Cesarean Section: Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.Anesthesia, Obstetrical: A variety of anesthetic methods such as EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA used to control the pain of childbirth.Cesarean Section, Repeat: Extraction of the fetus by abdominal hysterotomy anytime following a previous cesarean.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Breech Presentation: A malpresentation of the FETUS at near term or during OBSTETRIC LABOR with the fetal cephalic pole in the fundus of the UTERUS. There are three types of breech: the complete breech with flexed hips and knees; the incomplete breech with one or both hips partially or fully extended; the frank breech with flexed hips and extended knees.Delivery, Obstetric: Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.Anesthesia, Spinal: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.Fetal Distress: A nonreassuring fetal status (NRFS) indicating that the FETUS is compromised (American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists 1988). It can be identified by sub-optimal values in FETAL HEART RATE; oxygenation of FETAL BLOOD; and other parameters.Vaginal Birth after Cesarean: Delivery of an infant through the vagina in a female who has had a prior cesarean section.Trial of Labor: Allowing a woman to be in LABOR, OBSTETRIC long enough to determine if vaginal birth may be anticipated.Labor, Induced: Artificially induced UTERINE CONTRACTION. Generally, LABOR, OBSTETRIC is induced with the intent to cause delivery of the fetus and termination of pregnancy.Obstetric Labor Complications: Medical problems associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR, such as BREECH PRESENTATION; PREMATURE OBSTETRIC LABOR; HEMORRHAGE; or others. These complications can affect the well-being of the mother, the FETUS, or both.Dystocia: Slow or difficult OBSTETRIC LABOR or CHILDBIRTH.Anesthesia, Epidural: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected into the epidural space.Uterine Rupture: A complete separation or tear in the wall of the UTERUS with or without expulsion of the FETUS. It may be due to injuries, multiple pregnancies, large fetus, previous scarring, or obstruction.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Labor, Obstetric: The repetitive uterine contraction during childbirth which is associated with the progressive dilation of the uterine cervix (CERVIX UTERI). Successful labor results in the expulsion of the FETUS and PLACENTA. Obstetric labor can be spontaneous or induced (LABOR, INDUCED).Apgar Score: A method, developed by Dr. Virginia Apgar, to evaluate a newborn's adjustment to extrauterine life. Five items - heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color - are evaluated 60 seconds after birth and again five minutes later on a scale from 0-2, 0 being the lowest, 2 being normal. The five numbers are added for the Apgar score. A score of 0-3 represents severe distress, 4-7 indicates moderate distress, and a score of 7-10 predicts an absence of difficulty in adjusting to extrauterine life.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a cardiovascular disease. The disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.Extraction, Obstetrical: Extraction of the fetus by means of obstetrical instruments.Oxytocics: Drugs that stimulate contraction of the myometrium. They are used to induce LABOR, OBSTETRIC at term, to prevent or control postpartum or postabortion hemorrhage, and to assess fetal status in high risk pregnancies. They may also be used alone or with other drugs to induce abortions (ABORTIFACIENTS). Oxytocics used clinically include the neurohypophyseal hormone OXYTOCIN and certain prostaglandins and ergot alkaloids. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p1157)Analgesia, Obstetrical: The elimination of PAIN, without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, during OBSTETRIC LABOR; OBSTETRIC DELIVERY; or the POSTPARTUM PERIOD, usually through the administration of ANALGESICS.Placenta Previa: Abnormal placentation in which the PLACENTA implants in the lower segment of the UTERUS (the zone of dilation) and may cover part or all of the opening of the CERVIX. It is often associated with serious antepartum bleeding and PREMATURE LABOR.Fetal Monitoring: Physiologic or biochemical monitoring of the fetus. It is usually done during LABOR, OBSTETRIC and may be performed in conjunction with the monitoring of uterine activity. It may also be performed prenatally as when the mother is undergoing surgery.Cicatrix: The fibrous tissue that replaces normal tissue during the process of WOUND HEALING.Labor Presentation: The position or orientation of the FETUS at near term or during OBSTETRIC LABOR, determined by its relation to the SPINE of the mother and the birth canal. The normal position is a vertical, cephalic presentation with the fetal vertex flexed on the NECK.Frozen Sections: Thinly cut sections of frozen tissue specimens prepared with a cryostat or freezing microtome.Bupivacaine: A widely used local anesthetic agent.Obstetrical Forceps: Surgical instrument designed to extract the newborn by the head from the maternal passages without injury to it or the mother.Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and management of services provided for obstetric and gynecologic patients.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Postpartum Hemorrhage: Excess blood loss from uterine bleeding associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR or CHILDBIRTH. It is defined as blood loss greater than 500 ml or of the amount that adversely affects the maternal physiology, such as BLOOD PRESSURE and HEMATOCRIT. Postpartum hemorrhage is divided into two categories, immediate (within first 24 hours after birth) or delayed (after 24 hours postpartum).Puerperal Disorders: Disorders or diseases associated with PUERPERIUM, the six-to-eight-week period immediately after PARTURITION in humans.Pregnancy, Prolonged: A term used to describe pregnancies that exceed the upper limit of a normal gestational period. In humans, a prolonged pregnancy is defined as one that extends beyond 42 weeks (294 days) after the first day of the last menstrual period (MENSTRUATION), or birth with gestational age of 41 weeks or more.Cephalopelvic Disproportion: A condition in which the HEAD of the FETUS is larger than the mother's PELVIS through which the fetal head must pass during a vaginal delivery.Labor Stage, First: Period from the onset of true OBSTETRIC LABOR to the complete dilatation of the CERVIX UTERI.Parturition: The process of giving birth to one or more offspring.Natural Childbirth: Labor and delivery without medical intervention, usually involving RELAXATION THERAPY.Analgesia, Epidural: The relief of pain without loss of consciousness through the introduction of an analgesic agent into the epidural space of the vertebral canal. It is differentiated from ANESTHESIA, EPIDURAL which refers to the state of insensitivity to sensation.Puerperal Infection: An infection occurring in PUERPERIUM, the period of 6-8 weeks after giving birth.Maternal Age: The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.Labor Onset: The beginning of true OBSTETRIC LABOR which is characterized by the cyclic uterine contractions of increasing frequency, duration, and strength causing CERVICAL DILATATION to begin (LABOR STAGE, FIRST ).Pregnancy, Twin: The condition of carrying TWINS simultaneously.Adjuvants, Anesthesia: Agents that are administered in association with anesthetics to increase effectiveness, improve delivery, or decrease required dosage.Surgical Procedures, Elective: Surgery which could be postponed or not done at all without danger to the patient. Elective surgery includes procedures to correct non-life-threatening medical problems as well as to alleviate conditions causing psychological stress or other potential risk to patients, e.g., cosmetic or contraceptive surgery.Endometritis: Inflammation of the ENDOMETRIUM, usually caused by intrauterine infections. Endometritis is the most common cause of postpartum fever.Ephedrine: A phenethylamine found in EPHEDRA SINICA. PSEUDOEPHEDRINE is an isomer. It is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used for asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists.Sterilization, Reproductive: Procedures to block or remove all or part of the genital tract for the purpose of rendering individuals sterile, incapable of reproduction. Surgical sterilization procedures are the most commonly used. There are also sterilization procedures involving chemical or physical means.Fetal Death: Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.Obstetrics: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with management and care of women during pregnancy, parturition, and the puerperium.Medicine in Literature: Written or other literary works whose subject matter is medical or about the profession of medicine and related areas.Vacuum Extraction, Obstetrical: Removal of the fetus from the uterus or vagina at or near the end of pregnancy with a metal traction cup that is attached to the fetus' head. Negative pressure is applied and traction is made on a chain passed through the suction tube. (From Stedman, 26th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)Ultrasonography, Prenatal: The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.Placenta Accreta: Abnormal placentation in which all or parts of the PLACENTA are attached directly to the MYOMETRIUM due to a complete or partial absence of DECIDUA. It is associated with POSTPARTUM HEMORRHAGE because of the failure of placental separation.Labor Stage, Second: The period of OBSTETRIC LABOR that is from the complete dilatation of the CERVIX UTERI to the expulsion of the FETUS.Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.Maternal Mortality: Maternal deaths resulting from complications of pregnancy and childbirth in a given population.Hospital Bed Capacity, under 100Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Oxytocin: A nonapeptide hormone released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). It differs from VASOPRESSIN by two amino acids at residues 3 and 8. Oxytocin acts on SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, such as causing UTERINE CONTRACTIONS and MILK EJECTION.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Arab World: A historical and cultural entity dispersed across a wide geographical area under the administrative, intellectual, social, and cultural domination of the Arab empire. The Arab world, under the impetus of Islam, by the eighth century A.D., extended from Arabia in the Middle East to all of northern Africa, southern Spain, Sardinia, and Sicily. Close contact was maintained with Greek and Jewish culture. While the principal service of the Arabs to medicine was the preservation of Greek culture, the Arabs themselves were the originators of algebra, chemistry, geology, and many of the refinements of civilization. (From A. Castiglioni, A History of Medicine, 2d ed, p260; from F. H. Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed, p126)Uterine Hemorrhage: Bleeding from blood vessels in the UTERUS, sometimes manifested as vaginal bleeding.Anesthesia, General: Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.Hypotension: Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.Uterine Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the UTERUS.Hospitals, Maternity: Special hospitals which provide care to women during pregnancy and parturition.Emergencies: Situations or conditions requiring immediate intervention to avoid serious adverse results.Birthing Centers: Free-standing facilities that provide prenatal, childbirth, and postnatal care and usually incorporate family-centered maternity care concepts and practices.Abdominal Wall: The outer margins of the ABDOMEN, extending from the osteocartilaginous thoracic cage to the PELVIS. Though its major part is muscular, the abdominal wall consists of at least seven layers: the SKIN, subcutaneous fat, deep FASCIA; ABDOMINAL MUSCLES, transversalis fascia, extraperitoneal fat, and the parietal PERITONEUM.Pregnancy Trimester, Third: The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.Hospitals, Public: Hospitals controlled by various types of government, i.e., city, county, district, state or federal.Eclampsia: Onset of HYPERREFLEXIA; SEIZURES; or COMA in a previously diagnosed pre-eclamptic patient (PRE-ECLAMPSIA).Insurance, Liability: Insurance against loss resulting from liability for injury or damage to the persons or property of others.Pregnancy, High-Risk: Pregnancy in which the mother and/or FETUS are at greater than normal risk of MORBIDITY or MORTALITY. Causes include inadequate PRENATAL CARE, previous obstetrical history (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS), pre-existing maternal disease, pregnancy-induced disease (GESTATIONAL HYPERTENSION), and MULTIPLE PREGNANCY, as well as advanced maternal age above 35.Pre-Eclampsia: A complication of PREGNANCY, characterized by a complex of symptoms including maternal HYPERTENSION and PROTEINURIA with or without pathological EDEMA. Symptoms may range between mild and severe. Pre-eclampsia usually occurs after the 20th week of gestation, but may develop before this time in the presence of trophoblastic disease.Infant Mortality: Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and NEOPLASMS. The neoplastic disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Surgical Wound Dehiscence: Pathologic process consisting of a partial or complete disruption of the layers of a surgical wound.Version, Fetal: The artificial alteration of the fetal position to facilitate birth.Pain, Postoperative: Pain during the period after surgery.Methylergonovine: A homolog of ERGONOVINE containing one more CH2 group. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Term Birth: CHILDBIRTH at the end of a normal duration of PREGNANCY, between 37 to 40 weeks of gestation or about 280 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period.Cardiotocography: Monitoring of FETAL HEART frequency before birth in order to assess impending prematurity in relation to the pattern or intensity of antepartum UTERINE CONTRACTION.Postpartum Period: In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).Myometrium: The smooth muscle coat of the uterus, which forms the main mass of the organ.Uterine Inertia: Failure of the UTERUS to contract with normal strength, duration, and intervals during childbirth (LABOR, OBSTETRIC). It is also called uterine atony.Trichosanthes: A plant species of the family CUCURBITACEAE that is a source of TRICHOSANTHIN (a ribosomal inhibitory protein).Pelvimetry: Measurement of the dimensions and capacity of the pelvis. It includes cephalopelvimetry (measurement of fetal head size in relation to maternal pelvic capacity), a prognostic guide to the management of LABOR, OBSTETRIC associated with disproportion.Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting: Emesis and queasiness occurring after anesthesia.Anesthesia, Conduction: Injection of an anesthetic into the nerves to inhibit nerve transmission in a specific part of the body.Sufentanil: An opioid analgesic that is used as an adjunct in anesthesia, in balanced anesthesia, and as a primary anesthetic agent.Hysterectomy: Excision of the uterus.Unnecessary Procedures: Diagnostic, therapeutic, and investigative procedures prescribed and performed by health professionals, the results of which do not justify the benefits or hazards and costs to the patient.Prenatal Care: Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Abruptio Placentae: Premature separation of the normally implanted PLACENTA from the UTERUS. Signs of varying degree of severity include UTERINE BLEEDING, uterine MUSCLE HYPERTONIA, and FETAL DISTRESS or FETAL DEATH.Embolism, Amniotic Fluid: Blocking of maternal circulation by AMNIOTIC FLUID that is forced into uterine VEINS by strong UTERINE CONTRACTION near the end of pregnancy. It is characterized by the sudden onset of severe respiratory distress and HYPOTENSION that can lead to maternal DEATH.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Midwifery: The practice of assisting women in childbirth.Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Fetal Diseases: Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Birth Injuries: Mechanical or anoxic trauma incurred by the infant during labor or delivery.Extraembryonic Membranes: The thin layers of tissue that surround the developing embryo. There are four extra-embryonic membranes commonly found in VERTEBRATES, such as REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. They are the YOLK SAC, the ALLANTOIS, the AMNION, and the CHORION. These membranes provide protection and means to transport nutrients and wastes.Pregnancy, Multiple: The condition of carrying two or more FETUSES simultaneously.Perinatal Mortality: Deaths occurring from the 28th week of GESTATION to the 28th day after birth in a given population.Pregnant Women: Human females who are pregnant, as cultural, psychological, or sociological entities.Fetal Blood: Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.Pruritus: An intense itching sensation that produces the urge to rub or scratch the skin to obtain relief.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Hysterotomy: An incision in the uterus, performed through either the abdomen or the vagina.Obstetric Labor, Premature: Onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR before term (TERM BIRTH) but usually after the FETUS has become viable. In humans, it occurs sometime during the 29th through 38th week of PREGNANCY. TOCOLYSIS inhibits premature labor and can prevent the BIRTH of premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE).Uterine Contraction: Contraction of the UTERINE MUSCLE.Perinatal Care: The care of women and a fetus or newborn given before, during, and after delivery from the 28th week of gestation through the 7th day after delivery.Uterus: The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.Burundi: A republic in eastern Africa bounded on the north by RWANDA and on the south by TANZANIA. Its capital is Bujumbura.Anesthetics, Combined: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially to induce anesthesia. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Premedication: Preliminary administration of a drug preceding a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure. The commonest types of premedication are antibiotics (ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS) and anti-anxiety agents. It does not include PREANESTHETIC MEDICATION.Pregnancy in Diabetics: The state of PREGNANCY in women with DIABETES MELLITUS. This does not include either symptomatic diabetes or GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE induced by pregnancy (DIABETES, GESTATIONAL) which resolves at the end of pregnancy.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Intraoperative Complications: Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.Maternal-Fetal Exchange: Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.Amniotic Fluid: A clear, yellowish liquid that envelopes the FETUS inside the sac of AMNION. In the first trimester, it is likely a transudate of maternal or fetal plasma. In the second trimester, amniotic fluid derives primarily from fetal lung and kidney. Cells or substances in this fluid can be removed for prenatal diagnostic tests (AMNIOCENTESIS).Maternal Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the mother.Fentanyl: A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)Live Birth: The event that a FETUS is born alive with heartbeats or RESPIRATION regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE. Such liveborn is called a newborn infant (INFANT, NEWBORN).Umbilical Cord: The flexible rope-like structure that connects a developing FETUS to the PLACENTA in mammals. The cord contains blood vessels which carry oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the fetus and waste products away from the fetus.Postnatal Care: The care provided to women and their NEWBORNS for the first few months following CHILDBIRTH.Pregnancy, Ectopic: A potentially life-threatening condition in which EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs outside the cavity of the UTERUS. Most ectopic pregnancies (>96%) occur in the FALLOPIAN TUBES, known as TUBAL PREGNANCY. They can be in other locations, such as UTERINE CERVIX; OVARY; and abdominal cavity (PREGNANCY, ABDOMINAL).Microtomy: The technique of using a microtome to cut thin or ultrathin sections of tissues embedded in a supporting substance. The microtome is an instrument that hold a steel, glass or diamond knife in clamps at an angle to the blocks of prepared tissues, which it cuts in sections of equal thickness.Infant, Newborn, Diseases: Diseases of newborn infants present at birth (congenital) or developing within the first month of birth. It does not include hereditary diseases not manifesting at birth or within the first 30 days of life nor does it include inborn errors of metabolism. Both HEREDITARY DISEASES and METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS are available as general concepts.Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced: A condition in pregnant women with elevated systolic (>140 mm Hg) and diastolic (>90 mm Hg) blood pressure on at least two occasions 6 h apart. HYPERTENSION complicates 8-10% of all pregnancies, generally after 20 weeks of gestation. Gestational hypertension can be divided into several broad categories according to the complexity and associated symptoms, such as EDEMA; PROTEINURIA; SEIZURES; abnormalities in BLOOD COAGULATION and liver functions.Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Amnion: The innermost membranous sac that surrounds and protects the developing embryo which is bathed in the AMNIOTIC FLUID. Amnion cells are secretory EPITHELIAL CELLS and contribute to the amniotic fluid.Amides: Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Maternal-Fetal Relations: The bond or lack thereof between a pregnant woman and her FETUS.Surgical Wound Infection: Infection occurring at the site of a surgical incision.BrazilMeperidine: A narcotic analgesic that can be used for the relief of most types of moderate to severe pain, including postoperative pain and the pain of labor. Prolonged use may lead to dependence of the morphine type; withdrawal symptoms appear more rapidly than with morphine and are of shorter duration.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Stillbirth: The event that a FETUS is born dead or stillborn.Cervical Ripening: A change in the CERVIX UTERI with respect to its readiness to relax. The cervix normally becomes softer, more flexible, more distensible, and shorter in the final weeks of PREGNANCY. These cervical changes can also be chemically induced (LABOR, INDUCED).Umbilical Arteries: Specialized arterial vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry waste and deoxygenated blood from the FETUS to the mother via the PLACENTA. In humans, there are usually two umbilical arteries but sometimes one.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.

