Cesarean Section: Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.Anesthesia, Obstetrical: A variety of anesthetic methods such as EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA used to control the pain of childbirth.Cesarean Section, Repeat: Extraction of the fetus by abdominal hysterotomy anytime following a previous cesarean.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Breech Presentation: A malpresentation of the FETUS at near term or during OBSTETRIC LABOR with the fetal cephalic pole in the fundus of the UTERUS. There are three types of breech: the complete breech with flexed hips and knees; the incomplete breech with one or both hips partially or fully extended; the frank breech with flexed hips and extended knees.Delivery, Obstetric: Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.Anesthesia, Spinal: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.Fetal Distress: A nonreassuring fetal status (NRFS) indicating that the FETUS is compromised (American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists 1988). It can be identified by sub-optimal values in FETAL HEART RATE; oxygenation of FETAL BLOOD; and other parameters.Vaginal Birth after Cesarean: Delivery of an infant through the vagina in a female who has had a prior cesarean section.Trial of Labor: Allowing a woman to be in LABOR, OBSTETRIC long enough to determine if vaginal birth may be anticipated.Labor, Induced: Artificially induced UTERINE CONTRACTION. Generally, LABOR, OBSTETRIC is induced with the intent to cause delivery of the fetus and termination of pregnancy.Obstetric Labor Complications: Medical problems associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR, such as BREECH PRESENTATION; PREMATURE OBSTETRIC LABOR; HEMORRHAGE; or others. These complications can affect the well-being of the mother, the FETUS, or both.Dystocia: Slow or difficult OBSTETRIC LABOR or CHILDBIRTH.Anesthesia, Epidural: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected into the epidural space.Trinucleotide Repeats: Microsatellite repeats consisting of three nucleotides dispersed in the euchromatic arms of chromosomes.Uterine Rupture: A complete separation or tear in the wall of the UTERUS with or without expulsion of the FETUS. It may be due to injuries, multiple pregnancies, large fetus, previous scarring, or obstruction.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Labor, Obstetric: The repetitive uterine contraction during childbirth which is associated with the progressive dilation of the uterine cervix (CERVIX UTERI). Successful labor results in the expulsion of the FETUS and PLACENTA. Obstetric labor can be spontaneous or induced (LABOR, INDUCED).Apgar Score: A method, developed by Dr. Virginia Apgar, to evaluate a newborn's adjustment to extrauterine life. Five items - heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color - are evaluated 60 seconds after birth and again five minutes later on a scale from 0-2, 0 being the lowest, 2 being normal. The five numbers are added for the Apgar score. A score of 0-3 represents severe distress, 4-7 indicates moderate distress, and a score of 7-10 predicts an absence of difficulty in adjusting to extrauterine life.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a cardiovascular disease. The disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.Tandem Repeat Sequences: Copies of DNA sequences which lie adjacent to each other in the same orientation (direct tandem repeats) or in the opposite direction to each other (INVERTED TANDEM REPEATS).Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Extraction, Obstetrical: Extraction of the fetus by means of obstetrical instruments.Oxytocics: Drugs that stimulate contraction of the myometrium. They are used to induce LABOR, OBSTETRIC at term, to prevent or control postpartum or postabortion hemorrhage, and to assess fetal status in high risk pregnancies. They may also be used alone or with other drugs to induce abortions (ABORTIFACIENTS). Oxytocics used clinically include the neurohypophyseal hormone OXYTOCIN and certain prostaglandins and ergot alkaloids. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p1157)Analgesia, Obstetrical: The elimination of PAIN, without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, during OBSTETRIC LABOR; OBSTETRIC DELIVERY; or the POSTPARTUM PERIOD, usually through the administration of ANALGESICS.Placenta Previa: Abnormal placentation in which the PLACENTA implants in the lower segment of the UTERUS (the zone of dilation) and may cover part or all of the opening of the CERVIX. It is often associated with serious antepartum bleeding and PREMATURE LABOR.Fetal Monitoring: Physiologic or biochemical monitoring of the fetus. It is usually done during LABOR, OBSTETRIC and may be performed in conjunction with the monitoring of uterine activity. It may also be performed prenatally as when the mother is undergoing surgery.Cicatrix: The fibrous tissue that replaces normal tissue during the process of WOUND HEALING.Labor Presentation: The position or orientation of the FETUS at near term or during OBSTETRIC LABOR, determined by its relation to the SPINE of the mother and the birth canal. The normal position is a vertical, cephalic presentation with the fetal vertex flexed on the NECK.Frozen Sections: Thinly cut sections of frozen tissue specimens prepared with a cryostat or freezing microtome.Bupivacaine: A widely used local anesthetic agent.Obstetrical Forceps: Surgical instrument designed to extract the newborn by the head from the maternal passages without injury to it or the mother.Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and management of services provided for obstetric and gynecologic patients.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Postpartum Hemorrhage: Excess blood loss from uterine bleeding associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR or CHILDBIRTH. It is defined as blood loss greater than 500 ml or of the amount that adversely affects the maternal physiology, such as BLOOD PRESSURE and HEMATOCRIT. Postpartum hemorrhage is divided into two categories, immediate (within first 24 hours after birth) or delayed (after 24 hours postpartum).Puerperal Disorders: Disorders or diseases associated with PUERPERIUM, the six-to-eight-week period immediately after PARTURITION in humans.Trinucleotide Repeat Expansion: An increased number of contiguous trinucleotide repeats in the DNA sequence from one generation to the next. The presence of these regions is associated with diseases such as FRAGILE X SYNDROME and MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY. Some CHROMOSOME FRAGILE SITES are composed of sequences where trinucleotide repeat expansion occurs.Pregnancy, Prolonged: A term used to describe pregnancies that exceed the upper limit of a normal gestational period. In humans, a prolonged pregnancy is defined as one that extends beyond 42 weeks (294 days) after the first day of the last menstrual period (MENSTRUATION), or birth with gestational age of 41 weeks or more.Minisatellite Repeats: Tandem arrays of moderately repetitive, short (10-60 bases) DNA sequences which are found dispersed throughout the GENOME, at the ends of chromosomes (TELOMERES), and clustered near telomeres. Their degree of repetition is two to several hundred at each locus. Loci number in the thousands but each locus shows a distinctive repeat unit.Cephalopelvic Disproportion: A condition in which the HEAD of the FETUS is larger than the mother's PELVIS through which the fetal head must pass during a vaginal delivery.Labor Stage, First: Period from the onset of true OBSTETRIC LABOR to the complete dilatation of the CERVIX UTERI.Ankyrin Repeat: Protein motif that contains a 33-amino acid long sequence that often occurs in tandem arrays. This repeating sequence of 33-amino acids was discovered in ANKYRIN where it is involved in interaction with the anion exchanger (ANION EXCHANGE PROTEIN 1, ERYTHROCYTE). Ankyrin repeats cooperatively fold into domains that mediate molecular recognition via protein-protein interactions.Parturition: The process of giving birth to one or more offspring.Natural Childbirth: Labor and delivery without medical intervention, usually involving RELAXATION THERAPY.Analgesia, Epidural: The relief of pain without loss of consciousness through the introduction of an analgesic agent into the epidural space of the vertebral canal. It is differentiated from ANESTHESIA, EPIDURAL which refers to the state of insensitivity to sensation.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Repetitive Sequences, Amino Acid: A sequential pattern of amino acids occurring more than once in the same protein sequence.Maternal Age: The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.Puerperal Infection: An infection occurring in PUERPERIUM, the period of 6-8 weeks after giving birth.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Labor Onset: The beginning of true OBSTETRIC LABOR which is characterized by the cyclic uterine contractions of increasing frequency, duration, and strength causing CERVICAL DILATATION to begin (LABOR STAGE, FIRST ).Pregnancy, Twin: The condition of carrying TWINS simultaneously.Adjuvants, Anesthesia: Agents that are administered in association with anesthetics to increase effectiveness, improve delivery, or decrease required dosage.Surgical Procedures, Elective: Surgery which could be postponed or not done at all without danger to the patient. Elective surgery includes procedures to correct non-life-threatening medical problems as well as to alleviate conditions causing psychological stress or other potential risk to patients, e.g., cosmetic or contraceptive surgery.Endometritis: Inflammation of the ENDOMETRIUM, usually caused by intrauterine infections. Endometritis is the most common cause of postpartum fever.Ephedrine: A phenethylamine found in EPHEDRA SINICA. PSEUDOEPHEDRINE is an isomer. It is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used for asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Fetal Death: Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.Sterilization, Reproductive: Procedures to block or remove all or part of the genital tract for the purpose of rendering individuals sterile, incapable of reproduction. Surgical sterilization procedures are the most commonly used. There are also sterilization procedures involving chemical or physical means.Obstetrics: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with management and care of women during pregnancy, parturition, and the puerperium.Dinucleotide Repeats: The most common of the microsatellite tandem repeats (MICROSATELLITE REPEATS) dispersed in the euchromatic arms of chromosomes. They consist of two nucleotides repeated in tandem; guanine and thymine, (GT)n, is the most frequently seen.Medicine in Literature: Written or other literary works whose subject matter is medical or about the profession of medicine and related areas.Vacuum Extraction, Obstetrical: Removal of the fetus from the uterus or vagina at or near the end of pregnancy with a metal traction cup that is attached to the fetus' head. Negative pressure is applied and traction is made on a chain passed through the suction tube. (From Stedman, 26th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)Ultrasonography, Prenatal: The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.Placenta Accreta: Abnormal placentation in which all or parts of the PLACENTA are attached directly to the MYOMETRIUM due to a complete or partial absence of DECIDUA. It is associated with POSTPARTUM HEMORRHAGE because of the failure of placental separation.Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.Labor Stage, Second: The period of OBSTETRIC LABOR that is from the complete dilatation of the CERVIX UTERI to the expulsion of the FETUS.Maternal Mortality: Maternal deaths resulting from complications of pregnancy and childbirth in a given population.Hospital Bed Capacity, under 100Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Inverted Repeat Sequences: Copies of nucleic acid sequence that are arranged in opposing orientation. They may lie adjacent to each other (tandem) or be separated by some sequence that is not part of the repeat (hyphenated). They may be true palindromic repeats, i.e. read the same backwards as forward, or complementary which reads as the base complement in the opposite orientation. Complementary inverted repeats have the potential to form hairpin loop or stem-loop structures which results in cruciform structures (such as CRUCIFORM DNA) when the complementary inverted repeats occur in double stranded regions.Oxytocin: A nonapeptide hormone released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). It differs from VASOPRESSIN by two amino acids at residues 3 and 8. Oxytocin acts on SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, such as causing UTERINE CONTRACTIONS and MILK EJECTION.Uterine Hemorrhage: Bleeding from blood vessels in the UTERUS, sometimes manifested as vaginal bleeding.