Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.
A variety of anesthetic methods such as EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA used to control the pain of childbirth.
Extraction of the fetus by abdominal hysterotomy anytime following a previous cesarean.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A malpresentation of the FETUS at near term or during OBSTETRIC LABOR with the fetal cephalic pole in the fundus of the UTERUS. There are three types of breech: the complete breech with flexed hips and knees; the incomplete breech with one or both hips partially or fully extended; the frank breech with flexed hips and extended knees.
Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.
Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.
A nonreassuring fetal status (NRFS) indicating that the FETUS is compromised (American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists 1988). It can be identified by sub-optimal values in FETAL HEART RATE; oxygenation of FETAL BLOOD; and other parameters.
Delivery of an infant through the vagina in a female who has had a prior cesarean section.
Allowing a woman to be in LABOR, OBSTETRIC long enough to determine if vaginal birth may be anticipated.
Artificially induced UTERINE CONTRACTION. Generally, LABOR, OBSTETRIC is induced with the intent to cause delivery of the fetus and termination of pregnancy.
Medical problems associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR, such as BREECH PRESENTATION; PREMATURE OBSTETRIC LABOR; HEMORRHAGE; or others. These complications can affect the well-being of the mother, the FETUS, or both.
Slow or difficult OBSTETRIC LABOR or CHILDBIRTH.
Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected into the epidural space.
A complete separation or tear in the wall of the UTERUS with or without expulsion of the FETUS. It may be due to injuries, multiple pregnancies, large fetus, previous scarring, or obstruction.
Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
The repetitive uterine contraction during childbirth which is associated with the progressive dilation of the uterine cervix (CERVIX UTERI). Successful labor results in the expulsion of the FETUS and PLACENTA. Obstetric labor can be spontaneous or induced (LABOR, INDUCED).
A method, developed by Dr. Virginia Apgar, to evaluate a newborn's adjustment to extrauterine life. Five items - heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color - are evaluated 60 seconds after birth and again five minutes later on a scale from 0-2, 0 being the lowest, 2 being normal. The five numbers are added for the Apgar score. A score of 0-3 represents severe distress, 4-7 indicates moderate distress, and a score of 7-10 predicts an absence of difficulty in adjusting to extrauterine life.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a cardiovascular disease. The disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.
Extraction of the fetus by means of obstetrical instruments.
Drugs that stimulate contraction of the myometrium. They are used to induce LABOR, OBSTETRIC at term, to prevent or control postpartum or postabortion hemorrhage, and to assess fetal status in high risk pregnancies. They may also be used alone or with other drugs to induce abortions (ABORTIFACIENTS). Oxytocics used clinically include the neurohypophyseal hormone OXYTOCIN and certain prostaglandins and ergot alkaloids. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p1157)
The elimination of PAIN, without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, during OBSTETRIC LABOR; OBSTETRIC DELIVERY; or the POSTPARTUM PERIOD, usually through the administration of ANALGESICS.
Abnormal placentation in which the PLACENTA implants in the lower segment of the UTERUS (the zone of dilation) and may cover part or all of the opening of the CERVIX. It is often associated with serious antepartum bleeding and PREMATURE LABOR.
Physiologic or biochemical monitoring of the fetus. It is usually done during LABOR, OBSTETRIC and may be performed in conjunction with the monitoring of uterine activity. It may also be performed prenatally as when the mother is undergoing surgery.
The fibrous tissue that replaces normal tissue during the process of WOUND HEALING.
The position or orientation of the FETUS at near term or during OBSTETRIC LABOR, determined by its relation to the SPINE of the mother and the birth canal. The normal position is a vertical, cephalic presentation with the fetal vertex flexed on the NECK.
Thinly cut sections of frozen tissue specimens prepared with a cryostat or freezing microtome.
A widely used local anesthetic agent.
Surgical instrument designed to extract the newborn by the head from the maternal passages without injury to it or the mother.
Hospital department responsible for the administration and management of services provided for obstetric and gynecologic patients.
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
Excess blood loss from uterine bleeding associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR or CHILDBIRTH. It is defined as blood loss greater than 500 ml or of the amount that adversely affects the maternal physiology, such as BLOOD PRESSURE and HEMATOCRIT. Postpartum hemorrhage is divided into two categories, immediate (within first 24 hours after birth) or delayed (after 24 hours postpartum).
Disorders or diseases associated with PUERPERIUM, the six-to-eight-week period immediately after PARTURITION in humans.
A term used to describe pregnancies that exceed the upper limit of a normal gestational period. In humans, a prolonged pregnancy is defined as one that extends beyond 42 weeks (294 days) after the first day of the last menstrual period (MENSTRUATION), or birth with gestational age of 41 weeks or more.
A condition in which the HEAD of the FETUS is larger than the mother's PELVIS through which the fetal head must pass during a vaginal delivery.
Period from the onset of true OBSTETRIC LABOR to the complete dilatation of the CERVIX UTERI.
The process of giving birth to one or more offspring.
Labor and delivery without medical intervention, usually involving RELAXATION THERAPY.
The relief of pain without loss of consciousness through the introduction of an analgesic agent into the epidural space of the vertebral canal. It is differentiated from ANESTHESIA, EPIDURAL which refers to the state of insensitivity to sensation.
An infection occurring in PUERPERIUM, the period of 6-8 weeks after giving birth.
The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.
The beginning of true OBSTETRIC LABOR which is characterized by the cyclic uterine contractions of increasing frequency, duration, and strength causing CERVICAL DILATATION to begin (LABOR STAGE, FIRST ).
The condition of carrying TWINS simultaneously.
Agents that are administered in association with anesthetics to increase effectiveness, improve delivery, or decrease required dosage.
Surgery which could be postponed or not done at all without danger to the patient. Elective surgery includes procedures to correct non-life-threatening medical problems as well as to alleviate conditions causing psychological stress or other potential risk to patients, e.g., cosmetic or contraceptive surgery.
Inflammation of the ENDOMETRIUM, usually caused by intrauterine infections. Endometritis is the most common cause of postpartum fever.
A phenethylamine found in EPHEDRA SINICA. PSEUDOEPHEDRINE is an isomer. It is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used for asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists.
Procedures to block or remove all or part of the genital tract for the purpose of rendering individuals sterile, incapable of reproduction. Surgical sterilization procedures are the most commonly used. There are also sterilization procedures involving chemical or physical means.
Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.
A medical-surgical specialty concerned with management and care of women during pregnancy, parturition, and the puerperium.
Written or other literary works whose subject matter is medical or about the profession of medicine and related areas.
Removal of the fetus from the uterus or vagina at or near the end of pregnancy with a metal traction cup that is attached to the fetus' head. Negative pressure is applied and traction is made on a chain passed through the suction tube. (From Stedman, 26th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)
The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.
Abnormal placentation in which all or parts of the PLACENTA are attached directly to the MYOMETRIUM due to a complete or partial absence of DECIDUA. It is associated with POSTPARTUM HEMORRHAGE because of the failure of placental separation.
The period of OBSTETRIC LABOR that is from the complete dilatation of the CERVIX UTERI to the expulsion of the FETUS.
Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.
Maternal deaths resulting from complications of pregnancy and childbirth in a given population.
'Hospital bed capacity, under 100' refers to the maximum number of hospital beds available for patient care that is less than one hundred, indicating a smaller healthcare facility or a specific unit within a larger hospital with limited bed resources.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
A nonapeptide hormone released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). It differs from VASOPRESSIN by two amino acids at residues 3 and 8. Oxytocin acts on SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, such as causing UTERINE CONTRACTIONS and MILK EJECTION.
Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.
A historical and cultural entity dispersed across a wide geographical area under the administrative, intellectual, social, and cultural domination of the Arab empire. The Arab world, under the impetus of Islam, by the eighth century A.D., extended from Arabia in the Middle East to all of northern Africa, southern Spain, Sardinia, and Sicily. Close contact was maintained with Greek and Jewish culture. While the principal service of the Arabs to medicine was the preservation of Greek culture, the Arabs themselves were the originators of algebra, chemistry, geology, and many of the refinements of civilization. (From A. Castiglioni, A History of Medicine, 2d ed, p260; from F. H. Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed, p126)
Bleeding from blood vessels in the UTERUS, sometimes manifested as vaginal bleeding.
Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.
Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.
Pathological processes involving any part of the UTERUS.
Special hospitals which provide care to women during pregnancy and parturition.
Situations or conditions requiring immediate intervention to avoid serious adverse results.
Free-standing facilities that provide prenatal, childbirth, and postnatal care and usually incorporate family-centered maternity care concepts and practices.
The outer margins of the ABDOMEN, extending from the osteocartilaginous thoracic cage to the PELVIS. Though its major part is muscular, the abdominal wall consists of at least seven layers: the SKIN, subcutaneous fat, deep FASCIA; ABDOMINAL MUSCLES, transversalis fascia, extraperitoneal fat, and the parietal PERITONEUM.
The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.
Hospitals controlled by various types of government, i.e., city, county, district, state or federal.
Onset of HYPERREFLEXIA; SEIZURES; or COMA in a previously diagnosed pre-eclamptic patient (PRE-ECLAMPSIA).
Insurance against loss resulting from liability for injury or damage to the persons or property of others.
Pregnancy in which the mother and/or FETUS are at greater than normal risk of MORBIDITY or MORTALITY. Causes include inadequate PRENATAL CARE, previous obstetrical history (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS), pre-existing maternal disease, pregnancy-induced disease (GESTATIONAL HYPERTENSION), and MULTIPLE PREGNANCY, as well as advanced maternal age above 35.
A complication of PREGNANCY, characterized by a complex of symptoms including maternal HYPERTENSION and PROTEINURIA with or without pathological EDEMA. Symptoms may range between mild and severe. Pre-eclampsia usually occurs after the 20th week of gestation, but may develop before this time in the presence of trophoblastic disease.
Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and NEOPLASMS. The neoplastic disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
Pathologic process consisting of a partial or complete disruption of the layers of a surgical wound.
The artificial alteration of the fetal position to facilitate birth.
Pain during the period after surgery.
A homolog of ERGONOVINE containing one more CH2 group. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
CHILDBIRTH at the end of a normal duration of PREGNANCY, between 37 to 40 weeks of gestation or about 280 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period.
Monitoring of FETAL HEART frequency before birth in order to assess impending prematurity in relation to the pattern or intensity of antepartum UTERINE CONTRACTION.
In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).
The smooth muscle coat of the uterus, which forms the main mass of the organ.
Failure of the UTERUS to contract with normal strength, duration, and intervals during childbirth (LABOR, OBSTETRIC). It is also called uterine atony.
A plant species of the family CUCURBITACEAE that is a source of TRICHOSANTHIN (a ribosomal inhibitory protein).
Measurement of the dimensions and capacity of the pelvis. It includes cephalopelvimetry (measurement of fetal head size in relation to maternal pelvic capacity), a prognostic guide to the management of LABOR, OBSTETRIC associated with disproportion.
Emesis and queasiness occurring after anesthesia.
Injection of an anesthetic into the nerves to inhibit nerve transmission in a specific part of the body.
An opioid analgesic that is used as an adjunct in anesthesia, in balanced anesthesia, and as a primary anesthetic agent.
Excision of the uterus.
Diagnostic, therapeutic, and investigative procedures prescribed and performed by health professionals, the results of which do not justify the benefits or hazards and costs to the patient.
Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Premature separation of the normally implanted PLACENTA from the UTERUS. Signs of varying degree of severity include UTERINE BLEEDING, uterine MUSCLE HYPERTONIA, and FETAL DISTRESS or FETAL DEATH.
Blocking of maternal circulation by AMNIOTIC FLUID that is forced into uterine VEINS by strong UTERINE CONTRACTION near the end of pregnancy. It is characterized by the sudden onset of severe respiratory distress and HYPOTENSION that can lead to maternal DEATH.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The practice of assisting women in childbirth.
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Mechanical or anoxic trauma incurred by the infant during labor or delivery.
The thin layers of tissue that surround the developing embryo. There are four extra-embryonic membranes commonly found in VERTEBRATES, such as REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. They are the YOLK SAC, the ALLANTOIS, the AMNION, and the CHORION. These membranes provide protection and means to transport nutrients and wastes.
The condition of carrying two or more FETUSES simultaneously.
Deaths occurring from the 28th week of GESTATION to the 28th day after birth in a given population.
Human females who are pregnant, as cultural, psychological, or sociological entities.
Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.
An intense itching sensation that produces the urge to rub or scratch the skin to obtain relief.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.
An incision in the uterus, performed through either the abdomen or the vagina.
Onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR before term (TERM BIRTH) but usually after the FETUS has become viable. In humans, it occurs sometime during the 29th through 38th week of PREGNANCY. TOCOLYSIS inhibits premature labor and can prevent the BIRTH of premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE).
Contraction of the UTERINE MUSCLE.
The care of women and a fetus or newborn given before, during, and after delivery from the 28th week of gestation through the 7th day after delivery.
The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.
A republic in eastern Africa bounded on the north by RWANDA and on the south by TANZANIA. Its capital is Bujumbura.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially to induce anesthesia. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
Preliminary administration of a drug preceding a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure. The commonest types of premedication are antibiotics (ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS) and anti-anxiety agents. It does not include PREANESTHETIC MEDICATION.
The state of PREGNANCY in women with DIABETES MELLITUS. This does not include either symptomatic diabetes or GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE induced by pregnancy (DIABETES, GESTATIONAL) which resolves at the end of pregnancy.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.
Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.
A clear, yellowish liquid that envelopes the FETUS inside the sac of AMNION. In the first trimester, it is likely a transudate of maternal or fetal plasma. In the second trimester, amniotic fluid derives primarily from fetal lung and kidney. Cells or substances in this fluid can be removed for prenatal diagnostic tests (AMNIOCENTESIS).
Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the mother.
A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)
The event that a FETUS is born alive with heartbeats or RESPIRATION regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE. Such liveborn is called a newborn infant (INFANT, NEWBORN).
The flexible rope-like structure that connects a developing FETUS to the PLACENTA in mammals. The cord contains blood vessels which carry oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the fetus and waste products away from the fetus.
The care provided to women and their NEWBORNS for the first few months following CHILDBIRTH.
A potentially life-threatening condition in which EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs outside the cavity of the UTERUS. Most ectopic pregnancies (>96%) occur in the FALLOPIAN TUBES, known as TUBAL PREGNANCY. They can be in other locations, such as UTERINE CERVIX; OVARY; and abdominal cavity (PREGNANCY, ABDOMINAL).
The technique of using a microtome to cut thin or ultrathin sections of tissues embedded in a supporting substance. The microtome is an instrument that hold a steel, glass or diamond knife in clamps at an angle to the blocks of prepared tissues, which it cuts in sections of equal thickness.
Diseases of newborn infants present at birth (congenital) or developing within the first month of birth. It does not include hereditary diseases not manifesting at birth or within the first 30 days of life nor does it include inborn errors of metabolism. Both HEREDITARY DISEASES and METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS are available as general concepts.
A condition in pregnant women with elevated systolic (>140 mm Hg) and diastolic (>90 mm Hg) blood pressure on at least two occasions 6 h apart. HYPERTENSION complicates 8-10% of all pregnancies, generally after 20 weeks of gestation. Gestational hypertension can be divided into several broad categories according to the complexity and associated symptoms, such as EDEMA; PROTEINURIA; SEIZURES; abnormalities in BLOOD COAGULATION and liver functions.
Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.
The innermost membranous sac that surrounds and protects the developing embryo which is bathed in the AMNIOTIC FLUID. Amnion cells are secretory EPITHELIAL CELLS and contribute to the amniotic fluid.
Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The bond or lack thereof between a pregnant woman and her FETUS.
Infection occurring at the site of a surgical incision.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Brazil" is not a medical term or concept, it is a country located in South America, known officially as the Federative Republic of Brazil. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or science, I'd be happy to help answer those!
A narcotic analgesic that can be used for the relief of most types of moderate to severe pain, including postoperative pain and the pain of labor. Prolonged use may lead to dependence of the morphine type; withdrawal symptoms appear more rapidly than with morphine and are of shorter duration.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The event that a FETUS is born dead or stillborn.
A change in the CERVIX UTERI with respect to its readiness to relax. The cervix normally becomes softer, more flexible, more distensible, and shorter in the final weeks of PREGNANCY. These cervical changes can also be chemically induced (LABOR, INDUCED).
Specialized arterial vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry waste and deoxygenated blood from the FETUS to the mother via the PLACENTA. In humans, there are usually two umbilical arteries but sometimes one.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.

Obstetric and neonatal outcome following chronic hypertension in pregnancy among different ethnic groups. (1/2040)

We retrospectively studied pre-eclampsia rate and obstetric outcome in a cohort of 436 pregnancies amongst 318 women of different ethnic backgrounds attending an antenatal hypertension clinic from 1980-1997, identifying 152 women (213 pregnancies) with chronic essential hypertension. The ethnic breakdown was: White, 64 (30.0%) pregnancies in 48 (31.5%) women; Black/Afro-Caribbean, 79 (37.1%) pregnancies in 56 (36.8%) women; and Indo-Asians, 70 (32.3%) pregnancies in 48 (31.6%) women. The prevalences of pre-eclampsia in White, Black and Indo-Asian women were 17.2%, 12.7% and 18.6%, respectively (p = 0.58). Pregnancies of Indo-Asian women were of shorter gestation, and babies in this group also had lower birth weight and ponderal index compared to those of White and Black women (all p < 0.05). The proportions of overall perinatal mortality were 1.6% for Whites (1/64), 3.8% for Blacks (3/79) and 10.0% for Indo-Asians (7/70), suggesting increased risk in the Indo-Asian group. Indo-Asian women with chronic essential hypertension need careful antenatal care and observation during pregnancy.  (+info)

Outcome of pregnancy in women with congenital shunt lesions. (2/2040)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcome of pregnancy in women with congenital shunt lesions. SETTING: Retrospective study in a tertiary care centre. METHODS: Pregnancy history was obtained by a standardised questionnaire and medical records were reviewed. PATIENTS: 175 women were identified, at a mean (SD) age of 42 (14) years. Pregnancies occurred in 126 women: 50 with an atrial septal defect, 22 with a ventricular septal defect, 22 with an atrioventricular septal defect, 19 with tetralogy of Fallot, and 13 with other complex shunt lesions. RESULTS: 309 pregnancies were reported by 126 woman (2.5 (1.6) pregnancies per woman). The shortening fraction of the systemic ventricle was 40 (8)%, and 98% were in New York Heart Association class I-II at last follow up. Spontaneous abortions occurred in 17% of pregnancies (abortion rate, 0.4 (0.9) per woman). Gestational age of the 241 newborn infants was 8.8 (0.8) months. There were no maternal deaths related to pregnancy. Pre-eclampsia and embolic events were observed in 1.3% and 0.6%, respectively of all pregnancies. Women with complex shunt lesions more often underwent caesarean section (70% v 15-30%, p = 0.005) and gave birth to smaller babies for equivalent gestation (2577 (671) g v 3016 (572) to 3207 (610) g, p < 0.05). The recurrence risk of congenital heart disease was 2.5%. CONCLUSIONS: The outcome of pregnancy is favourable in women with congenital shunt lesions if their functional class and their systolic ventricular function are good. Such patients can be reassured.  (+info)

Desensitization of oxytocin receptors in human myometrium. (3/2040)

In the present study, we investigated the possible mechanisms by which oxytocin might regulate oxytocin receptor (OTR) density. Exposure of cultured myometrial cells to oxytocin for a prolonged period caused desensitization: the steady-state level of oxytocin binding was 210 x 10(3) binding sites/cell, but this was time-dependently reduced to 20.1 x 10(3) sites/cell by exposing the cells to oxytocin for up to 20 h. In contrast, Western blotting data showed that the total amount of OTR protein was not affected by oxytocin treatment for up to 24 h. Flow cytometry experiments demonstrated that OTRs were not internalized during this treatment. However, RNase protection assays and Northern analysis showed that in cultured myometrial cells OTR mRNA was reduced by oxytocin treatment to reach a new low steady-state concentration. Analysis of this mRNA in myometrial biopsies from 17 patients undergoing emergency Caesarean section showed how it decreased with advancing labour. Samples obtained after 12 h of labour contained approximately 50 times less OTR mRNA than samples obtained from patients in labour for less than 12 h. We speculate that this decrease in OTR mRNA represents in-vivo OTR desensitization.  (+info)

Primary aldosteronism with aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma in a pregnant woman. (4/2040)

A 30-year-old pregnant woman complained of muscle weakness at 29 weeks' gestation. She was hypertensive with severe hypokalemia. Lower plasma renin activity and higher aldosterone level than the normal values in pregnancy suggested primary aldosteronism. A cesarean delivery was performed at 31 weeks' gestation because of pulmonary congestion. The neonatal course was uncomplicated. The laparoscopic adrenalectomy for a 2.0-cm right adrenal adenoma resulted in normalizing of her blood pressure and serum potassium level. Although primary aldosteronism is rare, especially during pregnancy, it should be always considered as one of etiologies of hypertension in pregnancy.  (+info)

Fetal growth rate and adverse perinatal events. (5/2040)

