect a person's ability to move and coordinate their muscles. 2. Erb's palsy: A type of brachial plexus injury that affects the nerves in the shoulder and arm. 3. Klumpke's palsy: A type of brachial plexus injury that affects the nerves in the hand and fingers. 4. Brachial plexus injury: Injuries to the nerves in the shoulder and arm that can cause weakness or paralysis. 5. Facial nerve injury: Injuries to the facial nerve that can cause weakness or paralysis on one side of the face. 6. Skull fractures: Injuries to the baby's skull that can occur during delivery. 7. Brain injury: Injuries to the baby's brain that can occur during delivery, such as hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). 8. Shoulder dystocia: A condition in which the baby's shoulder becomes stuck during delivery, which can cause injury to the baby's shoulder or brachial plexus. 9. Umbilical cord prolapse: A condition in which the umbilical cord comes out of the cervix before the baby does, which can cause oxygen deprivation to the baby. 10. Placental abruption: A condition in which the placenta separates from the uterus before delivery, which can cause oxygen deprivation to the baby. Birth injuries can have serious long-term consequences for the baby, including developmental delays, physical disabilities, and cognitive impairments. It is important for healthcare providers to be aware of the potential risks of birth injuries and to take steps to prevent them whenever possible.

Pruritus is a medical term used to describe an intense, persistent, and often uncontrollable urge to scratch or rub a particular area of the skin. It is commonly referred to as "itching" and can be caused by a variety of factors, including skin conditions, infections, allergies, hormonal changes, and certain medications. Pruritus can be a symptom of many different medical conditions, such as eczema, psoriasis, liver disease, kidney disease, and cancer. It can also be a side effect of certain medications, such as antibiotics, antihistamines, and chemotherapy drugs. Treatment for pruritus depends on the underlying cause. In some cases, over-the-counter creams or ointments may be sufficient to relieve symptoms. In more severe cases, prescription medications or other treatments may be necessary. It is important to consult a healthcare professional if you are experiencing persistent or severe itching, as it could be a sign of an underlying medical condition that requires treatment.

In the medical field, "Analgesics, Opioid" refers to a class of drugs that are used to relieve pain. Opioids are a subclass of analgesics that are derived from the opium poppy or synthesized in the laboratory. Opioids work by binding to specific receptors in the brain and spinal cord, which can reduce the perception of pain and produce feelings of euphoria. They are commonly used to treat moderate to severe pain, such as that caused by surgery, injury, or chronic conditions like cancer. However, opioids can also be addictive and can cause side effects such as drowsiness, nausea, constipation, and respiratory depression. As a result, they are typically prescribed only for short-term use and under close medical supervision.

Obstetric labor, premature refers to the delivery of a baby before 37 weeks of gestation. Premature labor is a common complication of pregnancy and can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections, hormonal imbalances, and structural abnormalities of the uterus or cervix. Premature labor can be classified as either "incomplete" or "complete." Incomplete premature labor is characterized by contractions that are not strong enough to dilate the cervix and deliver the baby. Complete premature labor, on the other hand, is characterized by regular, painful contractions that are strong enough to dilate the cervix and progress towards delivery. Premature labor can be managed with medications to slow or stop labor, or in some cases, with surgery to deliver the baby. Premature babies may require special care in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) to help them grow and develop properly.

I'm sorry, but I'm not aware of any medical term or concept related to "Burundi" in the medical field. Burundi is a landlocked country located in East Africa, and it is not typically associated with any specific medical condition or disease. If you have any further information or context regarding the term "Burundi" in the medical field, please let me know, and I will do my best to provide you with a more accurate answer.

Intraoperative complications refer to any unexpected events or problems that occur during a surgical procedure. These complications can range from minor issues, such as bleeding or infection, to more serious problems, such as organ damage or death. Intraoperative complications can be caused by a variety of factors, including surgical errors, anesthesia errors, or underlying medical conditions of the patient. It is important for surgeons and other medical professionals to be aware of the potential for intraoperative complications and to take steps to prevent them whenever possible. If a complication does occur, it is important to address it promptly and appropriately to minimize the risk of further harm to the patient.

Anesthetics, combined, refer to a mixture of two or more anesthetic agents used together to provide anesthesia for a surgical or medical procedure. The combination of anesthetics may be used to enhance the effectiveness of the anesthetic, reduce the required dose of each individual agent, or provide a more balanced anesthetic effect. Common combinations of anesthetics include general anesthetics such as sevoflurane and nitrous oxide, as well as local anesthetics such as lidocaine and bupivacaine. The specific combination of anesthetics used will depend on the type of procedure being performed, the patient's medical history, and other factors.

Pregnancy in diabetics refers to the condition where a woman with diabetes becomes pregnant. Diabetes is a chronic condition characterized by high blood sugar levels, and it can have significant complications during pregnancy if not well-controlled. Pregnancy in diabetics is considered high-risk because it increases the risk of complications for both the mother and the baby. Poorly controlled diabetes during pregnancy can lead to high blood pressure, pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, and preterm labor. These complications can increase the risk of stillbirth, low birth weight, and neonatal hypoglycemia. Therefore, women with diabetes who are planning to become pregnant or who are already pregnant should work closely with their healthcare provider to manage their diabetes effectively. This may involve adjusting their diabetes medication, monitoring their blood sugar levels closely, and making dietary and lifestyle changes to ensure a healthy pregnancy.

Amniotic fluid is a clear, yellowish liquid that fills the amniotic sac, which is a membrane that surrounds and protects the developing fetus during pregnancy. The amniotic fluid is produced by the fetus and the placenta, and it serves several important functions for the developing fetus, including cushioning and supporting the fetus, regulating the temperature and chemical environment of the uterus, and providing nutrients and oxygen to the fetus. The amount of amniotic fluid in the uterus varies throughout pregnancy, but it typically reaches its peak level around 36 weeks of gestation. During labor and delivery, the amniotic fluid is released from the uterus and can be observed by healthcare providers as part of the assessment of fetal well-being. Abnormalities in the amount or composition of amniotic fluid can be a sign of a problem with the developing fetus or the placenta, and may require further evaluation and monitoring by healthcare providers.

Fentanyl is a synthetic opioid pain medication that is approximately 100 times more potent than morphine. It is used to treat severe pain, such as that caused by cancer or after surgery. Fentanyl is available in a variety of forms, including tablets, lozenges, patches, and injections. It is also sometimes used in combination with other medications, such as hydromorphone or oxycodone, to increase their effectiveness. Fentanyl can be highly addictive and can cause respiratory depression, which can be life-threatening. It is important to use fentanyl only under the guidance of a healthcare professional and to follow their instructions carefully.