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Arab World: A historical and cultural entity dispersed across a wide geographical area under the administrative, intellectual, social, and cultural domination of the Arab empire. The Arab world, under the impetus of Islam, by the eighth century A.D., extended from Arabia in the Middle East to all of northern Africa, southern Spain, Sardinia, and Sicily. Close contact was maintained with Greek and Jewish culture. While the principal service of the Arabs to medicine was the preservation of Greek culture, the Arabs themselves were the originators of algebra, chemistry, geology, and many of the refinements of civilization. (From A. Castiglioni, A History of Medicine, 2d ed, p260; from F. H. Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed, p126)Anesthesia, General: Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.Uterine Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the UTERUS.Hypotension: Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.DNA Repeat Expansion: An increase number of repeats of a genomic, tandemly repeated DNA sequence from one generation to the next.Emergencies: Situations or conditions requiring immediate intervention to avoid serious adverse results.Hospitals, Maternity: Special hospitals which provide care to women during pregnancy and parturition.Birthing Centers: Free-standing facilities that provide prenatal, childbirth, and postnatal care and usually incorporate family-centered maternity care concepts and practices.Pregnancy Trimester, Third: The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.Abdominal Wall: The outer margins of the ABDOMEN, extending from the osteocartilaginous thoracic cage to the PELVIS. Though its major part is muscular, the abdominal wall consists of at least seven layers: the SKIN, subcutaneous fat, deep FASCIA; ABDOMINAL MUSCLES, transversalis fascia, extraperitoneal fat, and the parietal PERITONEUM.Hospitals, Public: Hospitals controlled by various types of government, i.e., city, county, district, state or federal.Eclampsia: Onset of HYPERREFLEXIA; SEIZURES; or COMA in a previously diagnosed pre-eclamptic patient (PRE-ECLAMPSIA).Insurance, Liability: Insurance against loss resulting from liability for injury or damage to the persons or property of others.Pregnancy, High-Risk: Pregnancy in which the mother and/or FETUS are at greater than normal risk of MORBIDITY or MORTALITY. Causes include inadequate PRENATAL CARE, previous obstetrical history (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS), pre-existing maternal disease, pregnancy-induced disease (GESTATIONAL HYPERTENSION), and MULTIPLE PREGNANCY, as well as advanced maternal age above 35.Pre-Eclampsia: A complication of PREGNANCY, characterized by a complex of symptoms including maternal HYPERTENSION and PROTEINURIA with or without pathological EDEMA. Symptoms may range between mild and severe. Pre-eclampsia usually occurs after the 20th week of gestation, but may develop before this time in the presence of trophoblastic disease.Infant Mortality: Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and NEOPLASMS. The neoplastic disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Surgical Wound Dehiscence: Pathologic process consisting of a partial or complete disruption of the layers of a surgical wound.Version, Fetal: The artificial alteration of the fetal position to facilitate birth.Pain, Postoperative: Pain during the period after surgery.Methylergonovine: A homolog of ERGONOVINE containing one more CH2 group. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Postpartum Period: In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).Term Birth: CHILDBIRTH at the end of a normal duration of PREGNANCY, between 37 to 40 weeks of gestation or about 280 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period.Cardiotocography: Monitoring of FETAL HEART frequency before birth in order to assess impending prematurity in relation to the pattern or intensity of antepartum UTERINE CONTRACTION.Myometrium: The smooth muscle coat of the uterus, which forms the main mass of the organ.Uterine Inertia: Failure of the UTERUS to contract with normal strength, duration, and intervals during childbirth (LABOR, OBSTETRIC). It is also called uterine atony.Trichosanthes: A plant species of the family CUCURBITACEAE that is a source of TRICHOSANTHIN (a ribosomal inhibitory protein).Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Pelvimetry: Measurement of the dimensions and capacity of the pelvis. It includes cephalopelvimetry (measurement of fetal head size in relation to maternal pelvic capacity), a prognostic guide to the management of LABOR, OBSTETRIC associated with disproportion.Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting: Emesis and queasiness occurring after anesthesia.Anesthesia, Conduction: Injection of an anesthetic into the nerves to inhibit nerve transmission in a specific part of the body.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Unnecessary Procedures: Diagnostic, therapeutic, and investigative procedures prescribed and performed by health professionals, the results of which do not justify the benefits or hazards and costs to the patient.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Sufentanil: An opioid analgesic that is used as an adjunct in anesthesia, in balanced anesthesia, and as a primary anesthetic agent.Hysterectomy: Excision of the uterus.Prenatal Care: Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Abruptio Placentae: Premature separation of the normally implanted PLACENTA from the UTERUS. Signs of varying degree of severity include UTERINE BLEEDING, uterine MUSCLE HYPERTONIA, and FETAL DISTRESS or FETAL DEATH.Fetal Diseases: Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.Embolism, Amniotic Fluid: Blocking of maternal circulation by AMNIOTIC FLUID that is forced into uterine VEINS by strong UTERINE CONTRACTION near the end of pregnancy. It is characterized by the sudden onset of severe respiratory distress and HYPOTENSION that can lead to maternal DEATH.Midwifery: The practice of assisting women in childbirth.Extraembryonic Membranes: The thin layers of tissue that surround the developing embryo. There are four extra-embryonic membranes commonly found in VERTEBRATES, such as REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. They are the YOLK SAC, the ALLANTOIS, the AMNION, and the CHORION. These membranes provide protection and means to transport nutrients and wastes.Birth Injuries: Mechanical or anoxic trauma incurred by the infant during labor or delivery.Fetal Blood: Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.Pregnancy, Multiple: The condition of carrying two or more FETUSES simultaneously.Perinatal Mortality: Deaths occurring from the 28th week of GESTATION to the 28th day after birth in a given population.Pregnant Women: Human females who are pregnant, as cultural, psychological, or sociological entities.Pruritus: An intense itching sensation that produces the urge to rub or scratch the skin to obtain relief.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Hysterotomy: An incision in the uterus, performed through either the abdomen or the vagina.Obstetric Labor, Premature: Onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR before term (TERM BIRTH) but usually after the FETUS has become viable. In humans, it occurs sometime during the 29th through 38th week of PREGNANCY. TOCOLYSIS inhibits premature labor and can prevent the BIRTH of premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE).Uterine Contraction: Contraction of the UTERINE MUSCLE.Uterus: The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.Perinatal Care: The care of women and a fetus or newborn given before, during, and after delivery from the 28th week of gestation through the 7th day after delivery.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Burundi: A republic in eastern Africa bounded on the north by RWANDA and on the south by TANZANIA. Its capital is Bujumbura.Premedication: Preliminary administration of a drug preceding a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure. The commonest types of premedication are antibiotics (ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS) and anti-anxiety agents. It does not include PREANESTHETIC MEDICATION.Intraoperative Complications: Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.Anesthetics, Combined: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially to induce anesthesia. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Pregnancy in Diabetics: The state of PREGNANCY in women with DIABETES MELLITUS. This does not include either symptomatic diabetes or GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE induced by pregnancy (DIABETES, GESTATIONAL) which resolves at the end of pregnancy.Amniotic Fluid: A clear, yellowish liquid that envelopes the FETUS inside the sac of AMNION. In the first trimester, it is likely a transudate of maternal or fetal plasma. In the second trimester, amniotic fluid derives primarily from fetal lung and kidney. Cells or substances in this fluid can be removed for prenatal diagnostic tests (AMNIOCENTESIS).Maternal-Fetal Exchange: Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.Maternal Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the mother.Fentanyl: A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)Live Birth: The event that a FETUS is born alive with heartbeats or RESPIRATION regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE. Such liveborn is called a newborn infant (INFANT, NEWBORN).Umbilical Cord: The flexible rope-like structure that connects a developing FETUS to the PLACENTA in mammals. The cord contains blood vessels which carry oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the fetus and waste products away from the fetus.Postnatal Care: The care provided to women and their NEWBORNS for the first few months following CHILDBIRTH.Pregnancy, Ectopic: A potentially life-threatening condition in which EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs outside the cavity of the UTERUS. Most ectopic pregnancies (>96%) occur in the FALLOPIAN TUBES, known as TUBAL PREGNANCY. They can be in other locations, such as UTERINE CERVIX; OVARY; and abdominal cavity (PREGNANCY, ABDOMINAL).Microtomy: The technique of using a microtome to cut thin or ultrathin sections of tissues embedded in a supporting substance. The microtome is an instrument that hold a steel, glass or diamond knife in clamps at an angle to the blocks of prepared tissues, which it cuts in sections of equal thickness.Infant, Newborn, Diseases: Diseases of newborn infants present at birth (congenital) or developing within the first month of birth. It does not include hereditary diseases not manifesting at birth or within the first 30 days of life nor does it include inborn errors of metabolism. Both HEREDITARY DISEASES and METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS are available as general concepts.Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced: A condition in pregnant women with elevated systolic (>140 mm Hg) and diastolic (>90 mm Hg) blood pressure on at least two occasions 6 h apart. HYPERTENSION complicates 8-10% of all pregnancies, generally after 20 weeks of gestation. Gestational hypertension can be divided into several broad categories according to the complexity and associated symptoms, such as EDEMA; PROTEINURIA; SEIZURES; abnormalities in BLOOD COAGULATION and liver functions.Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Amnion: The innermost membranous sac that surrounds and protects the developing embryo which is bathed in the AMNIOTIC FLUID. Amnion cells are secretory EPITHELIAL CELLS and contribute to the amniotic fluid.BrazilAmides: Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Surgical Wound Infection: Infection occurring at the site of a surgical incision.Maternal-Fetal Relations: The bond or lack thereof between a pregnant woman and her FETUS.Meperidine: A narcotic analgesic that can be used for the relief of most types of moderate to severe pain, including postoperative pain and the pain of labor. Prolonged use may lead to dependence of the morphine type; withdrawal symptoms appear more rapidly than with morphine and are of shorter duration.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Stillbirth: The event that a FETUS is born dead or stillborn.HIV Long Terminal Repeat: Regulatory sequences important for viral replication that are located on each end of the HIV genome. The LTR includes the HIV ENHANCER, promoter, and other sequences. Specific regions in the LTR include the negative regulatory element (NRE), NF-kappa B binding sites , Sp1 binding sites, TATA BOX, and trans-acting responsive element (TAR). The binding of both cellular and viral proteins to these regions regulates HIV transcription.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Cervix Uteri: The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.Cervical Ripening: A change in the CERVIX UTERI with respect to its readiness to relax. The cervix normally becomes softer, more flexible, more distensible, and shorter in the final weeks of PREGNANCY. These cervical changes can also be chemically induced (LABOR, INDUCED).Umbilical Arteries: Specialized arterial vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry waste and deoxygenated blood from the FETUS to the mother via the PLACENTA. In humans, there are usually two umbilical arteries but sometimes one.