OBJECTIVE: To study fetal weight gain and its association with adverse perinatal events in a serially scanned high-risk population. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 200 pregnant women considered at increased risk of uteroplacental insufficiency had a total of 1140 scans in the third trimester, with a median of six scans in each pregnancy. The average fetal growth rate was retrospectively calculated for the last 6 weeks to birth, and expressed as daily weight gain in grams per day. Adverse pregnancy outcome was defined as operative delivery for fetal distress, acidotic umbilical artery pH (< 7.15), or admission to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). RESULTS: Fetuses with normal outcome in this high-risk pregnancy population had an average antenatal growth rate of 24.2 g/day. Compared to pregnancies with normal outcome, the growth rate was slower in those that required operative delivery for fetal distress (20.9 g/day, p < 0.05) and those that required admission to the NICU (20.3 g/day, p < 0.05). The growth rate in pregnancies resulting in acidotic umbilical artery pH also seemed lower, but this did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: Impaired fetal weight gain prior to birth is associated with adverse perinatal events suggestive of growth failure.  (+info)

First-trimester cord entanglement in monoamniotic twins. (6/2040)

OBJECTIVE: Monoamniotic twinning occurs in only 1% of twin pregnancies, but carries a high perinatal mortality rate. Early and reliable diagnosis is essential if attempts are to be made to reduce the complication rate. We report color Doppler demonstration of cord entanglement in the first trimester, which is diagnostic of monoamnionicity. METHODS: Two patients with twin pregnancies were examined in the first trimester with pulsed and color Doppler insonation of their umbilical arteries. RESULTS: Cord entanglement was suspected and proved by demonstrating differing fetal heart rate patterns in the same direction on umbilical artery Doppler analysis of a common mass of cord vessels. Following appropriate counselling, medical amnioreduction was induced at 20 weeks of gestation to reduce fetal movements and worsening cord entanglement. Delivery was by elective Cesarean section at 32 weeks' gestation and monoamnionicity was confirmed. CONCLUSION: We report a new sign for the demonstration of monoamnionicity in twin pregnancies in the first trimester. This should improve the reliability of early diagnosis, but further studies are required to confirm that, if cord entanglement occurs, it is usually present by the end of the first trimester.  (+info)

The mode of delivery and the risk of vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1--a meta-analysis of 15 prospective cohort studies. The International Perinatal HIV Group. (7/2040)

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the relation between elective cesarean section and vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), we performed a meta-analysis using data on individual patients from 15 prospective cohort studies. METHODS: North American and European studies of at least 100 mother-child pairs were included in the meta-analysis. Uniform definitions of modes of delivery were used. Elective cesarean sections were defined as those performed before onset of labor and rupture of membranes. Multivariate logistic-regression analysis was used to adjust for other factors known to be associated with vertical transmission. RESULTS: The primary analysis included data on 8533 mother-child pairs. After adjustment for receipt of antiretroviral therapy, maternal stage of disease, and infant birth weight, the likelihood of vertical transmission of HIV-1 was decreased by approximately 50 percent with elective cesarean section, as compared with other modes of delivery (adjusted odds ratio, 0.43; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.33 to 0.56). The results were similar when the study population was limited to those with rupture of membranes shortly before delivery. The likelihood of transmission was reduced by approximately 87 percent with both elective cesarean section and receipt of antiretroviral therapy during the prenatal, intrapartum, and neonatal periods, as compared with other modes of delivery and the absence of therapy (adjusted odds ratio, 0.13; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.09 to 0.19). Among mother-child pairs receiving antiretroviral therapy during the prenatal, intrapartum, and neonatal periods, rates of vertical transmission were 2.0 percent among the 196 mothers who underwent elective cesarean section and 7.3 percent among the 1255 mothers with other modes of delivery. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this meta-analysis suggest that elective cesarean section reduces the risk of transmission of HIV-1 from mother to child independently of the effects of treatment with zidovudine.  (+info)

Maternal intrapartum temperature elevation as a risk factor for cesarean delivery and assisted vaginal delivery. (8/2040)

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the association of intrapartum temperature elevation with cesarean delivery and assisted vaginal delivery. METHODS: Participants were 1233 nulliparous women with singleton, term pregnancies in vertex presentations who had spontaneous labors and were afebrile (temperature: 99.5 degrees F [37.5 degrees C]) at admission for delivery. Rates of cesarean and assisted vaginal deliveries according to highest intrapartum temperature were examined by epidural status. RESULTS: Women with maximum intrapartum temperatures higher than 99.5 degrees F were 3 times as likely to experience cesarean (25.2% vs 7.2%) or assisted vaginal delivery (25.2% vs 8.5%). The association was present in epidural users and nonusers and persisted after birthweight, epidural use, and labor length had been controlled. In adjusted analyses, temperature elevation was associated with a doubling in the risk of cesarean delivery (odds ratio [OR] = 2.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5, 3.4) and assisted vaginal delivery (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.4, 3.1). CONCLUSIONS: Modest temperature elevation developing during labor was associated with higher rates of cesarean and assisted vaginal deliveries. More frequent temperature elevation among women with epidural analgesia may explain in part the higher rates of cesarean and assisted vaginal deliveries observed with epidural use.  (+info)

A Cesarean section, often referred to as a C-section, is a surgical procedure used to deliver a baby. It involves making an incision through the mother's abdomen and uterus to remove the baby. This procedure may be necessary when a vaginal delivery would put the mother or the baby at risk.

There are several reasons why a C-section might be recommended, including:

* The baby is in a breech position (feet first) or a transverse position (sideways) and cannot be turned to a normal head-down position.
* The baby is too large to safely pass through the mother's birth canal.
* The mother has a medical condition, such as heart disease or high blood pressure, that could make vaginal delivery risky.
* The mother has an infection, such as HIV or herpes, that could be passed to the baby during a vaginal delivery.
* The labor is not progressing and there are concerns about the health of the mother or the baby.

C-sections are generally safe for both the mother and the baby, but like any surgery, they do carry some risks. These can include infection, bleeding, blood clots, and injury to nearby organs. In addition, women who have a C-section are more likely to experience complications in future pregnancies, such as placenta previa or uterine rupture.

If you have questions about whether a C-section is necessary for your delivery, it's important to discuss your options with your healthcare provider.

Obstetrical anesthesia refers to the use of anesthetic techniques and medications during childbirth or obstetrical procedures. The goal is to provide pain relief and comfort to the birthing person while ensuring the safety of both the mother and the baby. There are different types of obstetrical anesthesia, including:

1. Local anesthesia: Injection of a local anesthetic agent to numb a specific area, such as the perineum (the area between the vagina and the anus) during childbirth.
2. Regional anesthesia: Numbing a larger region of the body using techniques like spinal or epidural anesthesia. These methods involve injecting local anesthetic agents near the spinal cord to block nerve impulses, providing pain relief in the lower half of the body.
3. General anesthesia: Using inhaled gases or intravenous medications to render the birthing person unconscious during cesarean sections (C-sections) or other surgical procedures related to childbirth.

The choice of anesthetic technique depends on various factors, including the type of delivery, the mother's medical history, and the preferences of both the mother and the healthcare team. Obstetrical anesthesia requires specialized training and expertise to ensure safe and effective pain management during labor and delivery.

A "repeat cesarean section" is a medical term that refers to the delivery of a fetus through surgical incision in the abdominal and uterine walls, which has been performed previously. It is also known as a "classical repeat cesarean delivery." This procedure may be recommended when vaginal birth poses potential risks to the mother or the baby, such as in cases of placenta previa, previous classical uterine incision, or multiple pregnancies. The decision for a repeat cesarean section is typically made after considering various factors, including the patient's medical history, current pregnancy status, and personal preferences.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Breech presentation is a term used in obstetrics to describe a situation where the fetus's buttocks or feet are positioned to come out first during childbirth, instead of the head. There are several types of breech presentations, including:

1. Frank breech: The fetus's hips are flexed and its knees are extended, so that the buttocks are the leading part of the body.
2. Complete breech: The fetus's hips and knees are flexed, and both thighs and legs are close to its chest, so that the buttocks are the leading part of the body.
3. Footling breech: One or both feet are presenting first, with the heels down.

Breech presentation occurs in about 3-4% of all pregnancies at term. While some breech babies can be safely delivered vaginally, most obstetricians recommend a cesarean delivery for breech presentation due to the increased risk of complications such as cord prolapse, head entrapment, and fetal distress. However, there are some techniques that may be used to attempt a vaginal breech delivery in certain situations, such as external cephalic version (ECV), which is a procedure where a healthcare provider manually turns the fetus from a breech position to a head-down position while it is still in the uterus.

"Delivery, Obstetric" is a medical term that refers to the process of giving birth to a baby. It involves the passage of the fetus through the mother's vagina or via Caesarean section (C-section), which is a surgical procedure.

The obstetric delivery process typically includes three stages:

1. The first stage begins with the onset of labor and ends when the cervix is fully dilated.
2. The second stage starts with full dilation of the cervix and ends with the birth of the baby.
3. The third stage involves the delivery of the placenta, which is the organ that provides oxygen and nutrients to the developing fetus during pregnancy.

Obstetric delivery requires careful monitoring and management by healthcare professionals to ensure the safety and well-being of both the mother and the baby. Various interventions and techniques may be used during the delivery process to facilitate a safe and successful outcome, including the use of medications, assisted delivery with forceps or vacuum extraction, and C-section.

Spinal anesthesia is a type of regional anesthesia that involves injecting local anesthetic medication into the cerebrospinal fluid in the subarachnoid space, which is the space surrounding the spinal cord. This procedure is typically performed by introducing a needle into the lower back, between the vertebrae, to reach the subarachnoid space.

Once the local anesthetic is introduced into this space, it spreads to block nerve impulses from the corresponding levels of the spine, resulting in numbness and loss of sensation in specific areas of the body below the injection site. The extent and level of anesthesia depend on the amount and type of medication used, as well as the patient's individual response.

Spinal anesthesia is often used for surgeries involving the lower abdomen, pelvis, or lower extremities, such as cesarean sections, hernia repairs, hip replacements, and knee arthroscopies. It can also be utilized for procedures like epidural steroid injections to manage chronic pain conditions affecting the spine and lower limbs.

While spinal anesthesia provides effective pain relief during and after surgery, it may cause side effects such as low blood pressure, headache, or difficulty urinating. These potential complications should be discussed with the healthcare provider before deciding on this type of anesthesia.

Fetal distress is a term used to describe situations where a fetus is experiencing problems during labor or delivery that are causing significant physiological changes. These changes may include an abnormal heart rate, decreased oxygen levels, or the presence of meconium (the baby's first stool) in the amniotic fluid. Fetal distress can be caused by a variety of factors, such as problems with the umbilical cord, placental abruption, maternal high blood pressure, or prolonged labor. It is important to monitor fetal well-being during labor and delivery to detect and address any signs of fetal distress promptly. Treatment may include changing the mother's position, administering oxygen, giving intravenous fluids, or performing an emergency cesarean section.

Vaginal Birth after Cesarean (VBAC) is a medical term used to describe a woman's successful childbirth through the vagina after she has previously given birth via cesarean section. The process involves the mother going into labor naturally or being induced, and delivering the baby through the birth canal. VBAC is often pursued as a means to avoid the risks associated with repeat cesarean deliveries, such as infection, blood loss, and surgical complications. However, it's important to note that VBAC carries its own set of risks, including uterine rupture, which can be life-threatening for both mother and baby. As a result, careful consideration and consultation with healthcare providers are necessary before making a decision about attempting a VBAC.

A "trial of labor" (ToL) is a medical term used to describe the attempt to deliver a baby vaginally, without the use of a cesarean section (C-section), after a previous C-section delivery. It's also sometimes referred to as "VBAC" (vaginal birth after cesarean). The decision to undergo a trial of labor is made after considering several factors, including the reason for the prior C-section, the woman's overall health and pregnancy complications, if any.

During a trial of labor, the healthcare provider will monitor both the mother and the baby closely for signs of distress or other complications that might require an emergency C-section. The success rate of a trial of labor varies depending on several factors, including the number of previous C-sections, the reason for those C-sections, and whether there are any additional risk factors present in the current pregnancy.

It's important to note that while a trial of labor can be successful and result in a vaginal delivery, it also carries some risks, such as the possibility of uterine rupture, which is a serious complication that requires immediate medical attention. Therefore, the decision to undergo a trial of labor should be made carefully and discussed thoroughly with a healthcare provider.

Induced labor refers to the initiation of labor before it begins spontaneously, which is usually achieved through medical intervention. This process is initiated when there is a medically indicated reason to deliver the baby, such as maternal or fetal compromise, prolonged pregnancy, or reduced fetal movement. The most common methods used to induce labor include membrane stripping, prostaglandin administration, and oxytocin infusion. It's important to note that induced labor carries certain risks, including a higher chance of uterine hyperstimulation, infection, and the need for assisted vaginal delivery or cesarean section. Therefore, it should only be performed under the close supervision of a healthcare provider in a clinical setting.

Obstetric labor complications refer to any physical or physiological difficulties that arise during the process of childbirth (labor) and can pose risks to the health of the mother, baby, or both. These complications may result from various factors such as pre-existing medical conditions, fetal distress, prolonged labor, abnormal positioning of the fetus, or issues related to the size or weight of the baby.

Some examples of obstetric labor complications include:

1. Fetal distress: This occurs when the fetus is not receiving adequate oxygen supply or is in danger during labor. It can be caused by various factors such as umbilical cord compression, placental abruption, or maternal anemia.
2. Prolonged labor: When labor lasts for more than 20 hours in first-time mothers or more than 14 hours in subsequent pregnancies, it is considered prolonged labor. This can lead to fatigue, infection, and other complications for both the mother and baby.
3. Abnormal positioning of the fetus: Normally, the fetus should be positioned head-down (vertex) before delivery. However, if the fetus is in a breech or transverse position, it can lead to difficult labor and increased risk of complications during delivery.
4. Shoulder dystocia: This occurs when the baby's shoulders get stuck behind the mother's pubic bone during delivery, making it challenging to deliver the baby. It can cause injuries to both the mother and the baby.
5. Placental abruption: This is a serious complication where the placenta separates from the uterus before delivery, leading to bleeding and potential oxygen deprivation for the fetus.
6. Uterine rupture: A rare but life-threatening complication where the uterus tears during labor, causing severe bleeding and potentially endangering both the mother and baby's lives.
7. Preeclampsia/eclampsia: This is a pregnancy-related hypertensive disorder that can lead to complications such as seizures, organ failure, or even maternal death if left untreated.
8. Postpartum hemorrhage: Excessive bleeding after delivery can be life-threatening and requires immediate medical attention.
9. Infections: Maternal infections during pregnancy or childbirth can lead to complications for both the mother and baby, including preterm labor, low birth weight, and even fetal death.
10. Anesthesia complications: Adverse reactions to anesthesia during delivery can cause respiratory depression, allergic reactions, or other complications that may endanger the mother's life.

Dystocia is a medical term used to describe difficult or abnormal labor or delivery in animals, including humans. It refers to a situation where the natural process of childbirth is hindered or obstructed, making it difficult for the fetus to pass through the birth canal. This condition can be caused by various factors such as the size and position of the fetus, maternal pelvic size or shape, hormonal imbalances, or other medical conditions that affect the mother's ability to give birth.

Dystocia can lead to serious complications for both the mother and the fetus if not treated promptly and appropriately. Prolonged labor can result in fetal distress, hypoxia (lack of oxygen), or even death. In addition, maternal injuries such as uterine rupture, cervical trauma, or infection can occur during a difficult delivery.

The treatment for dystocia depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, manual assistance or manipulation of the fetus may be sufficient to facilitate delivery. However, in more severe cases, medical intervention such as cesarean section (C-section) may be necessary to ensure the safety of both the mother and the fetus.

It is important for pregnant individuals to receive regular prenatal care from a qualified healthcare provider to monitor their pregnancy and identify any potential risk factors for dystocia or other complications. Prompt medical attention should be sought if any signs of difficult labor or delivery are observed.

Epidural anesthesia is a type of regional anesthesia that involves the injection of local anesthetic medication into the epidural space in the spine, which is the space surrounding the dura mater, a membrane that covers the spinal cord. The injection is typically administered through a catheter placed in the lower back using a needle.

The local anesthetic drug blocks nerve impulses from the affected area, numbing it and relieving pain. Epidural anesthesia can be used for various surgical procedures, such as cesarean sections, knee or hip replacements, and hernia repairs. It is also commonly used during childbirth to provide pain relief during labor and delivery.

The effects of epidural anesthesia can vary depending on the dose and type of medication used, as well as the individual's response to the drug. The anesthetic may take several minutes to start working, and its duration of action can range from a few hours to a day or more. Epidural anesthesia is generally considered safe when administered by trained medical professionals, but like any medical procedure, it carries some risks, including infection, bleeding, nerve damage, and respiratory depression.

Uterine rupture is a serious obstetrical complication characterized by the disruption or tearing of all layers of the uterine wall, including the serosa (outer covering), myometrium (middle layer of muscle), and endometrium (inner lining). This can occur during pregnancy, labor, or delivery. In some cases, it may also involve the rupture of the adjacent structures such as bladder or broad ligament. Uterine rupture is a medical emergency that requires immediate surgical intervention to prevent maternal and fetal mortality or morbidity.

The symptoms of uterine rupture might include severe abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding, loss of fetal heart rate, changes in the mother's vital signs, and shock. The risk factors for uterine rupture include previous cesarean delivery, grand multiparity (having given birth to five or more pregnancies), use of labor-inducing drugs like oxytocin, and instrumental deliveries with vacuum extractors or forceps.

The management of uterine rupture typically involves an emergency laparotomy (open abdominal surgery) to repair the tear and stop any bleeding. In some cases, a hysterectomy (removal of the uterus) may be necessary if the damage is too severe or if there are other complications. The prognosis for both mother and baby depends on various factors like the extent of the injury, timeliness of treatment, and the overall health status of the patient before the event.

Pregnancy outcome refers to the final result or status of a pregnancy, including both the health of the mother and the newborn baby. It can be categorized into various types such as:

1. Live birth: The delivery of one or more babies who show signs of life after separation from their mother.
2. Stillbirth: The delivery of a baby who has died in the womb after 20 weeks of pregnancy.
3. Miscarriage: The spontaneous loss of a pregnancy before the 20th week.
4. Abortion: The intentional termination of a pregnancy before the fetus can survive outside the uterus.
5. Ectopic pregnancy: A pregnancy that develops outside the uterus, usually in the fallopian tube, which is not viable and requires medical attention.
6. Preterm birth: The delivery of a baby before 37 weeks of gestation, which can lead to various health issues for the newborn.
7. Full-term birth: The delivery of a baby between 37 and 42 weeks of gestation.
8. Post-term pregnancy: The delivery of a baby after 42 weeks of gestation, which may increase the risk of complications for both mother and baby.

The pregnancy outcome is influenced by various factors such as maternal age, health status, lifestyle habits, genetic factors, and access to quality prenatal care.

'Labor, Obstetric' refers to the physiological process that occurs during childbirth, leading to the expulsion of the fetus from the uterus. It is divided into three stages:

1. The first stage begins with the onset of regular contractions and cervical dilation and effacement (thinning and shortening) until full dilation is reached (approximately 10 cm). This stage can last from hours to days, particularly in nulliparous women (those who have not given birth before).
2. The second stage starts with complete cervical dilation and ends with the delivery of the baby. During this stage, the mother experiences strong contractions that help push the fetus down the birth canal. This stage typically lasts from 20 minutes to two hours but can take longer in some cases.
3. The third stage involves the delivery of the placenta (afterbirth) and membranes, which usually occurs within 15-30 minutes after the baby's birth. However, it can sometimes take up to an hour for the placenta to be expelled completely.

Obstetric labor is a complex process that requires careful monitoring and management by healthcare professionals to ensure the safety and well-being of both the mother and the baby.

The Apgar score is a quick assessment of the physical condition of a newborn infant, assessed by measuring heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and skin color. It is named after Virginia Apgar, an American anesthesiologist who developed it in 1952. The score is usually given at one minute and five minutes after birth, with a possible range of 0 to 10. Scores of 7 and above are considered normal, while scores of 4-6 indicate moderate distress, and scores below 4 indicate severe distress. The Apgar score can provide important information for making decisions about the need for resuscitation or other medical interventions after birth.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

In medical terms, parity refers to the number of times a woman has given birth to a viable fetus, usually defined as a pregnancy that reaches at least 20 weeks' gestation. It is often used in obstetrics and gynecology to describe a woman's childbearing history and to assess potential risks associated with childbirth.

Parity is typically categorized as follows:

* Nulliparous: A woman who has never given birth to a viable fetus.
* Primiparous: A woman who has given birth to one viable fetus.
* Multiparous: A woman who has given birth to more than one viable fetus.

In some cases, parity may also consider the number of pregnancies that resulted in stillbirths or miscarriages, although this is not always the case. It's important to note that parity does not necessarily reflect the total number of pregnancies a woman has had, only those that resulted in viable births.

Pregnancy complications refer to any health problems that arise during pregnancy which can put both the mother and the baby at risk. These complications may occur at any point during the pregnancy, from conception until childbirth. Some common pregnancy complications include:

1. Gestational diabetes: a type of diabetes that develops during pregnancy in women who did not have diabetes before becoming pregnant.
2. Preeclampsia: a pregnancy complication characterized by high blood pressure and damage to organs such as the liver or kidneys.
3. Placenta previa: a condition where the placenta covers the cervix, which can cause bleeding and may require delivery via cesarean section.
4. Preterm labor: when labor begins before 37 weeks of gestation, which can lead to premature birth and other complications.
5. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR): a condition where the fetus does not grow at a normal rate inside the womb.
6. Multiple pregnancies: carrying more than one baby, such as twins or triplets, which can increase the risk of premature labor and other complications.
7. Rh incompatibility: a condition where the mother's blood type is different from the baby's, which can cause anemia and jaundice in the newborn.
8. Pregnancy loss: including miscarriage, stillbirth, or ectopic pregnancy, which can be emotionally devastating for the parents.