Pregnancy, ectopic refers to a pregnancy that occurs outside of the uterus, typically in the fallopian tube. This is a serious medical condition that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment, as it can be life-threatening to the mother if left untreated. Ectopic pregnancies are relatively rare, accounting for about 1-2% of all pregnancies. The most common cause of ectopic pregnancy is damage to the fallopian tube, which can occur due to infection, surgery, or other factors. Symptoms of ectopic pregnancy may include abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding, and shoulder pain. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, blood tests, and imaging studies such as ultrasound or laparoscopy. Treatment options for ectopic pregnancy may include medication to cause the pregnancy to end (methotrexate), surgery to remove the ectopic pregnancy (laparoscopic salpingectomy), or a combination of both.

In the medical field, "Infant, Newborn, Diseases" refers to illnesses or medical conditions that affect infants and newborns. These diseases can range from minor infections to more serious conditions that require immediate medical attention. Some common diseases that can affect infants and newborns include respiratory infections, such as pneumonia and bronchitis, gastrointestinal infections, such as diarrhea and vomiting, and infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Other conditions that can affect infants and newborns include jaundice, congenital anomalies, and birth defects. Infants and newborns are particularly vulnerable to infections and diseases because their immune systems are not fully developed, and they may not have the same level of protection as older children and adults. As a result, it is important for healthcare providers to closely monitor infants and newborns for any signs of illness or disease and to provide prompt and appropriate medical care when necessary.

Hypertension, pregnancy-induced, also known as gestational hypertension, is a condition that occurs during pregnancy and is characterized by high blood pressure. It typically develops after 20 weeks of pregnancy and can be a sign of potential complications for both the mother and the baby. The exact cause of gestational hypertension is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to changes in the mother's blood vessels and blood volume during pregnancy. Risk factors for gestational hypertension include a history of high blood pressure, obesity, diabetes, and multiple pregnancies. Symptoms of gestational hypertension may include headaches, vision changes, and upper abdominal pain. If left untreated, it can lead to serious complications such as preeclampsia, which is a more severe form of hypertension that can cause damage to the mother's organs and the baby. Treatment for gestational hypertension typically involves close monitoring of the mother's blood pressure and the baby's health, as well as medication to lower blood pressure if necessary. In some cases, delivery of the baby may be necessary to prevent complications.

In the medical field, the amnion is a thin, transparent membrane that surrounds and protects the developing fetus in the womb. It is one of the three layers that make up the placenta, along with the chorion and the decidua. The amnion is filled with amniotic fluid, which provides cushioning and buoyancy for the fetus, as well as helping to regulate the temperature and chemical environment of the womb. The amnion also plays a role in the development of the fetus's lungs and immune system. In some cases, the amnion may be ruptured or torn, which can lead to complications during pregnancy or childbirth.

In the medical field, "Brazil" typically refers to the country located in South America. Brazil is the largest country in both South America and Latin America, and it is known for its diverse population, rich culture, and natural resources. In terms of healthcare, Brazil has a publicly funded healthcare system called the Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde, or SUS). The SUS provides free or low-cost healthcare services to all Brazilian citizens and residents, including primary care, hospitalization, and specialized medical care. Brazil has also made significant strides in public health, particularly in the areas of infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and dengue fever. The country has implemented widespread vaccination programs and has made efforts to improve access to healthcare services in underserved areas. However, Brazil still faces significant challenges in the healthcare sector, including a shortage of healthcare professionals, inadequate infrastructure, and disparities in access to healthcare services between different regions and socioeconomic groups.

In the medical field, amides are a class of organic compounds that contain a nitrogen atom bonded to two carbon atoms. They are commonly used as drugs and are often referred to as "amide derivatives." One example of an amide derivative used in medicine is acetaminophen, which is commonly sold under the brand name Tylenol. It is used to relieve pain and reduce fever. Another example is aspirin, which is also an amide derivative and is used to relieve pain, reduce fever, and thin the blood. Amides can also be used as local anesthetics, such as lidocaine, which is used to numb the skin and nerves during medical procedures. They can also be used as muscle relaxants, such as succinylcholine, which is used to relax muscles during surgery. Overall, amides play an important role in medicine as they have a wide range of therapeutic applications and are often used to treat various medical conditions.

Surgical wound infection is an infection that occurs in the surgical site after a surgical procedure. It is caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi that enter the body through the incision or other surgical opening. The infection can cause redness, swelling, pain, warmth, and pus or drainage from the wound. In severe cases, it can lead to fever, chills, and sepsis, which is a life-threatening condition. Surgical wound infections can be prevented by following proper surgical techniques, using antibiotics when necessary, and keeping the wound clean and dry. If a surgical wound infection does occur, it is important to seek medical attention promptly to prevent complications and ensure proper treatment.

Meperidine is a synthetic opioid medication that is used to relieve moderate to severe pain. It is also known by the brand name Demerol. Meperidine works by binding to opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord, which can result in a decrease in pain perception and an increase in feelings of relaxation and sedation. Meperidine is available in both oral and injectable forms and is typically prescribed for short-term use only, as it can be habit-forming and can lead to dependence if used for an extended period of time. It is also important to note that meperidine can have a number of side effects, including nausea, vomiting, dizziness, constipation, and respiratory depression. In recent years, the use of meperidine has declined due to concerns about its potential for abuse and addiction, as well as its potential for causing serious side effects. As a result, many healthcare providers are now using alternative pain management options, such as non-opioid medications or non-pharmacological treatments like physical therapy or acupuncture.

Cloning, molecular, in the medical field refers to the process of creating identical copies of a specific DNA sequence or gene. This is achieved through a technique called polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which amplifies a specific DNA sequence to produce multiple copies of it. Molecular cloning is commonly used in medical research to study the function of specific genes, to create genetically modified organisms for therapeutic purposes, and to develop new drugs and treatments. It is also used in forensic science to identify individuals based on their DNA. In the context of human cloning, molecular cloning is used to create identical copies of a specific gene or DNA sequence from one individual and insert it into the genome of another individual. This technique has been used to create transgenic animals, but human cloning is currently illegal in many countries due to ethical concerns.

Pregnancy complications, infectious refers to medical conditions that arise during pregnancy due to infections. These infections can be caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites and can have serious consequences for both the mother and the developing fetus. Some common infectious complications of pregnancy include: 1. Urinary tract infections (UTIs): These infections can cause discomfort and pain, but with prompt treatment, they usually do not cause harm to the fetus. 2. Group B streptococcus (GBS) infection: This is a type of bacteria that can cause serious infections in newborns, including meningitis and pneumonia. Women who are pregnant or have recently given birth are screened for GBS and treated with antibiotics if they are found to be carrying the bacteria. 3. Toxoplasmosis: This is an infection caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii, which can be transmitted to the fetus through the placenta. It can cause miscarriage, stillbirth, or serious birth defects if left untreated. 4. Rubella (German measles): This is a viral infection that can cause serious birth defects if a pregnant woman is infected during the first trimester of pregnancy. 5. Syphilis: This is a bacterial infection that can be transmitted to the fetus through the placenta and cause serious birth defects if left untreated. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of infectious complications of pregnancy are crucial to ensure the health and well-being of both the mother and the developing fetus.