Trial of labor versus elective repeat cesarean section for the women with a previous cesarean section: a decision analysis. (1/44)

In order to reduce the cesarean-delivery rate, more and more pregnant women are offered trials of labor (TOL) after their previous cesarean sections. TOL and elective repeat cesarean section (ERCS) have different risks and benefits. We constructed a decision analysis to explore this issue. Probabilities were derived from literature reviews. Health state utilities were derived from the authors' clinical judgement. The analysis considered the disutility of the procedures and the disutilities of the morbidity. Using the baseline assumption, ERCS was superior to TOL. One-way sensitivity analyses showed that the result was insensitive to all of the probability estimates and the disutilities of the morbidity. However, the result was sensitive to the patient's preference for ERCS, successful TOL, or failed TOL. The analysis indicates that the best delivery method for a woman who has had a previous cesarean section depends on patient's preference. More patients' preference studies are needed.  (+info)

Unwanted caesarean sections among public and private patients in Brazil: prospective study. (2/44)

OBJECTIVE: To assess and compare the preferences of pregnant women in the public and private sector regarding delivery in Brazil. DESIGN: Face to face structured interviews with women who were interviewed early in pregnancy, about one month before the due date, and about one month post partum. SETTING: Four cities in Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: 1612 pregnant women: 1093 public patients and 519 private patients. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rates of delivery by caesarean section in public and private institutions; women's preferences for delivery; timing of decision to perform caesarean section. RESULTS: 1136 women completed all three interviews; 476 women were lost to follow up (376 public patients and 100 private patients). Despite large differences in the rates of caesarean section in the two sectors (222/717 (31%) among public patients and 302/419 (72%) among private patients) there were no significant differences in preferences between the two groups. In both antenatal interviews, 70-80% in both sectors said they would prefer to deliver vaginally. In a large proportion of cases (237/502) caesarean delivery was decided on before admission: 48/207 (23%) in women in the public sector and 189/295 (64%) in women in the private sector. CONCLUSIONS: The large difference in the rates of caesarean sections in women in the public and private sectors is due to more unwanted caesarean sections among private patients rather than to a difference in preferences for delivery. High or rising rates of caesarean sections do not necessarily reflect demand for surgical delivery.  (+info)

Laparoscopic repair of a uteroperitoneal fistula. (3/44)

Repairs of pelvic fistulas using abdominal, vaginal, and laparoscopic approaches have been described. In the present case report, we describe our experience with the laparoscopic repair of a uteroperitoneal fistula.  (+info)

Ectopic pregnancies in Caesarean section scars: the 8 year experience of one medical centre. (4/44)

BACKGROUND: Our aim was to supplement the mostly individual case reports on the rarely occurring and life-threatening condition of ectopic pregnancy developing in a Caesarean section scar. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eight of all the patients treated in our department between 1995 and 2002 had been diagnosed for ectopic pregnancy that developed in a Caesarean section scar. They comprised this case series group. Four of them underwent methotrexate treatment; one had expectant management, one transcervical aspiration of the gestational sac and two by open surgery. All the non-surgically treated women had an uneventful outcome. One underwent a term Caesarean hysterectomy and the other first trimester hysterotomy and excision of the pregnancy located in the scarred uterus. Analysis of all these women's obstetric history revealed that five of them (63%) had been previously operated because of breech presentation, one had a cervical pregnancy and one had placenta previa. Four of them (50%) had multiple (> or = 2) Caesarean sections. CONCLUSIONS: The women at risk for pregnancy in a Caesarean section scar appear to be those with a history of placental pathology, ectopic pregnancy, multiple Caesarean sections and Caesarean breech delivery. Heightened awareness of this possibility and early diagnosis by means of transvaginal sonography can improve outcome and minimize the need for emergency extended surgery.  (+info)

Sonographic imaging of cervical scars after Cesarean section. (5/44)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether uterine contractions at the time of a Cesarean section have an impact on future presence and location of a cervical Cesarean scar. METHODS: A targeted transvaginal ultrasound examination of the fetus, uterus and cervix was done in 2973 consecutive women at 14-16 weeks' gestation. The sonographer was blinded to the women's previous obstetric histories. The presence and location of a sonographic cervical hypoechogenic line, which probably represented a Cesarean scar, was recorded. RESULTS: There were 180 women with a previous Cesarean section performed before the start of uterine contractions and 173 with a Cesarean section performed during contractions in labor. The cervical hypoechogenic line was more common in sections performed during contractions (75.7% vs. 52.7%; P < 0.001) and was more distally located from the internal os (17.9 +/- 9.4 vs. 14.6 +/- 9.1 mm; P = 0.01). A hypoechogenic line was observed in 21/2620 women without a previous Cesarean section, representing a false-positive rate of 0.8%. CONCLUSION: Cesarean sections, especially those done during uterine contractions, are actually performed through cervical tissue. This finding is in agreement with the physiological process of cervical effacement during contractions.  (+info)

Maternal and perinatal outcomes associated with a trial of labor after prior cesarean delivery. (6/44)

BACKGROUND: The proportion of women who attempt vaginal delivery after prior cesarean delivery has decreased largely because of concern about safety. The absolute and relative risks associated with a trial of labor in women with a history of cesarean delivery, as compared with elective repeated cesarean delivery without labor, are uncertain. METHODS: We conducted a prospective four-year observational study of all women with a singleton gestation and a prior cesarean delivery at 19 academic medical centers. Maternal and perinatal outcomes were compared between women who underwent a trial of labor and women who had an elective repeated cesarean delivery without labor. RESULTS: Vaginal delivery was attempted by 17,898 women, and 15,801 women underwent elective repeated cesarean delivery without labor. Symptomatic uterine rupture occurred in 124 women who underwent a trial of labor (0.7 percent). Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy occurred in no infants whose mothers underwent elective repeated cesarean delivery and in 12 infants born at term whose mothers underwent a trial of labor (P<0.001). Seven of these cases of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy followed uterine rupture (absolute risk, 0.46 per 1000 women at term undergoing a trial of labor), including two neonatal deaths. The rate of endometritis was higher in women undergoing a trial of labor than in women undergoing repeated elective cesarean delivery (2.9 percent vs. 1.8 percent), as was the rate of blood transfusion (1.7 percent vs. 1.0 percent). The frequency of hysterectomy and of maternal death did not differ significantly between groups (0.2 percent vs. 0.3 percent, and 0.02 percent vs. 0.04 percent, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: A trial of labor after prior cesarean delivery is associated with a greater perinatal risk than is elective repeated cesarean delivery without labor, although absolute risks are low. This information is relevant for counseling women about their choices after a cesarean section.  (+info)

Predicting cesarean section and uterine rupture among women attempting vaginal birth after prior cesarean section. (7/44)

BACKGROUND: There is currently no validated method for antepartum prediction of the risk of failed vaginal birth after cesarean section and no information on the relationship between the risk of emergency cesarean delivery and the risk of uterine rupture. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We linked a national maternity hospital discharge database and a national registry of perinatal deaths. We studied 23,286 women with one prior cesarean delivery who attempted vaginal birth at or after 40-wk gestation. The population was randomly split into model development and validation groups. The factors associated with emergency cesarean section were maternal age (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.22 per 5-y increase, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16 to 1.28), maternal height (adjusted OR = 0.75 per 5-cm increase, 95% CI: 0.73 to 0.78), male fetus (adjusted OR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.08 to 1.29), no previous vaginal birth (adjusted OR = 5.08, 95% CI: 4.52 to 5.72), prostaglandin induction of labor (adjusted OR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.26 to 1.60), and birth at 41-wk (adjusted OR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.18 to 1.42) or 42-wk (adjusted OR = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.17 to 1.62) gestation compared with 40-wk. In the validation group, 36% of the women had a low predicted risk of caesarean section (< 20%) and 16.5% of women had a high predicted risk (> 40%); 10.9% and 47.7% of these women, respectively, actually had deliveries by caesarean section. The predicted risk of caesarean section was also associated with the risk of all uterine rupture (OR for a 5% increase in predicted risk = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.14 to 1.31) and uterine rupture associated with perinatal death (OR for a 5% increase in predicted risk = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.73). The observed incidence of uterine rupture was 2.0 per 1,000 among women at low risk of cesarean section and 9.1 per 1,000 among those at high risk (relative risk = 4.5, 95% CI: 2.6 to 8.1). We present the model in a simple-to-use format. CONCLUSIONS: We present, to our knowledge, the first validated model for antepartum prediction of the risk of failed vaginal birth after prior cesarean section. Women at increased risk of emergency caesarean section are also at increased risk of uterine rupture, including catastrophic rupture leading to perinatal death.  (+info)