It is important to monitor pregnancy closely and seek medical attention promptly if any concerning symptoms arise. With proper care and management, many pregnancy complications can be treated effectively, reducing the risk of harm to both the mother and the baby.

Cardiovascular complications in pregnancy refer to conditions that affect the heart and blood vessels, which can arise during pregnancy, childbirth, or after delivery. These complications can be pre-existing or new-onset and can range from mild to severe, potentially threatening the life of both the mother and the fetus. Some examples of cardiovascular complications in pregnancy include:

1. Hypertension disorders: This includes chronic hypertension (high blood pressure before pregnancy), gestational hypertension (high blood pressure that develops after 20 weeks of pregnancy), and preeclampsia/eclampsia (a pregnancy-specific disorder characterized by high blood pressure, proteinuria, and potential organ damage).

2. Cardiomyopathy: A condition in which the heart muscle becomes weakened, leading to an enlarged heart and reduced pumping efficiency. Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a specific type that occurs during pregnancy or in the months following delivery.

3. Arrhythmias: Irregularities in the heart's rhythm, such as tachycardia (rapid heartbeat) or bradycardia (slow heartbeat), can occur during pregnancy and may require medical intervention.

4. Valvular heart disease: Pre-existing valve disorders, like mitral stenosis or aortic insufficiency, can worsen during pregnancy due to increased blood volume and cardiac output. Additionally, new valve issues might develop during pregnancy.

5. Venous thromboembolism (VTE): Pregnancy increases the risk of developing blood clots in the veins, particularly deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE).

6. Ischemic heart disease: Although rare, coronary artery disease and acute coronary syndrome can occur during pregnancy, especially in women with risk factors such as obesity, diabetes, or smoking history.

7. Heart failure: Severe cardiac dysfunction leading to fluid accumulation, shortness of breath, and reduced exercise tolerance may develop due to any of the above conditions or other underlying heart diseases.

Early recognition, monitoring, and appropriate management of these cardiovascular complications in pregnancy are crucial for maternal and fetal well-being.

Obstetrical extraction refers to a medical procedure in obstetrics, where a fetus or a dead fetus is removed from the uterus through surgical means. This is typically performed when a vaginal delivery is not possible or safe due to various reasons such as obstructed labor, maternal or fetal distress, or prolonged pregnancy. The procedure may involve dilation and evacuation (D&E) or instrumental delivery using forceps or vacuum extractor. It is usually done under anesthesia in a hospital setting.

Oxytocics are a class of medications that stimulate the contraction of uterine smooth muscle. They are primarily used in obstetrics to induce or augment labor, and to control bleeding after childbirth. Oxytocin is the most commonly used oxytocic and is naturally produced by the posterior pituitary gland. Synthetic forms of oxytocin, such as Pitocin, are often used in medical settings to induce labor or reduce postpartum bleeding. Other medications with oxytocic properties include ergometrine and methylergometrine. It's important to note that the use of oxytocics should be monitored carefully as overuse can lead to excessive uterine contractions, which may compromise fetal oxygenation and increase the risk of uterine rupture.

Obstetrical analgesia refers to the use of medications or techniques to relieve pain during childbirth. The goal of obstetrical analgesia is to provide comfort and relaxation for the mother during labor and delivery while minimizing risks to both the mother and the baby. There are several methods of obstetrical analgesia, including:

1. Systemic opioids: These medications, such as morphine or fentanyl, can be given intravenously to help reduce the pain of contractions. However, they can cause side effects such as drowsiness, nausea, and respiratory depression in the mother and may also affect the baby's breathing and alertness at birth.
2. Regional anesthesia: This involves numbing a specific area of the body using local anesthetics. The two most common types of regional anesthesia used during childbirth are epidural and spinal anesthesia.

a. Epidural anesthesia: A catheter is inserted into the lower back, near the spinal cord, to deliver a continuous infusion of local anesthetic and sometimes opioids. This numbs the lower half of the body, reducing the pain of contractions and allowing for a more comfortable delivery. Epidural anesthesia can also be used for cesarean sections.

b. Spinal anesthesia: A single injection of local anesthetic is given into the spinal fluid, numbing the lower half of the body. This type of anesthesia is often used for cesarean sections and can also be used for vaginal deliveries in some cases.

3. Nitrous oxide: Also known as laughing gas, this colorless, odorless gas can be inhaled through a mask to help reduce anxiety and provide some pain relief during labor. It is not commonly used in the United States but is more popular in other countries.

When choosing an obstetrical analgesia method, it's essential to consider the potential benefits and risks for both the mother and the baby. Factors such as the mother's health, the progression of labor, and personal preferences should all be taken into account when making this decision. It is crucial to discuss these options with a healthcare provider to determine the most appropriate choice for each individual situation.

Placenta previa is a medical condition that occurs during pregnancy where the placenta partially or fully covers the cervix, which is the lower part of the uterus that opens into the birth canal. This condition can cause severe bleeding during pregnancy and delivery, and it may lead to other complications such as preterm labor and delivery. Placenta previa is typically diagnosed through an ultrasound exam and managed with close monitoring, bed rest, and sometimes cesarean delivery.

Fetal monitoring is a procedure used during labor and delivery to assess the well-being of the fetus. It involves the use of electronic devices to measure and record the fetal heart rate and uterine contractions. The information obtained from fetal monitoring can help healthcare providers identify any signs of fetal distress, such as a decreased fetal heart rate, which may indicate the need for interventions or an emergency cesarean delivery.

There are two main types of fetal monitoring: external and internal. External fetal monitoring involves placing sensors on the mother's abdomen to detect the fetal heart rate and uterine contractions. Internal fetal monitoring, which is typically used during high-risk deliveries, involves inserting an electrode into the fetus' scalp to measure the fetal heart rate more accurately.

Fetal monitoring can provide valuable information about the fetus's well-being during labor and delivery, but it is important to note that it has limitations and may not always detect fetal distress in a timely manner. Therefore, healthcare providers must use their clinical judgment and other assessment tools, such as fetal movement counting and visual examination of the fetus, to ensure the safe delivery of the baby.

A cicatrix is a medical term that refers to a scar or the process of scar formation. It is the result of the healing process following damage to body tissues, such as from an injury, wound, or surgery. During the healing process, specialized cells called fibroblasts produce collagen, which helps to reconnect and strengthen the damaged tissue. The resulting scar tissue may have a different texture, color, or appearance compared to the surrounding healthy tissue.

Cicatrix formation is a natural part of the body's healing response, but excessive scarring can sometimes cause functional impairment, pain, or cosmetic concerns. In such cases, various treatments may be used to minimize or improve the appearance of scars, including topical creams, steroid injections, laser therapy, and surgical revision.

'Labor presentation' is a term used in obstetrics to describe the part of the fetus that enters the mother's pelvis first during labor. This positioning determines the route the baby will take through the birth canal. The most common and uncomplicated presentation is vertex or cephalic presentation, where the baby's head is the presenting part. Other possible presentations include breech (buttocks or feet first), face, brow, and shoulder presentations, which can potentially lead to complications during delivery if not managed appropriately.

"Frozen sections" is a medical term that refers to the process of quickly preparing and examining a small piece of tissue during surgery. This procedure is typically performed by a pathologist in order to provide immediate diagnostic information to the surgeon, who can then make informed decisions about the course of the operation.

To create a frozen section, the surgical team first removes a small sample of tissue from the patient's body. This sample is then quickly frozen, typically using a special machine that can freeze the tissue in just a few seconds. Once the tissue is frozen, it can be cut into thin slices and stained with dyes to help highlight its cellular structures.

The stained slides are then examined under a microscope by a pathologist, who looks for any abnormalities or signs of disease. The results of this examination are typically available within 10-30 minutes, allowing the surgeon to make real-time decisions about whether to remove more tissue, change the surgical approach, or take other actions based on the findings.

Frozen sections are often used in cancer surgery to help ensure that all of the cancerous tissue has been removed, and to guide decisions about whether additional treatments such as radiation therapy or chemotherapy are necessary. They can also be used in other types of surgeries to help diagnose conditions and make treatment decisions during the procedure.

Bupivacaine is a long-acting local anesthetic drug, which is used to cause numbness or loss of feeling in a specific area of the body during certain medical procedures such as surgery, dental work, or childbirth. It works by blocking the nerves that transmit pain signals to the brain.

Bupivacaine is available as a solution for injection and is usually administered directly into the tissue surrounding the nerve to be blocked (nerve block) or into the spinal fluid (epidural). The onset of action of bupivacaine is relatively slow, but its duration of action is long, making it suitable for procedures that require prolonged pain relief.

Like all local anesthetics, bupivacaine carries a risk of side effects such as allergic reactions, nerve damage, and systemic toxicity if accidentally injected into a blood vessel or given in excessive doses. It should be used with caution in patients with certain medical conditions, including heart disease, liver disease, and neurological disorders.

Obstetrical forceps are a surgical instrument used in childbirth to help deliver a baby when there are difficulties in the normal birthing process. They are a pair of curved metal instruments that resemble tongs, with each part designed to grip onto specific areas of the baby's head. The forceps are carefully applied to the baby's head during a contraction, and then used to gently guide the baby out of the mother's birth canal. This procedure is called an assisted vaginal delivery or operative vaginal delivery.

Obstetrical forceps require precise knowledge and skill to use safely and effectively, as their misuse can lead to complications such as facial injuries, skull fractures, or nerve damage in the baby. Therefore, they are typically used by experienced obstetricians in specific clinical situations, such as when the labor is prolonged, when the baby shows signs of distress, or when there is a need for a quick delivery due to maternal health concerns.

The Obstetrics and Gynecology (OB-GYN) Department in a hospital is responsible for providing healthcare services related to pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period, as well as gynecological care for women of all ages. This department is typically staffed with medical doctors who have specialized training in obstetrics and/or gynecology, including obstetricians, gynecologists, and maternal-fetal medicine specialists.

Obstetrics focuses on the care of pregnant women, including prenatal care, delivery, and postpartum care. Obstetricians provide medical care during pregnancy and childbirth to ensure the health and wellbeing of both the mother and the baby. They are trained to manage high-risk pregnancies, perform cesarean sections, and handle complications that may arise during labor and delivery.

Gynecology focuses on the health of the female reproductive system, including the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disorders related to the reproductive organs. Gynecologists provide routine care such as Pap tests, breast exams, and family planning services, as well as more complex care for conditions such as endometriosis, ovarian cysts, and menopause.

The OB-GYN department may also include specialized services such as reproductive endocrinology and infertility, which focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of infertility and other hormonal disorders related to reproduction. Additionally, some OB-GYN departments may offer midwifery services, providing a more natural approach to childbirth under the supervision of medical professionals.

Overall, the OB-GYN department plays a critical role in ensuring the health and wellbeing of women throughout their lives, from adolescence through menopause and beyond.

Gestational age is the length of time that has passed since the first day of the last menstrual period (LMP) in pregnant women. It is the standard unit used to estimate the age of a pregnancy and is typically expressed in weeks. This measure is used because the exact date of conception is often not known, but the start of the last menstrual period is usually easier to recall.

It's important to note that since ovulation typically occurs around two weeks after the start of the LMP, gestational age is approximately two weeks longer than fetal age, which is the actual time elapsed since conception. Medical professionals use both gestational and fetal age to track the development and growth of the fetus during pregnancy.

Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is a significant obstetrical complication defined as the loss of more than 500 milliliters of blood within the first 24 hours after childbirth, whether it occurs vaginally or through cesarean section. It can also be defined as a blood loss of more than 1000 mL in relation to the amount of blood lost during the procedure and the patient's baseline hematocrit level.

Postpartum hemorrhage is classified into two types: primary (early) PPH, which occurs within the first 24 hours after delivery, and secondary (late) PPH, which happens between 24 hours and 12 weeks postpartum. The most common causes of PPH are uterine atony, trauma to the genital tract, retained placental tissue, and coagulopathy.

Uterine atony is the inability of the uterus to contract effectively after delivery, leading to excessive bleeding. Trauma to the genital tract can occur during childbirth, causing lacerations or tears that may result in bleeding. Retained placental tissue refers to the remnants of the placenta left inside the uterus, which can cause infection and heavy bleeding. Coagulopathy is a condition where the blood has difficulty clotting, leading to uncontrolled bleeding.

Symptoms of PPH include excessive vaginal bleeding, low blood pressure, increased heart rate, decreased urine output, and signs of shock such as confusion, rapid breathing, and pale skin. Treatment for PPH includes uterotonics, manual removal of retained placental tissue, repair of genital tract lacerations, blood transfusions, and surgery if necessary.

Preventing PPH involves proper antenatal care, monitoring high-risk pregnancies, active management of the third stage of labor, and prompt recognition and treatment of any bleeding complications during or after delivery.

Puerperal disorders are a group of medical conditions that can affect women during the period following childbirth, also known as the puerperium. The puerperium typically lasts for six to eight weeks after delivery. These disorders can be complications of childbirth or postpartum infections and include:

1. Puerperal fever: This is a febrile illness that occurs during the puerperium, usually caused by a bacterial infection. The most common causative organisms are group A streptococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli.

2. Puerperal sepsis: This is a severe form of puerperal fever characterized by the presence of bacteria in the blood (bacteremia) and widespread inflammation throughout the body. It can lead to organ failure and even death if not treated promptly with antibiotics.

3. Puerperal endometritis: This is an infection of the lining of the uterus (endometrium) that occurs during the puerperium. Symptoms may include fever, abdominal pain, and foul-smelling vaginal discharge.

4. Puerperal mastitis: This is an inflammation of the breast tissue that can occur during lactation, often caused by a bacterial infection. It is more common in women who are breastfeeding but can also occur in non-lactating women.

5. Puerperal psychosis: This is a rare but serious mental health disorder that can occur after childbirth. It is characterized by symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, and disorganized thinking.

6. Puerperal thromboembolism: This is a blood clot that forms during the puerperium, usually in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis) or in the lungs (pulmonary embolism). It can be a serious complication of childbirth and requires prompt medical attention.

Overall, puerperal disorders are a significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly in low-income countries where access to healthcare is limited. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for improving outcomes and reducing the risk of long-term complications.

Prolonged pregnancy, also known as post-term pregnancy, is a medical condition defined as a pregnancy that continues beyond 42 weeks (294 days) of gestation from the first day of the last menstrual period. It is important to note that this definition is based on the estimated date of delivery and not the actual conception date. Prolonged pregnancies are associated with increased risks for both the mother and the fetus, including stillbirth, meconium aspiration, fetal distress, and difficulty during labor and delivery. Therefore, healthcare providers closely monitor pregnant women who reach 41 weeks of gestation to ensure timely delivery if necessary.

Cephalopelvic disproportion (CPD) is a medical condition that occurs when the baby's head or body is too large to pass safely through the mother's pelvis during childbirth. This condition can make vaginal delivery difficult or impossible, and may require a cesarean section (C-section) to deliver the baby.

CPD can be caused by several factors, including the size and shape of the mother's pelvis, the size and position of the baby, and medical conditions such as diabetes or obesity that can cause the baby to grow larger than average. CPD is typically diagnosed during labor when progress has stalled despite strong contractions, and the baby's head is not descending into the pelvis.

If CPD is suspected, the healthcare provider will typically perform a physical examination to assess the size and position of the baby and the shape and size of the mother's pelvis. Imaging tests such as ultrasound or X-ray may also be used to help make the diagnosis. If CPD is confirmed, the healthcare provider will discuss the risks and benefits of different delivery options with the mother and develop a plan for safe delivery.

The first stage of labor is the period of time when the cervix dilates (opens) and effaces (thins out). This stage is further divided into two phases: the latent phase and the active phase. During the latent phase, the cervix begins to dilate and may progress slowly or stop and start. Contractions are often mild and irregular during this time. The active phase is characterized by more intense and regular contractions that cause the cervix to dilate more rapidly, typically at a rate of 1 cm per hour in first-time mothers.

The first stage of labor ends when the cervix is fully dilated (10 cm) and effaced, which signals the transition to the second stage of labor. During this stage, the mother begins pushing efforts to deliver the baby. It's important to note that the duration of each phase and the overall length of the first stage of labor can vary widely among individuals.

Parturition is the process of giving birth, or the act of delivering newborn offspring. In medical terms, it refers to the expulsion of the products of conception (such as the fetus, placenta, and membranes) from the uterus of a pregnant woman during childbirth. This process is regulated by hormonal changes and involves complex interactions between the mother's body and the developing fetus. Parturition typically occurs after a full-term pregnancy, which is approximately 40 weeks in humans.

"Natural childbirth" is not a medically defined term, but it generally refers to the process of giving birth without the use of medical interventions such as epidurals for pain relief or assisted delivery methods like forceps or vacuum extraction. The concept typically emphasizes the use of breathing and relaxation techniques, movement and assuming different positions during labor and delivery, and sometimes relying on the support of a doula or other labor coach. However, it's important to note that even in "natural childbirth," medical intervention may become necessary if there are concerns for the health and safety of the mother or baby.

Epidural analgesia is a type of regional anesthesia used to manage pain, most commonly during childbirth and after surgery. The term "epidural" refers to the location of the injection, which is in the epidural space of the spinal column.

In this procedure, a small amount of local anesthetic or narcotic medication is injected into the epidural space using a thin catheter. This medication blocks nerve impulses from the lower body, reducing or eliminating pain sensations without causing complete loss of feeling or muscle movement.

Epidural analgesia can be used for both short-term and long-term pain management. It is often preferred in situations where patients require prolonged pain relief, such as during labor and delivery or after major surgery. The medication can be administered continuously or intermittently, depending on the patient's needs and the type of procedure being performed.

While epidural analgesia is generally safe and effective, it can have side effects, including low blood pressure, headache, and difficulty urinating. In rare cases, it may also cause nerve damage or infection. Patients should discuss the risks and benefits of this procedure with their healthcare provider before deciding whether to undergo epidural analgesia.

Puerperal infection, also known as childbed fever or postpartum infection, is a healthcare-associated infection that can occur in women following childbirth, miscarriage, or abortion. It's typically caused by bacteria that enter the reproductive system during these processes and can lead to inflammation and infection of the uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, or other pelvic organs.

The most common causative agents are Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A streptococcus), Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. Symptoms of puerperal infection can include fever, abdominal pain, foul-smelling vaginal discharge, and painful urination. If left untreated, the infection can lead to serious complications such as sepsis, infertility, or even death.

Prompt diagnosis and treatment with antibiotics are crucial for managing puerperal infections and preventing complications. Good hygiene practices and proper sterilization of medical equipment can also help reduce the risk of developing this infection.

Maternal age is a term used to describe the age of a woman at the time she becomes pregnant or gives birth. It is often used in medical and epidemiological contexts to discuss the potential risks, complications, and outcomes associated with pregnancy and childbirth at different stages of a woman's reproductive years.

Advanced maternal age typically refers to women who become pregnant or give birth at 35 years of age or older. This group faces an increased risk for certain chromosomal abnormalities, such as Down syndrome, and other pregnancy-related complications, including gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and cesarean delivery.

On the other end of the spectrum, adolescent pregnancies (those that occur in women under 20 years old) also come with their own set of potential risks and complications, such as preterm birth, low birth weight, and anemia.

It's important to note that while maternal age can influence pregnancy outcomes, many other factors – including genetics, lifestyle choices, and access to quality healthcare – can also play a significant role in determining the health of both mother and baby during pregnancy and childbirth.

Labor onset, also known as the start of labor, refers to the beginning of regular and coordinated uterine contractions that ultimately result in the delivery of a baby. This is usually marked by the presence of regular contractions that increase in intensity and frequency over time, along with cervical dilation and effacement (thinning and shortening of the cervix).

There are two types of labor onset: spontaneous and induced. Spontaneous labor onset occurs naturally, without any medical intervention, while induced labor onset is initiated by medical professionals using various methods such as medication or mechanical dilation of the cervix.

It's important to note that the onset of labor can be a challenging concept to define precisely, and different healthcare providers may use slightly different criteria to diagnose the start of labor.

Twin pregnancy refers to a type of multiple pregnancy where a woman is carrying two fetuses simultaneously. There are two types of twin pregnancies: monozygotic (identical) and dizygotic (fraternal). Monoygotic twins occur when a single fertilized egg (zygote) splits and develops into two separate embryos, resulting in identical twins who share the same genetic material. Dizygotic twins, on the other hand, result from the fertilization of two separate eggs by two different sperm cells, leading to non-identical twins who have their own unique genetic material.

Twin pregnancies are associated with higher risks of complications compared to singleton pregnancies, including preterm labor, low birth weight, gestational diabetes, and preeclampsia. Close monitoring by healthcare providers is essential to ensure the best possible outcomes for both the mother and the twins.

An adjuvant in anesthesia refers to a substance or drug that is added to an anesthetic medication to enhance its effects, make it last longer, or improve the overall quality of anesthesia. Adjuvants do not produce analgesia or anesthesia on their own but work synergistically with other anesthetics to achieve better clinical outcomes.