The cervix uteri, also known as the cervix, is the lower part of the uterus in the female reproductive system. It is a muscular, cone-shaped structure that connects the uterus to the vagina. The cervix is responsible for regulating the flow of menstrual blood and controlling the entry and exit of sperm during sexual intercourse. It also plays a role in childbirth by dilating and effacing to allow the baby to pass through the birth canal. In the medical field, the cervix is often examined during routine gynecological exams and is also a key site for cancer screening and treatment.

Cervical ripening refers to the process of softening and thinning the cervix in preparation for childbirth. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus that opens up during labor to allow the baby to pass through. During pregnancy, the cervix is typically closed and firm to prevent the baby from coming out too early. However, as labor approaches, the cervix begins to change and soften in response to hormones produced by the body. This process is called cervical ripening. Cervical ripening can be induced by a healthcare provider using medications or other methods. The goal of cervical ripening is to help the cervix open up and dilate more quickly, which can help speed up labor and delivery.

Elective repeat caesarean section (ERCS) Both have higher risks than a vaginal birth with no previous caesarean section. There ... "Rates for Total Cesarean Section, Primary Cesarean Section and Vaginal Birth After Cesarean Section (VBAC), United States, 1989 ... caesarean section should give birth by elective repeat caesarean section (ERCS). Unknown previous uterine incision Previous ... "Once a caesarean, always a caesarean." Overall, cesarean sections became so commonplace that the caesarean delivery rate ...
... with greater risks of complications in an emergency repeat caesarean section than in an elective repeat caesarean section. On ... Elective repeat caesarean section (ERCS) Both have higher risks than a vaginal birth with no previous caesarean section. A ... Caesarean section (C-section) is recommended when vaginal delivery might pose a risk to the mother or baby. C-sections are also ... Caesarean section, also known as C-section or caesarean delivery, is the surgical procedure by which one or more babies are ...
"Elective repeat caesarean section versus induction of labour for women with a previous caesarean birth". The Cochrane Database ... Women who have had a caesarean section for a previous pregnancy are at risk of having a uterine rupture, when their caesarean ... There is not yet enough research to determine which method of induction is safest for a woman who has had a caesarean section ... There is also no research to say whether it is better for these women and their babies to have an elective caesarean section ...
It may result in a successful VBAC (vaginal birth after caesarean) or a repeat caesarean section. In approximately 20-40% of ... Trial of labor after caesarean (TOLAC) is the term for an attempted birth in a patient who has had a previous caesarean section ... The main risks of TOLAC are emergency caesarean section and uterine rupture. "Vaginal Birth After Cesarean Delivery - Deciding ... TOLAC is recommended when a patient has had one previous caesarean section using a low transverse uterine incision. ...
... pregnancies are to be distinguished from pregnancies that start from an implantation in a scar of a previous cesarean section, ... specifically repeated D&Cs (dilatation and curettage). Cervical ... Wikipedia articles with sections published in WikiJournal of ...
... it stays there forever and is also often seen during repeat cesarean section as that of the previous section. Prolene is also ... It is used in obstetrical practice, during cesarean sections to suture the rectus sheath of the abdominal wall because it is ...
... of previous cesarean delivery and is used by clinicians to counsel whether to offer trials of labor or repeat cesarean section ... African American and Hispanic women continue to have higher rates of cesarean section than do white women in the US. Medical ... "Challenging the Use of Race in the Vaginal Birth after Cesarean Section Calculator". Women's Health Issues. 29 (3): 201-204. ... "VAGINAL BIRTH AFTER CESAREAN". mfmunetwork.bsc.gwu.edu. Retrieved 2020-10-17. Grobman, William A.; Lai, Yinglei; Landon, Mark B ...
... cesarean section MeSH E04.520.252.500.150 - cesarean section, repeat MeSH E04.520.252.750 - episiotomy MeSH E04.520.252.875 - ... vaginal birth after cesarean MeSH E04.520.252.996 - version, fetal MeSH E04.520.280 - fetoscopy MeSH E04.520.360 - hysteroscopy ...
... caesarean section) rapidly makes her unconscious, but the baby in her uterus remains conscious. However, larger or repeated ... II: Studies at cesarean section". Anesthesiology. 54 (6): 474-80. doi:10.1097/00000542-198106000-00006. PMID 7235275. World ... Awareness and Newborns During Caesarean Section Under General Anaesthesia". Turkish Journal of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation ...
Opting for a caesarean section does not guarantee that transmission will not still occur. As of 2014, there was no permanent ... Repeated treatments are often needed because of the recurrent nature of the virus, especially for children, as the juvenile ... it is not recommended to expose the mother and child to the additional risks of caesarean section to prevent the transmission ... It is important to note that it is still uncertain whether caesarean delivery is a protective factor. Genotype of the HPV (e.g ...
... and obstructed labor at full cervical dilation when there is no option of a caesarean section. In some Irish cases, caesarean ... It is advised that this procedure should not be repeated due to the risk of gait problems and continual pain. Abduction of the ... She thought she was being brought to theatre for a caesarean section. No one told her the plan was to do the 'new procedure,' a ... Since this procedure does not scar the uterus, the concern of future uterine rupture that exists with cesarean section is not a ...
... was admitted into a Khartoum hospital for a caesarean section; the hospital was one that the Comboni Missionary Sisters managed ... The infant was born but the mother suffered from repeated bleeding and other serious problems and was at the point of death on ...
Compared to caesarean section, operative vaginal delivery have been more beneficial, and has been recognized to have a ... Using operative vaginal delivery avoids the risks associated with repeat caesarian sections or vaginal births after caesarian ... Thierens S, van Binsbergen A, Nolens B, van den Akker T, Bloemenkamp K, Rijken MJ (May 2023). "Vacuum extraction or caesarean section ... Thierens S, van Binsbergen A, Nolens B, van den Akker T, Bloemenkamp K, Rijken MJ (May 2023). "Vacuum extraction or caesarean section ...
Bostons frequently require caesarean section to give birth, with over 80% of litters in a UK Kennel Club survey delivered this ... Bostons may be prone to snoring and reverse sneeze-a rapid and repeated forced inhalation through the nose-accompanied by ... Evans, K.; Adams, V. (2010). "Proportion of litters of purebred dogs born by caesarean section" (PDF). The Journal of Small ... Wedderburn, Peter (6 April 2009). "Why do over 80 per cent of Bulldog births happen by caesarian section?". The Daily Telegraph ...
"Why Do We Need Caesarean Section and Abortion?". Bianet. Retrieved 29 July 2012. İpek Üzüm (3 June 2012). "Number of C-section ... He repeated this statement on numerous occasions. In 2010, Turkey's population was estimated at 73,700,000, with a growth rate ... Erdoğan has stated that he opposes Turkey's high and growing rate of caesarean section births because he believes that they ... The Supreme Electoral Council ordered a repeat of the election in Yalova and Ağrı, both of which the AKP had initially narrowly ...
The twins were born five weeks early by an emergency Caesarean section in Baylor University Medical Center in Dallas, Texas, as ... Approaching him, she related that her father had been alcoholic and it was not a pattern she wished to repeat in their family. ...