Asymptomatic abdominal wall endometrioma 15 years after cesarean section. (8/44)

Abdominal wall endometriosis is rare and its diagnosis is difficult. However, the consequences may be serious, like recurrences or even malignant transformation. We report a rarer case of asymptomatic abdominal wall endometrioma, accidentally found during a surgical procedure for a second cesarean section, in a 39-years old patient, without any relevant history of endometriosis. The tumor was subcutaneous, 3/3 cm in size, located in the left angle of the incision from the 15 years previously performed cesarean section and freely mobile in relation with the skin and the fascia. It was excised, with clear margins (to prevent recurrences), during the procedure. The patient was discharged after five days. The postoperative period and the follow-up at one and three months were uneventful. The pathological examination clarified the diagnosis by revealing an endometrioma with decidual reaction. Such a condition may be, therefore, evoked before an abdominal wall tumor, even without specific symptoms, even in a 39-years old woman and longtime after the possible causal surgery. Pathological examination remains the ultimate diagnostic tool. Relevant prophylactic attitude at the end of the cesarean section may be considered.  (+info)

*Caesarean section

... with greater risks of complications in an emergency repeat caesarean section than in an elective repeat caesarean section. On ... Elective repeat Caesarean section (ERCS) Both have higher risks than a vaginal birth with no previous caesarean section. There ... Caesarean section, also known as C-section or caesarean delivery, is the use of surgery to deliver one or more babies. A ... In rare cases, caesarean sections can be used to remove a dead fetus. A late-term abortion using Caesarean section procedures ...

*Delivery after previous Caesarean section

Elective repeat Caesarean section (ERCS) Both have higher risks than a vaginal birth with no previous caesarean section. There ... "Rates for Total Cesarean Section, Primary Cesarean Section and Vaginal Birth After Cesarean Section (VBAC), United States, 1989 ... caesarean section should give birth by elective repeat caesarean section (ERCS). Unknown previous uterine incision Previous ... "Once a caesarean, always a caesarean." Overall, cesarean sections became so commonplace that the caesarean delivery rate ...

*Prolene

... it stays there forever and is also often seen during repeat cesarean section as that of the previous section. Prolene is also ... It is used in obstetrical practice, during cesarean sections to suture the rectus sheath of the abdominal wall because it is ...

*List of MeSH codes (E04)

... cesarean section MeSH E04.520.252.500.150 --- cesarean section, repeat MeSH E04.520.252.750 --- episiotomy MeSH E04.520.252.875 ... vaginal birth after cesarean MeSH E04.520.252.996 --- version, fetal MeSH E04.520.280 --- fetoscopy MeSH E04.520.360 --- ...

*Cervical pregnancy

... pregnancies are to be distinguished from pregnancies that start from an implantation in a scar of a previous cesarean section, ... specifically repeated D&Cs (dilatation and curettage). Cervical ...

*Laryngeal papillomatosis

Opting for a caesarean section does not guarantee that transmission will not still occur. As of 2014 there was no cure for ... Repeated treatments are often needed because of the recurrent nature of the virus, especially for children, as the juvenile ... it is not recommended to expose the mother and child to the additional risks of caesarean section to prevent the transmission ... Due to the recurrent nature of the virus, repeated treatments usually are needed. Laryngeal papillomatosis is primarily treated ...

*Daniele Comboni

... was admitted into a Khartoum hospital for a caesarean section; the hospital was one that the Comboni Missionary Sisters managed ... The infant was born but the mother suffered from repeated bleeding and other serious problems and was on the point of death ...

*Symphysiotomy

... and obstructed labor at full cervical dilation when there is no option of a caesarean section. In some Irish cases, caesarean ... It is advised that this procedure should not be repeated due to the risk of gait problems and continual pain. Abduction of the ... Safe motherhood: cesarean section or symphysiotomy? J. van Roosmalen Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1990 Jul;163 (1 Pt 1):1-4. Onsrud M, ... She thought she was being brought to theatre for a Caesarean section. No one told her the plan was to do the 'new procedure,' a ...

*Pachygyria

This female child is the first born of nonconsanguineous parents at 35 weeks gestation through a cesarean section due to ... LIS1 encodes for a 45kDa protein called PAFAH1B1 that contains seven WD40 repeats required for proper neuronal migration. The ... Another common treatment is a gastrostomy (insertion of a feeding tube) to reduce possible poor nutrition and repeated ...

*Boston Terrier

Bostons frequently require caesarean section to give birth, with over 90% of litters in a UK Kennel Club survey delivered this ... Bostons may be prone to snoring and reverse sneeze-a rapid and repeated forced inhalation through the nose-accompanied by ... Evans, K.; Adams, V. (2010). "Proportion of litters of purebred dogs born by caesarean section" (PDF). The Journal of small ... Wedderburn, Peter (6 April 2009). "Why do over 80 per cent of Bulldog births happen by caesarian section?". The Daily Telegraph ...

*Carbetocin

... has been approved for use immediately following an elective Cesarean section when a local or spinal anesthesia has ... Overdosage or repeated use of carbetocin, particularly if used during pregnancy, could cause hyper-excitation of the oxytocin ... Since the uterus cannot contract on its own following incision during a Cesarean section, exogenous administration of oxytocin ... Safety of carbetocin following vaginal births and emergency Cesarean sections has not been established, though studies have ...

*Halothane

... and it is not generally recommended for use during a cesarean section. Halothane is a chiral molecule that is used as a racemic ... In rare cases, repeated exposure to halothane in adults was noted to result in severe liver injury. This occurred in about one ...

*Placenta praevia

In cases of fetal distress and major degrees (traditional grade III and IV) a caesarean section is indicated. Caesarian section ... In such cases, repeat scanning is done after an interval of 15-30 minutes. In parts of the world where ultrasound is ... After four cesarean section it, however, effects 10% of pregnancies. Rates of disease have increased over the late 20th century ... In places where a Caesarean section could not be performed due to the lack of a surgeon or equipment, infant could be delivered ...

*Female genital mutilation

Third-degree laceration (tears), anal-sphincter damage and emergency caesarean section are more common in infibulated women. ... "A repeat call for complete abandonment of FGM", BMJ Journal of Medical Ethics, 0, 2016, 1-2. doi:10.1136/medethics-2016-103553 ... after cesarean section, after divorce, and sometimes even in elderly women as a preparation before death." WHO 2005: "In some ... In 1997 section 268 of its Criminal Code was amended to ban FGM, except where "the person is at least eighteen years of age and ...

*Chrissie Williams

Unfortunately Chrissie went into premature labour and Owen had to deliver the baby by caesarean section but she was born with ... He soon became besotted with her and ignored Chrissie's repeated attempts to rebuke him. Chrissie attempted to sever relations ... As Chrissie's condition deteriorates, her baby boy is born by emergency C-section. Sacha asks Chrissie if she would meet his ...

*TOLAC

Trial of labor after caesarian (TOLAC) is the term for an attempted birth in a patient who has had a previous caesarean section ... It may result in a successful VBAC (vaginal birth after caesarian) or a repeat caesarian section. In approximately 20-40% of ... The main risks of TOLAC are emergency caesarian section and uterine rupture. "Vaginal Birth After Cesarean Delivery - Deciding ... TOLAC is recommended when a patient has had one previous caesarian section using a low transverse uterine incision. ...

*Jawdat Said

Humanity's unity should come as a natural birth and not as the result of a cesarean section, i.e., through violent global wars ... Despite repeated arrests and the issuance of decisions to move him to schools in various regions across Syria, he did not leave ... recognizing that what has been between the Authority and the Muslim Brotherhood there is expected to be repeated in Syria. ...

*Tiffany Mitchell

Tiffany gives birth to baby Courtney by Caesarean section in March 1997, and for a moment Grant softens towards his wife. ... When sober, they both agree not to repeat this and Tiffany begins dating Tony Hills (Mark Homer). They move in together and the ...

*Breech birth

... babies in breech position are usually born by a planned caesarean section in developed countries. Caesarean section reduces the ... data obtained from repeated observations under the same conditions; 4. series of two concomitant medical conditions. Fetal ... If both babies are in the breech position and the mother has gone into labour early, a cesarean section may be the best option ... Most babies in the breech position are born by a caesarean section because it is seen as safer than being born vaginally. As ...

*Leopold's maneuvers

... or whether a Cesarean section is necessary. The examiner's skill and practice in performing the maneuvers are the primary ... This is then repeated using the opposite side and hands. The fetal back will feel firm and smooth while fetal extremities (arms ...

*Amer Raza

Mr Raza provides obstetric services such as early pregnancy scan, antenatal care, delivery (natural and caesarean section) at ... The use of a hysteroscopic resectoscope for repeat evacuation of retained products of conception procedures: a case series. ... "The use of a hysteroscopic resectoscope for repeat evacuation of retained products of conception procedures: a case series". ...

*Pubic symphysis

It allows the safe delivery of the fetus where Caesarean section is not an option. Symphysiotomy is suggested for woman in ... consisting of repeating disaccharide units. Fibrocartilage does not have a surrounding perichondrium. Perichondrium surrounds ... This practice was carried out in Europe before the introduction of the Caesarean section. Historically, during obstructed ... Median sagittal section of male pelvis Median sagittal section of female pelvis Anterior view of the body pelvis from a ...

*Preterm birth

The routine use of cesarean section for early delivery of infants expected to have very low birth weight is controversial, and ... A 2015 Cochrane review supports the use of repeat dose(s) of prenatal corticosteroids for women still at risk of preterm birth ... The same recommendation applies to cesarean section. Medical reasons for early delivery include preeclampsia. In those at risk ... Alfirevic, Zarko; Milan, Stephen J.; Livio, Stefania (2012-06-13). "Caesarean section versus vaginal delivery for preterm birth ...