There are several types of adjuvants used in anesthesia, including:

1. Opioids: These are commonly used adjuvants that enhance the analgesic effect of anesthetic drugs. Examples include fentanyl, sufentanil, and remifentanil.
2. Alpha-2 agonists: Drugs like clonidine and dexmedetomidine are used as adjuvants to provide sedation, analgesia, and anxiolysis. They also help reduce the requirement for other anesthetic drugs, thus minimizing side effects.
3. Ketamine: This NMDA receptor antagonist is used as an adjuvant to provide analgesia and amnesia. It can be used in subanesthetic doses to improve the quality of analgesia during general anesthesia or as a sole anesthetic for procedural sedation.
4. Local anesthetics: When used as an adjuvant, local anesthetics can prolong the duration of postoperative analgesia and reduce the requirement for opioids. Examples include bupivacaine, ropivacaine, and lidocaine.
5. Neostigmine: This cholinesterase inhibitor is used as an adjuvant to reverse the neuromuscular blockade produced by non-depolarizing muscle relaxants at the end of surgery.
6. Dexamethasone: A corticosteroid used as an adjuvant to reduce postoperative nausea and vomiting, inflammation, and pain.
7. Magnesium sulfate: This non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist is used as an adjuvant to provide analgesia, reduce opioid consumption, and provide neuroprotection in certain surgical settings.

The choice of adjuvants depends on the type of surgery, patient factors, and the desired clinical effects.

Elective surgical procedures are operations that are scheduled in advance because they do not involve a medical emergency. These surgeries are chosen or "elective" based on the patient's and doctor's decision to improve the patient's quality of life or to treat a non-life-threatening condition. Examples include but are not limited to:

1. Aesthetic or cosmetic surgery such as breast augmentation, rhinoplasty, etc.
2. Orthopedic surgeries like knee or hip replacements
3. Cataract surgery
4. Some types of cancer surgeries where the tumor is not spreading or causing severe symptoms
5. Gastric bypass for weight loss

It's important to note that while these procedures are planned, they still require thorough preoperative evaluation and preparation, and carry risks and benefits that need to be carefully considered by both the patient and the healthcare provider.

Endometritis is a medical condition that refers to the inflammation of the endometrium, which is the innermost layer of the uterus. It is often caused by infections, such as bacterial or fungal infections, that enter the uterus through various routes, including childbirth, miscarriage, or surgical procedures.

The symptoms of endometritis may include abnormal vaginal discharge, pelvic pain, fever, and abdominal cramping. In severe cases, it can lead to complications such as infertility, ectopic pregnancy, or sepsis. Treatment typically involves the use of antibiotics to clear the infection, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms and promote healing.

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of endometritis, as prompt treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.

Ephedrine is a medication that stimulates the nervous system and is used to treat low blood pressure, asthma, and nasal congestion. It works by narrowing the blood vessels and increasing heart rate, which can help to increase blood pressure and open up the airways in the lungs. Ephedrine may also be used as a bronchodilator to treat COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease).

Ephedrine is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and solutions for injection. It is important to follow the instructions of a healthcare provider when taking ephedrine, as it can have side effects such as rapid heart rate, anxiety, headache, and dizziness. Ephedrine should not be used by people with certain medical conditions, such as heart disease, high blood pressure, or narrow-angle glaucoma, and it should not be taken during pregnancy or breastfeeding without consulting a healthcare provider.

In addition to its medical uses, ephedrine has been used as a performance-enhancing drug and is banned by many sports organizations. It can also be found in some over-the-counter cold and allergy medications, although these products are required to carry warnings about the potential for misuse and addiction.

Reproductive sterilization is a surgical procedure that aims to prevent reproduction by making an individual unable to produce viable reproductive cells or preventing the union of sperm and egg. In males, this is often achieved through a vasectomy, which involves cutting and sealing the vas deferens, the tubes that carry sperm from the testicles to the urethra. In females, sterilization is typically performed via a procedure called tubal ligation, where the fallopian tubes are cut, tied, or sealed, preventing the egg from traveling from the ovaries to the uterus and blocking sperm from reaching the egg. These methods are considered permanent forms of contraception; however, in rare cases, reversals may be attempted with varying degrees of success.

Fetal death, also known as stillbirth or intrauterine fetal demise, is defined as the death of a fetus at 20 weeks of gestation or later. The criteria for defining fetal death may vary slightly by country and jurisdiction, but in general, it refers to the loss of a pregnancy after the point at which the fetus is considered viable outside the womb.

Fetal death can occur for a variety of reasons, including chromosomal abnormalities, placental problems, maternal health conditions, infections, and umbilical cord accidents. In some cases, the cause of fetal death may remain unknown.

The diagnosis of fetal death is typically made through ultrasound or other imaging tests, which can confirm the absence of a heartbeat or movement in the fetus. Once fetal death has been diagnosed, medical professionals will work with the parents to determine the best course of action for managing the pregnancy and delivering the fetus. This may involve waiting for labor to begin naturally, inducing labor, or performing a cesarean delivery.

Experiencing a fetal death can be a very difficult and emotional experience for parents, and it is important for them to receive supportive care from their healthcare providers, family members, and friends. Grief counseling and support groups may also be helpful in coping with the loss.

Obstetrics is a branch of medicine and surgery concerned with the care of women during pregnancy, childbirth, and the postnatal period. It involves managing potential complications that may arise during any stage of pregnancy or delivery, as well as providing advice and guidance on prenatal care, labor and delivery, and postpartum care. Obstetricians are medical doctors who specialize in obstetrics and can provide a range of services including routine check-ups, ultrasounds, genetic testing, and other diagnostic procedures to monitor the health and development of the fetus. They also perform surgical procedures such as cesarean sections when necessary.

"Medicine in Literature" is not a medical term per se, but rather a field of study that explores the representation and interpretation of medicine, health, and illness in literature. It is an interdisciplinary approach that combines literary analysis with medical humanities to understand the cultural, historical, and social contexts of medical practices, theories, and experiences as depicted in various forms of literature. This field often examines how literature reflects and shapes societal attitudes towards health, disease, and medical care, and how it can contribute to medical education and empathic understanding of patients' experiences.

Vacuum extraction, obstetrical is a medical procedure used during childbirth to help deliver the baby when there are signs of fetal distress or if the mother is experiencing exhaustion during labor. This assisted delivery technique involves the application of suction through a vacuum device that attaches to the baby's head, allowing the healthcare provider to gently pull the baby out as the mother pushes.

The vacuum extractor consists of a soft or rigid cup connected to a pump, which creates negative pressure inside the cup. The cup is placed on the fetal scalp and engaged during a contraction when the cervix is fully dilated and the baby's head has descended into the pelvis. The healthcare provider then uses controlled traction to help deliver the baby while monitoring both the mother and the infant for any signs of distress or complications.

Vacuum extraction should only be performed by experienced healthcare providers, as it carries risks such as scalp trauma, cephalohematoma (a collection of blood under the skin on the baby's head), subgaleal hematoma (a more serious type of bleeding beneath the scalp), and intracranial hemorrhage (bleeding inside the skull). Proper evaluation, technique, and monitoring are crucial to minimize these risks and ensure a safe delivery for both mother and baby.

Prenatal ultrasonography, also known as obstetric ultrasound, is a medical diagnostic procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves to create images of the developing fetus, placenta, and amniotic fluid inside the uterus. It is a non-invasive and painless test that is widely used during pregnancy to monitor the growth and development of the fetus, detect any potential abnormalities or complications, and determine the due date.

During the procedure, a transducer (a small handheld device) is placed on the mother's abdomen and moved around to capture images from different angles. The sound waves travel through the mother's body and bounce back off the fetus, producing echoes that are then converted into electrical signals and displayed as images on a screen.

Prenatal ultrasonography can be performed at various stages of pregnancy, including early pregnancy to confirm the pregnancy and detect the number of fetuses, mid-pregnancy to assess the growth and development of the fetus, and late pregnancy to evaluate the position of the fetus and determine if it is head down or breech. It can also be used to guide invasive procedures such as amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling.

Overall, prenatal ultrasonography is a valuable tool in modern obstetrics that helps ensure the health and well-being of both the mother and the developing fetus.

Placenta accreta is a medical condition where the placenta grows too deeply into the uterine wall, beyond the normal depth. In a healthy pregnancy, the placenta attaches to the uterus and provides oxygen and nutrients to the growing fetus through the umbilical cord. However, in placenta accreta, the placental tissue invades the muscle of the uterus, which can cause complications during childbirth.

There are three types of placenta accreta:

1. Placenta Accreta: The placenta attaches too deeply into the uterine wall but does not penetrate the uterine muscle.
2. Placenta Increta: The placenta grows into and partially penetrates the uterine muscle.
3. Placenta Percreta: The placenta fully penetrates the uterine muscle and can grow into nearby organs, such as the bladder or bowel.

Placenta accreta is a serious condition that can cause severe bleeding during childbirth, which may require an emergency hysterectomy (removal of the uterus) to control the bleeding. It is more common in women who have had previous cesarean sections or other uterine surgeries.

The second stage of labor is the active phase of childbirth, during which the uterus continues to contract and the cervix fully dilates. This stage begins when the cervix is completely open (10 cm) and ends with the birth of the baby. During this stage, the mother typically experiences strong, regular contractions that help to push the baby down the birth canal.

The second stage of labor can be further divided into two phases: the latent phase and the pushing phase. The latent phase is the period between full dilation of the cervix and the beginning of active pushing. This phase can last anywhere from a few minutes to several hours, depending on various factors such as the position of the baby, the mother's exhaustion, and whether it is the mother's first baby or not.

The pushing phase is the period during which the mother actively pushes the baby out of the birth canal. This phase typically lasts between 20 minutes to an hour, although it can be longer in some cases. The healthcare provider will guide the mother through this process, instructing her when and how to push. Once the baby's head emerges, the healthcare provider will continue to support the delivery of the baby's shoulders and body.

It is important for the mother to receive appropriate support and guidance during the second stage of labor to ensure a safe and successful delivery.

Local anesthetics are a type of medication that is used to block the sensation of pain in a specific area of the body. They work by temporarily numbing the nerves in that area, preventing them from transmitting pain signals to the brain. Local anesthetics can be administered through various routes, including topical application (such as creams or gels), injection (such as into the skin or tissues), or regional nerve blocks (such as epidural or spinal anesthesia).

Some common examples of local anesthetics include lidocaine, prilocaine, bupivacaine, and ropivacaine. These medications can be used for a variety of medical procedures, ranging from minor surgeries (such as dental work or skin biopsies) to more major surgeries (such as joint replacements or hernia repairs).

Local anesthetics are generally considered safe when used appropriately, but they can have side effects and potential complications. These may include allergic reactions, toxicity (if too much is administered), and nerve damage (if the medication is injected into a nerve). It's important to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully when using local anesthetics, and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

Maternal mortality is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental causes."

This definition highlights that maternal mortality is a preventable death that occurs during pregnancy, childbirth, or in the postpartum period, and it can be caused by various factors related to or worsened by the pregnancy or its management. The WHO also collects data on maternal deaths due to direct obstetric causes (such as hemorrhage, hypertensive disorders, sepsis, and unsafe abortion) and indirect causes (such as malaria, anemia, and HIV/AIDS).

Maternal mortality is a significant public health issue worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Reducing maternal mortality is one of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) set by the United Nations, with a target to reduce the global maternal mortality ratio to less than 70 per 100,000 live births by 2030.

Hospital bed capacity refers to the total number of beds that are available for patient care within a hospital. When referring to "under 100," it simply means that the hospital has fewer than 100 beds in total. This includes all types of beds, such as intensive care unit (ICU) beds, step-down units, and medical-surgical beds.

A low bed capacity can impact the ability of a hospital to provide timely and appropriate care to patients, particularly during periods of high demand or in emergency situations. Factors that can affect hospital bed capacity include patient volume, staffing levels, available resources, and physical space constraints. It is important for hospitals to manage their bed capacity effectively to ensure that they can meet the needs of their patients and provide high-quality care.

Birth weight refers to the first weight of a newborn infant, usually taken immediately after birth. It is a critical vital sign that indicates the baby's health status and is used as a predictor for various short-term and long-term health outcomes.

Typically, a full-term newborn's weight ranges from 5.5 to 8.8 pounds (2.5 to 4 kg), although normal birth weights can vary significantly based on factors such as gestational age, genetics, maternal health, and nutrition. Low birth weight is defined as less than 5.5 pounds (2.5 kg), while high birth weight is greater than 8.8 pounds (4 kg).

Low birth weight babies are at a higher risk for various medical complications, including respiratory distress syndrome, jaundice, infections, and developmental delays. High birth weight babies may face challenges with delivery, increased risk of obesity, and potential metabolic issues later in life. Regular prenatal care is essential to monitor fetal growth and ensure a healthy pregnancy and optimal birth weight for the baby.

Oxytocin is a hormone that is produced in the hypothalamus and released by the posterior pituitary gland. It plays a crucial role in various physiological processes, including social bonding, childbirth, and breastfeeding. During childbirth, oxytocin stimulates uterine contractions to facilitate labor and delivery. After giving birth, oxytocin continues to be released in large amounts during breastfeeding, promoting milk letdown and contributing to the development of the maternal-infant bond.

In social contexts, oxytocin has been referred to as the "love hormone" or "cuddle hormone," as it is involved in social bonding, trust, and attachment. It can be released during physical touch, such as hugging or cuddling, and may contribute to feelings of warmth and closeness between individuals.

In addition to its roles in childbirth, breastfeeding, and social bonding, oxytocin has been implicated in other physiological functions, including regulating blood pressure, reducing anxiety, and modulating pain perception.

Maternal health services refer to the preventative, diagnostic, and treatment-based healthcare services provided during pregnancy, childbirth, and postnatal period. These services aim to ensure the best possible health outcomes for mothers throughout their reproductive years, including family planning, preconception care, antenatal care, delivery, postpartum care, and management of chronic conditions or complications that may arise during pregnancy and childbirth.

The World Health Organization (WHO) outlines several critical components of maternal health services:

1. Antenatal care: Regular check-ups to monitor the mother's and fetus's health, identify potential risks, provide essential interventions, and offer counseling on nutrition, breastfeeding, and birth preparedness.
2. Delivery care: Skilled attendance during childbirth, including normal vaginal delivery and assisted deliveries (forceps or vacuum extraction), and access to emergency obstetric care for complications such as hemorrhage, eclampsia, obstructed labor, and sepsis.
3. Postnatal care: Continuum of care for mothers and newborns during the first six weeks after childbirth, focusing on recovery, early detection and management of complications, immunization, family planning, and psychosocial support.
4. Family planning: Access to modern contraceptive methods, counseling on fertility awareness, and safe abortion services where legal, to enable women to plan their pregnancies and space their children according to their reproductive intentions.
5. Management of chronic conditions: Comprehensive care for pregnant women with pre-existing or pregnancy-induced medical conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, and mental health disorders.
6. Preconception care: Identification and management of risk factors before conception to optimize maternal and fetal health outcomes.
7. Prevention and management of gender-based violence: Screening, counseling, and referral services for women experiencing intimate partner violence or sexual violence during pregnancy and childbirth.
8. Health promotion and education: Community-based interventions to raise awareness about the importance of maternal health, promote positive health behaviors, and reduce barriers to accessing healthcare services.

Maternal health services should be accessible, affordable, acceptable, and equitable for all women, regardless of their age, race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, or geographical location. Adequate investment in maternal health infrastructure, human resources, and service delivery models is essential to achieve universal health coverage and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by 2030.

The term "Arab World" is a cultural and political term rather than a medical one. It generally refers to the group of countries and territories in which the Arabic language is spoken, and where the people are predominantly Arab in terms of their culture, identity, and shared history. The Arab World stretches from North Africa, including countries such as Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, Tunisia; to the Middle East, including countries such as Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Syria, and Yemen.

There is no specific medical definition for the "Arab World," but it is important to note that there are significant healthcare disparities within and between different countries in this region. Factors such as poverty, conflict, political instability, and limited access to healthcare can contribute to poor health outcomes in some parts of the Arab World.

It's worth mentioning that there are also efforts to improve healthcare delivery and medical research in the Arab World, with initiatives such as the Arab League Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization (ALECSO) and the Federation of Arab Medical Societies (FAMS) playing important roles in promoting cooperation and collaboration between different countries in the region.

Uterine hemorrhage, also known as uterine bleeding or gynecological bleeding, is an abnormal loss of blood from the uterus. It can occur in various clinical settings such as menstruation (known as menorrhagia), postpartum period (postpartum hemorrhage), or in non-pregnant women (dysfunctional uterine bleeding). The bleeding may be light to heavy, intermittent or continuous, and can be accompanied by symptoms such as pain, dizziness, or fainting. Uterine hemorrhage is a common gynecological problem that can have various underlying causes, including hormonal imbalances, structural abnormalities, coagulopathies, and malignancies. It is important to seek medical attention if experiencing heavy or prolonged uterine bleeding to determine the cause and receive appropriate treatment.

General anesthesia is a state of controlled unconsciousness, induced by administering various medications, that eliminates awareness, movement, and pain sensation during medical procedures. It involves the use of a combination of intravenous and inhaled drugs to produce a reversible loss of consciousness, allowing patients to undergo surgical or diagnostic interventions safely and comfortably. The depth and duration of anesthesia are carefully monitored and adjusted throughout the procedure by an anesthesiologist or certified registered nurse anesthetist (CRNA) to ensure patient safety and optimize recovery. General anesthesia is typically used for more extensive surgical procedures, such as open-heart surgery, major orthopedic surgeries, and neurosurgery.

Hypotension is a medical term that refers to abnormally low blood pressure, usually defined as a systolic blood pressure less than 90 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) or a diastolic blood pressure less than 60 mm Hg. Blood pressure is the force exerted by the blood against the walls of the blood vessels as the heart pumps blood.

Hypotension can cause symptoms such as dizziness, lightheadedness, weakness, and fainting, especially when standing up suddenly. In severe cases, hypotension can lead to shock, which is a life-threatening condition characterized by multiple organ failure due to inadequate blood flow.

Hypotension can be caused by various factors, including certain medications, medical conditions such as heart disease, endocrine disorders, and dehydration. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience symptoms of hypotension, as it can indicate an underlying health issue that requires treatment.

Uterine diseases refer to a range of medical conditions that affect the uterus, which is the reproductive organ in females where fetal development occurs. These diseases can be categorized into structural abnormalities, infectious diseases, and functional disorders. Here are some examples:

1. Structural abnormalities: These include congenital malformations such as septate uterus or bicornuate uterus, as well as acquired conditions like endometrial polyps, fibroids (benign tumors of the muscular wall), and adenomyosis (where the endometrial tissue grows into the muscular wall).

2. Infectious diseases: The uterus can be affected by various infections, including bacterial, viral, fungal, or parasitic agents. Examples include pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), tuberculosis, and candidiasis.

3. Functional disorders: These are conditions that affect the normal functioning of the uterus without any apparent structural abnormalities or infections. Examples include dysmenorrhea (painful periods), menorrhagia (heavy periods), and endometriosis (where the endometrial tissue grows outside the uterus).

4. Malignant diseases: Uterine cancer, including endometrial cancer and cervical cancer, are significant health concerns for women.

5. Other conditions: Miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility can also be considered as uterine diseases since they involve the abnormal functioning or structural issues of the uterus.

A maternity hospital, also known as a birthing center or maternity ward in a general hospital, is a healthcare institution specifically designed to provide care and services for women during pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period. These facilities have specialized medical staff, equipment, and resources to manage both normal and high-risk pregnancies, deliveries, and newborn care.

Maternity hospitals offer various services, including:

1. Antenatal care: Regular check-ups during pregnancy to monitor the health of the mother and fetus, provide necessary vaccinations, screen for potential complications, and offer education on pregnancy, childbirth, and newborn care.
2. Intrapartum care: Monitoring and support during labor and delivery, including pain management options, epidural anesthesia, and assisted vaginal deliveries using forceps or vacuum extraction, if necessary.
3. Obstetric surgery: Access to cesarean sections (C-sections) and other surgical interventions in case of complications or emergencies during childbirth.
4. Neonatal care: Immediate care for newborns, including resuscitation, monitoring, and treatment for any medical conditions or abnormalities. Some maternity hospitals have specialized neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) to provide advanced care for premature or critically ill newborns.
5. Postpartum care: Support and guidance for mothers during the recovery period after childbirth, including breastfeeding assistance, emotional support, and family planning counseling.
6. Education and counseling: Providing expectant parents with information on pregnancy, childbirth, parenting skills, and family planning. This may include prenatal classes, lactation consultations, and support groups.

Maternity hospitals prioritize the safety and well-being of both mother and baby, ensuring that they receive high-quality medical care and support throughout the childbearing process.

An emergency is a sudden, unexpected situation that requires immediate medical attention to prevent serious harm, permanent disability, or death. Emergencies can include severe injuries, trauma, cardiac arrest, stroke, difficulty breathing, severe allergic reactions, and other life-threatening conditions. In such situations, prompt medical intervention is necessary to stabilize the patient's condition, diagnose the underlying problem, and provide appropriate treatment.

Emergency medical services (EMS) are responsible for providing emergency care to patients outside of a hospital setting, such as in the home, workplace, or public place. EMS personnel include emergency medical technicians (EMTs), paramedics, and other first responders who are trained to assess a patient's condition, provide basic life support, and transport the patient to a hospital for further treatment.