Successful surgery enables women to live normal lives and have more children, but it is recommended to have a cesarean section ... which may be continual or only happen at night Foul-smelling vaginal discharge Repeated vaginal or urinary tract infections ... In less-developed countries, obstetric fistulae usually develop as a result of prolonged labor when a cesarean section cannot ... NGOs also work with local governments, like the government of Niger, to offer free cesarean sections, further preventing the ...
A cesarean section may be considered. In individuals with a conduit made from bowel tissue, a standard pregnancy test will not ... The water is pulled back out when the syringe is withdrawn and the process is repeated until the mucus is cleared. Certain ...
Moderate-quality evidence suggest that there is a reduced risk of gestational diabetes mellitus and caesarean section with ... A repeat OGTT should be carried out 6 weeks after delivery, to confirm the diabetes has disappeared. Afterwards, regular ... and of needing a Caesarean section. Babies born to mothers with poorly treated gestational diabetes are at increased risk of ...
In two cases, these led to a severe adverse event: one emergency cesarean section within 24 hours after IUT and one preterm ... This study also noted that repeated IUTs were generally needed in anemic fetuses. In this study, there was a median of two IUTs ... Risks associated with an IUT may be avoided by delivering the fetus (via induction or cesarean section) if an acceptable ... Antenatal corticosteroids are typically given to mothers before IUT to anticipate the need for an emergency cesarean section ...
For certain operations, such as caesarean section, or in hypovolemic patients or patients with minimal cardiac reserve, the ... Human errors include repeated attempts at intubation during which the short-acting anesthetic may wear off but the paralyzing ... Bogod DG, Orton JK, Yau HM, Oh TE (April 1990). "Detecting awareness during general anaesthetic caesarean section. An ... Lyons G, Macdonald R (January 1991). "Awareness during caesarean section". Anaesthesia. 46 (1): 62-4. doi:10.1111/j.1365- ...
Treatment can range from expectant management to expedited delivery by induction of labor or Caesarean section, in addition to ... As the theory of immune intolerance as a cause of pre-eclampsia has become accepted, women with repeated pre-eclampsia, ... Pre-eclampsia is also associated with increased frequency of Caesarean section, preterm delivery, and placental abruption. ... as determined by repeated semen exposure of the father to the mother. Various studies have shown that women who frequently had ...
Successful ECV significantly decreases the rate of cesarean section, however, women are still at an increased risk of ... Following the procedure, a repeat CTG is performed and a repeat ultrasound will confirm a successful turn. Should this first ... and cesarean section compared to women with spontaneous cephalic presentation (head first). The procedure is undertaken by ... Following his study, he recommended ECV, even if it failed and needed to be repeated and even if it required anaesthesia. ECV's ...
When Henry arrives home, Martha is being rushed to the hospital for an emergency caesarean section due to uterine hemorrhaging ... They corner McDougal's police contact Richie, who, through repeated interrogation and the promise of anonymity, admits that the ...
In cases of fetal distress and major degrees (traditional grade III and IV) a caesarean section is indicated. Caesarean section ... In such cases, repeat scanning is done after an interval of 15-30 minutes. In parts of the world where ultrasound is ... After four cesarean sections, however, it affects 10% of pregnancies. Rates of disease have increased over the late 20th ... Risk factors include pregnancy at an older age and smoking as well as prior cesarean section, labor induction, or termination ...
Third-degree laceration (tears), anal-sphincter damage and emergency caesarean section are more common in infibulated women. ... If the remaining hole is too large in the view of the girl's family, the procedure is repeated. The vagina is opened for sexual ... after cesarean section, after divorce, and sometimes even in elderly women as a preparation before death." WHO 2005: "In some ... In 1997 section 268 of its Criminal Code was amended to ban FGM, except where "the person is at least eighteen years of age and ...
... has been approved for use immediately following an elective Cesarean section when a local or spinal anesthesia has ... Overdosage or repeated use of carbetocin, particularly if used during pregnancy, could cause hyper-excitation of the oxytocin ... Since the uterus cannot contract on its own following incision during a Cesarean section, exogenous administration of oxytocin ... Safety of carbetocin following vaginal births and emergency Cesarean sections has not been established, though studies have ...
"Rates for total cesarean section, primary cesarean section, and vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC), United States, 1989-2010 ... The Lamaze method of childbirth teaches that making noises such as moaning, groaning, grunting, repeating words over and over, ... A vaginal delivery is recommended over a cesarean section due to increased risk for complications of a cesarean section and ... There are many conflicting stories of the first successful cesarean section (or C-section) in which both mother and baby ...
He was one of the earliest physicians to advocate for the lower segment cesarean section. Despite the initial resistance DeLee ... In a letter to journalist Paul de Kruif, DeLee even wrote that he was "perfectly willing to repeat that general hospitals are ...
Tiffany gives birth to baby Courtney by caesarean section in March 1997, and for a moment Grant softens towards his wife. ... When sober, they both agree not to repeat this and Tiffany begins dating Tony Hills (Mark Homer). They move in together and the ...
Of the total repeat caesarean deliveries, 579 (58.5%) patients underwent elective caesarean section. The KAUH caesarean section ... high, 30.0% for 2 previous caesarean sections) and (low, 14.4% vs. high, 56.2% for 3 or more previous caesarean section) (P , ... the prevalence of women with multiple previous caesarean sections is high [13]. Repeat caesarean deliveries are associated with ... indications for caesarean section. After adjusting for the number of caesarean sections, regression analysis revealed that ...
Hospitals in New York and Illinois have wide variations in their primary and repeat cesarean section rates. A number of factors ... Variability and consistency of rates of primary and repeat cesarean sections among hospitals in two states.. ... Rock, S M "Variability and consistency of rates of primary and repeat cesarean sections among hospitals in two states." 108, no ... Rock, S M "Variability and consistency of rates of primary and repeat cesarean sections among hospitals in two states." vol. ...
Repeat C/S. VBAC - Vaginal delivery after cesarean. LSTCS (or LTCS) low segment transverse cesarean section ... If the mother has had a previous cesarean delivery, indicate the number of previous cesarean deliveries she has had.. ... Mother had a previous cesarean delivery. Definitions. Previous delivery by extracting the fetus, placenta, and membranes ... CDC is not responsible for Section 508 compliance (accessibility) on other federal or private website. ...
C-section), surgery to deliver a baby through the mothers abdomen. It is done when a vaginal birth is not safe. ... Breastfeeding after Cesarean Delivery (American Academy of Pediatrics) Also in Spanish * Repeat C-Sections: Is There a Limit? ( ... Cesarean Sections (C-Sections) (Nemours Foundation) Also in Spanish * Delivery by Cesarean Section (American Academy of ... What is a cesarean delivery?. A cesarean delivery, also called a cesarean section or c-section, is surgery to deliver a baby. ...