*Number Eight (Battlestar Galactica)

... via an emergency caesarean section. The daughter is named Hera. As the baby is deemed a risk to the Fleet if raised by her ... When Colonel Tigh bars Boomer from the meeting, she repeats Number Three's message that Hera is still alive, but ailing, aboard ...

*History of surgery

His Swiss wife and assistant Marie Colinet (1560-1640 improved the techniques for Caesarean Section, introducing the use of ... Abulcasis repeats the material, largely verbatim. Hunayn ibn Ishaq (809-873) was an Arab Nestorian Christian physician who ...

*Childbirth

"Rates for total cesarean section, primary cesarean section, and vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC), United States, 1989-2010 ... The shoulders repeat the corkscrew movements of the head, which can be seen in the final movements of the fetal head. The ... In 2012, about 23 million deliveries occurred by a surgical procedure known as Caesarean section. Caesarean sections may be ... childbirth is achieved through induction of labour or caesarean section. Caesarean section is the removal of the neonate ...
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The baby came out fine, but for the mother we suspected one of most feared complications in obstetrics - that her placenta had burrowed deep into the muscle of the uterus.. To get oxygen and nutrients to the fetus, the placenta needs to attach just a few millimeters deep into the uterus. We worried that hers had gone much farther and might eat through the entire thickness of the uterus, keeping it from shrinking back to its normal size after delivery and causing a massive hemorrhage. We gave a gentle tug on the umbilical cord. Usually the placenta peels off with such gentle pulling, but hers remained stuck - an ominous sign.. The case points out a fundamental truth about surgical delivery: a first cesarean for most women leads to a cesarean with every pregnancy. And while a first section is quick, easy to perform, and rarely complicated, each repeat surgery carries greater risk. More and more women are finding themselves on the C-section path. Almost one in three babies was delivered by cesarean ...
After a cesarean delivery at 30 weeks, a 1430-gram premature female neonate was noted to have generalized thick, dark brown scale forming a tight membrane over her entire skin surface. Her mother was a healthy 19-year-old gravida 1 with normal prenatal screening ultrasound and laboratory studies. Family history did not reveal any congenital malformations or genetic disorders. ...
A number of studies have found that institutional factors are more influential than natural factors on the delivery workload.4-7 Despite the fact that scheduled cesarean deliveries at our institution account for 53% of our total cesarean deliveries, the scheduled ones did not appear to impact the overall cesarean workload pattern. Our results show that despite a bias toward more scheduled cesarean deliveries earlier in the week, the peak workload occurs in the latter part of the week. We are not sure why this workload bias exists. Clinicians may increase cesarean deliveries on Thursday and Friday in anticipation of the weekend. Induction policies may influence overall cesarean delivery times more than do scheduled deliveries. We did not find that cesarean and total deliveries were significantly reduced over the weekend. Reduced weekend and night coverage may give clinicians the impression of an increased workload ...
This presentation deals with caesarean delivery, its indications and the nursing care given to that surgery.- authorSTREAM Presentation
After a first cesarean delivery, a pregnant woman has to choose between an elective repeat cesarean delivery (ERCD) and a trial of labor after cesarean (TOLAC) with the goal of achieving a vaginal birth (VBAC). In order to make this decision, both cl
CAMBRIDGE, England -- Women are likely to need a Caesarean delivery at term if, midway through pregnancy, the cervix is 40 mm or longer, researchers here found.
after caesarean section - 28 images - caesarean scar pictures, after a cesarean, c section cesarean section reasons for this medically, what is different about pregnancy after a c section, c section scar pictures
Define cesarean section: a surgical procedure involving incision of the walls of the abdomen and uterus for delivery… - cesarean section in a sentence
Cantaloop caesarean section briefs pack of 2 white black, Cantaloop caesarean section briefs can be worn from day one, following a caesarean section. Made from non-irritating yarns, the silky surface will not catch on stitches or staples. Finished with a comfortable higher waistband and a smooth panel located directly across the tummy offering light support and compression to help control post-surgery swelling. The breathable fabric allows air to circulate, to promote quick healing and the wider gusset easily accommodates and holds in place maternity pads during the first weeks after birth. Sizing: s: hip size 80-110cm, m: hip size 100-120cm, l: hip size: 110-130cm, xl: hip size 120-140cm. Update your look and discover fashion & trends with londonfashionblog.com.
Browse though our index of questions and answers by our expert doctors on all things related to Cesarean Section. You may also ask our doctors your own question on Cesarean Section.
I was due thrus Dec 4th. Im 1.5cen, 75% and very soft. I had a csection in 06 and a VBAC in 09. The will be my second VBAC. Had an ultrasound yesterday baby
... - Caesarean discussion and support for those who may need or have had a caesarean. Got some questions or someth
Having probably not a great day today but feeling very unsure suddenly about my decision to go for a vbac Background is 33 weeks with dc2. Ds was an
The rate of cesarean delivery in the United States is at a record high and continues to increase. Conversely, rates of vaginal birth after cesarean delivery (VBAC) have declined (to 12.7 percent in 2002 from 28.3 percent in 1996). Childbirth accounts for about one quarter of hospital admissions for U.S. women. Guise and colleagues conducted an extensive review to evaluate the benefits and harms of VBAC and elective repeat cesarean delivery.. The authors searched electronic databases for relevant published articles, systematic reviews, clinical trials, and reports. They also sought evidence from reference lists and contacted experts for recommendations. Relevant evidence arising since the 1980 National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference on VBAC was sought. Clinical studies conducted in developed countries were eligible for inclusion if they contained at least 10 patients and provided data about uterine rupture, VBAC rates, and maternal and fetal outcomes, and were not focused ...
Retrospective study on outcome of trial of vaginal birth after Previous Caesarean Section and indications for emergency repeat caesarean section in tertiary care hospital-IJOGR-Print ISSN No:-2394-2746 Online ISSN No:-2394-2754Article DOI No:-10.18231,Indian Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology Research-IP Innovative P
We studied 510 patients in a retrospective, nonrandomized, comparative survey of vaginal births and repeat caesarean section after one primary caesarean section at the Port Moresby General Hospital. 478 (94%) were allowed a trial of scar (TOS). The m
Le taux de ruptures utérines est multiplié par 4 à 6 en cas de déclenchement avec accélération du travail, dans une tentative daccouchement vaginal après une césarienne.
C Section Incision - Find Out How Deep And Wide The Surgeon May Need To Cut In Order To Safely Deliver A Baby Through A C Section Incision. Read More Here...
The VBAC segment was not only mostly one-sided, the risks were over inflated and misrepresented. The title of the segment is a load of crap, because it really DOESNT talk much about what a womans options are. It shows the incredible amount of unbalanced information that is out there, especially from OBs. A sound resembling a dying cat escaped my throat every time I heard the words, "attempt a VBAC", "try to have a VBAC", and "trial of labor". Yes, this is OB lingo. And while I will agree that in the hospital it really IS "attempting" a VBAC, because hospital VBAC "attempts" are rarely successful...and even less so if we look at the big picture and include women that start out interested in having a VBAC, and then are dissuaded by the OB...it is hurtful language. I believe in the power of words. What if we told each mom who wanted a natural birth that she was, "attempting a natural birth", or that she could, "try for a natural birth"? What does this imply? This, to me (and many other women) ...
In a large number of cases, the imperial cut managed to save both the baby and the mother, but many women demand it regardless of whether they can give birth in a natural way, and they are not really aware of the consequences of car crashes and do not know many benefits, but also disadvantages and one and another procedure.. Scientific research has proven that the cesarean section is much more dangerous than the normal birth process because the cesarean cuts a lot of bleeding and hence blood clots are formed quickly and thus can cause death.. In addition, the main cause and main difference between these two births is to make a cut on the stomach, which automatically leads to a longer recovery time, and this is considerable and even in some cases up to a month.. In some cases, when carousel is caused by caesarean section, there may be dangerous uterine rupture, urinary bladder injury, and a large number of intestines, and many experts advise that women are naturally occurring.. ...
Hi! Question for the btdt moms who have had a vbac before. I had an emergency c-section with my son almost 2 years ago. I had a consult with a physician today to talk about the risks of a vbac and I left the appointment got in my car and had an anxiety attack about all of the possible risks associated with a vbac. I need some positive stories or some encouragement that a vbac is possible and that I can do it. Thanks mommas!
This is my first (and last) baby but I was just wandering if people could tell me whether they thought a C section was less or more painful AFTER the birth, than say a normal vaginal birth? I am
Its a fact: a vaginal birth will leave you sore and swollen. But theres a lot you can do to help your body’s natural healing process.
Recovering from a vaginal birth is not often talked about when you are expecting. Here are several ways to actually recover & yes mesh panties are involved
Planning a VBAC? Its important to find out about the hurdles you may face before you give birth. Here are 9 common acts of VBAC sabotage.
Hi, I recently got back from a VBAC (vaginal birth after cesarean section) appointment and I am just wondering if anyone can share their experiences of a natural birth after c section. I was all set to try naturally and now I really am not sure! Thanks!
Learn about vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC), how it compares with having a repeat C-section, and why your maternity care provider may prefer one over the other.
Come and tell me that number 3 was fine! I had DC1 by EMCS, DC2 by ELCS and am now almost 13 weeks with DC3. Ive googled a bit and am getting in a
Vaginal birth after Caesarean Section (VBAC) carries risks of uterine rupture, with increased perinatal mortality risk. When labour is induced there may be higher uterine rupture and repeat caesarean section (CS) rates in women with previous CS, compared to when labour starts spontaneously.1 The method of induction of labour (IOL) in women with previous CS remains controversial, as there is a higher risk of uterine rupture when prostaglandins (PGs) are used compared with the use of non-prostaglandin methods.2 For women with previous CS, NICE guidance recommends PGs for routine use in IOL,3 however, obstetricians concerned about the increased uterine rupture risk may prefer to offer elective CS instead, therefore increasing CS rates.. Comparisons between the use of cervical dilator balloon catheters versus PGs in nulliparous women have shown similar efficacy in establishing labour, without the risks of uterine hyperstimulation or rupture.4 5 IOL with Cook cervical dilator balloon was introduced ...