Obstetric and neonatal outcome following chronic hypertension in pregnancy among different ethnic groups. (1/2040)

We retrospectively studied pre-eclampsia rate and obstetric outcome in a cohort of 436 pregnancies amongst 318 women of different ethnic backgrounds attending an antenatal hypertension clinic from 1980-1997, identifying 152 women (213 pregnancies) with chronic essential hypertension. The ethnic breakdown was: White, 64 (30.0%) pregnancies in 48 (31.5%) women; Black/Afro-Caribbean, 79 (37.1%) pregnancies in 56 (36.8%) women; and Indo-Asians, 70 (32.3%) pregnancies in 48 (31.6%) women. The prevalences of pre-eclampsia in White, Black and Indo-Asian women were 17.2%, 12.7% and 18.6%, respectively (p = 0.58). Pregnancies of Indo-Asian women were of shorter gestation, and babies in this group also had lower birth weight and ponderal index compared to those of White and Black women (all p < 0.05). The proportions of overall perinatal mortality were 1.6% for Whites (1/64), 3.8% for Blacks (3/79) and 10.0% for Indo-Asians (7/70), suggesting increased risk in the Indo-Asian group. Indo-Asian women with chronic essential hypertension need careful antenatal care and observation during pregnancy.  (+info)

Outcome of pregnancy in women with congenital shunt lesions. (2/2040)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcome of pregnancy in women with congenital shunt lesions. SETTING: Retrospective study in a tertiary care centre. METHODS: Pregnancy history was obtained by a standardised questionnaire and medical records were reviewed. PATIENTS: 175 women were identified, at a mean (SD) age of 42 (14) years. Pregnancies occurred in 126 women: 50 with an atrial septal defect, 22 with a ventricular septal defect, 22 with an atrioventricular septal defect, 19 with tetralogy of Fallot, and 13 with other complex shunt lesions. RESULTS: 309 pregnancies were reported by 126 woman (2.5 (1.6) pregnancies per woman). The shortening fraction of the systemic ventricle was 40 (8)%, and 98% were in New York Heart Association class I-II at last follow up. Spontaneous abortions occurred in 17% of pregnancies (abortion rate, 0.4 (0.9) per woman). Gestational age of the 241 newborn infants was 8.8 (0.8) months. There were no maternal deaths related to pregnancy. Pre-eclampsia and embolic events were observed in 1.3% and 0.6%, respectively of all pregnancies. Women with complex shunt lesions more often underwent caesarean section (70% v 15-30%, p = 0.005) and gave birth to smaller babies for equivalent gestation (2577 (671) g v 3016 (572) to 3207 (610) g, p < 0.05). The recurrence risk of congenital heart disease was 2.5%. CONCLUSIONS: The outcome of pregnancy is favourable in women with congenital shunt lesions if their functional class and their systolic ventricular function are good. Such patients can be reassured.  (+info)

Desensitization of oxytocin receptors in human myometrium. (3/2040)

In the present study, we investigated the possible mechanisms by which oxytocin might regulate oxytocin receptor (OTR) density. Exposure of cultured myometrial cells to oxytocin for a prolonged period caused desensitization: the steady-state level of oxytocin binding was 210 x 10(3) binding sites/cell, but this was time-dependently reduced to 20.1 x 10(3) sites/cell by exposing the cells to oxytocin for up to 20 h. In contrast, Western blotting data showed that the total amount of OTR protein was not affected by oxytocin treatment for up to 24 h. Flow cytometry experiments demonstrated that OTRs were not internalized during this treatment. However, RNase protection assays and Northern analysis showed that in cultured myometrial cells OTR mRNA was reduced by oxytocin treatment to reach a new low steady-state concentration. Analysis of this mRNA in myometrial biopsies from 17 patients undergoing emergency Caesarean section showed how it decreased with advancing labour. Samples obtained after 12 h of labour contained approximately 50 times less OTR mRNA than samples obtained from patients in labour for less than 12 h. We speculate that this decrease in OTR mRNA represents in-vivo OTR desensitization.  (+info)

Primary aldosteronism with aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma in a pregnant woman. (4/2040)

A 30-year-old pregnant woman complained of muscle weakness at 29 weeks' gestation. She was hypertensive with severe hypokalemia. Lower plasma renin activity and higher aldosterone level than the normal values in pregnancy suggested primary aldosteronism. A cesarean delivery was performed at 31 weeks' gestation because of pulmonary congestion. The neonatal course was uncomplicated. The laparoscopic adrenalectomy for a 2.0-cm right adrenal adenoma resulted in normalizing of her blood pressure and serum potassium level. Although primary aldosteronism is rare, especially during pregnancy, it should be always considered as one of etiologies of hypertension in pregnancy.  (+info)

Fetal growth rate and adverse perinatal events. (5/2040)

OBJECTIVE: To study fetal weight gain and its association with adverse perinatal events in a serially scanned high-risk population. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 200 pregnant women considered at increased risk of uteroplacental insufficiency had a total of 1140 scans in the third trimester, with a median of six scans in each pregnancy. The average fetal growth rate was retrospectively calculated for the last 6 weeks to birth, and expressed as daily weight gain in grams per day. Adverse pregnancy outcome was defined as operative delivery for fetal distress, acidotic umbilical artery pH (< 7.15), or admission to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). RESULTS: Fetuses with normal outcome in this high-risk pregnancy population had an average antenatal growth rate of 24.2 g/day. Compared to pregnancies with normal outcome, the growth rate was slower in those that required operative delivery for fetal distress (20.9 g/day, p < 0.05) and those that required admission to the NICU (20.3 g/day, p < 0.05). The growth rate in pregnancies resulting in acidotic umbilical artery pH also seemed lower, but this did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: Impaired fetal weight gain prior to birth is associated with adverse perinatal events suggestive of growth failure.  (+info)

First-trimester cord entanglement in monoamniotic twins. (6/2040)

OBJECTIVE: Monoamniotic twinning occurs in only 1% of twin pregnancies, but carries a high perinatal mortality rate. Early and reliable diagnosis is essential if attempts are to be made to reduce the complication rate. We report color Doppler demonstration of cord entanglement in the first trimester, which is diagnostic of monoamnionicity. METHODS: Two patients with twin pregnancies were examined in the first trimester with pulsed and color Doppler insonation of their umbilical arteries. RESULTS: Cord entanglement was suspected and proved by demonstrating differing fetal heart rate patterns in the same direction on umbilical artery Doppler analysis of a common mass of cord vessels. Following appropriate counselling, medical amnioreduction was induced at 20 weeks of gestation to reduce fetal movements and worsening cord entanglement. Delivery was by elective Cesarean section at 32 weeks' gestation and monoamnionicity was confirmed. CONCLUSION: We report a new sign for the demonstration of monoamnionicity in twin pregnancies in the first trimester. This should improve the reliability of early diagnosis, but further studies are required to confirm that, if cord entanglement occurs, it is usually present by the end of the first trimester.  (+info)

The mode of delivery and the risk of vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1--a meta-analysis of 15 prospective cohort studies. The International Perinatal HIV Group. (7/2040)

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the relation between elective cesarean section and vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), we performed a meta-analysis using data on individual patients from 15 prospective cohort studies. METHODS: North American and European studies of at least 100 mother-child pairs were included in the meta-analysis. Uniform definitions of modes of delivery were used. Elective cesarean sections were defined as those performed before onset of labor and rupture of membranes. Multivariate logistic-regression analysis was used to adjust for other factors known to be associated with vertical transmission. RESULTS: The primary analysis included data on 8533 mother-child pairs. After adjustment for receipt of antiretroviral therapy, maternal stage of disease, and infant birth weight, the likelihood of vertical transmission of HIV-1 was decreased by approximately 50 percent with elective cesarean section, as compared with other modes of delivery (adjusted odds ratio, 0.43; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.33 to 0.56). The results were similar when the study population was limited to those with rupture of membranes shortly before delivery. The likelihood of transmission was reduced by approximately 87 percent with both elective cesarean section and receipt of antiretroviral therapy during the prenatal, intrapartum, and neonatal periods, as compared with other modes of delivery and the absence of therapy (adjusted odds ratio, 0.13; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.09 to 0.19). Among mother-child pairs receiving antiretroviral therapy during the prenatal, intrapartum, and neonatal periods, rates of vertical transmission were 2.0 percent among the 196 mothers who underwent elective cesarean section and 7.3 percent among the 1255 mothers with other modes of delivery. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this meta-analysis suggest that elective cesarean section reduces the risk of transmission of HIV-1 from mother to child independently of the effects of treatment with zidovudine.  (+info)

Maternal intrapartum temperature elevation as a risk factor for cesarean delivery and assisted vaginal delivery. (8/2040)