In a hospital setting, an emergency department (ED) is a specialized unit that provides immediate care to patients with acute illnesses or injuries. ED staff includes physicians, nurses, and other healthcare professionals who are trained to handle a wide range of medical emergencies. The ED is equipped with advanced medical technology and resources to provide prompt diagnosis and treatment for critically ill or injured patients.

Overall, the goal of emergency medical care is to stabilize the patient's condition, prevent further harm, and provide timely and effective treatment to improve outcomes and save lives.

Birthing centers, also known as birth centers or freestanding birth centers, are healthcare facilities that provide family-centered care for low-risk childbirth. They are usually standalone facilities, separate from hospitals, and are designed to provide a homelike atmosphere for labor, delivery, and immediate postpartum recovery.

Birthing centers are staffed by certified nurse-midwives, midwives, and sometimes obstetricians who work together to provide care that is based on the principles of normal, physiologic birth. They offer a range of services, including prenatal care, labor support, and postpartum follow-up care.

Birthing centers aim to provide a safe and supportive environment for women who want to have a natural childbirth experience, without the need for medical intervention unless it becomes necessary. They may not be equipped to handle high-risk pregnancies or complications during labor and delivery, and therefore may transfer women to a hospital if needed.

It's important to note that while birthing centers can provide a unique and personalized childbirth experience, they may not be covered by all insurance plans, and it's essential to check with your insurance provider to determine coverage before making a decision.

The abdominal wall refers to the group of muscles, fascia (sheaths of connective tissue), and skin that make up the front and sides of the abdomen, extending from the thorax (chest) to the pelvis. It provides protection to the abdominal organs, supports the trunk, and allows for movement of the torso.

The main muscles of the anterior abdominal wall include:

1. Rectus sheaths (Rectus Abdominis): paired vertical muscles running from the pubic symphysis to the xiphoid process and costal cartilages of ribs 5-7.
2. External obliques: thin, irregular muscles that lie over the lower part of the abdomen and run diagonally downward and forward from the lower ribs to the iliac crest (pelvic bone) and pubic tubercle.
3. Internal obliques: thicker muscles that lie under the external obliques, running diagonally upward and forward from the iliac crest to the lower ribs.
4. Transverse abdominis: deepest of the abdominal muscles, lying horizontally across the abdomen, attaching from the lower ribs to the pelvis.

These muscles are interconnected by various layers of fascia and aponeuroses (flat, broad tendons), forming a complex structure that allows for both stability and mobility. The linea alba, a fibrous band, runs down the midline of the anterior abdominal wall, connecting the rectus sheaths.

Damage to the abdominal wall can occur due to trauma, surgery, or various medical conditions, which may require surgical intervention for repair.

The third trimester of pregnancy is the final stage of pregnancy that lasts from week 29 until birth, which typically occurs around the 40th week. During this period, the fetus continues to grow and mature, gaining weight rapidly. The mother's body also prepares for childbirth by dilating the cervix and producing milk in preparation for breastfeeding. Regular prenatal care is crucial during this time to monitor the health of both the mother and the developing fetus, as well as to prepare for delivery.

"Public hospitals" are defined as healthcare institutions that are owned, operated, and funded by government entities. They provide medical services to the general public, regardless of their ability to pay. Public hospitals can be found at the local, regional, or national level and may offer a wide range of services, including emergency care, inpatient and outpatient care, specialized clinics, and community health programs. These hospitals are accountable to the public and often have a mandate to serve vulnerable populations, such as low-income individuals, uninsured patients, and underserved communities. Public hospitals may receive additional funding from various sources, including patient fees, grants, and donations.

Eclampsia is a serious pregnancy complication characterized by the onset of seizures or convulsions in a woman who has already developed preeclampsia, which is a condition marked by high blood pressure and damage to organs such as the liver and kidneys. Eclampsia can occur before, during, or after delivery and is considered a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment. It can pose significant risks to both the mother and the baby, including premature birth, fetal growth restriction, and even maternal and fetal death.

The exact causes of eclampsia are not fully understood, but it is thought to be related to problems with the placenta and abnormal blood vessel development in the uterus. Risk factors for developing eclampsia include preexisting medical conditions such as chronic hypertension or diabetes, a history of preeclampsia or eclampsia in previous pregnancies, multiple gestation (carrying more than one baby), and certain genetic factors.

Treatment for eclampsia typically involves delivering the baby as soon as possible to prevent further complications. In some cases, medication may be given to manage seizures and prevent their recurrence. Close monitoring of both the mother and the baby is essential to ensure the best possible outcomes.

Liability insurance in a medical context refers to a type of insurance that covers the cost of legal claims made against healthcare professionals or facilities for damages or injuries caused to patients during the course of medical treatment. This can include incidents such as malpractice, errors or omissions in diagnosis or treatment, and failure to provide appropriate care. Liability insurance typically covers legal fees, settlements, and judgments awarded to the plaintiff in a lawsuit. It is intended to protect healthcare providers from financial ruin due to lawsuits and help ensure that patients have access to compensation for harm caused by medical negligence.

High-risk pregnancy is a term used to describe a situation where the mother or the fetus has an increased risk of developing complications during pregnancy, labor, delivery, or in the postpartum period. These risks may be due to pre-existing medical conditions in the mother, such as diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, kidney disease, autoimmune disorders, or infectious diseases like HIV/AIDS. Other factors that can contribute to a high-risk pregnancy include advanced maternal age (35 years and older), obesity, multiple gestations (twins, triplets, etc.), fetal growth restriction, placental issues, and a history of previous pregnancy complications or preterm labor.

High-risk pregnancies require specialized care and monitoring by healthcare professionals, often involving maternal-fetal medicine specialists, obstetricians, perinatologists, and neonatologists. Regular prenatal care, frequent checkups, ultrasound monitoring, and sometimes additional testing and interventions may be necessary to ensure the best possible outcomes for both the mother and the baby.

Pre-eclampsia is a pregnancy-related disorder, typically characterized by the onset of high blood pressure (hypertension) and damage to organs, such as the kidneys, after the 20th week of pregnancy. It is often accompanied by proteinuria, which is the presence of excess protein in the urine. Pre-eclampsia can lead to serious complications for both the mother and the baby if left untreated or unmanaged.

The exact causes of pre-eclampsia are not fully understood, but it is believed that placental issues, genetic factors, and immune system problems may contribute to its development. Risk factors include first-time pregnancies, history of pre-eclampsia in previous pregnancies, chronic hypertension, obesity, older age (35 or older), and assisted reproductive technology (ART) pregnancies.

Pre-eclampsia can progress to a more severe form called eclampsia, which is characterized by the onset of seizures. HELLP syndrome, another severe complication, involves hemolysis (breaking down of red blood cells), elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count.

Early detection and management of pre-eclampsia are crucial to prevent severe complications. Regular prenatal care, including frequent blood pressure checks and urine tests, can help identify early signs of the condition. Treatment typically involves close monitoring, medication to lower blood pressure, corticosteroids to promote fetal lung maturity, and, in some cases, delivery of the baby if the mother's or baby's health is at risk.

Infant Mortality is the death of a baby before their first birthday. The infant mortality rate is typically expressed as the number of deaths per 1,000 live births. This is a key indicator of the overall health of a population and is often used to measure the well-being of children in a society.

Infant mortality can be further categorized into neonatal mortality (death within the first 28 days of life) and postneonatal mortality (death after 28 days of life but before one year). The main causes of infant mortality vary by country and region, but generally include premature birth, low birth weight, congenital anomalies, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), and infectious diseases.

Reducing infant mortality is a major public health goal for many countries, and efforts to improve maternal and child health, access to quality healthcare, and socioeconomic conditions are crucial in achieving this goal.

Neoplastic pregnancy complications refer to the abnormal growth of cells (neoplasia) that can occur during pregnancy. These growths can be benign or malignant and can arise from any type of tissue in the body. However, when they occur in pregnant women, they can pose unique challenges due to the potential effects on the developing fetus and the changes in the mother's body.

Some common neoplastic pregnancy complications include:

1. Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD): This is a group of rare tumors that occur in the uterus during pregnancy. GTD can range from benign conditions like hydatidiform mole to malignant forms like choriocarcinoma.
2. Breast cancer: Pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) is a type of breast cancer that occurs during pregnancy or within one year after delivery. It can be aggressive and challenging to diagnose due to the changes in the breast tissue during pregnancy.
3. Cervical cancer: Cervical cancer can occur during pregnancy, and its management depends on the stage of the disease and the gestational age. In some cases, treatment may need to be delayed until after delivery.
4. Lung cancer: Pregnancy does not increase the risk of lung cancer, but it can make diagnosis and treatment more challenging.
5. Melanoma: Melanoma is the most common malignant skin cancer during pregnancy. It can spread quickly and requires prompt treatment.

The management of neoplastic pregnancy complications depends on several factors, including the type and stage of the tumor, gestational age, and the patient's wishes. In some cases, surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy may be necessary. However, these treatments can have potential risks to the developing fetus, so a multidisciplinary team of healthcare providers is often involved in the care of pregnant women with neoplastic complications.

Surgical wound dehiscence is a medical condition that refers to the partial or complete separation of layers of a surgical incision after a surgical procedure, leading to the disruption of the wound closure. This can occur due to various factors such as infection, poor nutrition, increased tension on the sutures, hematoma or seroma formation, and patient's underlying health conditions like diabetes or immunodeficiency. Dehiscence may result in the exposure of internal tissues and organs, potentially causing severe complications such as infection, bleeding, or organ dysfunction. Immediate medical attention is required to manage this condition and prevent further complications.

Fetal version is a medical term used to describe the position or presentation of the fetus in the uterus during pregnancy. It refers to the way the fetus is facing or lying in relation to the mother's pelvis.

There are several different types of fetal versions, including:

* Cephalic version: This is the most common and preferred position for birth. The fetus's head is downward, facing the mother's cervix.
* Breech version: In this position, the fetus's buttocks or feet are pointed downward toward the mother's cervix. There are several different types of breech versions, including frank breech (where the baby's legs are straight up in front of its body), complete breech (where the baby's legs are folded at the knees), and footling breech (where one or both of the baby's feet are coming out below the buttocks).
* Transverse version: This is a less common position where the fetus is lying sideways across the mother's uterus.

Fetal version can be assessed through physical examination, ultrasound, or both. In some cases, healthcare providers may attempt to manually turn the fetus into a different position using a procedure called external cephalic version (ECV). This is typically done in the third trimester of pregnancy and is used to reduce the risk of breech delivery and improve outcomes for both the mother and baby.

Postoperative pain is defined as the pain or discomfort experienced by patients following a surgical procedure. It can vary in intensity and duration depending on the type of surgery performed, individual pain tolerance, and other factors. The pain may be caused by tissue trauma, inflammation, or nerve damage resulting from the surgical intervention. Proper assessment and management of postoperative pain is essential to promote recovery, prevent complications, and improve patient satisfaction.

Methylergonovine is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called ergot alkaloids. It is primarily used to prevent and treat uterine bleeding after childbirth. Medically, it is defined as a semi-synthetic ergopeptide analog with oxytocic properties, which stimulates myometrial contractions and reduces postpartum hemorrhage.

Methylergonovine works by stimulating the smooth muscle of the uterus, causing it to contract. This helps to return the uterus to its pre-pregnancy size and also helps to control bleeding after childbirth. It is important to note that methylergonovine should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider, as it can have serious side effects if not used properly.

A "term birth" is a medical term that refers to a delivery or pregnancy that has reached 37 weeks or more. It is the normal length of a full-term pregnancy and is considered a healthy and low-risk period for childbirth. Babies born at term have the best chance of being healthy and not experiencing any significant medical issues, compared to those born preterm (before 37 weeks) or postterm (after 42 weeks). The different types of term births are:

* Early Term: Between 37 weeks and 38 weeks, 6 days.
* Full Term: Between 39 weeks and 40 weeks, 6 days.
* Late Term: Between 41 weeks and 41 weeks, 6 days.
* Postterm: 42 weeks or later.

It is important to note that while a term birth is generally considered low-risk, there can still be variations in the health of babies born at different points within this range. For example, research has shown that babies born at 39 weeks have better outcomes than those born at 37 or 38 weeks. Therefore, it is always best to consult with a healthcare provider for individualized guidance and recommendations regarding pregnancy and childbirth.

Cardiotocography (CTG) is a technical means of monitoring the fetal heart rate and uterine contractions during pregnancy, particularly during labor. It provides visual information about the fetal heart rate pattern and the frequency and intensity of uterine contractions. This helps healthcare providers assess the well-being of the fetus and the progression of labor.

The cardiotocograph records two main traces:

1. Fetal heart rate (FHR): It is recorded using an ultrasound transducer placed on the mother's abdomen. The normal fetal heart rate ranges from 120 to 160 beats per minute. Changes in the FHR pattern may indicate fetal distress, hypoxia, or other complications.

2. Uterine contractions: They are recorded using a pressure sensor (toco) placed on the mother's abdomen. The intensity and frequency of uterine contractions can be assessed to evaluate the progression of labor and the effect of contractions on fetal oxygenation.

Cardiotocography is widely used in obstetrics as a non-invasive method for monitoring fetal well-being during pregnancy and labor. However, it should always be interpreted cautiously by healthcare professionals, considering other factors like maternal and fetal conditions, medical history, and clinical presentation. Overinterpretation or misinterpretation of CTG traces can lead to unnecessary interventions or delays in recognizing actual fetal distress.

The postpartum period refers to the time frame immediately following childbirth, typically defined as the first 6-12 weeks. During this time, significant physical and emotional changes occur as the body recovers from pregnancy and delivery. Hormone levels fluctuate dramatically, leading to various symptoms such as mood swings, fatigue, and breast engorgement. The reproductive system also undergoes significant changes, with the uterus returning to its pre-pregnancy size and shape, and the cervix closing.

It is essential to monitor physical and emotional health during this period, as complications such as postpartum depression, infection, or difficulty breastfeeding may arise. Regular check-ups with healthcare providers are recommended to ensure a healthy recovery and address any concerns. Additionally, proper rest, nutrition, and support from family and friends can help facilitate a smooth transition into this new phase of life.

The myometrium is the middle and thickest layer of the uterine wall, composed mainly of smooth muscle cells. It is responsible for the strong contractions during labor and can also contribute to bleeding during menstruation or childbirth. The myometrium is able to stretch and expand to accommodate a growing fetus and then contract during labor to help push the baby out. It also plays a role in maintaining the structure and shape of the uterus, and in protecting the internal organs within the pelvic cavity.

Uterine inertia is a medical condition that occurs during childbirth, specifically during the second stage of labor. It is defined as the failure of the uterus to contract efficiently and effectively during this stage, leading to prolonged or arrested labor. This can result in complications for both the mother and the baby, such as fetal distress, postpartum hemorrhage, and infection. Uterine inertia can be caused by various factors, including exhaustion of the uterus, drugs that interfere with muscle contractions, or abnormalities in the uterus itself. Treatment typically involves administering oxytocin to stimulate stronger contractions, assisted delivery methods such as forceps or vacuum extraction, or in some cases, cesarean section.

Trichosanthes is a genus of plants in the cucumber family (Cucurbitaceae) that includes several species with medicinal uses. One of the most well-known species is Trichosanthes kirilowii, also known as Chinese cucumber or Gua Lou. The dried fruit of this plant has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries to treat various ailments such as lung disorders, fever, and inflammation. It contains various bioactive compounds including trichosanthin, which has been studied for its potential anti-viral, anti-tumor, and immunomodulatory effects. However, it's important to note that the use of Trichosanthes or any other herbal medicine should be done under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as they can interact with other medications and have potential side effects.

Pelvimetry is a medical measurement and evaluation of the size and shape of the pelvis, which can be performed in several ways:

1. Clinical pelvimetry: This involves physical examination to assess the dimensions of the pelvis by palpation and measurement of the distance between bony landmarks.
2. Radiological pelvimetry: This uses X-ray or CT imaging to obtain more accurate measurements of the pelvic diameters, including the anteroposterior, transverse, and oblique dimensions.
3. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) pelvimetry: This method is considered the most accurate for assessing the size and shape of the pelvis, as it provides detailed images without radiation exposure.

Pelvimetry is often used in obstetrics to evaluate whether a woman's pelvis can accommodate a fetus during childbirth (known as "obstetric pelvimetry"). It helps healthcare providers determine if a vaginal delivery is possible or if a cesarean section may be necessary. However, the use of pelvimetry in modern obstetrics has become less common due to its limited predictive value and the increasing focus on individualized birth management.

Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) are common complications following surgical procedures. It is defined as nausea, vomiting, or both that occurs within the first 24 hours after surgery. PONV can lead to dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, wound dehiscence, and impaired patient satisfaction. Risk factors for PONV include female gender, non-smoking status, history of motion sickness or PONV, use of opioids, and longer duration of surgery. Preventive measures and treatments include antiemetic medications, fluid therapy, and acupuncture or acupressure.

Conduction anesthesia is a type of local anesthesia in which an anesthetic agent is administered near a peripheral nerve to block the transmission of painful stimuli. It is called "conduction" anesthesia because it works by blocking the conduction of nerve impulses along the nerve fibers.

There are several types of conduction anesthesia, including:

1. Infiltration anesthesia: In this technique, the anesthetic agent is injected directly into the tissue where the surgical procedure will be performed. This type of anesthesia can be used for minor surgeries such as wound closure or repair of simple lacerations.
2. Nerve block anesthesia: In this technique, the anesthetic agent is injected near a specific nerve or bundle of nerves to block sensation in a larger area of the body. For example, a brachial plexus block can be used to numb the arm and hand for procedures such as shoulder surgery or fracture reduction.
3. Field block anesthesia: In this technique, the anesthetic agent is injected around the periphery of the surgical site to create a "field" of anesthesia that blocks sensation in the area. This type of anesthesia is often used for procedures such as hernia repair or circumcision.

Conduction anesthesia has several advantages over general anesthesia, including reduced risk of complications, faster recovery time, and lower cost. However, it may not be appropriate for all types of surgical procedures or patients, and its effectiveness can vary depending on the skill of the practitioner and the individual patient's response to the anesthetic agent.

Sufentanil is a potent, synthetic opioid analgesic that is approximately 5-10 times more potent than fentanyl and 1000 times more potent than morphine. It is primarily used for the treatment of moderate to severe pain in surgical settings, as an adjunct to anesthesia, or for obstetrical analgesia during labor and delivery.

Sufentanil works by binding to opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord, which inhibits the transmission of pain signals to the brain. It has a rapid onset of action and a short duration of effect, making it useful for procedures that require intense analgesia for brief periods.

Like other opioids, sufentanil can cause respiratory depression, sedation, nausea, vomiting, and constipation. It should be used with caution in patients with compromised respiratory function or those who are taking other central nervous system depressants.

A hysterectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of the uterus (womb). Depending on the specific medical condition and necessity, a hysterectomy may also include the removal of the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and surrounding tissues. There are different types of hysterectomies, including:

1. Total hysterectomy: The uterus and cervix are removed.
2. Supracervical (or subtotal) hysterectomy: Only the upper part of the uterus is removed, leaving the cervix intact.
3. Radical hysterectomy: This procedure involves removing the uterus, cervix, surrounding tissues, and the upper part of the vagina. It is typically performed in cases of cervical cancer.
4. Oophorectomy: The removal of one or both ovaries can be performed along with a hysterectomy depending on the patient's medical condition and age.
5. Salpingectomy: The removal of one or both fallopian tubes can also be performed along with a hysterectomy if needed.

The reasons for performing a hysterectomy may include but are not limited to: uterine fibroids, heavy menstrual bleeding, endometriosis, adenomyosis, pelvic prolapse, cervical or uterine cancer, and chronic pelvic pain. The choice of the type of hysterectomy depends on the patient's medical condition, age, and personal preferences.

'Unnecessary procedures' in a medical context refer to diagnostic or therapeutic interventions that are not indicated based on established guidelines, evidence-based medicine, or the individual patient's needs and preferences. These procedures may not provide any benefit to the patient, or the potential harm may outweigh the expected benefits. They can also include tests, treatments, or surgeries that are performed in excess of what is medically necessary, or when there are less invasive, cheaper, or safer alternatives available.

Unnecessary procedures can result from various factors, including defensive medicine (ordering extra tests or procedures to avoid potential malpractice claims), financial incentives (providers or institutions benefiting financially from performing more procedures), lack of knowledge or awareness of evidence-based guidelines, and patient pressure or anxiety. It is essential to promote evidence-based medicine and shared decision-making between healthcare providers and patients to reduce the frequency of unnecessary procedures.

Prenatal care is a type of preventive healthcare that focuses on providing regular check-ups and medical care to pregnant women, with the aim of ensuring the best possible health outcomes for both the mother and the developing fetus. It involves routine prenatal screenings and tests, such as blood pressure monitoring, urine analysis, weight checks, and ultrasounds, to assess the progress of the pregnancy and identify any potential health issues or complications early on.

Prenatal care also includes education and counseling on topics such as nutrition, exercise, and lifestyle choices that can affect pregnancy outcomes. It may involve referrals to specialists, such as obstetricians, perinatologists, or maternal-fetal medicine specialists, for high-risk pregnancies.

Overall, prenatal care is an essential component of ensuring a healthy pregnancy and reducing the risk of complications during childbirth and beyond.