METHODS: Women undergoing elective repeat cesarean section with subarachnoid anesthesia (0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine 8-10 mg and sufentanil 5 μg) were enrolled in a double-blind, randomized study. Patients in the S-Ketamine group (N.=28) received i.v. midazolam 0.02 mg/kg and S-Ketamine 0.5 mg/kg i.m. bolus 10 minutes after birth followed by a 2 μg/kg/min i.v. continuous infusion for 12 h. The control group (N.=28) received placebo. Paracetamol and patient controlled analgesia with intravenous morphine were given postoperatively. Von Frey filaments were used to assess pain threshold on the inner forearm and T10-T11 dermatomes (supposed hyperalgesic area ...
Caesarean section (CS) has short and long-term health effects for both the woman and her baby. One of the greatest contributors to the CS rate is elective repeat CS. Vaginal birth after caesarean (VBAC) is an option for many women; despite this the proportion of women attempting VBAC remains low. Potentially the relationship that women have with their healthcare professional may have a major influence on the uptake of VBAC. Models of service delivery, which enable an individual approach to care, may make a difference to the uptake of VBAC. Midwifery continuity of care could be an effective model to encourage and support women to choose VBAC. A randomised, controlled trial will be undertaken. Eligible pregnant women, whose most recent previous birth was by lower-segment CS, will be randomly allocated 1:1 to an intervention group or control group. The intervention provides midwifery continuity of care to women through pregnancy, labour, birth and early postnatal care. The control group will receive
Any woman in labor-not just one attempting a vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC)-might have complications during childbirth that require a cesarean section delivery.. If there is no medical reason for a cesarean, vaginal delivery is generally a safe option for both mother and baby. It is common, though, to fear going through labor after having had a cesarean delivery. This is especially true for women who have tried a vaginal birth but, after a long and difficult labor, ended up delivering by cesarean.. The ultimate decision to try a vaginal birth is made by you and your doctor. If you want to try a VBAC but your doctor is not in favor of your choice and does not have a clear reason, consider getting a second opinion.. If you are considering VBAC, talk with your doctor about:. ...
The inclusion criteria for skin-to-skin contact candidates were foundational to the protocol development. The families included experienced nonemergent, elective, repeat cesarean deliveries, or cesarean deliveries performed because of a failure to progress/dilate or breech presentation. The infants were greater than 38 weeks of gestation and in no acute distress. Role responsibilities were developed for the neonatal registered nurse, certified registered nurse anesthetist/anesthesiologist, circulating registered nurse, delivering physician, scrub technician, the mother, and the mothers support person. The protocol included a surgical unit that was setup to allow the mother to select music, provided the use of dim lighting, provided extra sterile plastic cord clamp on field, and positioned warmed blankets and an infant cap near the head of the mothers bed. The protocol of family education was to discuss with the mother and her support person one of the following three options: (a) observe the ...
Dear Ona. I submitted your question to ob/gyn Anthony Dardano, MD and here is his response:. While I certainly agree this delivery should be via cesarean section, I strongly disagree that future pregnancies are dangerous. Over the years I have performed multiple repeat cesareans on the same patient without any problem at all. Modern surgical techniques with absorbable suture material really place no limit on the number of pregnancies a uterus can support. The danger comes with possible rupture with the force of labor contractions and that is why I stated that repeat cesarean section is the indicated delivery route.. Tubal ligation is never morally permissible for the direct intention of preventing pregnancy. This is a moral principle which cannot be violated. Pray to Our Lady to guide you in making this important moral decision.. May God bless you. Anthony N Dardano, MD, FACS, FACOG ...
One of the most controversial topics in Obstetrics is VBAC* (Vaginal Birth After Cesarean Section). Before the 1970s, the rule of thumb was "Once a C-section, always a C-section." When a C-section is performed, an incision is cut in the lower part of the uterus. It is sutured back together after the baby is delivered, but it is always weaker than the surrounding tissue. The concern for allowing someone to labor after a C-section is that the uterine scar might break open due to the force of the contractions. Studies in the late seventies showed that the actual occurrence of rupture was low and it was safe to consider VBAC in the appropriate candidates. With increasing C-section rates, the opportunity for VBAC increased until the mid-90s when the VBAC rate peaked at 28%. However, with increased number of VBAC, we saw increased complications. A lot of women were getting VBACs who were not ideal candidates and at that point the dangers of induction with VBAC were not fully realized. VBAC also ...
What is a vaginal birth after cesarean delivery (VBAC)? If you have had a previous cesarean delivery, you have two choices about how to give birth again: 1. You can have a scheduled cesarean delivery. 2. You can give birth vaginally. This is called a VBAC. What is a vaginal birth after cesarean delivery (VBAC)? If you have had a previous cesarean delivery, you have two choices about how to give birth again: You can have a scheduled cesarean delivery; You can give birth vaginally. This is called a vaginal birth after cesarean delivery (VBAC). ...
According to this study, the socio-demographic factors are related to the incidence of caesarean sections in Mozambique. The connection was found by carrying out cross tabulations, Pearson`s χ2- tests and logistic regression analyses. In 1994-1997 age group and parity were associated with incidence of caesarean sections when adjusted with all confounders. The older the mother was, the higher was the risk of a caesarean section. Women having their first child had caesarean section more often than women having at least their second or third child. People living in urban areas more likely receive a caesarean section than those in rural areas. In 1998-2003, in addition to age, parity and area of residence, the study found the wealth index to be the strongly associated socio-demographic factor for caesarean section. Caesarean sections were more common among women who-or whose partners-were highly educated. Socio-demographical factors, especially parity, have stronger association in incidence of ...
Learn more about Vaginal Birth After Cesarean Section at Medical City Dallas DefinitionReasons for ProcedurePossible ComplicationsWhat to ExpectCall Your Doctorrevision ...
A VBAC stands for Vaginal Birth After Cesarean. After having a cesarean (also known as a c-section), your chances of being able to have a natural, vaginal birth decrease slightly but that does not mean that it is not safe. In this weeks episode, Cory and Jenn open up about their VBAC experience with the birth of their youngest child and hope that if you are expecting and would like to try a VBAC, that this episode will provide some hope, action items and positive energy around this somewhat controversial subject.. **Disclaimer** Please work directly with your medical professional directly if you desire to attempt a VBAC. The views and information presented in this podcast are merely Jenn and Corys experience and are by no means meant to be anything other than their opinions and shared experience on the subject. Thank you for listening!. ...
c section percentage - 28 images - percent of births by cesarean section, c section rates on the rise what s happening in your, your c section risk may be your hospital, non reasons for a rise in caesarean sections, caesarean births rule the day circle of
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I am so grateful and thankful I was able to have a VBA3C (vaginal birth after three c-sections). It was a very challenging time for me in many ways. But I chose to trust God, trust myself and let my fears fall away. I experienced one of the best days of my life, holding my baby before anyone else and having those first moments together. All the work to get there was very worth it in the end. And to you dear reader, if you are preparing for a VBAC I wish you the absolute best. And I believe in you. I really do. As a woman capable to vaginally birth her baby. Go forward in your pursuit. And no matter the outcome, I pray you can have peace knowing you had an active role in the decisions made for your birth and ultimately, you will have much joy on this very special and sacred day. ...
My Dr. Keeps saying I am a good candidate for a vbac. I didnt ask. I dont want one. But I feel that she is trying to push me in to one. If I would try vbac, I have to be induced because I have a bleeding disorder. My previous induction was 36 hours long, I only made it to 4cm and ended up with a c section for failure to progress. Before my water had broke, I was having only back labor and my contractions were not registering on the monitor correctly. The nurses did not believe me. They kept upping the pitocin. By the time my water broke and they got the internal monitor put in, they realized they had screwed up. I was having 3, 3 minute long contractions right on top of each other with no breaks, keeping me from progressing. My daughters heart beat would go from 130 to 85 or less, continuously. I had felt her flip twice. And they didnt listen to me about my concerns over her heart beat either. When they did my section they discovered she had wrapped the cord around her neck, tightly, twice
A new study may have identified the mechanism responsible for the weight gain seen in offspring born via cesarean delivery: a lack of healthful bacteria.. ...
A new study may have identified the mechanism responsible for the weight gain seen in offspring born via cesarean delivery: a lack of healthful bacteria.
... or C-section is the surgical delivery of a baby through a cut (incision) made in the mothers abdomen and uterus.
... or C-section is the surgical delivery of a baby through a cut (incision) made in the mothers abdomen and uterus.
Caesarean Section is increasingly becoming an option for pregnant women, some opting for it just because they do not want their vagina to lose shape.
Cesarean Section - everything you should know: the indications, the operation, and the peculiarities of the recovery period after c-section. Sex & sports after c-section
Evidence-based statements to deliver quality improvements in the care of women who plan for or may need a caesarean section (c-section)
The authors identify that 10-20% of fetal heads present in an occipito-posterior (OP) position at the onset of labour and that 2-5% will remain in a persistent occipitoposterior (POP) position. They cite the likelihood of spontaneous vaginal birth in POP positions as less than 40%, especially in pri
inproceedings{377420, author = {Kolkman, Iris and De Vliegher, Sarne and Hoflack, Geert and Van Aert, Marcel and Laureyns, Jozef and de Kruif, Aart and Opsomer, Geert}, booktitle = {Proceedings of 7th Middle European Buiatric Congress}, pages = {329--330}, title = {Caesarean Section}, year = {2006 ...
When what you remember most about the day your child was born is not her or his cute nose, but the way your body was ripped apart, it can be hard to admit.
...   A caesarean section (AE cesarean section), or c-section, is a form of childbirth in which a surgical incision is made through a
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Some local hospitals are now adopting programs and policies to reduce the number of surgical births, which can carry increased risk and are costlier.