... see the topic Vaginal Birth After Cesarean (VBAC). What is a cesarean section? A cesarean section is the delivery of a baby ... If you have had a C-section and would like information about how a cesarean affects future deliveries, ... Many cesarean deliveries are planned ahead of time for women who have had a cesarean in the past. Reasons for a planned repeat ... What is a cesarean section?. A cesarean section is the delivery of a baby through a cut (incision) in the mothers belly and ...
Repeat Cesarean Section * Reproductive Health * Retropubic Urethropexy * Routine Gynecological Care * Salpingectomy * Selective ...
repeat cesarean section. reticulum cell sarcoma. RCT. randomized clinical trial(s). rotator cuff tear ...
... was a cesarean section done because of failure to progress; her current birth was an elective repeat cesarean. She experienced ... For the intraoperative cesarean patient, an anesthesiologist can use the fact that inhaled anesthetics can decrease serotonin ...
The success rate of vaginal births after cesarean section (VBAC) fell from 66.4% in Group I to 55.8% in Group II (p < 0.001 ... The aim of the present study is to evaluate success rates of trial of labor after caesarean section (TOLAC), as well as ... extending the duration of the second stage of labor in order to reduce caesarean delivery (CD) rates and its severe ... Planned elective repeat caesarean section versus planned vaginal birth for women with a previous caesarean birth. Cochrane ...
So we used "CBAC" to differentiate another unwanted cesarean from Elective Repeat Cesarean Section (ERCS), where women truly ... which is a cesarean section after cesarean.. This time, things were probably as good as they can get for a cesarean delivery ... or because the mother was coerced or scared into a repeat cesarean. Some women prefer "CSAC" (Cesarean Surgery After Cesarean) ... People just say, "repeat;" some women say "elective repeat cesareans." In the ICAN village, a lot of women use the term CBAC to ...
p=0.03; Fig4) but not in the number born by Caesarean section (overall, first time, or repeat; Fig5), their birth weight (Fig6 ... The number of births by Caesarean section across all rurality tiers was 28.2% (17.5% first-time Caesarean sections and 10.7% ... p=0.18 for repeat C sections, and p=0.10 for all C sections).? Figure 6: Infant birth weight as a categorical variable did not ... Figure 5: Distribution of first-time and repeat Caesarean (C) section birth rates did not differ significantly by rurality tier ...
Comparison of the Maternal and Fetal Complications of Vaginal Birth After C-Section (VBAC) and Repeat Cesarean Section in ... elective repeat Cesarean section (20148 deliveries) and VBAC delivery (110 deliveries) were enrolled, then maternal and ... natural delivery and repeat Cesarean section in Isfahan province.. Method. In this one-year descriptive cross-sectional study, ... Maternal outcome was better in VBAC and then repeat C-section than the natural childbirth, Apgar scores in the first and fifth ...
The chances of needing a cesarean delivery (C-section) do not increase. ... Epidurals can be repeated throughout the duration of labor.. *The biggest side effect of an epidural is numbness and lack of ...
... and vaginal birth after previous cesarean section (VBAC), as well as a choice of primary or repeat cesarean. When only forceps ... Vaginal birth after previous C-section, Primary C-section, Repeat C-section, Vaginal or C-section recode, Forceps, and Vacuum. ... Repeat C-section ............................ NTREPEAC 1064 Vaginal or C-section recode ................. NTDELIVR 1065 Forceps ... 52 replicate weights were computed using repeated sampling method where WESVAR or other software that use repeated samples can ...
Institutes of Health said doctors are too often demanding repeat cesarean deliveries for pregnant women after a first C-section ... and performs functions such as recognising you when you return to our website and helping our team to understand which sections ...
... previous cesarean section (VBAC), as well as a choice of primary or repeat cesarean. When only forceps, vacuum, or VBAC is ... C-section) 2 ... Vaginal birth after previous C-section 3 ... Primary C -section 4 ... Repeat C -section 5 ... Not stated 225- ... method of delivery classified as repeat cesareans and vaginal birth after previous cesarean. The repeat cesarean rate is the ... Vaginal birth after previous C-section 219 1 PRIMAC Primary C -section 220 1 REPEAC Repeat C -section Tape Locations 221-245 ...
ACOG/SMFM guidelines released for prevention of primary cesarean delivery The American College of Obstetricians and ... Practice Essentials Cesarean delivery is defined as the delivery of a fetus through surgical incisions made through the ... What is the role of laparotomy in cesarean delivery (C-section)?. How is hysterotomy performed in cesarean delivery (C-section ... Menacker F. Trends in cesarean rates for first births and repeat cesarean rates for low-risk women: United States, 1990-2003. ...
... a c-section resulting from an unsuccessful VBAC has more risks than an elective repeat cesarean. The additional concerns that ... a scheduled c-section or a VBAC. While most practitioners today hardly bat an eye when mothers opt for a repeat c-section, it ... Less time to react to an emergency. Already, a repeat c-section will take more time than your first. "It will take longer ... In fact, while a successful VBAC has fewer complications than an elective repeat c-section, ...
Elective Repeat Cesarean Section: Just Say No. 11. Professional Labor Support: Mothering the Mother ... 1. The Cesarean Epidemic: Obstetrics on the Cutting Edge. 2. The Full-Term Breech Baby: Cesarean Section is Not the Only Answer ... 5. Electronic Fetal Monitoring and Cesarean for Fetal Distress: The Machine that Goes Ping! ...
Carroll CS Sr, Magann EF, Chauham SP, et al: Vaginal birth after cesarean section versus elective repeat cesarean delivery: ... Vaginal versus repeat cesarean section. Am J Obstet Gynecol 185:349, 2001 ... For cesarean delivery, forethought is given to optimal placement and type of abdominal incision to access the fetus and to the ... In a nurse-midwife practice, women whose BMI exceeded 29 kg/m2 had a two- to fourfold increased cesarean delivery rate (Kaiser ...
Cesarean Section. No members yet for today. see more leaders.... Todays Posts. Today Monthly Record. ... If you chose to schedule a repeat c-section, how far along were you when you got to schedule it, and when did you schedule it ... When did you schedule your repeat c-section?. By JennyPenny Dec 9, 2019 ... JennyPenny: for my 3rd C-section we were 100% sure it had to be a C-section so my OB allowed me to schedule quite early after ...
High weight gain during pregnancy is associated with a greater risk for cesarean section and higher than normal birth weight ... Repeat 10 times. Once youve perfected the three-second contractions, try doing the exercise for four seconds at a time and ... The rate of births delivered via cesarean section is increasing in this country. In 2013 (the most recent data available), ... Just Take It Out! The Ethics & Economics of Cesarean Section and Hysterectomy by D. Campbell Walters ...
... the number of vaginal births after prior cesarean section, the number of first-time cesarean sections, the number of repeat ... the number of vaginal births after prior cesarean section, the number of first-time cesarean sections, the number of repeat ... Informing maternity patients about the risks associated with cesarean section. (A217/S2736). Resolution. Approved, by Council. ... including efforts to reduce the risks associated with unplanned cesarean sections and efforts to address inequities across ...
For CEH after cesarean section, treatment with triamcinolone acetonide injections is considered to be superior regarding ... After tissue expander insertion, the breast was reconstructed by CAL repeated for three sessions using cultured ASCs at 4-6- ... We report a case of CEH following cesarean section that was successfully treated with the local injection of triamcinolone ... Efficacy of Local Injection with Triamcinolone Acetonide for Chronic Expanding Hematoma after Cesarean Section ...