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the association of intrapartum temperature elevation with cesarean delivery and assisted vaginal delivery. METHODS: Participants were 1233 nulliparous women with singleton, term pregnancies in vertex presentations who had spontaneous labors and were afebrile (temperature: 99.5 degrees F [37.5 degrees C]) at admission for delivery. Rates of cesarean and assisted vaginal deliveries according to highest intrapartum temperature were examined by epidural status. RESULTS: Women with maximum intrapartum temperatures higher than 99.5 degrees F were 3 times as likely to experience cesarean (25.2% vs 7.2%) or assisted vaginal delivery (25.2% vs 8.5%). The association was present in epidural users and nonusers and persisted after birthweight, epidural use, and labor length had been controlled. In adjusted analyses, temperature elevation was associated with a doubling in the risk of cesarean delivery (odds ratio [OR] = 2.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5, 3.4) and assisted vaginal delivery (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.4, 3.1). CONCLUSIONS: Modest temperature elevation developing during labor was associated with higher rates of cesarean and assisted vaginal deliveries. More frequent temperature elevation among women with epidural analgesia may explain in part the higher rates of cesarean and assisted vaginal deliveries observed with epidural use.  (+info)

Background Caesarean section (CS) is not an option that women in Sweden can chose themselves, although the rise in CS rate has been attributed to women. This study describes obstetricians and midwives attitudes towards CS on maternal request. Methods A qualitative descriptive study, with content analysis of 5 focus group discussions where 16 midwives and 9 obstetricians participated. Results The overarching theme was identified as "Caesarean section on maternal request-a balance between resistance and respect". On the one hand, CS was viewed as a risky project; on the other hand, request for a CS was understood and respected when women had had a previous traumatic birth experience. Still, a CS was not really seen as a solution for childbirth related fear. Five categories were related to the theme. Overall, our findings indicate that caregivers blamed the women for the increase, they considered the management of CS on maternal request difficult, and they suggested preventive methods to reduce ...
U.S., May 11 -- ClinicalTrials.gov registry received information related to the study (NCT03140683) titled Predictors of Scar Dehiscence in Patients With Previous Caesarean Section on May 3. Brief Summary: In recent decades, the percentage of Cesarean section deliveries has dramatically increased in most countries. Concomitantly, the rates of vaginal birth after Cesarean have decreased steadily. The pregnant women with previous Cesarean section face a difficult choice for their next delivery between a trial of labor after Cesarean or repeat caesarean section delivery. The performance of multiple Cesarean section exposes women to greater risks of complications; furthermore, the risk of complications increases with each subsequent Cesarean section. In fact, women with previous Cesarean section are more likely to experience short and long-term maternal complications in future pregnancies, or a trial of labor after Cesarean, with the risk of [uterine dehiscence, uterine rupture, genitourinary ...
A retrospective study comparing maternal and neonatal outcome of singleton fetuses delivered at 37-38 weeks of completed gestation with those delivered at 39 completed weeks of gestation or longer by elective caesarean section at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2008. There were 164(21.3%) elective caesarean deliveries during the study period. 117 (71.3%) were performed between 37-38 weeks of completed gestation and 47(28.7%) at 39 completed weeks of gestation. Elective caesarean births at 37-38 weeks were associated with significantly higher rates of admission to the neonatal care unit, neonatal jaundice, and a higher proportion of newborns with Apgar score <6 at 5minutes. As a result of increased morbidity and iatrogenic prematurity in the developing countries due to elective caesarean delivery at 37-38weeks associated with increased cost of admissions in the newborn special care units, elective caesarean delivery should be advised at or after
Caesarean section on maternal request (CSMR) is carried out in the absence of maternal or fetal indications. One of the main psychological causes is tokophobia, an intense fear of childbirth affecting between six to ten percent of women.. In addition, women who have had previous vaginal delivery may request caesarean section because of adverse experiences during labour known as secondary tokophobia.. The authors of the review state that rather than counselling women requesting caesarean section about the risks, a better approach would be to explore the reasons for the request.. For women with tokophobia, frequent, regular psychotherapy by trained personnel to address why they are requesting a caesarean section is recommended by the review.. Authors state health workers need to have detailed discussions with women requesting a caesarean section about the unpredictability of events surrounding labour, the lack of control and the need for a flexible birth plan. Local maternity unit statistics for ...
According to this study, the socio-demographic factors are related to the incidence of caesarean sections in Mozambique. The connection was found by carrying out cross tabulations, Pearson`s χ2- tests and logistic regression analyses. In 1994-1997 age group and parity were associated with incidence of caesarean sections when adjusted with all confounders. The older the mother was, the higher was the risk of a caesarean section. Women having their first child had caesarean section more often than women having at least their second or third child. People living in urban areas more likely receive a caesarean section than those in rural areas. In 1998-2003, in addition to age, parity and area of residence, the study found the wealth index to be the strongly associated socio-demographic factor for caesarean section. Caesarean sections were more common among women who-or whose partners-were highly educated. Socio-demographical factors, especially parity, have stronger association in incidence of ...
The study assessed the value of currently-available data on the rates of caesarean section as an indicator of safe-motherhood programmes. Data, collected through the routine health information system of the Ministry of Health, Kenya, were used for analyzing the available process indicators. The methodology of this study illustrates both usefulness and limitations of readily-available healthcare information. The rate of hospital-based caesarean section was 6.3% of all births (range 0.3-37%), whereas the rate of population-based caesarean section was 0.95% (range 0.1%-4%). The rate of population-based caesarean section indicates a significant unmet need for obstetric care in the rural areas and may be a useful tool for monitoring progress on safe-motherhood initiatives in poor settings. Rates of population-based caesarean section are low in Kenya, especially in the rural areas. The rate of caesarean section may be a valuable process indicator for identifying the gaps in obstetric care and may be ...
Results: A total of 525 pregnant women with one previous lower segment caesarean section scar had a trial of vaginal birth. Among the 525 women, 390 did not have a prior history of successful VBAC and the remaining 135 women had at least one successful VBAC. Among 390 pregnant women, 208 (53.3%) had successful vaginal deliveries and 182 (46.7%) women underwent emergency lower segment caesarean section as failed VBAC. Among the 182 women, there were two cases of scar dehiscence and both had emergency LSCS performed for abnormal foetal heart tracing. Both had good foetal outcome ...
Preliminary data for 2003 indicated that 27.6% of all births in the United States resulted from cesarean deliveries, an increase of 6% from 2002 and the highest percentage ever reported in the United States. After declines during 1989--1996, the total cesarean rate and the primary cesarean rate (i.e., percentage of cesareans among women with no previous cesarean delivery; 19.1% in 2003) have increased each year. In addition, the rate of VBAC, which had increased during 1989--1996, decreased by 63% to 10.6% in 2003. Among women with previous cesarean deliveries, the likelihood that subsequent deliveries would be cesarean was approximately 90% in 2003. SOURCE: National Vital Statistics System, annual files, 1989--2003. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/births.htm ...
The rate of births by caesarian section is used as a health service coverage indicator. It reflects the accessibility of basic health interventions to a given population. It is computed by dividing the number of caesarian section deliveries by the total number of live births.. The most common indications for caesarian section include fetal distress, malpresentation, failure to progress in labor, and previous caesarian section. Worldwide, the average number of CS deliveries is at 16%. In low income countries, the average is at 6%, while those in upper middle and high income countries are at 30%. The African Region has the lowest rates at 4%, while the WHO Region of the Americas has the highest rates at 36%. Countries like Ethiopia, Chad, Madagascar and Mali have CS rates of 2%. The United States, Australia and Germany have CS rates of 32%.. Both underuse and overuse of CS delivery can be dangerous, but the ideal rate for CS deliveries has not been set. The World Health Organization has advised ...
The rate of births by caesarian section is used as a health service coverage indicator. It reflects the accessibility of basic health interventions to a given population. It is computed by dividing the number of caesarian section deliveries by the total number of live births.. The most common indications for caesarian section include fetal distress, malpresentation, failure to progress in labor, and previous caesarian section. Worldwide, the average number of CS deliveries is at 16%. In low income countries, the average is at 6%, while those in upper middle and high income countries are at 30%. The African Region has the lowest rates at 4%, while the WHO Region of the Americas has the highest rates at 36%. Countries like Ethiopia, Chad, Madagascar and Mali have CS rates of 2%. The United States, Australia and Germany have CS rates of 32%.. Both underuse and overuse of CS delivery can be dangerous, but the ideal rate for CS deliveries has not been set. The World Health Organization has advised ...
All of the six studies examined were comparative cohort studies. As they were not randomised trials, there is the potential for bias. When methodological quality was assessed on the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale there was a medium risk of selection bias and a medium to high risk of bias in comparability and outcome assessment for most studies. For example, in one study,1 elective caesarean sections were exclusively carried out by doctors, whereas emergencies were carried out by both doctors and clinical officers. As elective caesarean section is associated with better outcomes than emergency caesarean section,13 this arrangement would have conferred an advantage to doctors. Furthermore, clinical officers tend to be located in rural areas,3 where access to lifesaving facilities such as blood transfusion and high dependency care may not be available. Another study8 tackled such issues by adjusting for rural setting, previous caesarean section, haemorrhage, other perioperative medical complications, and ...
INTRODUCTION: caesarean section rates have become a global public health. This study investigated obstetric and socio-demographic factors associated with caesarean section in northern Ghana. METHODS: this was a case-control study comparing 150 women who had caesarean section (cases) and 300 women who had vaginal delivery (controls). Data were collected retrospectively from delivery registers, postpartum and postnatal registers in the Bolgatanga Regional Hospital. Univariate and multivariate analysis of data were done using SPSS 22. RESULTS: the study revealed that women who had higher odds of having a caesarean section were women who; attended Antenatal care (ANC) ≥ 4 times (Adjusted OR = 2.99, 95% CI1.762-5.065), were referred from other health facilities (Adjusted OR = 1.19, 95% CI 1.108-1.337) and had a foetal weight of ≥ 4000 grams (Adjusted OR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.064-1.657). There was a slight increase in odds of having a caesarean section among women who had a gestational age > 40 weeks (Adjusted
INTRODUCTION: caesarean section rates have become a global public health. This study investigated obstetric and socio-demographic factors associated with caesarean section in northern Ghana. METHODS: this was a case-control study comparing 150 women who had caesarean section (cases) and 300 women who had vaginal delivery (controls). Data were collected retrospectively from delivery registers, postpartum and postnatal registers in the Bolgatanga Regional Hospital. Univariate and multivariate analysis of data were done using SPSS 22. RESULTS: the study revealed that women who had higher odds of having a caesarean section were women who; attended Antenatal care (ANC) ≥ 4 times (Adjusted OR = 2.99, 95% CI1.762-5.065), were referred from other health facilities (Adjusted OR = 1.19, 95% CI 1.108-1.337) and had a foetal weight of ≥ 4000 grams (Adjusted OR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.064-1.657). There was a slight increase in odds of having a caesarean section among women who had a gestational age > 40 weeks (Adjusted
Post-operative pain is the greatest fear of women who undergo Cesarean section, and despite current analgesic regimens, this pain can be severe, impeding the mothers recovery and her ability to bond with and breastfeed her new infant. Opioids are the mainstay of treatment currently, and, although effective, these drugs have significant adverse effects, including sedation, nausea, vomiting and constipation. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can reduce opioid consumption, but also have side effects, and are contra-indicated in a significant number of patients. Therefore there remains considerable scope to improve post-Cesarean analgesia.. It has been shown that severe acute post-operative pain after Cesarean section increases the risk of developing chronic pain and post-partum depression. A recent study showed that up to 18% of women have persistent pain after Cesarean section, and that severe acute post-operative pain is a significant risk factor.. Gabapentin is used widely to treat ...
Older, primiparous mothers were much more likely to have a no indicated risk primary caesarean; almost one fifth (19.5%) of primiparous mothers aged over 34 had such a delivery in 2001. More than 5% of multiparous mothers over 34 who had had previous vaginal births also had a no indicated risk primary caesarean in 2001. Among mothers under 30 with no indicated risk, the primary caesarean rate grew by more than half (58%) between 1991 and 2001 to 4.9%.. The raw numbers of births also illustrates this trend. In 2001, 80 028 no indicated risk primary caesareans took place in the United States, an increase of 25 162 since 1996. This represented 25.8% of the total increase (97 659) in primary caesareans between 1996 and 2001.. We used multivariate logistic regression analysis (SAS version 8) to examine changes in primary caesarean rates after controlling for parity; maternal ethnicity, age, and education; birth weight; and data year (1991, 1996, or 2001) (see table on bmj.com). We ran models for all ...
AbstractIn a non-randomized cohort study, we compared continuous with interrupted sutures for the closure of the lower uterine segment at cesarean section. Eighty-two women, who underwent cesarean section at the Department of Obstetrics at the University Hospital of Vienna between January and May 20
The increasing rate of intrapartum cesarean sections in high resource countries is subject of attention and concern as it is associated with adverse outcomes for mother and infant [1]. Intrapartum cesarean sections that neither benefit mother nor infant should be avoided. An uncomplicated vaginal birth in nulliparous women strongly predicts uncomplicated labors and deliveries in subsequent pregnancies [2], while intrapartum cesarean sections are associated with a 50% subsequent cesarean section rate [3] and adverse outcome for the mother [4-6] and for the baby [7, 8]. The economic aspect of labor is also of importance as an intrapartum cesarean section is significantly more expensive compared to a spontaneous vaginal delivery [9]. The rate of cesarean sections for nulliparous women with a singleton fetus in a cephalic presentation and spontaneous onset of labor at term has increased from 5.7% to 9.2% in Norwegian hospitals (2000-2012) [10]. The most common indication for intrapartum cesarean ...