Youve had a cesarean. Join the crowd! In the United States, 1 in 3 women will give birth this way. (Myself included!) Nearly 33% of all births assisted by surgery. And it can be a very important, life-saving procedure for women and babies. But... Now youre pregnant again. And, for some reason, you dont want…
Hi Ladies! Im really needing some advice/peoples experiences. I have a beautiful DD who is 2. Hubby are i are going to ttc this month for No.2, now i know im not pregnant yet but i just cant help thinking about what to do next time.
Planning a C-section? Learn what considerations you should make when planning a Cesarean delivery as well as early and late deliveries.
My birth story : How a natural birth enthusiast ended up with a cesarean section.Sometimes life doesnt go the way you planned, and thats ok.
Learn what to expect if you have a cesarean section surgery to deliver your baby. Get tips for recovering and healing after a c-section.
U.S., May 11 -- ClinicalTrials.gov registry received information related to the study (NCT03140683) titled Predictors of Scar Dehiscence in Patients With Previous Caesarean Section on May 3. Brief Summary: In recent decades, the percentage of Cesarean section deliveries has dramatically increased in most countries. Concomitantly, the rates of vaginal birth after Cesarean have decreased steadily. The pregnant women with previous Cesarean section face a difficult choice for their next delivery between a trial of labor after Cesarean or repeat caesarean section delivery. The performance of multiple Cesarean section exposes women to greater risks of complications; furthermore, the risk of complications increases with each subsequent Cesarean section. In fact, women with previous Cesarean section are more likely to experience short and long-term maternal complications in future pregnancies, or a trial of labor after Cesarean, with the risk of [uterine dehiscence, uterine rupture, genitourinary ...
Endometriosis, a common gynecological condition, is defined as the presence of functioning endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. It often presents as a cyclic, hormonally stimulated pain in women during their reproductive years. While endometriosis is usually located within the pelvis, it may also occur at intraperitoneal, intestinal, perineal, and distant ectopic sites. Although often diffuse, a localized, focal mass of endometrial tissue is termed as an endometrioma. In rare occurrences, an endometrioma will present superficially to the peritoneum within the abdominal wall following gynecologic or obstetric surgery. The presence of an abdominal wall endometrioma within a cesarean section scar may pose a diagnostic dilemma, which is often misdiagnosed, and results in surgery referrals for treatment. The clinical symptoms and sonographic appearance of abdominal wall endometriomas occurring at cesarean section scars are highlighted in this case series.
Results: A total of 525 pregnant women with one previous lower segment caesarean section scar had a trial of vaginal birth. Among the 525 women, 390 did not have a prior history of successful VBAC and the remaining 135 women had at least one successful VBAC. Among 390 pregnant women, 208 (53.3%) had successful vaginal deliveries and 182 (46.7%) women underwent emergency lower segment caesarean section as failed VBAC. Among the 182 women, there were two cases of scar dehiscence and both had emergency LSCS performed for abnormal foetal heart tracing. Both had good foetal outcome ...
Looking for online definition of vaginal birth after cesarean in the Medical Dictionary? vaginal birth after cesarean explanation free. What is vaginal birth after cesarean? Meaning of vaginal birth after cesarean medical term. What does vaginal birth after cesarean mean?
The risks of VBAC. The most serious but rare risk of women attempting a VBAC is uterine rupture. A uterine rupture is a tear or hole in the uterus. There is an increased risk of uterine rupture with VBAC compared to ERCS. The rates of uterine rupture are approximately one in every 200 women who labour and have previously had a caesarean section, and one in every 5000 women who choose ERCS.. A uterine rupture can be very small or large. In most circumstances this is quickly identified and we are able to make plans for the safe delivery of your baby. While very rare, uterine rupture can be associated with significant bleeding for you (including the potential need for a blood transfusion or even hysterectomy (removal of the uterus)), and the need for urgent delivery of your baby who can be deprived of oxygen. The evidence tells us that in most cases, when an emergency caesarean section is performed, no serious harm comes to the mother or baby.. In some situations the risk of rupture is increased. ...
There are more than 1 million cesarean deliveries performed annually in the United States, at a rate of 30.2% of all deliveries. Data are limited regarding optimal surgical closure techniques to minimize adhesions at cesarean. Adhesions are implicated in pelvic pain, infertility, difficult repeat surgery, and bowel obstruction. Practice techniques regarding rectus muscle reapproximation vary widely, and there are no data regarding the impact of this step on pain, and some data suggesting a reduction in significant adhesions. Given the frequency of cesarean deliveries, small changes in surgical technique may yield significant benefits.. We hope to learn 1) whether suture reapproximation of the rectus muscles increases pain, and 2) the degree to which suture reapproximation of the rectus muscles alters adhesions when studied in a prospective, randomized trial.. All patients undergoing primary cesarean delivery at Lucile Packard Childrens Hospital (LPCH) will be offered the study. Once consented, ...
In 2004 Mark Landon and his colleagues in the United States published "Maternal and Perinatal Outcomes Associated with a Trial of Labor after Prior Cesarean Delivery," which compared the risks of vaginal delivery and cesarean section for delivery of a fetus after a previous cesarean delivery. During a cesarean section, a physician surgically removes a fetus from a pregnant woman through an incision in her abdomen. By the late 1900s, most clinical guidelines viewed attempting a vaginal birth after a previous cesarean delivery as a reasonable option for most women.. Format: Articles Subject: Publications ...
The study assessed the value of currently-available data on the rates of caesarean section as an indicator of safe-motherhood programmes. Data, collected through the routine health information system of the Ministry of Health, Kenya, were used for analyzing the available process indicators. The methodology of this study illustrates both usefulness and limitations of readily-available healthcare information. The rate of hospital-based caesarean section was 6.3% of all births (range 0.3-37%), whereas the rate of population-based caesarean section was 0.95% (range 0.1%-4%). The rate of population-based caesarean section indicates a significant unmet need for obstetric care in the rural areas and may be a useful tool for monitoring progress on safe-motherhood initiatives in poor settings. Rates of population-based caesarean section are low in Kenya, especially in the rural areas. The rate of caesarean section may be a valuable process indicator for identifying the gaps in obstetric care and may be ...
The extra-placental gestational membranes secrete cytokines in response to bacteria and other infectious agents, with potentially adverse consequences for pregnancy. The present study used lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a prototype endotoxin to investigate the pattern of stimulated cytokine release from the amniotic and choriodecidual sides of full-thickness human gestational membranes in a two-compartment tissue culture system. Gestational membranes were collected from healthy non-laboring caesarean deliveries at term. Full-thickness membranes from each placenta were cut into pieces, mounted on Transwell frames, and placed in culture wells to create a two-compartment culture with the gestational membranes serving as the barrier between compartments. The LPS (100 ng/ml) was added to the amniotic, choriodecidual or both chambers of the culture, and cytokines were assayed in the medium of the amniotic and choriodecidual chambers after 8 h of LPS exposure. Cytokine concentrations were analyzed by two-way
Caesarean section on maternal request (CSMR) is carried out in the absence of maternal or fetal indications. One of the main psychological causes is tokophobia, an intense fear of childbirth affecting between six to ten percent of women.. In addition, women who have had previous vaginal delivery may request caesarean section because of adverse experiences during labour known as secondary tokophobia.. The authors of the review state that rather than counselling women requesting caesarean section about the risks, a better approach would be to explore the reasons for the request.. For women with tokophobia, frequent, regular psychotherapy by trained personnel to address why they are requesting a caesarean section is recommended by the review.. Authors state health workers need to have detailed discussions with women requesting a caesarean section about the unpredictability of events surrounding labour, the lack of control and the need for a flexible birth plan. Local maternity unit statistics for ...
Click here to view our Vaginal Birth and Cesarean Blog archives for Craig Ranch OB/GYN. Our practice serves McKinney, TX and surrounding areas.
על פי המאמר יש להבדיל בין קרע ברחם utrine rapture ובין פתיחה של הצלקת מניתוח קיסרי קודם dehiscence.. בדיקת אולטראסאונד באיזור הצלקת - בדיקת עובי דופן הרחם באיזור הצלקת מעיד על רמת החלמת הצלקת וחוזקה. זיהום לאחר ניתוח קיסרי משפיע על אופן החלמת הצלקת. בנשים שסבלו מזיהומים באיזור הצלקת דופן הרחם יהיה דק או לא שלם או שהצלקת לא נרפאה לגמרי.. יש לחקור את נושא מראה הצלקת באולטראסאונד ולפתח בדיקה וקריטריונים שיאפשרו לחזות את הסיכוי של היולדת לבעייתיות בצלקת.. Nomenclature to describe Caesarean section scars examined using ultrasonography.. Naji O, Abdallah Y, Bij de Vaate A, Smith A, Pexsters A, Stalder C, McIndoe A, Ghaem-Maghami S, Lees C, Brölmann HA, Huirne ...
Cesarean Delivery Wont Harm Kids Health: Study: - MONDAY, Oct. 12, 2015 - - In a report greater than 5,000 kids, Australian researchers said they found that cesarean section delivery was not linked with a higher risk of health problems in childhood natural cure for ed . This study shows that some of the previously reported associations between birth by cesarean delivery and adverse childhood health outcomes may be explained by influences apart from mode of birth, stated lead researcher Elizabeth Westrupp, a extensive study fellow in the institution of Nursing at La Trobe University in Melbourne. The researchers concluded that cesarean delivery was connected with a mix of negative and positive outcomes through early childhood, and few were consistent.. This conference brings multiple stakeholders collectively, including payers, molecular diagnostics companies, genome analysis/interpretation companies, clinicians and many others in order to provide attendees with a holistic watch of the ...
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How to avoid an unnecesarean? Too many women are delivered surgically without any evidence that they really needed this. The WHO recently stated that Cesarean sections should only be performed if medically necessary.. A Cesarean section is major abdominal surgery and, like everything in life, has its own risks attached. A Cesarean section influences all your subsequent pregnancies and births.. The expert appraoch of Proactive Support of Labor absolutely increases your chances of a normal birth, but sadly in countries like the USA, China and Brazil, to name a few, Cesarean rates are soaring. Quite often there is a financial incentive for the obstetrician, not to mention the convenience of scheduled surgery instead of just sitting with a woman, Supporting her.. There are too many stories of women more or less forced into Cesareans because of: an estimated large baby, a tightly closed cervix at 38 weeks, a failed induction because the dr wanted her to deliver because of his holidays, etc. The list ...