A Vaginal Birth after Cesarean section ("VBAC") is when a woman who has had a prior C-section delivers vaginally in a ... without needing a repeat C-section). There are situations where women who have had a prior C-section may be eligible to deliver ... Cesarean Birth Rate (NTSV) (Data Source: CMQCC 01/01/2022 -- 12/31/2022). This measure reflects the percentage of cesarean ... The NTSV Cesarean Birth rate compares how often each hospital performs cesareans on its patients with relatively "low risk" ...
Background: Women with a previous CS are faced with a decision between repeat elective CS and vaginal birth after caesarean. ... Background: Women with a previous CS are faced with a decision between repeat elective CS and vaginal birth after caesarean. ... Background: Women with a previous CS are faced with a decision between repeat elective CS and vaginal birth after caesarean. ... Background: Women with a previous CS are faced with a decision between repeat elective CS and vaginal birth after caesarean. ...
Repeat C-Sections: Is There a Limit? Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research ... Cesarean Section. Summary. A Cesarean section (C-section) is surgery to deliver a baby. The baby is taken out through the ... Cesarean Section: Recovering After Surgery March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation. *Cesarean Section: The Operation March of ... Having a C-Section March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation. *What Is a Cesarean Delivery? National Institute of Child Health ...
It also significantly increases the risks of adverse childbirth complications such as low birth weight, still birth, caesarean section ... hence the woman goes through repeated opening and closing procedures, further increasing both immediate and long-term risks; ... increased risk of childbirth complications (difficult delivery, excessive bleeding, caesarean section, need to resuscitate the ...
  • Yes, you can have a vaginal delivery, even with a previous c-section. (thebump.com)
  • A survey of American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Fellows showed that, between 2003 and 2006, 26 percent stopped offering a trial of labor for women with a history of cesarean deliveries, regardless of prior vaginal delivery experience. (thebump.com)
  • In another study, only 15 percent of obese women with a previous cesarean delivery succeeded in having a subsequent vaginal delivery (Chauhan and colleagues, 2001). (health.am)
  • Patients and obstetricians should be aware that there is no convincing evidence that cesarean section is better for the breech baby than assisted vaginal delivery, provided that certain strict criteria are met, and that cesarean section is associated with a higher risk of morbidity and mortality for the parturient than vaginal delivery. (tau.ac.il)
  • However, studies show that even in the private sector, and even considering this aggressively managed childbirth, most women report that they prefer a vaginal delivery than a cesarean section in early pregnancy, going to accept cesarean section during the antenatal care, or even at during childbirth 6,3 . (bvsalud.org)
  • ABSTRACT We investigated the complication rates of repeat caesarean deliveries in 3 hospitals (national health, military, university) in Irbid by examining the obstetric records of 989 women from 1 December 1999 to 30 March 2004. (who.int)
  • Compared with vaginal deliveries, caesarean sections carry a higher number of postpartum complications [2]. (who.int)
  • Repeat caesarean deliveries are associated with increased morbidity [14,15] but little has been done to investigate complications that are specifically associated with repeat caesarean deliveries. (who.int)
  • Some cesarean deliveries are planned. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Others are emergency cesarean deliveries, which are done when unexpected problems happen during delivery. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This is often used during emergency cesarean deliveries. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The more cesarean deliveries you have, the more the risk goes up. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In the past 40 years, the rate of cesarean deliveries has jumped from about 1 out of 20 births to about 1 out of 3 births. (stlukesonline.org)
  • and specialists convened by the National Institutes of Health said doctors are too often demanding repeat cesarean deliveries for pregnant women after a first C-section. (ourbodiesourselves.org)
  • Cesarean deliveries were initially performed to separate the mother and the fetus in an attempt to save the fetus of a moribund patient. (medscape.com)
  • Four hundred and sixty-three articles were found, of which 11 were selected for analysis, and two central themes emerged: promotion of patient safety in cesarean deliveries by means of the surgical safety checklist and recommendations to improve quality of care in cesarean deliveries. (bvsalud.org)
  • increased the number of cesarean deliveries performed in many parts of the world. (bvsalud.org)
  • Other reasons can be added to the occurrence evolution has caused cesarean deliveries to of adverse effects in surgeries, such as poor become one of the most widespread surgeries. (bvsalud.org)
  • And having a cesarean delivery can raise the risk of having difficulties with future pregnancies. (medlineplus.gov)
  • You may be able to have a vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC). (medlineplus.gov)
  • What Is Vaginal Birth after Cesarean (VBAC)? (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you have had a previous C-section, ask your doctor if VBAC might be an option this time. (stlukesonline.org)
  • It is a term used to describe a birth that was planned as a VBAC, Vaginal Birth After a Cesarean, but instead resulted in another cesarean. (ican-online.org)
  • It stands for vaginal birth after cesarean-and the first challenge for Melby and any other woman attempting a VBAC is finding a provider who would allow her to try for one in the first place. (thebump.com)
  • Like Melby, if you had a c-section when delivering your first child, you have two choices about how to give birth again: a scheduled c-section or a VBAC. (thebump.com)
  • While most practitioners today hardly bat an eye when mothers opt for a repeat c-section, it can be really hard-depending on where you live-to find one willing to allow you to attempt a VBAC. (thebump.com)
  • TOLAC (and therefore VBAC) rates declined while those of c-sections skyrocketed, because "doctors were less likely to offer TOLAC to patients because of fear of the potential complications associated with VBAC, concerns about medical liability, and/or they couldn't comply with the recommendation of being 'immediately' available if an emergency occurs," Butler Tobah says. (thebump.com)
  • Although Edwards and co-workers (2003) reported a success rate of greater than 50 percent, they showed that costs for a planned trial of labor and elective cesarean delivery were equivalent. (health.am)
  • The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) published a committee opinion in November 2003 supporting "the permissibility of elective cesarean delivery in a normal pregnancy, after adequate informed consent"(American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists [ACOG], p. 1101). (ukessays.com)
  • For most of the 20th century, the general belief was that once a woman had undergone a cesarean delivery, her future pregnancies would require c-sections. (thebump.com)
  • Although some believe birth by elective cesarean section (ECS) is preferable to vaginal birth, it can be shown that in low-risk pregnancies, vaginal birth is safer for both mother and baby. (ukessays.com)
  • When the operation is performed in subsequent pregnancies, it is called repeat cesarean section. (epainassist.com)
  • Despite the fact that cesarean section in Brazil is seen as consumer good, the scientific evidence shows that for uncomplicated pregnancies, it offers greater risks to the health of mother and baby 9 . (bvsalud.org)