Results A total of 482 caesarean sections were included in the study. The overall mortality rate was 3.11 per cent, with 2.59 per cent during or after a conservative caesarean section and 4.19 per cent during or after caesarean section with ovariohysterectomy. The reason for ovariohysterectomy was the owners preference in 63 bitches (47.01 per cent); in 71 (52.98 per cent) bitches, ovariohysterectomy was performed due to a medical indication. The fertility rate after caesarean section was 100 per cent. ...
Caesarean section is a common major operation performed on women in the world. There are many possible ways of performing a caesarean section. Operation and operative techniques vary depending on the clinical situation and surgeon preferences. Safe delivery is important for mother and infant. Any potential reduction of birth trauma to the infant has to be balanced against increased ill-health for the mother [9]. This is a prospective randomized controlled study performed on a total of 120 pregnant patients with one or more previous cesarean sections. patients were randomized in to two groups, 60 patients for whom inverted T-LSCS was performed (group A), and another60 patients for whom transverse lower segment curvilinear incision of the uterus was performed (group B). All CS were elective. Statistically significant difference was found between both groups as regard to socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. In the present study the incision-delivery interval was comparable for both ...
The cesarean section, delivery of the fetus by incision through the abdominal and uterine wall (Leavitt, 1986:272), is a fascinating procedure indeed. Once a heroic gesture done to save the unborn infant from its dying mother, the cesarean section has become a common medical procedure. Between 1968 and 1977, the cesarean section rates in the United States have tripled, reaching 15.2 percent in 1978 and making the cesarean the tenth most common surgical procedure in the United States (Gleicher, 198^:3273). The cesarean rate has continued to rise from 16.5 percent of deliveries in 1980 (Placek, 1983) to 22.7 percent in 1985 (Placek and Taffel, 1987). This upward trend in cesarean delivery is evident in all types of medical facilities, in all regions of the country, and among women of all educational and income levels (Guillemin, 1981:15).
In the survey, women were asked whether they had requested a caesarean delivery. Among those who had a birth during 2001 2002, 50.7% responded in the affirmative; this compares with an overall figure of 44.7% for the decade preceding the survey. Mothers who resided in urban areas and the western region, those who had senior high school education and above, and those employed in professional and service sectors were more likely to respond in the affirmative to this question (results not shown separately).. Discussion. The increase in rates of caesarean delivery observed over time in our study population was not fully explained by the increase in the rates of institutional birth alone. Instead, they were likely to be driven by the twin pressures of obstetricians favouring recourse to caesarean delivery and women s demand for the procedure. The analysis demonstrated that use of antenatal care, especially ultrasound scanning, was also associated with a greater likelihood of caesarean delivery. The ...
Cesarean delivery is one of the most common surgical procedures. In the United States, more than 1 million cesarean sections are performed each year, accounting for more than 30% of births. The majority of these procedures are performed using a regional technique; general anesthesia is reserved for patients who have a contraindication to a regional block or for emergencies, when there is not enough time for a regional block. Consequently, general anesthesia for cesarean delivery is relatively rare, and providers may be less comfortable administering it to parturients. Their discomfort is warranted. Although straightforward, general anesthetic for cesarean section is fraught with adverse events, including an increased risk of awareness, aspiration, difficult airway with hypoxia, drug-related uterine atony, and neonatal respiratory depression. ...
I had planned a normal birth. We were going to video tape the birth and I was going to have this perfect delivery. I never even considered that I might have to have a c-section. Now I look back and dont regret for a second that I never experienced...
How to avoid an unnecesarean? Too many women are delivered surgically without any evidence that they really needed this. The WHO recently stated that Cesarean sections should only be performed if medically necessary.. A Cesarean section is major abdominal surgery and, like everything in life, has its own risks attached. A Cesarean section influences all your subsequent pregnancies and births.. The expert appraoch of Proactive Support of Labor absolutely increases your chances of a normal birth, but sadly in countries like the USA, China and Brazil, to name a few, Cesarean rates are soaring. Quite often there is a financial incentive for the obstetrician, not to mention the convenience of scheduled surgery instead of just sitting with a woman, Supporting her.. There are too many stories of women more or less forced into Cesareans because of: an estimated large baby, a tightly closed cervix at 38 weeks, a failed induction because the dr wanted her to deliver because of his holidays, etc. The list ...
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to identify the appropriateness of cesarean sections, performed in Tehran hospitals using standardized Rand Appropriateness Method (RAM) criteria. METHODS: In this study we used the RAM criteria. In order to prepare the list of cesarean scenarios, clinical guidelines were selected, and the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation was used to choose the most appropriate. Two panels were held with the participation of related specialists. The scenarios derived through this method were compared with data existing in the medical records of 250 women who underwent cesarean sections in selected hospitals affiliated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The appropriateness rate of the cesarean sections was calculated.   RESULTS: Out of 250 cases of cesarean sections performed, 91 (36.4%) were inappropriate, 41 (16.4%) were equivocal and 118 (47.2%) were considered to be appropriate. Appropriateness differed between public and private hospitals,
Surgical site infections are common and a cause of major morbidity. They are also more common in obese women. Cesarean sections are the most common surgery performed in the United States, therefore pregnant women are being faced with this problem frequently. There is evidence to show that prophylactically administered antibiotics, cefazolin specifically, to obese women prior to cesarean section do not reach adequate concentrations in adipose tissue to prevent infection. The purpose of this study is to evaluate if an increased dose of cefazolin will attain adequate tissue concentration in obese women. Our hypothesis is that three grams of cefazolin given no more than 60 minutes prior to the start of a cesarean section in an obese (Body mass index (BMI) greater than or equal to 30) woman will attain adequate adipose tissue concentration compared to two grams of cefazolin.. Subjects will be selected if they are greater than 37 weeks gestation wiht a singleton pregnancy and require a cesarean ...
The average caesarean birth costs more than twice the amount of a natural, uncomplicated birth. Thats big money for cash-strapped hospitals which is exactly why they have recently banned all non-emergency caesarean births.. The ban is much different than the discouragement that hospitals have practiced in the past. Previously, moms were simply educated about the risks. The new ban makes it practically impossible for women to go ahead with a planned caesarean unless there is proof that either mother or babys life would be endangered through a vaginal birth.. Case studies have been conducted on the number of caesarean births all over the world. Rates have been rising steadily throughout almost every country, including the UK. According to the studies, one-fourth of all births in the UK are now caesareans. This is a dramatic rise from the 9 percent of caesarean births in 1980.. UK hospitals arent the first to ban non-emergent caesarean births. Major hospitals in Phoenix, Arizona also banned ...
Many countries have an increasing rate of caesarean section. Higher rates do not always give additional health gains and they can increase maternal risks and affect subsequent pregnancies. Active management of labour has been proposed to reduce the number of caesarean births. Active management includes routine amniotomy (artificial rupture of the membranes), strict rules for diagnosing slow progress, use of the intravenous drug oxytocin to increase contractions of the uterus and one-to-one care. The disadvantages of active management are that it can possibly lead to more invasive monitoring, more interventions and a more medicalised birth in which women have less control and less satisfaction. The review included seven trials involving 5390 women. These studies show that women who received active management were slightly less likely to have a caesarean section and were more likely to have shorter labours (less than 12 hours). There was no difference in the number of assisted deliveries, nor was ...
Objective: Cesarean section (C-section) is associated with various immune-mediated diseases in the offspring. We investigated the relationship between mode of delivery and celiac disease (CD) and CD autoimmunity (CDA) in a multinational birth cohort. Methods: From 2004 to 2010, infants from the general population who tested positive for HLADR3-DQ2 or DR4-DQ8 were enrolled in The Environmental Determinants for Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study. Children were annually screened for transglutaminase autoantibodies, if positive, they are retested after 3 to 6 months and those persistently positive defined as CDA. Associations of C-section with maternal (age, education level, parity, pre-pregnancy weight, diabetes, smoking, weight gain during pregnancy) and child characteristics (gestational age, birth weight) were examined by Fisher exact test or Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Hazard ratios (HRs) for CDA or CD were calculated by Cox proportional hazard regression models. Results: Of 6087 analyzed ...
About one birth in every four in Australia is by caesarean section, and that rate appears to be increasing. The proportionof births by caesarean vary significantly from region to region, and the most appropriate rate is a matter of some debate. A caesarean section is needed when delivery through the birth canal (vagina) is not possible or when vaginal delivery would pose a danger to the mother or baby. A caesarean section may be planned in advance as
Results: The mean age of the women participating in this study was 34.2 7.7 years, and 274 (52.4%) of them delivered a baby by cesarean section at least once. Of the participants, those whose longest place of residence was an urban area gave birth through caesarian section more than did those whose longest place of residence was a rural area.Similarly, thosewho had ahighereducation level, who were employed,who obtained information about birth before delivery gave birth through caesarian section more than did those who had a lowereducation level, who were unemployed and who did notobtain information about birth before delivery. Of the participants who obtained information about birth, those who obtained it from physicians also gave birth through caesarian section more than did those who obtained it frommidwives and nurses ...
C sections are now much safer than they used to be, and with them becoming more routine, surgeons are more skilled at this than ever before.
I had a cesarean section at the "The Medical City" last August 15, 2014. It was a scheduled CS and I was admitted August 14. First step is that you have to go to the Admitting Section where you have to choose your room. One technique is to get a semi-private room, to have lesser charge. Usually semi-private rooms are reserved for minor OB-GYNE surgery for overnight stay like hysteroscopy. I was hesitant to get a semi-private room because rooming in of newborn is practiced at this hospital ...
In many hospitals, especially in Argentina, the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Norway, Australia, and New Zealand the mothers birth partner is encouraged to attend the surgery to support the mother and share the experience. The anaesthetist will usually lower the drape temporarily as the child is delivered so the parents can see their newborn ...
after caesarean section - 28 images - caesarean scar pictures, after a cesarean, c section cesarean section reasons for this medically, what is different about pregnancy after a c section, c section scar pictures
31-year-old female with hypersensitivity to local anesthetics and neuromuscular blocking agents presented for emergency Cesarean section. We successfully performed I-gel-assisted tracheal intubation without using neuromuscular blockers. We believe this method would be helpful in selected situations.
Objective: The fundal pressure exerted by the assistant to deliver fetal head is often painful to the patient. This study assesses the use of double blade forceps in delivery of fetal head at time of elective Cesarean Section (CS). Methods: A prospective single-blinded randomized controlled trial was conducted among 150 women with repeat elective CS at Ain Shams university hospital, Air Force Specialized hospital and October 6th university hospital. Women were classified into 3 groups (each 50 women). Forceps group: A double blade of forceps was used without fundal pressure. Single blade group: single blade of forceps was used assisted by fundal pressure. Manual group: manual extraction was used assisted by fundal pressure. The outcome of study were; Pain expectation score , pain score during delivery of head, unintended uterine extension, uterine vessels injury and need for additional stitches. The collected data were statistically analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results: High Statistically
uterus stitches in c section - 28 images - drssnairvet cesarean section in cows two complicated, mcpc caesarean section health education to villages, suturing stock photos suturing stock images alamy, cesarean birth surgical techniques glowm, cesarean section tumblr
I am so glad that Dr Porter recognizes the importance of separating maternal request health outcomes to those of emergency or planned cesareans for medical reasons. When bias against surgical birth is removed, and studies containing mixed cesarean data are excluded, there is evidence that maternal request cesareans can result in better outcomes than planned vaginal deliveries. Read the stories posted on any birth trauma website (physical and psychological trauma) and you will struggle to find a single complaint from a woman who has had a maternal request cesarean, yet there are thousands from women who planned vaginal deliveries. This is also backed up by research such as the 2007 Swedish study involving 357 women; those with maternal request cesareans reported a better birth experience compared to those with planned vaginal deliveries. Women are simply not being informed about the whole truth. Just two examples: 1. The latest CEMACH report in the UK showed that women were less likely to die ...
OBJECTIVE--The aim was to study whether women having had caesarean sections (index women) have more subsequent health problems, measured by hospital admissions, than women having had vaginal deliveries (control women). DESIGN--The study involved comparison of hospital admissions before (2-5 years) and after (7-10 years) the first caesarean section (exposure) among two cohorts of index and control women. SETTING--National data from the Swedish birth and hospital discharge registries were used. PARTICIPANTS--About 75% of all Swedish primiparas who had a caesarean section in 1973 (n = 2578) and in 1976 (n = 3822), and their age-matched controls, were studied; non-Swedish women and women with certain specific problems at their first birth were excluded. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Numbers of discharges from general and mental hospitals excluding discharges relating to birth, and in some analyses to pregnancy, were determined. Total numbers of discharges from general and mental hospitals, and the ...
Recovery tips, frequently asked questions, book and website reviews. Covers c-section recovery, cesarean section recovery, recovering from a cesarean delivery, postpartum doula, depression.
Browse though our index of questions and answers by our expert doctors on all things related to Cesarean Section. You may also ask our doctors your own question on Cesarean Section.