A fetus is the developing offspring in a mammal, from the end of the embryonic period (approximately 8 weeks after fertilization in humans) until birth. In humans, the fetal stage of development starts from the eleventh week of pregnancy and continues until childbirth, which is termed as full-term pregnancy at around 37 to 40 weeks of gestation. During this time, the organ systems become fully developed and the body grows in size. The fetus is surrounded by the amniotic fluid within the amniotic sac and is connected to the placenta via the umbilical cord, through which it receives nutrients and oxygen from the mother. Regular prenatal care is essential during this period to monitor the growth and development of the fetus and ensure a healthy pregnancy and delivery.

Abruptio placentae, also known as placental abruption, is a medical condition that occurs when the placenta separates from the uterus before the baby is born. The placenta is an organ that develops in the uterus during pregnancy to provide oxygen and nutrients to the growing fetus.

In abruptio placentae, the separation of the placenta from the uterus can cause bleeding, which can be serious or life-threatening for both the mother and the baby. The severity of the condition depends on how much of the placenta has separated from the uterus and how much bleeding has occurred.

Abruptio placentae can cause a range of symptoms, including vaginal bleeding, abdominal pain, contractions, and fetal distress. In severe cases, it can lead to preterm labor, low birth weight, and even stillbirth. The exact cause of abruptio placentae is not always known, but risk factors include high blood pressure, smoking, cocaine use, trauma to the abdomen, and advanced maternal age. Treatment may involve hospitalization, bed rest, medication to prevent contractions, or delivery of the baby if the pregnancy is at term.

An amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is a rare but serious condition that can occur during pregnancy, labor, or shortly after delivery. It occurs when amniotic fluid, fetal cells, hair, or other debris enter the mother's bloodstream and block the flow of blood to the lungs or other parts of the body. This can cause a range of symptoms including sudden shortness of breath, rapid heartbeat, low blood pressure, chills, and in severe cases, cardiac arrest or seizures. AFE is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment.

The exact causes of amniotic fluid embolism are not well understood, but it is thought to occur when there is a disruption in the placental barrier that allows amniotic fluid and fetal debris to enter the mother's bloodstream. Risk factors for AFE include advanced maternal age, cesarean delivery, placenta previa, and other pregnancy complications.

Treatment for AFE typically involves supportive care, such as oxygen therapy, medications to support blood pressure and heart function, and in some cases, surgery to remove the blockage from the blood vessels. Despite treatment, AFE can be a life-threatening condition with significant morbidity and mortality rates.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Midwifery is the health profession that involves providing care to childbearing individuals and their newborns during pregnancy, labor, birth, and postpartum period. Midwives offer a range of services including: conducting physical examinations, monitoring the health of the fetus and mother, providing education and counseling on pregnancy-related topics, managing common complaints and complications, and collaborating with other healthcare professionals when necessary. They promote normal childbirth and work to minimize technological interventions, while ensuring the safety and well-being of both the mother and baby. Midwifery is based on the principles of informed choice, continuity of care, and evidence-based practice.

The placenta is an organ that develops in the uterus during pregnancy and provides oxygen and nutrients to the growing baby through the umbilical cord. It also removes waste products from the baby's blood. The placenta attaches to the wall of the uterus, and the baby's side of the placenta contains many tiny blood vessels that connect to the baby's circulatory system. This allows for the exchange of oxygen, nutrients, and waste between the mother's and baby's blood. After the baby is born, the placenta is usually expelled from the uterus in a process called afterbirth.

Fetal diseases are medical conditions or abnormalities that affect a fetus during pregnancy. These diseases can be caused by genetic factors, environmental influences, or a combination of both. They can range from mild to severe and may impact various organ systems in the developing fetus. Examples of fetal diseases include congenital heart defects, neural tube defects, chromosomal abnormalities such as Down syndrome, and infectious diseases such as toxoplasmosis or rubella. Fetal diseases can be diagnosed through prenatal testing, including ultrasound, amniocentesis, and chorionic villus sampling. Treatment options may include medication, surgery, or delivery of the fetus, depending on the nature and severity of the disease.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Birth injuries refer to damages or injuries that a baby suffers during the birthing process. These injuries can result from various factors, such as mechanical forces during delivery, medical negligence, or complications during pregnancy or labor. Some common examples of birth injuries include:

1. Brachial plexus injuries: Damage to the nerves that control movement and feeling in the arms and hands, often caused by excessive pulling or stretching during delivery.
2. Cephalohematoma: A collection of blood between the skull and the periosteum (the membrane covering the bone), usually caused by trauma during delivery.
3. Caput succedaneum: Swelling of the soft tissues of the baby's scalp, often resulting from pressure on the head during labor and delivery.
4. Fractures: Broken bones, such as a clavicle or skull fracture, can occur due to mechanical forces during delivery.
5. Intracranial hemorrhage: Bleeding in or around the brain, which can result from trauma during delivery or complications like high blood pressure in the mother.
6. Perinatal asphyxia: A lack of oxygen supply to the baby before, during, or immediately after birth, which can lead to brain damage and other health issues.
7. Subconjunctival hemorrhage: Bleeding under the conjunctiva (the clear membrane covering the eye), often caused by pressure on the head during delivery.
8. Spinal cord injuries: Damage to the spinal cord, which can result in paralysis or other neurological issues, may occur due to excessive force during delivery or medical negligence.

It's important to note that some birth injuries are unavoidable and may not be a result of medical malpractice. However, if a healthcare provider fails to provide the standard of care expected during pregnancy, labor, or delivery, they may be held liable for any resulting injuries.

Extraembryonic membranes are specialized structures that form around the developing embryo in utero and provide vital support and protection during fetal development. There are three main extraembryonic membranes: the amnion, the chorion, and the allantois.

The amnion is the innermost membrane that surrounds the embryo itself, forming a fluid-filled sac known as the amniotic cavity. This sac provides a protective cushion for the developing embryo and helps to regulate its temperature and moisture levels.

The chorion is the outermost of the extraembryonic membranes, and it forms the boundary between the developing fetus and the mother's uterine wall. The chorion contains blood vessels that exchange nutrients and waste products with the mother's circulation, allowing for the growth and development of the fetus.

The allantois is a small membranous sac that arises from the developing fetal gut and eventually becomes part of the umbilical cord. It serves as a reservoir for fetal urine and helps to exchange waste products between the fetal and maternal circulations.

Together, these extraembryonic membranes play a critical role in supporting fetal development and ensuring a healthy pregnancy.

Multiple pregnancy is a type of gestation where more than one fetus is carried simultaneously in the uterus. The most common forms of multiple pregnancies are twins (two fetuses), triplets (three fetuses), and quadruplets (four fetuses). Multiple pregnancies can occur when a single fertilized egg splits into two or more embryos (monozygotic) or when more than one egg is released and gets fertilized during ovulation (dizygotic). The risk of multiple pregnancies increases with the use of assisted reproductive technologies, such as in vitro fertilization. Multiple pregnancies are associated with higher risks for both the mother and the fetuses, including preterm labor, low birth weight, and other complications.

Perinatal mortality is the death of a baby around the time of birth. It specifically refers to stillbirths (fetal deaths at 28 weeks of gestation or more) and deaths in the first week of life (early neonatal deaths). The perinatal period is defined as beginning at 22 weeks (154 days) of gestation and ending 7 completed days after birth. Perinatal mortality rate is the number of perinatal deaths during this period, expressed per 1000 total births (live births + stillbirths). High perinatal mortality rates can indicate poor quality of care during pregnancy and childbirth.

'Pregnant women' refers to female individuals who have conceived and are in the process of carrying a developing fetus inside their womb (uterus) until childbirth. This state is typically marked by various physiological changes, including hormonal fluctuations, weight gain, and growth of the uterus and breasts, among others. Pregnancy usually lasts for about 40 weeks, starting from the first day of the woman's last menstrual period (LMP) and is divided into three trimesters. Each trimester is characterized by different developmental milestones in the fetus. Regular prenatal care is essential to monitor the health and wellbeing of both the mother and the developing fetus, and to address any potential complications that may arise during pregnancy.

Fetal blood refers to the blood circulating in a fetus during pregnancy. It is essential for the growth and development of the fetus, as it carries oxygen and nutrients from the placenta to the developing tissues and organs. Fetal blood also removes waste products, such as carbon dioxide, from the fetal tissues and transports them to the placenta for elimination.

Fetal blood has several unique characteristics that distinguish it from adult blood. For example, fetal hemoglobin (HbF) is the primary type of hemoglobin found in fetal blood, whereas adults primarily have adult hemoglobin (HbA). Fetal hemoglobin has a higher affinity for oxygen than adult hemoglobin, which allows it to more efficiently extract oxygen from the maternal blood in the placenta.

Additionally, fetal blood contains a higher proportion of reticulocytes (immature red blood cells) and nucleated red blood cells compared to adult blood. These differences reflect the high turnover rate of red blood cells in the developing fetus and the need for rapid growth and development.

Examination of fetal blood can provide important information about the health and well-being of the fetus during pregnancy. For example, fetal blood sampling (also known as cordocentesis or percutaneous umbilical blood sampling) can be used to diagnose genetic disorders, infections, and other conditions that may affect fetal development. However, this procedure carries risks, including preterm labor, infection, and fetal loss, and is typically only performed when there is a significant risk of fetal compromise or when other diagnostic tests have been inconclusive.

Pruritus is a medical term derived from Latin, in which "prurire" means "to itch." It refers to an unpleasant sensation on the skin that provokes the desire or reflex to scratch. This can be caused by various factors, such as skin conditions (e.g., dryness, eczema, psoriasis), systemic diseases (e.g., liver disease, kidney failure), nerve disorders, psychological conditions, or reactions to certain medications.

Pruritus can significantly affect a person's quality of life, leading to sleep disturbances, anxiety, and depression. Proper identification and management of the underlying cause are essential for effective treatment.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Analgesics, opioid are a class of drugs used for the treatment of pain. They work by binding to specific receptors in the brain and spinal cord, blocking the transmission of pain signals to the brain. Opioids can be synthetic or natural, and include drugs such as morphine, codeine, oxycodone, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, fentanyl, and methadone. They are often used for moderate to severe pain, such as that resulting from injury, surgery, or chronic conditions like cancer. However, opioids can also produce euphoria, physical dependence, and addiction, so they are tightly regulated and carry a risk of misuse.

A hysterotomy is a surgical incision into the uterus, which is performed to achieve various obstetrical and gynecological objectives. In obstetrics, it's frequently carried out during a cesarean section (C-section) to deliver a baby when a vaginal delivery isn't possible or safe. The incision is carefully closed following the delivery of the infant and placenta.

In gynecology, hysterotomy may be used to treat certain conditions such as fibroids, endometriosis, or uterine septums. However, it should be noted that nowadays, less invasive procedures like hysteroscopy are often preferred over hysterotomy when possible.

As with any surgical procedure, a hysterotomy carries risks including infection, bleeding, and damage to surrounding organs. Therefore, it's typically considered as a last resort after other treatment options have been explored.

Premature obstetric labor, also known as preterm labor, is defined as regular contractions leading to cervical changes that begin before 37 weeks of gestation. This condition can result in premature birth and potentially complications for the newborn, depending on how early the delivery occurs. It's important to note that premature labor requires medical attention and intervention to try to stop or delay it, if possible, to allow for further fetal development.

A uterine contraction is a rhythmic, involuntary muscle tightening that occurs in the uterus. These contractions are primarily caused by the activation of smooth muscle cells within the uterine wall, known as myometrial cells. They play a crucial role in various reproductive processes, including menstruation, implantation of a fertilized egg, and childbirth (labor).

During labor, strong and frequent uterine contractions help to dilate the cervix and efface (thin) the lower part of the uterus. As the contractions become more intense and regular, they assist in moving the baby down through the birth canal, ultimately resulting in delivery. Uterine contractions are regulated by a complex interplay of hormones, neurotransmitters, and other signaling molecules, ensuring proper coordination and timing throughout the reproductive process.

Perinatal care refers to the health care provided to pregnant individuals, fetuses, and newborn infants during the time immediately before and after birth. This period is defined as beginning at approximately 20 weeks of gestation and ending 4 weeks after birth. Perinatal care includes preventative measures, medical and supportive services, and treatment for complications during pregnancy, childbirth, and in the newborn period. It encompasses a wide range of services including prenatal care, labor and delivery management, postpartum care, and neonatal care. The goal of perinatal care is to ensure the best possible outcomes for both the mother and the baby by preventing, diagnosing, and treating any potential health issues that may arise during this critical period.

The uterus, also known as the womb, is a hollow, muscular organ located in the female pelvic cavity, between the bladder and the rectum. It has a thick, middle layer called the myometrium, which is composed of smooth muscle tissue, and an inner lining called the endometrium, which provides a nurturing environment for the fertilized egg to develop into a fetus during pregnancy.

The uterus is where the baby grows and develops until it is ready for birth through the cervix, which is the lower, narrow part of the uterus that opens into the vagina. The uterus plays a critical role in the menstrual cycle as well, by shedding its lining each month if pregnancy does not occur.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Burundi" does not have a medical definition. Burundi is a country located in East Africa, bordered by Rwanda to the north, Tanzania to the east and south, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west. It's known for its warm, friendly people, beautiful landscapes, and rich cultural heritage. If you have any questions about Burundi's geography, history, or culture, I'd be happy to try to help answer them!

Combined anesthetics refer to the use of two or more types of anesthetic agents together during a medical procedure to produce a desired level of sedation, amnesia, analgesia, and muscle relaxation. This approach can allow for lower doses of individual anesthetic drugs, which may reduce the risk of adverse effects associated with each drug. Common combinations include using a general anesthetic in combination with a regional or local anesthetic technique. The specific choice of combined anesthetics depends on various factors such as the type and duration of the procedure, patient characteristics, and the desired outcomes.

Premedication is the administration of medication before a medical procedure or surgery to prevent or manage pain, reduce anxiety, minimize side effects of anesthesia, or treat existing medical conditions. The goal of premedication is to improve the safety and outcomes of the medical procedure by preparing the patient's body in advance. Common examples of premedication include administering antibiotics before surgery to prevent infection, giving sedatives to help patients relax before a procedure, or providing medication to control acid reflux during surgery.

'Pregnancy in Diabetics' refers to the condition where an individual with pre-existing diabetes mellitus becomes pregnant. This can be further categorized into two types:

1. Pre-gestational diabetes: This is when a woman is diagnosed with diabetes before she becomes pregnant. It includes both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. Proper control of blood sugar levels prior to conception and during pregnancy is crucial to reduce the risk of complications for both the mother and the baby.

2. Gestational diabetes: This is when a woman develops high blood sugar levels during pregnancy, typically in the second or third trimester. While it usually resolves after delivery, women with gestational diabetes have a higher risk of developing Type 2 diabetes later in life. Proper management of gestational diabetes is essential to ensure a healthy pregnancy and reduce the risk of complications for both the mother and the baby.

The double-blind method is a study design commonly used in research, including clinical trials, to minimize bias and ensure the objectivity of results. In this approach, both the participants and the researchers are unaware of which group the participants are assigned to, whether it be the experimental group or the control group. This means that neither the participants nor the researchers know who is receiving a particular treatment or placebo, thus reducing the potential for bias in the evaluation of outcomes. The assignment of participants to groups is typically done by a third party not involved in the study, and the codes are only revealed after all data have been collected and analyzed.

Intraoperative complications refer to any unforeseen problems or events that occur during the course of a surgical procedure, once it has begun and before it is completed. These complications can range from minor issues, such as bleeding or an adverse reaction to anesthesia, to major complications that can significantly impact the patient's health and prognosis.

Examples of intraoperative complications include:

1. Bleeding (hemorrhage) - This can occur due to various reasons such as injury to blood vessels or organs during surgery.
2. Infection - Surgical site infections can develop if the surgical area becomes contaminated during the procedure.
3. Anesthesia-related complications - These include adverse reactions to anesthesia, difficulty maintaining the patient's airway, or cardiovascular instability.
4. Organ injury - Accidental damage to surrounding organs can occur during surgery, leading to potential long-term consequences.
5. Equipment failure - Malfunctioning surgical equipment can lead to complications and compromise the safety of the procedure.
6. Allergic reactions - Patients may have allergies to certain medications or materials used during surgery, causing an adverse reaction.
7. Prolonged operative time - Complications may arise if a surgical procedure takes longer than expected, leading to increased risk of infection and other issues.

Intraoperative complications require prompt identification and management by the surgical team to minimize their impact on the patient's health and recovery.

Maternal-fetal exchange, also known as maternal-fetal transport or placental transfer, refers to the physiological process by which various substances are exchanged between the mother and fetus through the placenta. This exchange includes the transfer of oxygen and nutrients from the mother's bloodstream to the fetal bloodstream, as well as the removal of waste products and carbon dioxide from the fetal bloodstream to the mother's bloodstream.

The process occurs via passive diffusion, facilitated diffusion, and active transport mechanisms across the placental barrier, which is composed of fetal capillary endothelial cells, the extracellular matrix, and the syncytiotrophoblast layer of the placenta. The maternal-fetal exchange is crucial for the growth, development, and survival of the fetus throughout pregnancy.

Amniotic fluid is a clear, slightly yellowish liquid that surrounds and protects the developing baby in the uterus. It is enclosed within the amniotic sac, which is a thin-walled sac that forms around the embryo during early pregnancy. The fluid is composed of fetal urine, lung secretions, and fluids that cross over from the mother's bloodstream through the placenta.

Amniotic fluid plays several important roles in pregnancy:

1. It provides a shock-absorbing cushion for the developing baby, protecting it from injury caused by movement or external forces.
2. It helps to maintain a constant temperature around the fetus, keeping it warm and comfortable.
3. It allows the developing baby to move freely within the uterus, promoting normal growth and development of the muscles and bones.
4. It provides a source of nutrients and hydration for the fetus, helping to support its growth and development.
5. It helps to prevent infection by providing a barrier between the fetus and the outside world.

Throughout pregnancy, the volume of amniotic fluid increases as the fetus grows. The amount of fluid typically peaks around 34-36 weeks of gestation, after which it begins to gradually decrease. Abnormalities in the volume of amniotic fluid can indicate problems with the developing baby or the pregnancy itself, and may require medical intervention.

Maternal welfare is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, in a general sense, it refers to the physical, mental, and social well-being of a woman during pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period. It encompasses various factors such as access to quality healthcare services, nutrition, emotional support, and a safe and healthy environment.

Maternal welfare is an essential component of maternal health, which aims to ensure that women have a positive and safe pregnancy and childbirth experience, free from complications and harm. It involves addressing issues related to maternal mortality and morbidity, prenatal care, family planning, and reproductive rights.

Promoting maternal welfare requires a multidisciplinary approach that includes healthcare providers, policymakers, community leaders, and families working together to ensure that women have access to the resources and support they need to maintain their health and well-being during pregnancy and beyond.

Fentanyl is a potent synthetic opioid analgesic, which is similar to morphine but is 50 to 100 times more potent. It is a schedule II prescription drug, typically used to treat patients with severe pain or to manage pain after surgery. It works by binding to the body's opioid receptors, which are found in the brain, spinal cord, and other areas of the body.

Fentanyl can be administered in several forms, including transdermal patches, lozenges, injectable solutions, and tablets that dissolve in the mouth. Illegally manufactured and distributed fentanyl has also become a major public health concern, as it is often mixed with other drugs such as heroin, cocaine, and counterfeit pills, leading to an increase in overdose deaths.

Like all opioids, fentanyl carries a risk of dependence, addiction, and overdose, especially when used outside of medical supervision or in combination with other central nervous system depressants such as alcohol or benzodiazepines. It is important to use fentanyl only as directed by a healthcare provider and to be aware of the potential risks associated with its use.

A live birth is the complete expulsion or extraction from its mother of a product of human conception, irrespective of the duration of the pregnancy, that, after such separation, breathes or shows any other evidence of life - such as beating of the heart, pulsation of the umbilical cord, or definite movement of voluntary muscles - whether or not the umbilical cord has been cut or the placenta is attached.

This definition is used by the World Health Organization (WHO) and most national statistical agencies to distinguish live births from stillbirths. It's important to note that in some medical contexts, a different definition of live birth may be used.

The umbilical cord is a flexible, tube-like structure that connects the developing fetus to the placenta in the uterus during pregnancy. It arises from the abdomen of the fetus and transports essential nutrients, oxygen, and blood from the mother's circulation to the growing baby. Additionally, it carries waste products, such as carbon dioxide, from the fetus back to the placenta for elimination. The umbilical cord is primarily composed of two arteries (the umbilical arteries) and one vein (the umbilical vein), surrounded by a protective gelatinous substance called Wharton's jelly, and enclosed within a fibrous outer covering known as the umbilical cord coating. Following birth, the umbilical cord is clamped and cut, leaving behind the stump that eventually dries up and falls off, resulting in the baby's belly button.

Postnatal care is the period of care and medical support provided to the mother and newborn baby following childbirth. This care typically includes monitoring the physical and emotional health of the mother, helping her with breastfeeding, and ensuring the wellbeing of the newborn through regular check-ups and screening for any potential health issues.

The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that postnatal care should be provided for at least 24 hours after birth in a healthcare facility, and continue for up to six weeks after delivery, with frequent contact during the first week. The specific components of postnatal care may vary depending on the individual needs of the mother and baby, but they typically include:

* Monitoring the mother's vital signs, uterine contractions, and vaginal bleeding
* Checking for signs of infection or complications such as postpartum hemorrhage or puerperal fever
* Providing emotional support and counseling to the mother on topics such as infant care, family planning, and breastfeeding
* Assessing the newborn's health, including weight, temperature, heart rate, and breathing
* Administering necessary vaccinations and screening for conditions such as jaundice or congenital defects
* Providing guidance on feeding, bathing, and other aspects of newborn care

Overall, postnatal care is a critical component of maternal and child health, as it helps to ensure the best possible outcomes for both the mother and baby during the important transition period following childbirth.