  • There was a statistically significant difference between the number of previous caesarean sections and hospital. (who.int)
  • In total, 579 (58.5%) patients underwent elective caesarean section. (who.int)
  • There were statistically significant differences between hospitals for "failure to progress in labour" and "other" indications for caesarean section. (who.int)
  • After adjusting for the number of caesarean sections, regression analysis revealed that women from the military and university hospitals were more likely to have placenta praevia. (who.int)
  • Caesarean sections have for some time been performed with impunity. (who.int)
  • The high rate of caesarean section poses a unique threat in the developing world where family size has not dipped to the low levels seen recently in the more industrialized countries. (who.int)
  • About one-third of caesarean sections are repeat procedures [12]. (who.int)
  • In developing countries in general, and Middle Eastern countries in particular, the prevalence of women with multiple previous caesarean sections is high [13]. (who.int)
  • The impact of the type of hospital on clinical outcomes has been examined for a variety of medical procedures [16] Because little can be done to influence maternal factors that are associated with caesarean delivery complications [17], the aim of this study was to describe the role that individual hospitals play in complications from repeat caesarean section. (who.int)
  • The aim of the present study is to evaluate success rates of trial of labor after caesarean section (TOLAC), as well as maternal and neonatal outcomes after the establishment of the recent guidelines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In some countries, a CD is considered necessary or is offered to women who have had previous caesarean sections. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, the trial of labor after caesarean section (TOLAC) is an essential strategy to reduce CD rates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Author affi liations: Universidad de Antioquia, nant of persistent nasal Staphylococcus born by repeat caesarean section to a Medellín, Colombia (J.N. Jiménez, L.A. aureus carriage in humans? (cdc.gov)
  • Objective: To develop and pilot two computer-based decision aids to assist women with decision-making about mode of delivery after a previous caesarean section (CS), which could then be evaluated in a randomized-controlled trial. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • Background: Women with a previous CS are faced with a decision between repeat elective CS and vaginal birth after caesarean. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • It also significantly increases the risks of adverse childbirth complications such as low birth weight, still birth, caesarean section and post-partum haemorrhage. (who.int)
  • ABSTRACT This paper reviews global data on caesarean section (CS) focusing on Eastern Mediter- ranean Region (EMR) countries for which data could be obtained. (who.int)
  • Optimal duration of bladder catheterization after elective caesarean section to prevent urinary tract morbidity: a randomized controlled trial of 12 versus 24 hours. (who.int)
  • Inclusion criteria: Pregnant women scheduled for elective caesarean section at term. (who.int)
  • Exclusion criteria: Pregnant women whose condition require emergency caesarean section. (who.int)
  • Urine retention which is the inability of the patient to void spontaneously within 6-hours of the removal of urethral catheter following elective caesarean section despite palpable full bladder. (who.int)
  • Patient satisfaction defined as participants preference to have same timing of urethral catheter removal during a repeat caesarean section. (who.int)
  • University of Douala caesarean section. (who.int)
  • That's how we got to where we are today, where 1 in 3 births happen via cesarean . (thebump.com)
  • What are the risks of a cesarean delivery? (medlineplus.gov)
  • Because of the risks, experts feel that C-section should only be done for medical reasons. (stlukesonline.org)
  • What are the risks of C-section? (stlukesonline.org)
  • Lack of access to VBACs is frustrating for many women who want the chance to deliver naturally but often feel pushed into having a c-section, which comes with the risks of major surgery: blood loss, infection, blood clots in the legs, injury to internal organs, fluid in baby's lungs, bad reactions to anesthesia and a longer recovery time. (thebump.com)
  • In addition, repeated cesarean sections carry additional substantial health risks for parturients. (tau.ac.il)
  • [ 1 ] The increase in cesarean birth rates from 1996 to the present without clear evidence of concomitant decreases in maternal or neonatal morbidity or mortality raises significant concern that cesarean delivery is overused. (medscape.com)
  • The childbirth scenario in Brazil has been characterized by high rates of cesarean sections, an aggressive management of normal birth, high rates of maternal morbidity and mortality that are stagnant for at least a decade 1 , and for the frequent disregard for rights of patients, as in the case of the companion of choice in childbirth. (bvsalud.org)
  • These investigators chronicled significantly increased incidences of a number of disorders including chronic hypertension, gestational diabetes , preeclampsia, fetal macrosomia, as well as higher rates of cesarean delivery and postpartum complications. (health.am)
  • In one "study of primiparous women twenty-six percent had incontinence at six months postpartum, the rate being lowest with elective cesarean (five percent), higher with cesarean during labour (twelve percent), higher still following a spontaneous vaginal birth (twenty-two percent) and highest following a vaginal forceps delivery (thirty-three percent)" (Hannah, 2004, p. 813). (ukessays.com)
  • The most common indications for primary cesarean delivery include labor dystocia, abnormal or indeterminate fetal heart rate tracing, fetal malpresentation, multiple gestation, and suspected fetal macrosomia. (medscape.com)
  • Safe reduction of the primary cesarean delivery rate will require different approaches for these indications, as well as others. (medscape.com)
  • The leading indications for cesarean delivery (85%) are previous cesarean delivery, breech presentation, dystocia, and fetal distress. (medscape.com)
  • Similarly, in a physician private practice, the cesarean delivery rate for dystocia was increased sixfold in obese nulliparas (Young and Woodmansee, 2002). (health.am)
  • She underwent emergency cesarean section due to placental dysfunction at the age of 20, and elective cesarean section at the age of 22. (springeropen.com)
  • RÉSUMÉ Nous avons étudié les taux de complications pour les césariennes itératives dans 3 hôpitaux (public, militaire, universitaire) à Irbid en examinant les dossiers obstétricaux de 989 femmes entre le 1er décembre 1999 et le 30 mars 2004. (who.int)
  • L'analyse des données triennales met en évidence une baisse importante de la mortalité par hémorragie et par complications de l'anesthésie. (bvsalud.org)
  • The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine (SMFM) released joint guidelines for the safe prevention of primary cesarean delivery. (medscape.com)
  • Once reserved as a procedure of last resort to save the life of mother or baby, cesarean section (CS) surgery is now offered as an elective procedure to mothers who wish to avoid the experience of labor and delivery. (ukessays.com)
  • High rates of cesarean sections and invasive interventions in labor and delivery, disregarding recommendations on safety and quality of healthcare characterize childbirth care in the Brazilian private sector. (bvsalud.org)
  • 5. Electronic Fetal Monitoring and Cesarean for Fetal Distress: The Machine that Goes Ping! (naturallifemom.com)
  • But it does take longer to recover from a cesarean delivery than from a vaginal birth. (medlineplus.gov)