If you wake up to ABCs Good Morning America, you may remember a recent story featuring UCLA urologist Jennifer Berman, MD, a frequent contributor on the "Healthy Woman" segment. This time, Berman herself was the subject.. "Dr. Jennifer Berman has a request that strikes at the heart of a controversy," Diane Sawyer explained as video footage showed Bermans five-month prenatal visit to her Ob/Gyn. "What shes about to ask for is an elective C-section. She wants to have her baby surgically, and shes doing it, she says, because of her first childbirth experience and because the problems she sees in her patients after they have vaginal births.". This is a story were likely to encounter more often. Elective C-sections (also called C-section on demand) are, in part, behind the skyrocketing Cesarean-section birth rate in the United States. This comes after a decade of emphasis on suppressing unnecessary C-section births, a school of medical thinking that the managed care industry wholeheartedly ...
If you wake up to ABCs Good Morning America, you may remember a recent story featuring UCLA urologist Jennifer Berman, MD, a frequent contributor on the "Healthy Woman" segment. This time, Berman herself was the subject.. "Dr. Jennifer Berman has a request that strikes at the heart of a controversy," Diane Sawyer explained as video footage showed Bermans five-month prenatal visit to her Ob/Gyn. "What shes about to ask for is an elective C-section. She wants to have her baby surgically, and shes doing it, she says, because of her first childbirth experience and because the problems she sees in her patients after they have vaginal births.". This is a story were likely to encounter more often. Elective C-sections (also called C-section on demand) are, in part, behind the skyrocketing Cesarean-section birth rate in the United States. This comes after a decade of emphasis on suppressing unnecessary C-section births, a school of medical thinking that the managed care industry wholeheartedly ...
A number of studies have found that institutional factors are more influential than natural factors on the delivery workload.4-7 Despite the fact that scheduled cesarean deliveries at our institution account for 53% of our total cesarean deliveries, the scheduled ones did not appear to impact the overall cesarean workload pattern. Our results show that despite a bias toward more scheduled cesarean deliveries earlier in the week, the peak workload occurs in the latter part of the week. We are not sure why this workload bias exists. Clinicians may increase cesarean deliveries on Thursday and Friday in anticipation of the weekend. Induction policies may influence overall cesarean delivery times more than do scheduled deliveries. We did not find that cesarean and total deliveries were significantly reduced over the weekend. Reduced weekend and night coverage may give clinicians the impression of an increased workload ...
Results 284 children (22.6%) were delivered by caesarean section. At age 3, 15.7% of children delivered by caesarean section were obese compared with 7.5% of children born vaginally. In multivariable logistic and linear regression models adjusting for maternal prepregnancy BMI, birth weight, and other covariates, birth by caesarean section was associated with a higher odds of obesity at age 3 (OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.36 to 3.23), higher mean BMI z-score (0.20 units, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.33), and higher sum of triceps plus subscapular skinfold thicknesses (0.94 mm, 95% CI 0.36 to 1.51).. ...
Answers to the question, Why Has The USAs Cesarean Section Rate Climbed So High? Answers to Questions from People Who Know at Ask Experience Project.
Cesarean Delivery Wont Harm Kids Health: Study: - MONDAY, Oct. 12, 2015 - - In a report greater than 5,000 kids, Australian researchers said they found that cesarean section delivery was not linked with a higher risk of health problems in childhood natural cure for ed . This study shows that some of the previously reported associations between birth by cesarean delivery and adverse childhood health outcomes may be explained by influences apart from mode of birth, stated lead researcher Elizabeth Westrupp, a extensive study fellow in the institution of Nursing at La Trobe University in Melbourne. The researchers concluded that cesarean delivery was connected with a mix of negative and positive outcomes through early childhood, and few were consistent.. This conference brings multiple stakeholders collectively, including payers, molecular diagnostics companies, genome analysis/interpretation companies, clinicians and many others in order to provide attendees with a holistic watch of the ...
This paper analyses the incidence of caesarian sections (C-sections) in Brazil. In the last decade, it has reached an extremely high level, higher than in any other country in the world. Socioeconomic and regional differences are established, using available national data on the caesarian section rate, which is higher in more prosperous regions and among wealthier women. The different factors influencing this high incidence, including sociocultural, obstetric care organization and legal and institutional considerations are analysed. Special attention is given to the problem of female surgical sterilization, which is not officially accepted in the country, but is performed during a C-section with no other maternal or foetal indication. Consequences relating to maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, population fertility and the cost of health services are discussed. Interventions to reverse this trend toward higher caesarian section rates are proposed ...
A reader asked me when I was going to post Everleighs birth story. Being that she is 3.5 months old now, its about time I got that written - its on my to do list with the other eleventy billion other things Id like to get done. The truth of the matter is that I am finally (finally) beginning to feel like my old self again. Talk about a shock to the system. After successfully (successfully? Does that mean a c-section is a #fail?) giving birth to my first two children the good old fashioned way, our surprise c-section left me in stitches, and not the funny kind.. I suppose I had it coming.. In the days leading up to Everleighs birth, when I was overdue and searching the Internet and pregnancy forums for tips to bring on labor and birth stories (searching for any sign of labor I could relate to…only to realize nothing at all was happening in my uterus) I actually turned up my nose of c-section birth stories. After all, I didnt need to read any of that because it certainly didnt relate to ...
Cantaloop caesarean section briefs pack of 2 white black, Cantaloop caesarean section briefs can be worn from day one, following a caesarean section. Made from non-irritating yarns, the silky surface will not catch on stitches or staples. Finished with a comfortable higher waistband and a smooth panel located directly across the tummy offering light support and compression to help control post-surgery swelling. The breathable fabric allows air to circulate, to promote quick healing and the wider gusset easily accommodates and holds in place maternity pads during the first weeks after birth. Sizing: s: hip size 80-110cm, m: hip size 100-120cm, l: hip size: 110-130cm, xl: hip size 120-140cm. Update your look and discover fashion & trends with londonfashionblog.com.
Define cesarean section: a surgical procedure involving incision of the walls of the abdomen and uterus for delivery… - cesarean section in a sentence
C Section Incision - Find Out How Deep And Wide The Surgeon May Need To Cut In Order To Safely Deliver A Baby Through A C Section Incision. Read More Here...
Results A total of 205 case notes were reviewed (27.9%) of all caesarean section deliveries in (DGH) in 2008. Overall, 86 (42.0%) women were of recommended BMI, 54 (26.3%) were overweight and 65 (31.7%) were obese. Thirty eight (58.5%) obese women stayed in hospital for ≥ 3 days compared to 27 (50%) overweight and 42 (49.4%) women of recommended BMI. However, none of these findings reached statistical significance. Fourteen (22.2%) obese women had a wound infection compared to five (9.3%) overweight and 17(20.2%) women of recommended BMI. Of these, 13 (92.2%) obese women received antibiotics for ≥7 days compared to three (75.0%) overweight and 11 (68.8%) women of recommended BMI.. ...
The study aimed to examine the effect of prolonging the second stage of labor on the rate of Cesarean section (CS), maternal and neonatal outcomes. The study...
c section percentage - 28 images - percent of births by cesarean section, c section rates on the rise what s happening in your, your c section risk may be your hospital, non reasons for a rise in caesarean sections, caesarean births rule the day circle of
what is caesarean section - 28 images - c section birth image cg7p501051c, caesarean or birth which is your option, how a c section affects your baby s brain development, cesarean birth birth without fear, elective c section from du brighton s birth
We have emailed you at with instructions on how to set up a new password. If you do not receive an email in the next 24 hours, or if you misplace your new password, please contact:. ASA members: ...
SmartBeautyGuide.com will empower you to make the most intelligent decisions about your beauty and connect you with the most qualified Aesthetic plastic surgeon whos right for you.
At midnight on March 5, 2000, after 12 hours of continual pain, Ramírez sat down on a bench and drank three small glasses of hard liquor. She then used a 15 centimeter (5.9 in) kitchen knife to cut open her abdomen in a total of three attempts. Ramírez cut through her skin in a 17 centimeter (6.7 in) vertical line several centimeters to the right of her navel, starting near the bottom of the ribs and ending near the pubic area. (In comparison, a typical C-section incision is 10 cm long, horizontal and well below the navel, the so-called "bikini-line incision.") After operating on herself for an hour, she reached inside her uterus and pulled out her baby boy. She then severed the umbilical cord with a pair of scissors and became unconscious. She used clothes to bandage her wound after regaining consciousness, then sent one of her older sons to find help ...
Learn about C-section (cesarean birth) options, and reasons for a C-section delivery including multiple births, health problems, problems with the pelvis, placenta, or umbilical cord.
Caesarean sections (CSs) are associated with increased maternal and perinatal morbidity, yet rates continue to increase within most countries. Effective interventions are required to reduce the number of non-medically indicated CSs and improve outcomes for women and infants. This paper reports findings of a systematic review of literature related to maternity service organisational interventions that have a primary intention of improving CS rates. A three-phase search strategy was implemented to identify studies utilising organisational interventions to improve CS rates in maternity services. The database search (including Cochrane CENTRAL, CINAHL, MEDLINE, Maternity and Infant Care, EMBASE and SCOPUS) was restricted to peer-reviewed journal articles published from 1 January 1980 to 31 December 2017. Reference lists of relevant reviews and included studies were also searched. Primary outcomes were overall, planned, and unplanned CS rates. Secondary outcomes included a suite of birth outcomes. A series
Nineteen hospitals in the New York metro area have cesarean rates that exceed 40%, with one hospital reporting a rate of 53%, according to Choices in Childbirths New York Guide to a Healthy Birth, 2009-10. Read more about New York Citys rapidly rising cesarean rate…
In 2004 Mark Landon and his colleagues in the United States published "Maternal and Perinatal Outcomes Associated with a Trial of Labor after Prior Cesarean Delivery," which compared the risks of vaginal delivery and cesarean section for delivery of a fetus after a previous cesarean delivery. During a cesarean section, a physician surgically removes a fetus from a pregnant woman through an incision in her abdomen. By the late 1900s, most clinical guidelines viewed attempting a vaginal birth after a previous cesarean delivery as a reasonable option for most women.. Format: Articles Subject: Publications ...
The retrospective cohort epidemiological study was to investigate the characteristics of women who underwent induced abortion. Data were retrospectively collected from women who underwent induced abortions (n = 19,655) at the Xiamen Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital (2010-2013). The characteristics of women who underwent induced abortions included mean age, unmarried status, no previous deliveries, first pregnancy, ≥2 abortions including the current one, and a history of caesarian section. From 2010 to 2013, mean age increased and declines were observed in the ratio of induced abortions to live births, the proportion of induced abortions among women of 15-24 years, those who were unmarried, had their first pregnancy, or had no history of delivery ...
In the May 1996 edition of The Annals of Surgery, John A. Morris and his collaborators published "Infant Survival After Cesarean Section for Trauma," in which they evaluate the use of emergency cesarean sections for the treatment of pregnant trauma patients. During a cesarean section, a physician removes a fetus from a pregnant woman through an incision in her abdomen and uterus. When a pregnant woman experiences trauma, physicians can perform an emergency cesarean section to remove the fetus and administer medical treatments that would not be possible while the woman is pregnant.. Format: Articles Subject: Publications ...
Beforemy older brother was born, the doctors discovered the umbilical cord dangerously wrapped around his neckduring my momscheck-up. That meant their plans for delivery needed to be changed, and a C-section was scheduled. By the time I came around two years later, the doctors again told her she should go with a cesarean even though there were no complications.She had no idea that giving birth vaginally was even an option, something expectant mothers are still often in the dark about today.. When parents Cullen and Katiewelcomed their first child, a girl they named Macey Gaines, Katiewas dealing with some slightly high blood pressure and they decided a C-section was the way to go. However, when they found out they were pregnant with baby number two, they decided on a different birth path.. Known as a "vbac," or "vaginal birth after cesarean," itssomething most women are perfectly capable of enduring, but many doctors neglect to inform them. Thanks to word spreading throughoutthe birthing ...
In a large number of cases, the imperial cut managed to save both the baby and the mother, but many women demand it regardless of whether they can give birth in a natural way, and they are not really aware of the consequences of car crashes and do not know many benefits, but also disadvantages and one and another procedure.. Scientific research has proven that the cesarean section is much more dangerous than the normal birth process because the cesarean cuts a lot of bleeding and hence blood clots are formed quickly and thus can cause death.. In addition, the main cause and main difference between these two births is to make a cut on the stomach, which automatically leads to a longer recovery time, and this is considerable and even in some cases up to a month.. In some cases, when carousel is caused by caesarean section, there may be dangerous uterine rupture, urinary bladder injury, and a large number of intestines, and many experts advise that women are naturally occurring.. ...
OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this paper is to establish whether health professionals in Finland have cesarean sections more or less often than other women of a similar educational background. DESIGN. Register-based study (Finnish birth register). SETTIN
Anesthesia for Cesarean Section auf frohberg.de - This book examines every aspect of anesthesia in patients undergoing cesarean section. Anesthetic and...
When you decide to carry a child to term, you know that it will eventually be time to deliver. Many mothers have easy deliveries without complications, but when a complication does arrive, its important that doctors and nurses are by your side to help. If a baby is trapped or taking too long to be born, a Cesarean section could be ordered to help prevent injury to the mother or child.. With a C-section, doctors make an incision and manually remove the child from the birth canal or womb, depending on where it is at the time of the surgery. Many C-sections are performed safely, but waiting too long to perform one can be dangerous.. A delayed C-section could lead to a baby being distressed or suffering asphyxia, leading to brain damage or death. A problem with the delivery could put the mothers body into shock or distress, risking her life if steps arent taken to relieve the problem. Extreme bleeding must be stemmed through immediate operations to prevent low blood pressure or suffering ...