Ectopic pregnancy is a type of abnormal pregnancy that occurs outside the uterine cavity. The most common site for an ectopic pregnancy is the fallopian tube, accounting for about 95% of cases. This condition is also known as tubal pregnancy. Other less common sites include the ovary, cervix, and abdominal cavity.

In a normal pregnancy, the fertilized egg travels down the fallopian tube and implants itself in the lining of the uterus. However, in an ectopic pregnancy, the fertilized egg implants and starts to develop somewhere other than the uterus. The growing embryo cannot survive outside the uterus, and if left untreated, an ectopic pregnancy can cause life-threatening bleeding due to the rupture of the fallopian tube or other organs.

Symptoms of ectopic pregnancy may include abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding, shoulder pain, lightheadedness, fainting, and in severe cases, shock. Diagnosis is usually made through a combination of medical history, physical examination, ultrasound, and blood tests to measure the levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a hormone produced during pregnancy.

Treatment for ectopic pregnancy depends on several factors, including the location, size, and growth rate of the ectopic mass, as well as the patient's overall health and desire for future pregnancies. Treatment options may include medication to stop the growth of the embryo or surgery to remove the ectopic tissue. In some cases, both methods may be used together. Early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent serious complications and improve the chances of preserving fertility in future pregnancies.

Microtomy is a medical term that refers to the process of cutting thin slices of tissue for examination under a microscope, typically with the use of a microtome. A microtome is a precision instrument that allows for the uniform and controlled cutting of very thin sections of biological tissues, usually ranging from 2-10 micrometers in thickness.

The process of microtomy involves fixing, embedding, and sectioning the tissue specimen. First, the tissue is fixed using a fixative such as formalin to preserve its structure and prevent decomposition. Then, it is embedded in a support medium, often paraffin wax or a plastic resin, which helps to hold the tissue together during cutting.

Once the tissue is properly prepared, it is loaded into the microtome, where a sharp blade cuts through the tissue, producing thin sections that can be mounted on glass slides and stained with various dyes to highlight specific structures or features of interest. These stained sections are then examined under a microscope for diagnostic or research purposes.

Microtomy is an essential technique in histology, pathology, and many areas of biological research, as it allows researchers and clinicians to visualize the structure and composition of tissues at the cellular and subcellular level.

A "newborn infant" refers to a baby in the first 28 days of life outside of the womb. This period is crucial for growth and development, but also poses unique challenges as the infant's immune system is not fully developed, making them more susceptible to various diseases.

"Newborn diseases" are health conditions that specifically affect newborn infants. These can be categorized into three main types:

1. Congenital disorders: These are conditions that are present at birth and may be inherited or caused by factors such as infection, exposure to harmful substances during pregnancy, or chromosomal abnormalities. Examples include Down syndrome, congenital heart defects, and spina bifida.

2. Infectious diseases: Newborn infants are particularly vulnerable to infections due to their immature immune systems. Common infectious diseases in newborns include sepsis (bloodstream infection), pneumonia, and meningitis. These can be acquired from the mother during pregnancy or childbirth, or from the environment after birth.

3. Developmental disorders: These are conditions that affect the normal growth and development of the newborn infant. Examples include cerebral palsy, intellectual disabilities, and vision or hearing impairments.

It is important to note that many newborn diseases can be prevented or treated with appropriate medical care, including prenatal care, proper hygiene practices, and timely vaccinations. Regular check-ups and monitoring of the newborn's health by a healthcare provider are essential for early detection and management of any potential health issues.

Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), also known as gestational hypertension, is a condition characterized by the new onset of high blood pressure (≥140 mm Hg systolic or ≥90 mm Hg diastolic) after 20 weeks of pregnancy in a woman who was normotensive before. It can sometimes progress to more severe conditions like preeclampsia and eclampsia, which are associated with damage to other organ systems such as the liver and kidneys.

PIH is typically classified into two types:

1. Gestational hypertension: This is when a woman develops high blood pressure after 20 weeks of pregnancy without any protein in the urine or evidence of damage to other organ systems. Women with gestational hypertension are at increased risk for preeclampsia and may require closer monitoring.

2. Preeclampsia: This is a more severe form of PIH, characterized by high blood pressure and proteinuria (≥0.3 g in a 24-hour urine collection) after 20 weeks of pregnancy. Preeclampsia can also involve damage to other organ systems, such as the liver, kidneys, or brain, and may progress to eclampsia, a life-threatening condition characterized by seizures.

The exact causes of PIH are not fully understood, but it is thought to be related to problems with the development and function of the blood vessels that supply the placenta. Risk factors for developing PIH include first-time pregnancies, obesity, older age, a history of chronic hypertension or kidney disease, and carrying multiples (twins, triplets, etc.).

Treatment for PIH depends on the severity of the condition and the gestational age of the pregnancy. In mild cases, close monitoring of blood pressure, urine protein levels, and fetal growth may be sufficient. More severe cases may require medication to lower blood pressure, corticosteroids to promote fetal lung maturity, or early delivery of the baby to prevent further complications.

Spinal injections, also known as epidural injections or intrathecal injections, are medical procedures involving the injection of medications directly into the spinal canal. The medication is usually delivered into the space surrounding the spinal cord (the epidural space) or into the cerebrospinal fluid that surrounds and protects the spinal cord (the subarachnoid space).

The medications used in spinal injections can include local anesthetics, steroids, opioids, or a combination of these. The purpose of spinal injections is to provide diagnostic information, therapeutic relief, or both. They are commonly used to treat various conditions affecting the spine, such as radicular pain (pain that radiates down the arms or legs), disc herniation, spinal stenosis, and degenerative disc disease.

Spinal injections can be administered using different techniques, including fluoroscopy-guided injections, computed tomography (CT) scan-guided injections, or with the help of a nerve stimulator. These techniques ensure accurate placement of the medication and minimize the risk of complications.

It is essential to consult a healthcare professional for specific information regarding spinal injections and their potential benefits and risks.

The amnion is the innermost fetal membrane in mammals, forming a sac that contains and protects the developing embryo and later the fetus within the uterus. It is one of the extraembryonic membranes that are derived from the outer cell mass of the blastocyst during early embryonic development. The amnion is filled with fluid (amniotic fluid) that allows for the freedom of movement and protection of the developing fetus.

The primary function of the amnion is to provide a protective environment for the growing fetus, allowing for expansion and preventing physical damage from outside forces. Additionally, the amniotic fluid serves as a medium for the exchange of waste products and nutrients between the fetal membranes and the placenta. The amnion also contributes to the formation of the umbilical cord and plays a role in the initiation of labor during childbirth.

An amide is a functional group or a compound that contains a carbonyl group (a double-bonded carbon atom) and a nitrogen atom. The nitrogen atom is connected to the carbonyl carbon atom by a single bond, and it also has a lone pair of electrons. Amides are commonly found in proteins and peptides, where they form amide bonds (also known as peptide bonds) between individual amino acids.

The general structure of an amide is R-CO-NHR', where R and R' can be alkyl or aryl groups. Amides can be classified into several types based on the nature of R and R' substituents:

* Primary amides: R-CO-NH2
* Secondary amides: R-CO-NHR'
* Tertiary amides: R-CO-NR''R'''

Amides have several important chemical properties. They are generally stable and resistant to hydrolysis under neutral or basic conditions, but they can be hydrolyzed under acidic conditions or with strong bases. Amides also exhibit a characteristic infrared absorption band around 1650 cm-1 due to the carbonyl stretching vibration.

In addition to their prevalence in proteins and peptides, amides are also found in many natural and synthetic compounds, including pharmaceuticals, dyes, and polymers. They have a wide range of applications in chemistry, biology, and materials science.

"Maternal-Fetal Relations" is not a standard medical term. However, I believe you may be asking for a definition of "Maternal-Fetal Medicine," which is a subspecialty of obstetrics that focuses on the care of pregnant women with high-risk pregnancies and their unborn babies. Maternal-Fetal Medicine specialists provide comprehensive care to these patients, including consultation, diagnosis, treatment, and management of medical complications during pregnancy that may affect the mother, fetus, or both. They work closely with obstetricians, perinatologists, geneticists, and other healthcare professionals to optimize outcomes for both the mother and the baby.

A surgical wound infection, also known as a surgical site infection (SSI), is defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as an infection that occurs within 30 days after surgery (or within one year if an implant is left in place) and involves either:

1. Purulent drainage from the incision;
2. Organisms isolated from an aseptically obtained culture of fluid or tissue from the incision;
3. At least one of the following signs or symptoms of infection: pain or tenderness, localized swelling, redness, or heat; and
4. Diagnosis of surgical site infection by the surgeon or attending physician.

SSIs can be classified as superficial incisional, deep incisional, or organ/space infections, depending on the depth and extent of tissue involvement. They are a common healthcare-associated infection and can lead to increased morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs.

I apologize, but "Brazil" is not a medical term or condition. It is the largest country in both South America and Latin America by land area and population. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, please provide more information and I will do my best to help.

Meperidine is a synthetic opioid analgesic (pain reliever) that works by binding to opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord, blocking the transmission of pain signals. It is also known by its brand name Demerol and is used to treat moderate to severe pain. Meperidine has a rapid onset of action and its effects typically last for 2-4 hours.

Meperidine can cause various side effects such as dizziness, sedation, nausea, vomiting, sweating, and respiratory depression (slowed breathing). It also has a risk of abuse and physical dependence, so it is classified as a Schedule II controlled substance in the United States.

Meperidine should be used with caution and under the supervision of a healthcare provider due to its potential for serious side effects and addiction. It may not be suitable for people with certain medical conditions or those who are taking other medications that can interact with meperidine.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

A stillbirth is defined as the delivery of a baby who has died in the womb after 20 weeks of pregnancy. The baby may die at any time during the pregnancy, but death must occur after 20 weeks to be classified as a stillbirth. Stillbirths can have many different causes, including problems with the placenta or umbilical cord, chromosomal abnormalities, infections, and birth defects. In some cases, the cause of a stillbirth may not be able to be determined.

Stillbirth is a tragic event that can have significant emotional and psychological impacts on the parents and other family members. It is important for healthcare providers to offer support and resources to help families cope with their loss. This may include counseling, support groups, and information about memorializing their baby.

Cervical ripening is a medical term that refers to the process of softening, thinning, and dilating (opening) the cervix, which is the lower part of the uterus that opens into the vagina. This process typically occurs naturally in preparation for childbirth, as the body prepares for labor.

Cervical ripening can also be induced medically, using various methods such as prostaglandin gels or medications, or mechanical means such as a Foley catheter or dilators. These interventions are used to help prepare the cervix for delivery in cases where labor is not progressing on its own or when there is a medical indication to induce labor.

It's important to note that cervical ripening is different from labor induction, which involves stimulating uterine contractions to begin or strengthen labor. Cervical ripening may be a necessary step before labor induction can occur.

The umbilical arteries are a pair of vessels that develop within the umbilical cord during fetal development. They carry oxygenated and nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the developing fetus through the placenta. These arteries arise from the internal iliac arteries in the fetus and pass through the umbilical cord to connect with the two umbilical veins within the placenta. After birth, the umbilical arteries become ligaments (the medial umbilical ligaments) that run along the inner abdominal wall.

Logistic models, specifically logistic regression models, are a type of statistical analysis used in medical and epidemiological research to identify the relationship between the risk of a certain health outcome or disease (dependent variable) and one or more independent variables, such as demographic factors, exposure variables, or other clinical measurements.

In contrast to linear regression models, logistic regression models are used when the dependent variable is binary or dichotomous in nature, meaning it can only take on two values, such as "disease present" or "disease absent." The model uses a logistic function to estimate the probability of the outcome based on the independent variables.

Logistic regression models are useful for identifying risk factors and estimating the strength of associations between exposures and health outcomes, adjusting for potential confounders, and predicting the probability of an outcome given certain values of the independent variables. They can also be used to develop clinical prediction rules or scores that can aid in decision-making and patient care.