Barger MK, Weiss J, Nannini A, Werler M, Heeren T, Stubblefield PG. Risk factors for uterine rupture among women who attempt a vaginal birth after a previous cesarean: a case-control study. J Reprod Med. 2011 Jul-Aug; 56(7-8):313-20 ...
Uterine rupture is a serious childbirth complication that can occur during vaginal birth. Learn more about symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatment.
Good news for moms whove had multiple C-sections-a new study has found babies long-term health is the same as those born via VBAC (vaginal birth aft
This class is for the parents who have had previous Cesarean Section and desires to attempt a vaginal delivery. We will discuss the process here at Valley and answer any questions you may have.
And I wish I had mentally prepared for a c section as soon as I found out she was breech. I had attended a birthing class and of course had not paid attention to the c section portion because that wasnt going to be me! Instead, at 37.5w after two failed external versions where I cried and and got a bruised belly, I was told I was having a c section in 1.5 weeks and I was no where near prepared. I wish I had mentally prepared sooner and if she flipped, I would have been pleasantly surprised. I felt like I had had 37.5w to prepare to have a vaginal birth and then only 1.5w in a hormonal state to make the switch ...
How is caesarean performed? Caesarean section a lot of precision on the part of the doctor and you should hire the services of an expert for this.
In this episode, Dr. Batchelor and his very astute medical student, Nico Merc, discuss the method of cephalad-caudad expansion of the uterine incision in Caesarean sections. The article being discussed in this episode are: Cromi A, Ghezzi F, Di Naro E, Siesto G, Loverro G, Bolis ...
A new study confirms that babies born by cesarean section have a different microbiome than those born vaginally. But the health implications remain unknown.
Im a 2nd time mommy and I am praying daily for a successful vbac! My first had IUGR (intra-uterine growth restriction) and handled labor with a lot...
I believe that birth is one of the most powerful, memorable events that someone can experience in their lifetime.. I became a doula in 2010 after my experience with a cesarean and subsequent VBACs sparked a passion for informed choices and helping birthing families explore their options.. I have supported over 100 birthing families. I specialize in VBAC (vaginal birth after cesarean) but have experience with all kinds of births, including multiples, waterbirths, homebirths, and surgical births.. I have four kids, and in my copious free time I enjoy hiking, cooking, singing, and knitting.. ...
Lexington area. Candace Robinson provides holistic birth support and assistance in homebirth, waterbirth, and vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC). ...
Paris: Researchers from France have indicated a risk of death almost three times pronounced for women undergoing a caesarian delivery as compared to a vaginal one.
After a considerable number of requests over this last year we have now introduced a section for c-section Mums and Moms to be. We hope many find the new support forum helpful on their pregnancy
Pregnancy is hard enough on a womans body but when she is overweight, it can make the experience even harder. You can have more health issues when weight
April 21, 2010Sidney Wolfe, M.D.Public Citizen Health Research GroupFull report as a pdfStatements from press conferenceIntroduction
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All of the six studies examined were comparative cohort studies. As they were not randomised trials, there is the potential for bias. When methodological quality was assessed on the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale there was a medium risk of selection bias and a medium to high risk of bias in comparability and outcome assessment for most studies. For example, in one study,1 elective caesarean sections were exclusively carried out by doctors, whereas emergencies were carried out by both doctors and clinical officers. As elective caesarean section is associated with better outcomes than emergency caesarean section,13 this arrangement would have conferred an advantage to doctors. Furthermore, clinical officers tend to be located in rural areas,3 where access to lifesaving facilities such as blood transfusion and high dependency care may not be available. Another study8 tackled such issues by adjusting for rural setting, previous caesarean section, haemorrhage, other perioperative medical complications, and ...
My name is [Me].... I am writing you because I had a cesarean section with my first child in December 2004 because she was breech, and I am contemplating getting pregnant again soon. I have been researching in-depth the possibility of having a VBAC with my next baby. In doing his search, I found an article you wrote in 1996 on how measurements of a womans lower uterine segment in the third trimester can predict whether she will suffer a uterine rupture during a trial of labor. Specifically, your article showed that women with a measurement of over 3.5mm are almost guaranteed not to rupture. This is of great interest to me because, like many other potential VBAC candidates, I am afraid to try a VBAC for fear of having a uterine rupture. My question is, do you still believe this finding is accurate? If so, why dont more doctors do sonograms to measure this when they have a VBAC candidate? What can I say to my doctor (who I dont think does this type of measurement) to get him to do it when Im ...
The incision on your skin does not necessarily go in the same direction as the incision on your uterus. Also, if youve had more than one C-section, a VBAC might not be an option.. Of course, not all women who try to have a VBAC succeed. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) estimates that about 60% to 80% of women who try to have a VBAC succeed.. Although a VBAC does come with risks, many women are able to have one with no complications at all. If youre interested in having a VBAC, talk to your doctor to weigh the risks and benefits. And check with your hospital well in advance to make sure theyll allow it - if they dont and you have your heart set on a vaginal birth, you may need to change hospitals. ...
This weeks blog explores the topic of VBAC (vaginal birth after C-section), including what to expect during the procedure, as well as the potential risks.
The cesarean section, delivery of the fetus by incision through the abdominal and uterine wall (Leavitt, 1986:272), is a fascinating procedure indeed. Once a heroic gesture done to save the unborn infant from its dying mother, the cesarean section has become a common medical procedure. Between 1968 and 1977, the cesarean section rates in the United States have tripled, reaching 15.2 percent in 1978 and making the cesarean the tenth most common surgical procedure in the United States (Gleicher, 198^:3273). The cesarean rate has continued to rise from 16.5 percent of deliveries in 1980 (Placek, 1983) to 22.7 percent in 1985 (Placek and Taffel, 1987). This upward trend in cesarean delivery is evident in all types of medical facilities, in all regions of the country, and among women of all educational and income levels (Guillemin, 1981:15).
Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams Wilkins; 1999. A balanced and nutritious food plan is very important for each the mom and baby. Because PMS signs happen within the days and weeks following ovulation, its necessary that youre aware of ovulation c section scar and pregnancy. Prime members also get pleasure from FREE Two-Day Transport and unique access to music, motion pictures, TV shows, and Kindle books. Sabra I encourage you to speak to a psychologist or counselor. Hopefully this has shed some gentle on how you ended c section scar and pregnancy with have to Google, missed interval adverse pregnancy check. In the first few weeks you may not really feel like c section scar and pregnancy correct meals, especially in the event you endure from nausea or illness. I know its a touchy topic and some folks may have harsh words to say. These are sometimes adopted by an episode of spotting. My older sister gracefully wears that title. The most common infection is thrush. Our visitor contributor, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Blood transfusion during cesarean section. A 12 years retrospective analysis.. AU - Imberti, R.. AU - Preseglio, I.. AU - Trotta, V.. AU - Filisetti, P.. AU - Mapelli, A.. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. N2 - Transfusional practice over the last 12 years was investigated retrospectively in 1618 women submitted to lower-segment cesarean section. The overall percentage of transfused patients was low (2.4%) and it has become lower in the last four years (1.1%), in concomitance with the development of better knowledge of tissue oxygenation and with the fear of transmitting infectious diseases, factors which have led anesthesiologists to employ blood only when strictly required. Three conditions greatly increased the risk of bleeding: placenta previa, abruptio placentae and coagulation disorders. Previous cesarean section, fetal distress, dystocias and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy did not increase the risk of bleeding and no difference was found between elective and non-elective ...
A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, PubMed, Google Scholar, and JAOA.org for 1950 to 2015 to assess the available literature regarding cesarean delivery,8 cesarean scar ectopic pregnancy,9 TOLAC,10 uterine rupture,11,12 relevant osteopathic concepts and treatments,13,14 and other studies that incorporated OMT in the prenatal care of pregnant women.15-17 All appropriate institutional approvals and patient informed consent were obtained before treatment. The treatment algorithm (Figure 1) that was created by the author and implemented in these cases was devised using evidence-based OMT techniques from the identified sources8-17 to reduce tension on the previous cesarean scar (in the cases of TOLAC and repeated cesarean deliveries); to restore balance and hemostasis to areas of somatic dysfunction; and to heal dysfunctions of the viscera and related anatomical structures caused by previous surgical procedures, vaginal and cesarean delivery, and gravid uterus changes. The inclusion ...
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  • In recent years there is a growing local, as well as global, tendency among obstetricians to end labor by cesarean section in various circumstances. (bioportfolio.com)
  • When a woman has had a previous caesarean section for any reason, obstetricians then need to carefully consider the most appropriate method by which the next baby should be delivered. (amba.org.au)
  • Wound Infiltration With Bupivacaine/Adrenalin During Cesarean Section and Postoperative Pain. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Telfa pad dressing placed over Cesarean wound after skin closure, the dressing will be changed to a new Telfa pad dressing on post-operative day 2 which will remain on the incision through post-operative day 7. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • As indicated above, the average cesarean rate in the 10 hospitals with the highest rates is 48.3 percent. (citizen.org)
  • As weight almost inevitably will increase over the next few decades, we can expect to see the caesarean section rate continue to climb. (amba.org.au)
  • Adjusted rates of caesarean section for each NHS trust were produced from this model. (bmj.com)
  • Since the 1970s, many developed countries have experienced substantial growth in the rates of caesarean section. (bmj.com)
  • Nonetheless, there is concern about whether the current high rates of caesarean section are justified because the procedure is not without risk. (bmj.com)
  • Adding to these concerns is evidence of considerable variation in rates of caesarean section within various countries, 15 16 17 including the United Kingdom. (bmj.com)