This measure is based on a random sample of mothers who delivered babies at the hospital. Not all mothers with newborns were tracked for this measure. Of the sampled group of patients, this is the percentage of mothers delivering their first babies who deliver full term (at least 37 weeks gestation) via c-section and are considered to be at a low risk for complications. Note: At this time, comparison data is not available for this measure. When data that compares our hospital to other hospitals becomes available, we will publish it. In the meantime, we will publish Northwestern Medicine data only. ...
To be able to effectively plan a C-section the due date should be carefully predicted BEFORE breeding. Accurate prediction of whelping date can be done by measuring the Serial blood progesterone or blood lutenizing hormone (LH). This means that the breeding should be coordinated with hormone and cytologic evaluation. Whelping usually occurs 65 days after the LH peak, with a variability of 1 day. Planning a C-section at the first signs of labor often equals to an emergency C-section, especially as bulldogs often produce early. For that reason breeders often book their bitches on the sixty-first day. However, opponents of elective C-section approach say this can cause problems, as most bitches are mated more than once during their seasons and the breeder has to be sure of exactly which mating the bitch conceived ...
Having a C-Section: What to Expect? What is a cesarean section? A cesarean section is an operation to deliver a baby when delivery through the birth canal (vagina) is not possible or safe. The doctor makes
Get an in-depth review and ask questions about Cesarean (C-section) Birth. See what people are saying about Cesarean (C-section) Birth.
Cesarean Section - everything you should know: the indications, the operation, and the peculiarities of the recovery period after c-section. Sex & sports after c-section
While modern operating rooms are expected to have aseptic environments, several studies have already reported microbial presence in ORs using culture-dependent methods, pulse-field gel electrophoresis, fluorescent particle counting, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) testing [10, 20, 21]. In the present study, we used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to show that OR dust, collected right after a C-section procedure, contains bacteria similar to human skin microbiota. Previous studies using culture-dependent methods also showed that over 85 % of air samples from ORs had skin-like bacteria which were mostly coagulase-negative staphylococci and Corynebacterium [10]. These airborne skin-bacteria could be from individuals present during C-section but could also be shed by cleaning personnel between operations.. In our study, ~30 % of samples failed to yield sufficient DNA sequences to be analyzed. While there are no published data on the microbiota in operating rooms using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, very few ...
All babies delivered via C-section are at higher risk of developing health problems over time, but those who are born after a scheduled C-section face the greatest risk.
When to start exercising after the C-section? What are the safest and the best exercises for your abs during the C-section recovery period?
Anyone ever heard of this or dealt with this? I have an appt at the end of the month. But its been officially 1 year since my c-section, and everything...
Question - Suffering from severe acidity after c section delivery. Treatment?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Acid peptic disease, Ask a Gastroenterologist
I believe this is the answer. Its certainly been my experience in my career as a midwife. Working in 23 different hospitals on contracts and as an employee, it was strikingly obvious to me that this was what was at play here. In one hospital, as soon as a woman asks for an epidural, she is given one. Even if her babys head is visible and will be born in the next few minutes. While in another hospital, when a woman asks for an epidural you provide emotional and physical support - suggest a position change, a shower, bath, something different. Then, if she still feels she needs an epidural, she has one. The difference? An epidural rate of 80% versus an epidural rate of less than 20%. A caesarean rate of 45% versus a caesarean rate of 20%. The average women accessing hospital services is not well informed compared to the average woman accessing home birth services. The average women accessing hospital services will believe what you tell her. Sad, but true. If you tell her that she needs a ...
The British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, found that the rise could not be explained by increases in clinical reasons for caesareans such as complications in pregnancy or labour/delivery and was more likely due to societal factors. The research project looked at all births in Western Australia between 1984 and 2003 (more than 430,000 births) and analysed the mode of delivery. It excluded multiple and breech births. Report author, Colleen OLeary, from Perths Telethon Institute for Child Health Research, said that even after adjusting for pregnancy and delivery complications and sociodemographic factors, the increases were significant. Women in 1999-03 were twice as likely to have a caesarean section, than women in 1984-88. "The figures show that what we call elective or planned caesareans have risen from 6 per cent to 13 per cent over the 20 year period and during the same time, there has been a 70 per cent increase in the number of emergency caesareans," Ms OLeary said. "From the ...
A new study finds than the Caesarean section delivery rate may be increasing even faster than critics believe and the single most significant factor driving the trend is greater reliance on repeat
The present invention comprises a modified womans undergarment that includes a peri-pubic light compression panel allowing for compression at the incision site and a treatment dressing means for exposing the wound to a medicament. The combination of light compression and treatment with applicable medicament functions to minimize the formation of scars following cesarean section incisions performed in the lower transverse uterine or peri-pubic area. The undergarment is not limited in style and can include various styles such as a bikini, thong, low-rise, support style, full or high cut undergarment. Considering the long phase of wound healing, this design flexibility allows for the use of the garment under a variety of street clothes. Unlike a girdle or abdominal support device, the crux of the invention does not require heavy or high abdominal support, although for those applications requiring girdle-type support, the invention could also be fabricated in a style that allows abdominal support
People who via a caesarean section are born and who have one or more brothers or sisters have that in the world have come through a vaginal birth, even have 64 percent more likely to be overweight.. Vice versa, there is also a correlation to detect: children who are in a natural way in the world, but a brother or sister who, through a caesarean section are born, have 31 percent less likely to be overweight at a later age.. ...
A caesarean birth (C-section) is when a baby is born by abdominal surgery. We talk here about planned and emergency caesareans and the risks and benefits.
MILLER,R.D .. ; CRICHTON, D. Ampicillin prophylaxis in cesarean section. S . Afr. J . Obstet. Gynecology 6: 69, 1968. CUNNINGHAM. F.G.; JAUTH. J.C.; STRONG. J .D. et al. Infectious morbility following cesarean section. Obstet. Gynecol. 52: 656, 1978. EISEN, D.; REVOLLO, F. Infecciones Intrahospitalarias en el Departamento de Ginecología y Obstetricia del Hospital San Ignacio. Dic. 1981 -nov. 1982. Trabajo de Promoción. EISEN. D.; REVOLLO, F.; JOFRE. J .P. Uso de Antibióticos Profilácticos en operación cesárea. Jul. 1984. Trabajo de Promoción. ELLIOT J .P. ; FREEMAN R.X.; DORCHESTER. W. Short versus long course of prophylactic antibiotics in cesarean section. Am. J . Obstet. Gynecol. 143: 740. 1982. LEDGER, W.J.; GEE, C.; LEWIS, W.P.; GUIDE, UNES. For antibiotics prophylaxis in Gynecology, Aro. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 121: 1.038, 1975. 8. PADILLA, S.L.; SPENCER, M.R.; BRAUCHAMP, P. Singledose Ampicillin for cesarea section prophylaxis. Obstet., Gynecol. 61: 463, 1983. MENDELSON, J . Profilaxis ...
Question - Pregnant. Scan showed fluid Index - 7.09cm. Should I go for c-section or wait for normal delivery?. Ask a Doctor about when and why Amniotic fluid index is advised, Ask an OBGYN, Maternal and Fetal Medicine
Expecting mothers in South Korea have inundated hospitals with requests for a Caesarean section delivery on November 11 to secure the unique life-long identity number of 111111 for their children, media reported on Wednesday.
Citation: N/A Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: Eight full term crossbred sows were selected for a study to compare the immune function of pigs born by Cesarean section (c-section) or natural-birth (n=4 each for natural-birth and c-section). Gestation length and birth weight did not differ between natural-birth and c-section pigs. Blood and tissue samples were collected from 44 pigs at birth. Forty-five pigs were weaned at 13 d and fitted with an indwelling jugular cannula for blood sample collection at 14 d. Pigs received an i.p. injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 150 ug/kg) or saline at min 0, blood serum samples were collected at -20, -10, 0, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 90 and 120 min, and tissue samples were collected immediately following the 120 min sample. Serum cortisol, ACTH, and prolactin were determined by RIA. Serum interferon-gamma (INF-gamma) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were determined by ELISA. Natural-birth pigs had 21% greater ADG than c-section pigs (P,0.01). ...
Cesarean section or C-section is the surgical delivery of a baby through a cut (incision) made in the mothers abdomen and uterus.
... or C-section is the surgical delivery of a baby through a cut (incision) made in the mothers abdomen and uterus.
... or C-section is the surgical delivery of a baby through a cut (incision) made in the mothers abdomen and uterus.
A c-section taking too long may lead to death of the dam so speed is most important as the anaesthetic risks are hovering around. The shorter the anaesthesia, the safer it is for the patient, as in this case. I think 32 minutes will be the shortest time possible for a vet with experiences in C-section. I had done over 100 c-sections in the years when most Pasir Ris breeders used my $300 c-section services almost exclusively. Now, younger vets who charge cheaper or give value have taken over ...
Evidence-based statements to deliver quality improvements in the care of women who plan for or may need a caesarean section (c-section)
There are many reasons a woman may need a Cesarean section, whether planned or unplanned. Regardless of the reason for the surgery, a C-section requires a...
Learn what to expect if you have a cesarean section surgery to deliver your baby. Get tips for recovering and healing after a c-section.
Looking for online definition of nonreassuring fetal status in the Medical Dictionary? nonreassuring fetal status explanation free. What is nonreassuring fetal status? Meaning of nonreassuring fetal status medical term. What does nonreassuring fetal status mean?
Background. Most countries recommend planned cesarean section in breech deliveries, which is considered safer than vaginal delivery. As one of few countries in the western world Norway has continued to practice planned vaginal delivery in selected women. The aim of this study is to evaluate prospectively registered neonatal and maternal outcomes in term singleton breech deliveries in a Norwegian hospital during a ten years period. We aim to compare maternal and neonatal outcomes in term breech pregnancies subjected either to planned vaginal or elective cesarean section.. Methods. A prospective registration study including 568 women with term breech deliveries (>37 weeks) consecutively registered at Sorlandet Hospital Kristiansand between 2001 and 2011. Fetal and maternal outcomes were compared according to delivery method; planned vaginal delivery versus planned cesarean section.. Results. Of 568 women, elective cesarean section was planned in 279 (49%) cases and vaginal delivery was planned in ...
Single-port laparoscopic bilateral uterine arteries pre-ligation, cesarean scar pregnancy resection, and lower uterine segment repair plastic surgery
Cesarean scar pregnancy treated by curettage and aspiration guided by laparoscopy Shan-rong Shu, Xin Luo, Zhi-xin Wang, Yu-hong Yao Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The First Affiliated Hospital of JiNan University, HuangPu Road West, Guangzhou, Peoples Republic of China Abstract: Pregnancy in a cesarean scar is the rarest form of an ectopic pregnancy. The treatment for cesarean scar pregnancy mainly includes systemic methotrexate and uterine artery embolization. Here, we reported a case of cesarean scar pregnancy treated by curettage and aspiration guided by laparoscopy. The treatment plan included two phases. Three days after a combination of methotrexate and mifepristone was administered, the gestational sac was removed under laparoscopy, which enabled a successful treatment for the unruptured ectopic pregnancy in a previous cesarean scar and made it possible to preserve the reproductive capability of the patient. Keywords: cesarean scar pregnancy, laparoscopy, curettage and aspiration
A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, PubMed, Google Scholar, and JAOA.org for 1950 to 2015 to assess the available literature regarding cesarean delivery,8 cesarean scar ectopic pregnancy,9 TOLAC,10 uterine rupture,11,12 relevant osteopathic concepts and treatments,13,14 and other studies that incorporated OMT in the prenatal care of pregnant women.15-17 All appropriate institutional approvals and patient informed consent were obtained before treatment. The treatment algorithm (Figure 1) that was created by the author and implemented in these cases was devised using evidence-based OMT techniques from the identified sources8-17 to reduce tension on the previous cesarean scar (in the cases of TOLAC and repeated cesarean deliveries); to restore balance and hemostasis to areas of somatic dysfunction; and to heal dysfunctions of the viscera and related anatomical structures caused by previous surgical procedures, vaginal and cesarean delivery, and gravid uterus changes. The inclusion ...
Background: Spinal anaesthesia is the fastest and most reliable form of regional anaesthesia. Additions of intrathecaly adjuvants are useful for prolonging the spinal anaesthesia effects.Subjects and Methods:The Patients were divided in three groups; Group C (control group) = received 15 mg (3 ml) of hyperbaric bupivacaine intrathecaly. Group D = received 15 mg (3 ml) of hyperbaric bupivacaine plus 4μgDexmedetomidine intrathecally. Group F = received Hyperbaric Bupivacaine 15mg (3ml) plus 25μg fentanylintrathecally.Results: For the total duration of sensory block p- value is 0.000003, which is less than 0.05 (α) and is highly significant. From the above p - value and scheffe post hoc test we conclude that the Bupivacaine + Dexmedetomidine has prolonged duration of sensory block as compared to bupivacaine alone and in combination with fentanyl. For the motor block p- value is 0.000000 and is less than 0.05 (α). It is highly significant. For the demand of Analgesic p-value is 0.0000001 and is ...
Figure 1- Photograph showing gravid uterus lying in the incisional hernia sac The overlying skin was necrosed with evidence of ulceration and the presence of engorged veins. The fetus was lying in the herniated gravid uterus outside the abdominal cavity. Routine investigations were within normal limits. Ultrasound examination showed the uterus herniated in the incisional hernia of the anterior abdominal wall with the live fetus in cephalic presentation without any gross congenital malformation. The placenta was located in the upper uterine segment. She was kept in the hospital for bed rest with abdominal support. Emollients & antiseptic skin ointment were applied over the skin of the anterior abdominal wall. An elective caesarean section was planned for 37 weeks but she went into labour at 36 weeks. The abdomen was opened by elliptical incision. The uterus was visualized just beneath the skin and there was no evidence of the rectus sheath in the vicinity of the incision. A uterineincision was ...