... (C-section) is recommended when vaginal delivery might pose a risk to the mother or baby. C-sections are also ... Caesarean section, also known as C-section or caesarean delivery, is the surgical procedure by which one or more babies are ... In Brazil and Iran the caesarean section rate is greater than 40%. Brazil has one of the highest caesarean section rates in the ... "Cesarean Section". "Caesarean". "Definition of CESAREAN". 20 July 2023. Hugill K, Kemp I, Kingdon C (April 2015). "Fathers' ...
A self-performed caesarean section is a form of self-surgery where a woman attempts to perform a caesarean section on herself. ... Cases of self-inflicted caesarean section have been reported since the 18th and 19th century. While mostly deadly to either the ... In the science fiction film Prometheus, by Ridley Scott, the character Elizabeth Shaw gives herself a caesarean section. The ... Molina-Sosa, A; Galvan-Espinosa, H; Gabriel-Guzman, J; Valle, RF (2004). "Self-inflicted cesarean section with maternal and ...
A lower (uterine) segment Caesarean section (LSCS) is the most commonly used type of Caesarean section. Most commonly to ... 2008 Lower segment Caesarean section Primary Surgery: Volume One: Non-trauma. Prev. Chapter 10. The surgery of labour "Cesarean ... Lower segment Caesarean section Primary Surgery: Volume One: Non-trauma. Prev. Chapter 10. The surgery of labour (CS1 errors: ... This type of incision results in less blood loss and is easier to repair than other types of Caesarean sections. A vertical ...
"Rates for Total Cesarean Section, Primary Cesarean Section and Vaginal Birth After Cesarean Section (VBAC), United States, 1989 ... "Once a caesarean, always a caesarean." Overall, cesarean sections became so commonplace that the caesarean delivery rate ... Elective repeat caesarean section (ERCS) Both have higher risks than a vaginal birth with no previous caesarean section. There ... caesarean section should give birth by elective repeat caesarean section (ERCS). Unknown previous uterine incision Previous ...
"Why Is It Called A 'Cesarean Section' Anyway?". HuffPost. 2018-04-05. Retrieved 2019-11-23. Depierri, Kate P. "One Way of ... "cesarean section , Description, History, & Risks". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2019-11-23. Boss, Jeffrey. "Caesarian ... In early Christian Rome, C-sections were almost non-existent. Loss of skill is a possibility for the lack of C-sections. Infant ... Thus, C-sections could have potentially occurred on a fairly regular basis, and accounts were simply not recorded. Mortality ...
Clemetson CA, Hassan R, Mallikarjuneswara VR, Wallace G (August 1973). "Tilt-bend cesarean section". Obstetrics and Gynecology ... "Tilt caesarean section". The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the British Commonwealth. 77 (8): 713-21. doi:10.1111/j. ... he showed an improved oxygen saturation in the umbilical cord of blood of babies delivered by Caesarean Section under spinal ... Articles with sections that need to be turned into prose from March 2021, Articles with a promotional tone from March 2021, All ...
"Cesarean Section Under Difficulties", which documented a caesarean section he performed in a remote ranch-house lit by an oil ... Harrison, Tillson (1912). "Cesarean Section Under Difficulties". Journal of the American Medical Association. 59 (1): 37. doi: ...
"Healthcare Bluebook: Cesarean Section". CAREOperative. Archived from the original on 2014-03-20. Retrieved February 11, 2014. ... The cost of a cesarean section, the recommended mode of delivery for brain dead pregnant women, is roughly $4,500 for ... a viable child was delivered via cesarean section after extended somatic support. However, according to Esmaelilzadeh, et al. ... child delivered from a somatically supported brain dead mother focused on the case of a child delivered via cesarean section in ...
... and lowest total cesarean section rate, by the American College of Nurse Midwives. On April 9, 2014, a Eurocopter AS350B3E ( ... lowest primary cesarean section rate; highest rate of 6 week post partum visit attendance; highest breast-feeding continuation ...
Bracha J.; Lotan M.; Zakut H. (1988). "Ovarian abscess following cesarean section. A case report and review of the literature ...
Cesarean sections are not recommended. Breastfeeding is considered safe if the nipples are not damaged. Infection around the ...
For example, a large baby or a small pelvis often lead to death unless a caesarean section is performed. It is also used by ... ISBN 0-8036-1207-9. "Encyclopedia of Medicine: Cesarean Section". eNotes. Archived from the original on 2006-11-28. Retrieved ...
Yutzy SH, Wolfson JK, Resnick PJ (1993). "Child stealing by cesarean section: a psychiatric case report and review of the child ... Burgess AW, Baker T, Nahirny C, Rabun JB (2002). "Newborn kidnapping by cesarean section". J Forensic Sci. 47 (4): 827-30. doi: ... The definition of the subject does not include compulsory cesarean sections for medical reasons nor child removal from parents ... Dalley, Marlene (2005). "Abductions from the womb : Caesarean section murder a new category of homicide" (PDF). Royal Canadian ...
A normal dose of sodium thiopental (usually 4-6 mg/kg) given to a pregnant woman for operative delivery (caesarean section) ... II: Studies at cesarean section". Anesthesiology. 54 (6): 474-80. doi:10.1097/00000542-198106000-00006. PMID 7235275. World ... Awareness and Newborns During Caesarean Section Under General Anaesthesia". Turkish Journal of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation ...
Caesarean Section. 1925. The History of British Midwifery from 1650 to 1800. Bale & Danielsson, London, 1927. (Fitzpatrick ... In 1905, he was president of the Obstetric and Gynaecology section of the British Medical Association (BMA). Two years later, ... He was active amongst various medical societies and was president of the Obstetric and Gynaecology section of the British ... when Spencer became the president of the Obstetrics and Gynaecology section at the RSM. In 1923, he presided over the Medical ...
... by which vesicouterine fistulas occur following caesarean sections include undetected bladder injury during caesarean section, ... It occurs following lower segment caesarean section and the incidence is increasing due to the increasing incidence of ... Kurt, Sefa; Obuz, Funda (2016-10-10). "A Case of Type 2 Youssef's Syndrome following Caesarean Section for Placenta Previa ... Vesicouterine fistulas occur most commonly after lower segment caesarean sections (about 83-93% of cases). The possible ...
A fear of cesarean section in Benin may be the cause of rumor, but it may also be justified based on the outcomes. One in 20 ... Cesarean section has been described in Benin as an act against nature, and women cite that their mothers and grandmothers were ... Approximately 4% deliver by cesarean section. Birth position is greatly influenced by place of birth in Benin. A Bariba woman ... As of April 2009, the government of Benin made cesarean sections free to those needing emergent operative delivery in 43 ...
ISBN 978-0-85255-431-9. Cesarean Section - A Brief History(2008). National Library of Medicine, part 2 Butler, J.A.; Slate, A.J ... One observer noted a "surgical skill which had reached a high standard". Caesarean sections and other abdominal and thoracic ...
Cesarean Section - A Brief History(2008). National Library of Medicine, part 2 "Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom - Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom ...
A cesarean section may be considered. In individuals with a conduit made from bowel tissue, a standard pregnancy test will not ...
... and obstructed labor at full cervical dilation when there is no option of a caesarean section. In some Irish cases, caesarean ... She thought she was being brought to theatre for a caesarean section. No one told her the plan was to do the 'new procedure,' a ... Since this procedure does not scar the uterus, the concern of future uterine rupture that exists with cesarean section is not a ... Symphysiotomy in combination with vacuum extraction can be a life-saving procedure in areas of the world where caesarean section ...
"Caesarean Section Rates". Scottish government official portal. Retrieved 2023-04-16. "Caesarian Section or Vaginal Birth? What ... Beech questioned, less successfully, the rapid increase in birth by Caesarean section, which stood at some 30% of all UK births ...
A resuscitative hysterotomy, also referred to as a perimortem Caesarean section (PMCS) or perimortem Caesarean delivery (PMCD ... Potential structures that may be damaged during the procedure are as for Caesarean section, including the fetus itself and the ... Combined with a laparotomy, the procedure results in a Caesarean section that removes the fetus, thereby abolishing the ... Parry R, Asmussen T, Smith JE (March 2015). "Perimortem caesarean section". Emergency Medicine Journal. BMJ Group (published 24 ...
Court-Ordered Cesarean Section, "poor, minority women are affected most often by court-ordered c-section [...] which include: ... For example, a cesarean section could save the baby and mother's life, but the mother wants a natural birth that will kill both ... In another example, a woman can receive a court-ordered cesarean section to save a fetus, but this is usually viewed as ... Even in the case where court-ordered cesarean sections seem necessary, most physicians and law-makers avoid it altogether as ...
Abi's baby is delivered via cesarean section. Max is hopeful that Abi will recover and does not tell Lauren the truth, but she ...
Rural hospitals also have higher rates of Cesarean sections, which can increase the risk of complications for the person giving ... Greene, Sandra B.; Holmes, George M.; Slifkin, Rebecca; Freeman, Victoria; Howard, Hilda Ann (November 2004). "Cesarean Section ... This would ultimately reduce the amount of maternal injury, c-sections, and mortality. The UK has had success drastically ... Some other risk factors include obesity, chronic high blood pressure, increased age, diabetes, cesarean delivery, and smoking. ...
The child was born via cesarean section. In April 2014, a team of scientists led by Anthony Atala reported that they had ...
Textbook of Caesarean Section. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-107631-2. "The Truth About Julius Caesar and "Caesarean" ... During a Roman Caesarean section, the doctors would make an incision into the abdomen and uterus of the mother. Following this ... ISBN 978-0-7613-6522-8. "The Truth About Julius Caesar and "Caesarean" Sections". Today I Found Out. 2013-10-25. Retrieved 2022 ... According to Roman religion the god Asclepius was born through a Caesarian section. Roman historians Suetonius and Pliny the ...
"Optimising caesarean section use". www.thelancet.com. Retrieved 2022-07-24. "Oral health". www.thelancet.com. Retrieved 2022-07 ... From 2016 to 2022, Jocalyn was an Executive Editor at The Lancet, where she led the Commentary section, coordinated peer review ...
Most women give birth vaginally, but the incidence of cesarean section, or C-section, is rising. In 1986, the rate of C-section ... Asia-Pacific Population Journal, 16(2), 45-62 Fernando, L. and Abeywardena, M. (1999). Trends in caesarean section. Sri Lanka ... During C-sections, 80% of women receive spinal anesthesia, 15% epidural and 5% general anesthesia. Non-pharmacologic pain ... It is hypothesized that the increase in C-sections is due to a variety of factors, including increased use of epidural ...
C-section), surgery to deliver a baby through the mothers abdomen. It is done when a vaginal birth is not safe. ... Cesarean Sections (C-Sections) (Nemours Foundation) Also in Spanish * Delivery by Cesarean Section (American Academy of ... What is a cesarean delivery?. A cesarean delivery, also called a cesarean section or c-section, is surgery to deliver a baby. ... Breastfeeding after Cesarean Delivery (American Academy of Pediatrics) Also in Spanish * Repeat C-Sections: Is There a Limit? ( ...
When autocomplete results are available use up and down arrows to review and enter to select. ...
Caesarean section (C-section) is recommended when vaginal delivery might pose a risk to the mother or baby. C-sections are also ... Caesarean section, also known as C-section or caesarean delivery, is the surgical procedure by which one or more babies are ... In Brazil and Iran the caesarean section rate is greater than 40%. Brazil has one of the highest caesarean section rates in the ... "Cesarean Section". "Caesarean". "Definition of CESAREAN". 20 July 2023. Hugill K, Kemp I, Kingdon C (April 2015). "Fathers ...
cesarean section on maternal request, economic evaluation, registry, Sweden, systematic review. in Value in Health. volume. 26 ... Objectives: There is a lack of consensus around the definition of delivery by cesarean section (CS) on maternal request, and ... Objectives: There is a lack of consensus around the definition of delivery by cesarean section (CS) on maternal request, and ... Economic Evaluation of Elective Cesarean Section on Maternal Request Compared With Planned Vaginal Birth-Application to Swedish ...
Doctors Test Bacterial Smear After Cesarean Sections To Bolster Babies Microbiomes 9:58am October 30, 2018. by Rob Stein ... The Risks Of A Cesarean Section 6:04pm March 17, 2019. by Maanvi Singh ... After a C-section, does swabbing a baby with the mothers microbes reduce the risk of obesity and other health problems later ... It doesnt increase their risk of needing a C-section after all and can even offer potential benefits. Add to Listen Queue ...
A third of babies born in the United States,1 and a quarter in England,2 are delivered by caesarean section. Rates of caesarean ... Electronic fetal monitoring, cerebral palsy, and caesarean section: assumptions versus evidence BMJ 2016; 355 :i6405 doi: ... Electronic fetal monitoring, cerebral palsy, and caesarean section: assumptions versus evidence. BMJ 2016; 355 doi: https://doi ... and Dwight Rouse ask why routine monitoring and related litigation continue to contribute to high rates of caesarean births ...
The CDC just released the latest data on the c-section rate in the U.S., and alarmingly, it has risen to twice the rate ... The evidence for the effect of EFM on the c-section rate has been around since the 80s, and in December of 1987, the Lancet ... But there was that pesky effect on mothers…more cesareans. If the effect of a procedure is neither neutral nor beneficial, if ... Take a look at the Coalition for Improving Maternity Services (CIMS) press release about the new c-sections rates under "Press ...
However, emergency caesarean section and repeat caesarean section due to previous caesarean section were positively associated ... of caesarean sections were emergency caesarean section, while for those aged 18-35 years 44.4% were emergency caesarean section ... emergency caesarean section, elective caesarean section, repeat caesarean section). The significance level was 0.05 for all ... As in elective caesarean section, repeat caesarean sections are done with a previous consent and plan, so this finding cannot ...
Works with PROMPT Flex Caesarean Section Light. Surgical abdomen skin pads to be used with PROMPT Flex Caesarean Section Module ...
Techniques for preventing a decrease in blood pressure during spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section. What is the issue? ... Maternal hypotension is the most frequent complication of spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section. It can be associated with ... To assess the effects of prophylactic interventions for hypotension following spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section. ... Techniques for preventing hypotension during spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews ...
C section rates and increased malpractice premiums--an alternate explanation. Cite CITE. Title : C section rates and increased ... Rock, S M "Malpractice premiums and primary cesarean section rates in New York and Illinois." 103, no. 5 (1988). Rock, S M " ... Title : Malpractice premiums and primary cesarean section rates in New York and Illinois. Personal Author(s) : Rock, S M ... Rock, S M (1988). Malpractice premiums and primary cesarean section rates in New York and Illinois.. 103(5). ...
Closure versus non‐closure of the peritoneum at caesarean section: short‐ and long‐term outcomes. Overview of attention for ... Closure versus non‐closure of the peritoneum at caesarean section: short‐ and long‐term outcomes ...
C-Section) - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the MSD Manuals - Medical Consumer Version. ... What is a cesarean delivery (C-section)? A C-section is surgery to deliver your baby through a cut made in your belly and ... How safe is a C-section? Medicines and blood transfusions help make C-sections safe. Compared to vaginal birth, C-sections ... Why would I need to have a C-section? You may need a C-section if the doctor thinks it would be safer for you or your baby than ...
An evaluation of caesarean section in the United States : final report submitted to Department of Health, Education and Welfare ...
When these tests are used, panel physicians are directed by CDC to document the test results in the remarks section of the DS- ... If an applicant tests positive for chlamydia, treatment should also be documented on the remarks section of the DS-3026 and the ... Cesarean section. *Postpartum hemorrhage. *Obstetric lacerations. *Episiotomy. *Instrumental delivery (forceps delivery). * ... CDC is not responsible for Section 508 compliance (accessibility) on other federal or private website. ...
1. Miscarriage 2. Stillbirth 3. Abortion 4. Ectopic or tubal pregnancy 5. Live birth by Cesarean section 6. Live birth by ... CDC is not responsible for Section 508 compliance (accessibility) on other federal or private website. ... a hard-copy calendar covering the time periods referred to in various sections of the survey is offered as an aid to ...
Effect of phenylephrine infusion and spinal anesthesia on cardiac output during cesarean section by point of care ... Effect of phenylephrine infusion and spinal anesthesia on cardiac output during cesarean s ...
Index: AIM (Africa) Main subject: Perception / Attitude / Cesarean Section / Anesthesia / Nigeria Type of study: Observational ... Index: AIM (Africa) Main subject: Perception / Attitude / Cesarean Section / Anesthesia / Nigeria Type of study: Observational ... Pregnant women need to have awareness of anesthesia for cesarean section. Objectives:. The aim of this study was to determine ... The study revealed high knowledge and awareness of anesthesia for cesarean section among pregnant women and regional anesthesia ...
This paper tests the null hypothesis of a zero effect of cesarean section rate on health outcome against the alternative of a ... The null hypothesis cannot be rejected, i.e., we do not find any significant positive effect of cesarean section rate on health ... Thus, we conclude that an increase in cesarean section rate does not imply lower perinatal mortality or lower rate of asphyxia ... Estimating the effect of cesarean section rate on health outcome : Evidence from Swedish hospital data Author ...
... cesarean section, and cesarean section plus total hysterectomy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1962. 84:1271. ... Post-cesarean section cecal volvulus. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1988 May. 158 (5):1200-2. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... Treatment consists of immediate cesarean delivery with probable hysterectomy. Repair of the uterus may be possible in select ...
... our skilled surgeons are proud to offer our patients scheduled and emergency Cesarean section services. ... Animal Cesarean Section. Learning more about the cat and doc c section process ... may be presented with the option for a Cesarean Section, or "C-Section." One of the common reasons as to why pet parents may ... For more information on pet C-section procedures, please contact our team today. ...
The number one reason for surgery in Canada is a Cesarean section delivery, according to the the latest data from the Canadian ... While there are many potential reasons for why a c-section delivery may be needed (breech, previous cesarean delivery etc), the ... Acupuncture for C-section scar recovery. Acupuncture and Chinese medicine play an important role in c-section recovery. ... Post cesarean birth it is used to promote healing and bring warmth back into the lower abdomen. A moxa pole looks like a giant ...
TREATMENTS & DIAGNOSTICS FOR CESAREAN SECTIONS:. * X-rays can be taken to determine if any babies are present within the uterus ... Cesarean Sections Dystocia occurs when a pregnant animal is unable to deliver babies naturally through the birth canal. This ... How does the surgeon perform a C-Section?. In a C-section surgery, an incision is made along the mothers abdominal midline ( ... C-section surgery can be performed when there is a difficult birth and babies cannot pass through the birth canal on their own ...
Tag Archives: caesarean section. I had a c-section, and it was exactly the delivery I wanted. Posted on August 28, 2016. by ... Posted in parenting , Tagged c-section, caesarean section, ddh, delivery, mom shaming, parenting, rants, vbac , 2 Comments ↓ ... In truth, Ive had two c-sections-one for each kiddo. And amazingly, ignoring all of those posts out there about how caesarean ... I decided to take the path that we all felt was less risky, and I went with the c-section. Of course, best laid plans of mice ...
Keywords : midwifery; cesarean section; premature infant; equity; womens health. · abstract in Portuguese · text in English , ... caesarean section and inversion of the expected disparity. J. Hum. Growth Dev. [online]. 2016, vol.26, n.1, pp. 33-40. ISSN ... there were more caesarean sections and lower GA at birth, with more preterm newborns and 60.4% being born early term, while in ... while for cesarean was 38 weeks. Most vaginal births were full term (39-406/7) while most cesarean were early term (37-386/7). ...
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Recommended after surgeries such as cesarean section, abdominoplasty, liposuction and hysterectomy. Smooth elastic fabric on ...
Whenever possible, however, vaginal delivery should be attempted and cesarean section should be reserved for routine obstetric ... John J Kavanagh Jr MD, Chief, Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Gynecological and Medical Therapeutics, MD ...
Anticipated mode of birth: Cesarean section before onset of labor with intact membranes ... Anticipated mode of birth: Cesarean section before onset of labor with intact membranes ... Anticipated mode of birth: Cesarean section before onset of labor with intact membranes ... If onset of labor or rupture of membranes occurs prior to cesarean birth, intrapartum GBS prophylaxis should be administered to ...
  • The mother gave birth at 32 weeks by elective cesarean section due to multiple gestation. (elsevier.es)
  • Like many surgical procedures, cesarean sections require anesthesia. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Effect of phenylephrine infusion and spinal anesthesia on cardiac output during cesarean section by point of care echocardiogram: A case series. (bvsalud.org)
  • Anesthesia is regarded as an integral part of cesarean section due to its elimination of pain and discomfort. (bvsalud.org)
  • Pregnant women need to have awareness of anesthesia for cesarean section . (bvsalud.org)
  • The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge , attitude , and perception of pregnant women toward anesthesia for cesarean section . (bvsalud.org)
  • Two hundred and thirty-two (68.8%) had knowledge of anesthesia for surgical procedures , and in up to 221 (65.5%), the anesthesia known to them was for cesarean section . (bvsalud.org)
  • We offer options for labour induction, anesthesia and caesarean section surgery (elective, urgent or emergency). (covenanthealth.ca)
  • Although cesarean (C-sections) are relatively safe surgical procedures, they should only be performed in appropriate medical circumstances. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Surgical abdomen skin pads to be used with PROMPT Flex Caesarean Section Module (LIM-80103). (laerdal.com)
  • Caesarean section, also known as C-section or caesarean delivery, is the surgical procedure by which one or more babies are delivered through an incision in the mother's abdomen, often performed because vaginal delivery would put the baby or mother at risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • We investigated using administrative claims data to claims data after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) identify surgical site infections (SSI) after breast surgery identified 45% more SSI than did traditional surveillance and cesarean section. (cdc.gov)
  • Claims data may com- plement other data sources for identification of surgical site infections following breast surgery and caesarian section. (cdc.gov)
  • Closeup of caesarean section to cat, soft focus, made by veterinarian, surgical scissors in hand. (eyeem.com)
  • The definition excludes induction (with prostaglandins, oxytocics or ARM,) the use of instruments, caesarean section and the use of general, spinal or epidural anaesthetic before or during labour. (aims.org.uk)
  • A cesarean section is a way to deliver a baby by cutting through the skin of the mother's abdomen. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A caesarean delivery may be performed based upon the shape of the mother's pelvis or history of a previous C-section. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, as long as the mother has had one or two previous cesarean deliveries with a low-transverse uterine incision, and there are no other indications for a cesarean, she is a candidate for vaginal birth after cesarean, also called VBAC. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cesarean sections are safe, and can even save the lives of both mother and baby during emergency deliveries. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In the United States as of 2017, about 32% of deliveries are by C-section. (wikipedia.org)
  • Out of 152 subjects given trial of labour, 107 (70.39%) subjects had successful VBAC and 45 (29.61%) had repeat emergency cesarean section. (ijrcog.org)
  • Rahman R, Khanam NN, Islam N, Begum KF, Pervin HH, Arifuzzaman M. The outcome of vaginal birth after caesarean section (VBAC): a descriptive study. (ijrcog.org)
  • Like many other prosperous countries, Canada's c-section rate is rising: 28.2% of births in Canadian hospitals were performed via c-section in 2016-2017. (ritual-medicine.com)
  • In SP, the peak of the curve for GA for vaginal births was 39 weeks, while for cesarean was 38 weeks. (bvsalud.org)
  • Most vaginal births were full term (39-40 6/7 ) while most cesarean were early term (37-38 6/7 ). (bvsalud.org)
  • The 1.4 million cesarean births in 2007 represented about one-third of all births in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • Caesarean section (C-section) is recommended when vaginal delivery might pose a risk to the mother or baby. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gupta P, Jahan I, Jograjiya GR. Is vaginal delivery safe after previous lower segment caesarean section in developing country? (ijrcog.org)
  • One concern that many women have is whether they'll be able to have a normal delivery after having a cesarean. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Objectives: There is a lack of consensus around the definition of delivery by cesarean section (CS) on maternal request, and clinical practice varies across and within countries. (lu.se)
  • A total of 146 mothers whose babies had died during 28 days after birth were compared with 549 mothers with live newborns, according to delivery route and reasons for undergoing caesarean section. (who.int)
  • The number one reason for surgery in Canada is a Cesarean section delivery, according to the the latest data from the Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI). (ritual-medicine.com)
  • While there are many potential reasons for why a c-section delivery may be needed (breech, previous cesarean delivery etc), the topic today is how Traditional Chinese Medicine can help with its recovery. (ritual-medicine.com)
  • What is a cesarean delivery (C-section)? (msdmanuals.com)
  • Can I delivery a baby vaginally if I had a C-section before? (msdmanuals.com)
  • The prospective study was conducted in the department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Kamla Nehru hospital for mother and child, Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla, from June 2013 to May 2014 which included all women undergoing trial for vaginal birth after a previous cesarean who were more than 34 weeks, singleton viable fetus of appropriate size with cephalic presentation with inter delivery interval more than 18 months. (ijrcog.org)
  • Mafatlal SJ, Narendrabhai MM. Analysis of mode of delivery in women with one cesarean section. (ijrcog.org)
  • information is provided on the rate of delivery of babies through induction of labour, instrumental delivery or caesarean section. (hse.ie)
  • For example, as a result of the flawed Hannah trial 1 (which compared caesarean section with a managed obstetric delivery, rather than a physiological midwifery assisted breech birth,) obstetricians are telling women that it is safer having a caesarean operation for a breech presentation. (aims.org.uk)
  • C-sections result in a small overall increase in poor outcomes in low-risk pregnancies. (wikipedia.org)
  • If you have had more than one C-section, most doctors will want you to have a C-section for any additional pregnancies. (msdmanuals.com)
  • C-sections are also carried out for personal and social reasons on maternal request in some countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the outcome of pregnancy in women with previous one cesarean section and maternal and perinatal complications. (ijrcog.org)
  • The maternal morbidity in emergency cesarean section group and vaginal delivered group was seen in 14 (31%), 8 (7.47%) subjects respectively. (ijrcog.org)
  • A report released yesterday from the National Center for Health Statistics showed that the cesarean rate rose by 53% from 1996 to 2007, reaching 32%, the highest rate ever reported in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • Babies born by cesarean and in the private sector lost one additional gestational week. (bvsalud.org)
  • Healthy weight gain during pregnancy lowers the risk for gestational diabetes, babies born with a high birth weight, and emergency cesarean sections," said Task Force member Chien-Wen Tseng, MD, MPH, Professor and Research Director in the Department of Family Medicine and Community Health at the University of Hawaii John A. Burns School of Medicine, in a statement from the USPSTF . (hcplive.com)
  • A trial of vaginal birth after C-section may be possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • Post cesarean birth it is used to promote healing and bring warmth back into the lower abdomen. (ritual-medicine.com)
  • First do no harm: the case for vaginal birth after cesarean. (ijrcog.org)
  • Puri P, Abraham M, Grover S. Vaginal birth after one previous lower segment caesarean section. (ijrcog.org)
  • Live birth by Cesarean section 6. (cdc.gov)
  • Zhu also said there will be a rush among women for cesarean sections at the end of the Year of the Horse to avoid the prospect of giving birth in the Year of the Sheep. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • For questions or to book a c-section scar therapy treatment, call 1 778 400 6360. (ritual-medicine.com)
  • Abnormal uterine findings were de Recherche et d'Application en identified in 95.8% of patients attending hysteroscopy at GESHRTH. (who.int)
  • Optimization of clinical outcome of women with previous one lower segment cesarean section. (ijrcog.org)
  • Clinical profile and outcome of labour in cases following previous caesarean section. (ijrcog.org)
  • The international healthcare community has previously considered the rate of 10% and 15% to be ideal for caesarean sections. (wikipedia.org)
  • ABSTRACT The high caesarean section rate in the Islamic Republic of Iran could be a risk for adverse neonatal outcomes. (who.int)
  • Worldwide rise in cesarean section (CS) rate during the last three decades has been the cause of alarm and needs an in-depth study. (ijrcog.org)
  • Established guidelines recommend that caesarean sections not be used before 39 weeks of pregnancy without a medical reason. (wikipedia.org)
  • An evaluation of caesarean section in the United States : final report submitted to Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation/Health / [by] Helen I. Marieskind. (who.int)
  • You will need a doctor's referral to use some of our services (e.g., fetal monitoring, induction and caesarian sections). (covenanthealth.ca)
  • You may be able to deliver your baby vaginally if you had only one C-section before and the cut (incision) was in the lower part of your uterus. (msdmanuals.com)
  • A few weeks later, our fourth child, Daniel Padraic, was born by emergency Caesarean section. (eppc.org)
  • Madaan M, Agrawal S, Nigam A, Aggarwal R, Trivedi SS.Trial of labour after previous caesarean section: the predictive factors affecting outcome. (ijrcog.org)
  • Balachandran L, Vaswani RP and Mogotlane R. Pregnancy outcome in women with previous one cesarean section. (ijrcog.org)
  • Factors affecting success of trial of labour after previous one lower segment Caesarean section. (ijrcog.org)
  • The World Health Organization recommends that caesarean section be performed only when medically necessary. (wikipedia.org)
  • Common symptoms of cesarean scars include swelling, local numbness, tingling and adhesions. (ritual-medicine.com)
  • A C-section is surgery to deliver your baby through a cut made in your belly and uterus. (msdmanuals.com)
  • How safe is a C-section? (msdmanuals.com)
  • Medicines and blood transfusions help make C-sections safe. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In carefully selected cases, trial of labour (TOL) after a prior cesarean is safe and often successful. (ijrcog.org)
  • In 2012, about 23 million C-sections were done globally. (wikipedia.org)
  • Malpractice premiums and primary cesarean section rates in New York and Illinois. (cdc.gov)
  • Acupuncture and Chinese medicine play an important role in c-section recovery. (ritual-medicine.com)
  • This population-based, case-control study investigated the association of caesarean section and neonatal death. (who.int)
  • The answer depends on what the reasons were for having the c-section in the first place. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Gonen R, Barak S, Tamir A, Ohel G. Results of a well-defined protocol for a trial of labor after prior caesarean section.J Obstet Gynecol. (ijrcog.org)
  • CDC is not responsible for Section 508 compliance (accessibility) on other federal or private website. (cdc.gov)
  • AMMAN - The Jordan Medical Association (JMA) on Sunday said it will file a lawsuit against all parties responsible for news reports that a doctor had left a mobile phone in a patient's body after performing a Caesarean section. (jordantimes.com)
  • Efforts are being made to both improve access to and reduce the use of C-section. (wikipedia.org)
  • Your doctor will have you walk around soon after a C-section. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Sections or subsections omitted from the full prescribing information are not listed. (nih.gov)