  • So even if you plan on a vaginal birth, it's a good idea to learn about C-section, in case the unexpected happens. (stlukesonline.org)
  • In some cases, a woman who had a C-section in the past may be able to deliver her next baby through the birth canal. (stlukesonline.org)
  • blog will be focused on CBACs - Cesarean Birth After a Cesarean. (ican-online.org)
  • In 2021, 32.1% of women who gave birth in the United States did so by cesarean delivery. (medscape.com)
  • Increasing women's access to nonmedical interventions during labor has also been shown to reduce cesarean birth rates. (medscape.com)
  • Women choose elective cesarean sections in the belief that the surgery is safe and vaginal birth poses risk of harm to themselves or their child. (ukessays.com)
  • However, more importantly, I look at the c-sections that were done for women who attempted to have a vaginal birth. (kmobgyn.com)
  • That results in a rate of 6.5% of women who attempted vaginal birth and ended up with a cesarean. (kmobgyn.com)
  • C-section refers to a cesarean section delivery for child birth or delivery. (epainassist.com)
  • Variations in cesarean and repeated cesarean section rates in Brazil according to gestational age at birth and type of hospital. (bvsalud.org)
  • You didn't even get to give birth, that you are already bombarded with kind and kind of questions, indiscreet I could add, about how you will give birth … naturally or by cesarean section! (josbabyrecipes.com)
  • Until you get to open your mouth and tell your thoughts, you are still served … So… on the tray… a series of statements: "If you give birth by cesarean section, your body will never recover! (josbabyrecipes.com)
  • You can even have a beautiful silhouette even after you have given birth by cesarean section! (josbabyrecipes.com)
  • I am a concrete example, and like me, believe me there are many other mothers.Practically the beauty of our body does not end just that we choose or we are forced to give birth by cesarean section! (josbabyrecipes.com)
  • You had a C-section before, and you have the same problems this time or your doctor thinks labor might cause your scar to tear (uterine rupture). (stlukesonline.org)
  • If she gets pregnant again, a woman with a C-section scar has a small risk of the scar tearing open during labor (uterine rupture). (stlukesonline.org)
  • Unfortunately, there was also an increase in the rates of uterine rupture-when your uterus tears during labor, typically at the site of your prior cesarean scar, resulting in serious injury to mothers and their babies. (thebump.com)
  • The tide turned a bit in 1980, when a National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference Panel questioned the necessity of routine repeat cesareans. (thebump.com)
  • This "pessimização" of the childbirth experience is useful to make routine cesarean section a more acceptable alternative, compared to a traumatic delivery 5 . (bvsalud.org)
  • External cephalic version for breech presentation and a trial of labor for women with twin gestations when the first twin is in cephalic presentation are examples of interventions that can help to safely lower the primary cesarean delivery rate. (medscape.com)
  • [ 2 ] A practice bulletin from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recommends that all eligible women with breech presentations who are near term should be offered external cephalic version (ECV) to decrease the overall rate of cesarean delivery. (medscape.com)
  • In a nurse-midwife practice, women whose BMI exceeded 29 kg/m 2 had a two- to fourfold increased cesarean delivery rate (Kaiser and Kirby, 2001). (health.am)
  • The way I look at it is as follows: My overall c-section rate was 21.6%, which in the scheme of things is actually pretty low. (kmobgyn.com)
  • I did 15 c-sections for women who either stopped dilating, had arrest of labor in the pushing phase, or whose babies had decelerations of the heart rate that prevented a safe continuation of labor. (kmobgyn.com)
  • Certainly, the overall c-section rate for some of the more senior partners will be higher because many more women will schedule repeat c-sections with them because they enjoyed their experience with them the previous time(s). (kmobgyn.com)
  • But I would predict, with confidence, that their primary c-section rate after attempted labor is similar to mine. (kmobgyn.com)
  • Variability and consistency of rates of primary and repeat cesarean sections among hospitals in two states. (cdc.gov)
  • After the topic of CS was chosen, the (UN) agencies that CS rates in a country subtopics were defined, mainly debatable should be between 5% and 15% and en- issues and developments in CS rates and couragement of further research on the issue trends. (who.int)
  • Abnormal uterine findings were de Recherche et d'Application en identified in 95.8% of patients attending hysteroscopy at GESHRTH. (who.int)
  • Although CBACs are usually harder than primary cesareans, not all are hard. (ican-online.org)
  • The first operation performed on a patient is referred to as a primary cesarean section. (epainassist.com)
  • Injection oxytocin 5 units IM or IV (slow) or Methergine 0.2 mg IM is given and may be repeated. (epainassist.com)
  • In no event shall the World Health Organization be liable for any damages arising from the use of the information linked to in this section. (who.int)
  • This research focused on the childbirth care in the private health sector, in which a form of intervention has become almost mandatory: elective cesarean section. (bvsalud.org)
  • That was the most disappointing part of having an unplanned c-section-wondering if there was something wrong with my body or me, that there was something I couldn't do with my body that other women could. (thebump.com)
  • Women who have c-sections are generally treated with more pain medication than those who deliver vaginally. (thebump.com)
  • The chances of needing a cesarean delivery (C-section) do not increase. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Diagnosis and appropriate correction of intrauterine anomalies are considered et d'Application en Chirurgie essential in order to increase chances of conception. (who.int)
  • Le diagnostic et la prise en charge adéquate des lésions intra cavitaires permettent d'am liorer les chances de conception. (who.int)
  • A cesarean delivery, also called a cesarean section or c-section, is surgery to deliver a baby. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A cesarean delivery is relatively safe for you and your baby. (medlineplus.gov)
  • But there are cases when a C-section is needed for the safety of the mother or baby. (stlukesonline.org)
  • I know a scheduled c-section doesn't mean anything since baby can choose to come earlier, but it sure would feel nice to go ahead and have something on the calendar. (hellobee.com)
  • Cesarean sections, once performed to save the life of mother or baby, are now offered as an elective procedure. (ukessays.com)
  • Before a C-section, a needle called an IV is put in one of the mother's veins to give fluids and medicine (if needed) during the surgery. (stlukesonline.org)
  • Usually, it involves recovering from both the rigors of labor and major surgery and of course recovery can be harder after multiple cesareans. (ican-online.org)
  • When is the New Mother Discharged After C-Section Delivery or Cesarean Delivery? (epainassist.com)
  • Post caesarian section, a new mother has to look for the following signs and symptoms in her body. (epainassist.com)
  • In most cases, doctors do cesarean sections because of problems that arise during labor. (stlukesonline.org)
  • When doctors know about a problem ahead of time, they may schedule a C-section. (stlukesonline.org)
  • If you experienced significant bleeding during your labor or cesarean, have your provider check you for anemia. (ican-online.org)
  • Epidurals can be repeated throughout the duration of labor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Blood transfusion is required if the blood loss is more than average during the operation (average blood loss in cesarean section is approximately 0.5-1.0 L). (epainassist.com)