Resolution of Breech Presentation and Successful Vaginal Birth Following Administration of Websters Technique: A Case Study. Pamela Stone-McCoy DC Bio, Melissa Sell DC Bio, Krystal Drwencke DC Bio. Journal of Pediatric, Maternal & Family Health - Chiropractic ~ Volume 2012 ~ Issue 1 ~ Pages 5-11. Abstract. Objective: The purpose of this case study is to report on the resolution of a breech presentation in an expectant mother following a course of subluxation-based chiropractic care and administration of the Webster Technique.. Clinical features: A 33-year old expectant mother presented 8 months pregnant with her second child. There were no complications with her first pregnancy. A breech presentation was noted by her midwife and vertebral subluxation and muscle spasm were observed upon chiropractic evaluation.. Intervention and Outcomes: The patient was managed utilizing Websters Technique and progress was monitored, specifically noting changes in the babys position as reported by the midwife ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Combined spinal-epidural anesthesia for lumbar discectomy in a patient with asymptomatic severe aortic stenosis -a case report-. AU - Kim, Young Sung. AU - Park, Ji Hye. AU - Lee, Shin Young. AU - Lim, Byung Gun. AU - Kim, Heezoo. AU - Lee, Il Ok. AU - Kong, Myounghoon. PY - 2014/1/1. Y1 - 2014/1/1. N2 - The use of neuraxial anesthesia has traditionally been contraindicated in patients with severe aortic stenosis. However, general anesthesia can be riskier than neuraxial anesthesia for severe aortic stenosis patients undergoing spinal surgeries in the prone position as this can cause a major reduction in cardiac output secondary to diminished preload. In addition, general anesthesia, muscle relaxation, and positive-pressure ventilation can decrease venous return and reduce vascular tone, further compromising cardiac output. Combined spinal-epidural anesthesia with closely monitored, careful titration of the local anesthetic dose can be an efficient and safe anesthetic method for ...
Caesarean Section[edit]. Women are less likely to start breastfeeding after caesarean delivery compared with vaginal delivery.[ ... Zhao, Jian; Zhao, Yun; Du, Mengran; Binns, Colin W.; Lee, Andy H. (10 October 2017). "Does Caesarean Section Affect ... "Breastfeeding After Cesarean Birth". La Leche League International. Retrieved 22 March 2018.. ... Current research strongly supports immediate skin-to-skin mother-baby contact even if the baby is born by Cesarean surgery. The ...
"Video of Cow Caesarean Section". VetPulse TV in Practice. YouTube. Retrieved 30 December 2013.. ... The breed's increased need to have Caesarean sections when calving means increased cost and added work, and can become a ... The neonatal calf is so large that Caesarean sections are routinely scheduled for breeders.[6]:256[7] The bull's testicular ...
II: Studies at cesarean section". Anesthesiology. 54 (6): 474-80. doi:10.1097/00000542-198106000-00006. PMID 7235275.. ... II: Studies at cesarean section". Anesthesiology. 54 (6): 474-80. doi:10.1097/00000542-198106000-00006. PMID 7235275.. ... A normal dose of sodium thiopental (usually 4-6 mg/kg) given to a pregnant woman for operative delivery (caesarian section) ...
Cesarean section or vaginal deliveryEdit. A study in 2013 involving 106 participating centers in 25 countries came to the ... Fetal position (the way the babies are lying in the womb) usually determines if they are delivered by caesarean section or ... There is also insufficient evidence around whether to deliver the babies early by caesarean section or to wait for labour to ... In comparison, it has been estimated that 75% of twin pregnancies in the United States were delivered by Cesarean section in ...
If repaired, subsequent pregnancies will require cesarean section.[53] While unusual in developed countries, it is estimated ... including access to cesarean sections) and transportation.[41] As with women's health in general, solutions to maternal health ...
Incisions used for caesarean section. Is: Supra-umbilical incision. Im: Median incision. IM: Maylard incision. IP: Pfannenstiel ... The specific problem is: needs citations and pruning Please help improve this section if you can. (March 2015) (Learn how and ... "Comparison between modified Misgav-Ladach and Pfannenstiel-Kerr techniques for Cesarean section: review of literature". Journal ... This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. ...
Caesarean-section surgery to extract roe, fertilize, and incubate. Blind Pony Hatchery in Missouri, 1995 ... Caesarean section, a relatively quick surgical method of extracting eggs through a 4 in (10 cm) abdominal incision; considered ... and cross-sectioned to expose the annual rings. The dentary rings are counted in much the same way a tree is aged. Dentary ... a relatively unaltered section of their historic range. Reports of free ranging adults captured by gill nets have since been ...
Fetal acidosis, 2-chloroprocaine, and epidural anesthesia for cesarean section. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1985 Feb 1;151(3):322-4. ...
Though caesarean is seen to benefit mothers over 40, there are still many risk factors to consider. Caesarean section may be a ... Section 2377". Rome: Vatican. 1993. Retrieved 25 November 2008.. *^ "Science in hinduism-Test tube babies". 20 October 2013. ... A study has shown that births over 40 have a lower rate of birth trauma due to increased delivery by caesarean. ... "2006 Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Report: Section 2". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived from the ...
UK Kennel Club data shows that 27.8% (5 of 18) of Dogue litters were delivered by caesarean section. "The history of the breed ... Evans, K.; Adams, V. (2010). "Proportion of litters of purebred dogs born by caesarean section" (PDF). The Journal of small ...
Some operations, most frequently Caesarean section, may be performed using an epidural anaesthetic as the sole technique. This ... Liu EH, Sia AT (2004). "Rates of caesarean section and instrumental vaginal delivery in nulliparous women after low ... If she requires a Caesarean section, she may be given a larger dose of epidural local anaesthetic. ... Differing outcomes in frequency of Cesarean section may be explained by differing institutions or their practitioners: epidural ...
Clemetson CA, Hassan R, Mallikarjuneswara VR, Wallace G (August 1973). "Tilt-bend cesarean section". Obstetrics and Gynecology ... "Tilt caesarean section". The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the British Commonwealth. 77 (8): 713-21. doi:10.1111/j. ... he showed an improved oxygen saturation in the umbilical cord of blood of babies delivered by Caesarean Section under spinal ...
"Healthcare Bluebook: Cesarean Section". CAREOperative. Retrieved 2014. Check date values in: ,access-date= (help) Weiss, J. "Q& ... The cost of a cesarean section, the recommended mode of delivery for brain dead pregnant women, is roughly $4,500 for ... a viable child was delivered via cesarean section after extended somatic support. However, according to Esmaelilzadeh, et al. ... child delivered from a somatically supported brain dead mother focused on the case of a child delivered via cesarean section in ...
If the cystic hygroma is large, a cesarean section may be performed. After birth, infants with a persistent cystic hygroma must ...
Lina Medina, from the Ticrapo District of Peru, gave birth by cesarean section in Lima at age ​5 1⁄2. The infant was a 2.69 kg ... Venesia Xoagus, a Damara girl, gave birth by cesarean section to a healthy 3 kg (6.6 lb) boy at a hospital in Otjiwarongo.[29][ ... A girl of the Wayuu people gave birth to a 2.6 kg (5.7 lb), 47 cm (19 in) girl by cesarean section at a clinic in Riohacha. She ... A 9-year-old girl gave birth by cesarean section to a boy at a clinic in Afyonkarahisar.[35] According to the surgeon who ...
Risk factors include Caesarean section (C-section), the presence of certain bacteria such as group B streptococcus in the ... The single most important risk factor is Caesarean section.[16] The number of maternal deaths in the United States is about 13 ... Cesarean section, premature rupture of membranes, prolonged labour, malnutrition, diabetes[1][2]. ... Due to the risks following Caesarean section, it is recommended that all women receive a preventive dose of antibiotics such as ...
... and lowest total cesarean section rate, by the American College of Nurse Midwives. On April 9, 2014, an Eurocopter AS350B3E ... lowest primary cesarean section rate; highest rate of 6 week post partum visit attendance; highest breast-feeding continuation ...
Bracha J.; Lotan M.; Zakut H. (1988). "Ovarian abscess following cesarean section. A case report and review of the literature ...
Cesarean sections are not recommended. Breastfeeding is considered safe if the nipples are not damaged. Infection around the ...
For example, a large baby or a small pelvis often lead to death unless a caesarean section is performed. It is also used by ... ISBN 0-8036-1207-9. "Encyclopedia of Medicine: Cesarean Section". eNotes. Ruff C, Niskanenb M, Junnob J, Jamisonc P (2005). " ...
CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Yutzy SH, Wolfson JK, Resnick PJ (1993). "Child stealing by cesarean section: a ... The definition of the subject does not include compulsory cesarean sections for medical reasons nor child removal from parents ... Burgess AW, Baker T, Nahirny C, Rabun JB (2002). "Newborn kidnapping by cesarean section". J Forensic Sci. 47 (4): 827-30. PMID ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Dalley, Marlene (2005). "Abductions from the womb : Caesarean section murder a ...
II: Studies at cesarean section". Anesthesiology. 54 (6): 474-80. doi:10.1097/00000542-198106000-00006. PMID 7235275. "WHO ... II: Studies at cesarean section". Anesthesiology. 54 (6): 474-80. doi:10.1097/00000542-198106000-00006. PMID 7235275. Toyama, ... caesarian section) rapidly makes her unconscious, but the baby in her uterus remains conscious. However, larger or repeated ...
This operation is called a Caesarean section. Social problems[change , change source]. The Convention on the Elimination of All ...
A fear of cesarean section in Benin may be the cause of rumor, but it may also be justified based on the outcomes. One in 20 ... Cesarean section has been described in Benin as an act against nature, and women cite that their mothers and grandmothers were ... Approximately 4% deliver by cesarean section. Birth position is greatly influenced by place of birth in Benin. A Bariba woman ... As of April 2009, the government of Benin made cesarean sections free to those needing emergent operative delivery in 43 ...
Cesarean section may result in less painful sex during the first 3 months, or there may be no difference, and there is no ... Barrett, G; Peacock J; Victor CR; Manyonda I (2005). "Cesarean section and postnatal sexual health". Birth. Wiley Periodicals, ... difference in sexual function or symptoms by six months, although women who delivered by cesarean report greater sexual ...
... and obstructed labor at full cervical dilation when there is no option of a caesarean section. In some Irish cases, caesarean ... Safe motherhood: cesarean section or symphysiotomy? J. van Roosmalen Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1990 Jul;163 (1 Pt 1):1-4. Onsrud M, ... She thought she was being brought to theatre for a Caesarean section. No one told her the plan was to do the 'new procedure,' a ... Since this procedure does not scar the uterus, the concern of future uterine rupture that exists with cesarean section is not a ...
... injury to the cervix or bladder bleeding Cervical Dystocia with failure to dilate requiring Cesarean Section displacement of ... A c-section is required for women giving birth with a TAC. A transabdominal cerclage can also be placed pre-pregnancy if a ... Shirodkar procedure sometimes involves a permanent stitch around the cervix which will not be removed and therefore a Caesarean section ...
During childbirth (unless by Cesarean section) the fetus passes through the maternal pelvic opening. Hip fractures often affect ... Each hip bone consists of 3 sections, ilium, ischium, and pubis. During childhood, these sections are separate bones, joined by ... The gap enclosed by the bony pelvis, called the pelvic cavity, is the section of the body underneath the abdomen and mainly ... Section of Obstetrics and Gynaecology)". Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine. 32 (1): 1-30. PMC 1997320 . PMID ...
Failure to perform a Cesarean section when it is medically necessary. · Failure to properly care for the baby after the ...
Why Brazil is the leader in Cesarean section? What are the main myths and truths surrounding the subject? In what cases the ... of childbirth are by cesarean section, and there are still many doubts and even myths on the subject. ... Even if the baby is sitting and if you think of a c-section, you can expect the mother to go into labor. Its not just because ... And, as labor c-section is more painful, especially in the early days where the woman gets more rest and losing less calories, ...
Cesarean Section. Contact Us Free Consultation. 800-810-6780. Name (Required). Email (Required). Phone (Required). Message. ...
Keywords Obesity; Anesthesia; Analgesia; Labor, Obstetric; Cesarean Section. 7 - Cefaleia pós-punção da dura-máter em ... including dramatically increased risk for cesarean delivery, diabetes, hypertension and pre-eclampsia. Obesity is a risk factor ...
... brain damage after a hospital failed to adequately monitor the health of the baby and perform an emergency cesarean section in ... The trained technician found the childs heartbeat, and the mother was rushed into surgery for a c-section birth. Unfortunately ... Had fully trained technicians been available at the hospital, using properly-working equipment, the jury decided, a c-section ...
... had planned cesarean section. Half requested cesarean and half did not meet vaginal criteria. 75% of the planned cesarean women ... The group that most needs this service to avoid that first cesarean section. ... A cesarean was done for an obstetric conjugate ,12 cm or a fetus with EFW ,2000 gm. VBACs were included in the study. They used ... But it did show a lower emergency cesarean rate in the known group. The Frankfurt study did use MRI pelvimetry as part of their ...
Failing to take necessary actions, such as ordering a timely cesarean section, may constitute medical malpractice. ...
... cesarean section and other operative assisted deliveries as possible risk factors for AFE ... It can occur during both vaginal and cesarean births. Although considered to be rare, AFE can also occur during abortion or ... The mother begins to bleed profusely at the wound site; typically at the site of placental attachment or cesarean incision. ...
Caesarean section, also known as C-section or caesarean delivery, is the use of surgery to deliver one or more babies.[2] A ... Global rates of caesarean section rates are increasing.[22] In the United Kingdom, in 2008, the Caesarean section rate was 24%. ... In rare cases, caesarean sections can be used to remove a dead fetus. A late-term abortion using Caesarean section procedures ... Elective repeat Caesarean section (ERCS). Both have higher risks than a vaginal birth with no previous caesarean section. There ...
C-section), surgery to deliver a baby through the mothers abdomen. It is done when a vaginal birth is not safe. ... Cesarean Sections (Nemours Foundation) Also in Spanish * Delivery by Cesarean Section (American Academy of Pediatrics) Also in ... Cesarean section (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Cesarean Section: Recovering After Surgery (March of Dimes Birth ... A Cesarean section (C-section) is surgery to deliver a baby. The baby is taken out through the mothers abdomen. In the United ...
Health Information on Cesarean Section: MedlinePlus Multiple Languages Collection ... Cesarean Section: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Cesárea: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español (Spanish) ... Your Recovery After Cesarean Birth (Part 1) - Русский (Russian) PDF Your Recovery After Cesarean Birth (Part 1) - English MP3 ... Your Recovery After Cesarean Birth (Part 1) - Русский (Russian) MP3 Your Recovery After Cesarean Birth (Part 1) - English MP4 ...
Cesarean section, surgical removal of a fetus from the uterus through an abdominal incision. Little is known of either the ... Alternative Titles: C-section, caesarian section. Cesarean section, also called C-section, cesarean also spelled caesarian, ... Sometimes when a woman has had a child by cesarean section, any children born after the first cesarean section are also ... Cesarean section. When a child cannot be delivered through the vagina, it may be necessary to resort to cesarean section, a ...
cesarean section cesarean section. cesarean section sĭzâr´ēən [key], delivery of an infant by surgical removal from the uterus ... Cesarean section is performed nowadays when factors exist that make natural childbirth hazardous, such as an abnormally narrow ... In the last few decades there has been a significant increase in the number of cesarean sections performed among the factors ... Subsequent deliveries are largely also by cesarean section. ...
In the USA, about a third of all mothers deliver their babies via a C-section. ... often called a C-section, is a surgery performed to deliver a baby. ... A Cesarean section, often called a C-section, is a surgery performed to deliver a baby. In the USA, about a third of all ... mothers deliver their babies via a C-section.. Cesarean section operation in process. Image Credit: Elis Blanca / Shutterstock ...
Yet, the early history of cesarean section remains shrouded in myth and is of dubious accuracy. Even the origin of "cesarean" ... "section" replaced "operation.". One of the earliest printed illustrations of Cesarean section. Purportedly the birth of Julius ... Cesarean section has been part of human culture since ancient times and there are tales in both Western and non-Western ... The history of cesarean section can be understood best in the broader context of the history of childbirth and general medicine ...
Cesarean delivery is defined as the delivery of a fetus through surgical incisions made through the abdominal wall (laparotomy ... encoded search term (What is cesarean delivery (C-section)?) and What is cesarean delivery (C-section)? What to Read Next on ... cesarean on the interval time between first cesarean section and the next pregnancy and significant adhesion at second cesarean ... What is cesarean delivery (C-section)?. Updated: Dec 14, 2018 * Author: Hedwige Saint Louis, MD, MPH, FACOG; Chief Editor: ...
International Cesarean Awareness Network The International Cesarean Awareness Network (ICAN), founded in 1982, is a network of ... ICAN has developed an educational program on cesarean prevention and vaginal birth after cesarean. ICAN is supported by ... ICAN provides current information on cesarean prevention and vaginal birth after cesarean. Chapters are active across the ... It aims to reduce the rate of cesarean deliveries, to provide a forum for discussion, and to provide a support network for ...
But for every 333 cesarean sections, one newborn will experience a significant feeding problem, for every 69 cesareans there ... Hannah also states that cesarean section is safer for the fetus and the newborn,1 and this is true for certain entities. For ... Planned elective cesarean section: A reasonable choice for some women? [editorial]. CMAJ 2004;170(5):813-4. ... Planned caesarean section versus planned vaginal birth for breech presentation at term: a randomised multicentre trial. Lancet ...
... at least half of all deliveries are C-sections. Growing popularity is often a sign of something new. But the C-section is ... More and more women are giving birth by cesarean section, not just in the U.S. but also abroad: In some Brazilian cities, ... More and more women are giving birth by cesarean section, not just in the U.S. but also abroad: In some Brazilian cities, at ... But C-sections didnt fade as rickets had. Accounting for a very small percent of deliveries for much of the 20th century, by ...
Cesarean Section. About Cesarean section. Nomenclature: Cesarean section, Classical Cesarean section, Lower Segment Cesarean ... 2. Why do they call it a cesarean section?. The procedure is known as a cesarean section as it is thought that the Roman ... Health tips for Smooth Recovery after Cesarean Section. Here are a few tips to help you recover after a cesarean section:. * ... Elective Cesarean Section (Planned C-Section): The Cesarean is planned and done on a specific date chosen by the patient and ...
... also called c-section, refers to the delivery of a baby by means of a surgical procedure carried out in the operation theatre. ... A cesarean section may be decided upon in the following cases:. *If the mother has already had a cesarean delivery before. *If ... Cesarean section, also called c-section, refers to the delivery of a baby by means of a surgical procedure carried out in the ... A cesarean delivery may also be required in the following emergencies:. *If labor does not progress normally. *If the baby does ...
... , C-Section, Cesarean Section Postoperative Management, C-Section Postoperative Management. ... C Section (OB), C-Section (OB), C-Sections (OB), Caesarean Sections, Caesarean Section, Cesarean section, Cesarean section and ... Caesarean section, CS - Cesarean section, Caesarean section, Cesarean section (procedure), Cesarean section, NOS, Caesarean ... C-Section, C section, caesarian section, cesarean section, cesarean section (treatment), C-section, caesarean section (C- ...
A C-section can be part of the original birth plans but can also be necessary if complications arise. Read on to learn more ... or C-section - is the surgical delivery of a baby. It involves one incision in the mothers abdomen and another in the uterus. ... about whether a C-section is right for you. ... A cesarean delivery - also known as a C-section or cesarean ... A post-cesarean wound infection is an infection that occurs after a C-section, which is also referred to as an abdominal or ...
Lower Segment Caesarean Section. Br Med J 1936; 1 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.3928.792 (Published 18 April 1936) Cite ...
Successful Cesarean section performed by indigenous healers in Kahura, Uganda. As observed by R. W. Felkin in 1879 from his ... In Western society women for the most part were barred from carrying out cesarean sections until the late nineteenth century, ... In 1879, for example, one British traveller, R.W. Felkin, witnessed cesarean section performed by Ugandans. The healer used ... The first recorded successful cesarean in the British Empire, however, was conducted by a woman. Sometime between 1815 and 1821 ...
  • Recently, a jury awarded $78 million to the family of a baby girl who was born with serious brain damage after a hospital failed to adequately monitor the health of the baby and perform an emergency cesarean section in a timely manner. (oklahoma-criminal-defense.com)
  • Had fully trained technicians been available at the hospital, using properly-working equipment, the jury decided, a c-section would have been performed in a timely manner, preventing oxygen deprivation to the baby. (oklahoma-criminal-defense.com)
  • This meant that cesareans could be undertaken at an earlier stage in failing labor when the mother was not near death and the fetus was less distressed. (nih.gov)
  • Many of the earliest successful cesarean sections took place in remote rural areas lacking in medical staff and facilities. (nih.gov)
  • The first recorded successful cesarean in the British Empire, however, was conducted by a woman. (lifeboat.com)
  • Successful Cesarean section performed by indigenous healers in Kahura, Uganda. (lifeboat.com)
  • In the USA, about a third of all mothers deliver their babies via a C-section. (news-medical.net)
  • C-section is the most commonly performed surgery in the U.S.A. and approximately about 1.3 million children each year or one of every three babies are being delivered by Cesarean section. (medindia.net)
  • Researchers estimate that in over 50% of instances when C-sections are performed in the U.S.A. the babies could be safely delivered vaginally. (medindia.net)
  • About 30% of all babies in the U.S. are born via C-section, so they're fairly common. (webmd.com)
  • C-sections are safe for mothers and babies. (webmd.com)
  • Sometimes, babies that are born by C-section have trouble breathing and need help from doctors. (webmd.com)
  • In fact, only between 3 and 5 percent of African babies are born via cesarean. (nhpr.org)
  • Exposing babies delivered by C-section to fluids from the mother's birth canal enriched the babies' microbes to levels more typical of babies born vaginally. (nih.gov)
  • Researchers enriched the microbes of babies delivered by C-section to levels more typical of babies born vaginally. (nih.gov)
  • Babies born by cesarean section tend to acquire a microbial community that more closely resembles that of their mother's skin. (nih.gov)
  • Most mothers and babies do well after C-section. (peacehealth.org)
  • Mums who delivered by c-section tended to weigh more than those delivering vaginally, and the birthweight for gestational age of their babies also tended to be higher. (eurekalert.org)
  • To qualify for the survey, hospitals had to be delivering at least 1,000 babies a year and performing cesarean surgeries, so as the authors noted, 'the results therefore cannot be generalized to smaller facilities' or to the countries overall. (scientificamerican.com)
  • I wasn't very informed on other alternatives for turning breech babies at the time, other than the external version , and accepted having a C-section was the only way to give birth to my baby. (ecochildsplay.com)
  • As this does not happen through c-section birth, babies born through c-section are more likely to suffer from neonatal respiratory distress. (medicalmalpractice.net)
  • In the nineteenth century, European travellers have described Cesarean section being performed by African tribes, using alcohol to anaesthetize the mother and herbs for wound healing. (medindia.net)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Cesarean section was examined as a risk factor in 1,650 children born to a parent with type 1 diabetes and followed from birth for the development of islet autoantibodies and type 1 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Yet, the early history of cesarean section remains shrouded in myth and is of dubious accuracy. (nih.gov)
  • The history of cesarean section can be understood best in the broader context of the history of childbirth and general medicine þ histories that also have been characterized by dramatic changes. (nih.gov)
  • A Cesarean section (C-section) is surgery to deliver a baby. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Having a support group to help adjust to the first few months after a C-section, especially accepting individual differences in recovery after a major surgery. (news-medical.net)
  • The Mischnagoth and Talmud prohibited primogeniture when twins were born by cesarean section and waived the purification rituals for women delivered by surgery. (nih.gov)
  • The most common such surgery is a past C-section. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • Recently, some experts have questioned whether a C- section should be done when a mother requests it absent any medical justification for the surgery. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • C-sections are generally safe, but the risk of major complication and death during the surgery is three to five times higher than with vaginal birth. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • Usually, women undergoing a scheduled C-section are not allowed to have anything to eat or drink 6 to 8 hours before surgery. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • During an emergency C-section, a few of the details are different, including the speed and urgency of the surgery. (webmd.com)
  • Although in many instances, a C-section is medically necessary for the health of the baby or the mother, this research shows that in some cases the surgery may not be beneficial for some infants,' said Dr. Diane Ashton, deputy medical director of the March of Dimes. (latimes.com)
  • The presence of an abdominal wall endometrioma within a cesarean section scar may pose a diagnostic dilemma, which is often misdiagnosed, and results in surgery referrals for treatment. (scirp.org)
  • Before a C-section, a needle called an IV is put in one of the mother's veins to give fluids and medicine (if needed) during the surgery. (peacehealth.org)
  • You might need some help positioning your baby correctly to breastfeed after a C-section - see our C-section recovery section for tips and advice on this, and looking after yourself after your surgery. (bounty.com)
  • A c-section is safe for both mother and baby but it is a major surgery so it should be a serious consideration. (bannerhealth.com)
  • While c-sections are generally safe, no surgery is without risk. (bannerhealth.com)
  • There are always risks when it comes to any surgery and cesarean sections are no different. (womenhealthzone.com)
  • Cesarean section is the most commonly performed major surgery in the world. (tabers.com)
  • While it's been noted in various medical publications for years that later-onset endometriosis is typically tied to uterine surgery such as c-sections, and referred to often as "iatrogenic" which means "doctor or medically caused", this is the first large scale study to confirm those suspicions. (thebabycorner.com)
  • Robson classification of Cesarean section rates and indications allows evaluation and comparison of the contributors to the Cesarean section rate and their impact. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The most common indications for caesarian section include fetal distress, malpresentation, failure to progress in labor, and previous caesarian section. (nationmaster.com)
  • There are a number of reasons why a woman might choose a c-section in the absence of the usual indications. (surgeryencyclopedia.com)
  • Vaginal Repair of Cesarean Section Scar Diverticula Diagnosed in Nonpregnant Women. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The rare presence of an abdominal wall endometrioma within a cesarean section scar may pose a diagnostic dilemma both clinically and with diagnostic imaging. (scirp.org)
  • You had a C-section before, and you have the same problems this time or your doctor thinks labor might cause your scar to tear (uterine rupture). (peacehealth.org)
  • If she gets pregnant again, a woman with a C-section scar has a small risk of the scar tearing open during labor (uterine rupture). (peacehealth.org)
  • How's your c-section scar 'x' months on? (bellybelly.com.au)
  • Findings indicate that elective C-section rates increased from 24% to 60%, resulting in a decrease of infant mortality from 1.3/1000 to 0.7/1000. (omicsonline.org)
  • Infant Plaintiff was born at Brookdale University Hospital Medical Center via cesarean section on April 20, 1993. (lawfitz.com)
  • No adverse outcomes for the infant after c-section! (healthtap.com)
  • If you or your infant suffered a C-section injury in Michigan as a direct result of medical negligence, you could benefit from reaching out to an experienced lawyer at Buckfire & Buckfire, P.C. to discuss your legal options. (buckfirelaw.com)
  • The weighted average for the 10 hospitals with the highest overall cesarean rates is 48.3 percent. (citizen.org)
  • Practical information is provided on postoperative analgesia, postoperative course and nursing, the significance of cesarean section for breastfeeding, and the occurrence of long-term problems and chronic pain after cesarean section. (frohberg.de)
  • External cephalic version after previous cesarean section: A cohort study of 100 consecutive attempts. (bioportfolio.com)
  • She is first author of the article "Cesarean Section and Risk of Severe Childhood Asthma: A Population-Based Cohort Study" which is published in the Journal of Pediatrics . (bio-medicine.org)
  • In the first decade of the 21st century, the rate of cesarean section far exceeded WHO's recommendation in many other countries as well, including the United Kingdom, Australia , Germany, France, and Italy . (britannica.com)
  • Population-based studies report either no difference in urinary incontinence by route of birth 6 or a baseline rate that is high and only somewhat improved by cesarean section. (cmaj.ca)
  • As indicated above, the average cesarean rate in the 10 hospitals with the highest rates is 48.3 percent. (citizen.org)
  • The primary cesarean rate may therefore have a larger denominator than is warranted, thus yielding a lower rate than the "true" one. (citizen.org)
  • Our numbers may therefore err on the conservative side, understating the primary cesarean rate. (citizen.org)
  • The primary cesarean rate in New York is 21.1 percent and varies more than 3.5-fold by county. (citizen.org)
  • There is no agreement on what the C-section rate should be. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Among the myriad of changes in the environment over recent decades, rapid increases in the rate of cesarean section have occurred in parallel to the rate of diabetes ( 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • With a current national rate near 40%, the literature consistently reported a rapid rise of cesarean sections in the People's Republic of China in the past decades, irrespective of where people lived or their socioeconomic standing. (dovepress.com)
  • Antibiotic prophylaxis versus no prophylaxis for preventing infection after cesarean section. (medscape.com)
  • After a cesarean section the mother has a greater risk of infection, excessive bleeding, blood clots, more post-partum pain and longer hospital stays. (healthstatus.com)
  • In some cases requiring c-section, the baby is in a transverse position, lying horizontally across the pelvis, perhaps with a shoulder in the birth canal. (surgeryencyclopedia.com)