The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.
The first cervical vertebra.
Establishment of the age of an individual by examination of their skeletal structure.
A syndrome characterised by a low hairline and a shortened neck resulting from a reduced number of vertebrae or the fusion of multiple hemivertebrae into one osseous mass.
A group of twelve VERTEBRAE connected to the ribs that support the upper trunk region.
A historical and cultural entity dispersed across a wide geographical area under the influence of Greek civilization, culture, and science. The Greek Empire extended from the Greek mainland and the Aegean islands from the 16th century B.C., to the Indus Valley in the 4th century under Alexander the Great, and to southern Italy and Sicily. Greek medicine began with Homeric and Aesculapian medicine and continued unbroken to Hippocrates (480-355 B.C.). The classic period of Greek medicine was 460-136 B.C. and the Graeco-Roman period, 156 B.C.-576 A.D. (From A. Castiglioni, A History of Medicine, 2d ed; from F. H. Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed)
An ancient city, the site of modern Istanbul. From the 4th to 15th centuries the empire extended from southeastern Europe to western Asia, reaching its greatest extent under Justinian (527-565). By about 1000 A.D. it comprised the southern Balkans, Greece, Asia Minor, and parts of southern Italy. The capture of Constantinople in 1453 marked the formal end of the Byzantine Empire. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)
The spinal or vertebral column.
VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.
The measurement of the dimensions of the HEAD.
An infraorder of PRIMATES comprised of the families CERCOPITHECIDAE (old world monkeys); HYLOBATIDAE (siamangs and GIBBONS); and HOMINIDAE (great apes and HUMANS). With the exception of humans, they all live exclusively in Africa and Asia.
Congenital structural abnormalities and deformities of the musculoskeletal system.
A genus of the subfamily ALOUATTINAE, family ATELIDAE, inhabiting the forests of Central and South America. Howlers travel in groups and define their territories by howling accompanied by vigorously shaking and breaking branches.
The CARPAL BONES; METACARPAL BONES; and FINGER PHALANGES. In each hand there are eight carpal bones, five metacarpal bones, and 14 phalanges.
A subfamily in the family ATELIDAE, comprising three genera: woolly monkeys (Lagothrix), spider monkeys (Ateles), and woolly spider monkeys (Brachyteles).
General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.
Screens which absorb the energy in the x-ray beam that has penetrated the patient and convert this energy into a light pattern which has as nearly as possible the same information as the original x-ray beam. The more light a screen produces for a given input of x-radiation, the less x-ray exposure and thus shorter exposure time are needed to expose the film. In most film-screen systems, the film is sandwiched between two screens in a cassette so that the emulsion on each side is exposed to the light from its contiguous screen.
The first branch of the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY with distribution to muscles of the NECK; VERTEBRAE; SPINAL CORD; CEREBELLUM; and interior of the CEREBRUM.
Any of the 23 plates of fibrocartilage found between the bodies of adjacent VERTEBRAE.
Specialized devices used in ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY to repair bone fractures.
Internal devices used in osteosynthesis to hold the position of the fracture in proper alignment. By applying the principles of biomedical engineering, the surgeon uses metal plates, nails, rods, etc., for the correction of skeletal defects.
The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.
The toothlike process on the upper surface of the axis, which articulates with the CERVICAL ATLAS above.
Also called the shoulder blade, it is a flat triangular bone, a pair of which form the back part of the shoulder girdle.
Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)
Such malposition and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth as to interfere with the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.
Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
Broken bones in the vertebral column.
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
An appreciable lateral deviation in the normally straight vertical line of the spine. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Five fused VERTEBRAE forming a triangle-shaped structure at the back of the PELVIS. It articulates superiorly with the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, inferiorly with the COCCYX, and anteriorly with the ILIUM of the PELVIS. The sacrum strengthens and stabilizes the PELVIS.
Procedures to repair or stabilize vertebral fractures, especially compression fractures accomplished by injecting BONE CEMENTS into the fractured VERTEBRAE.
A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs.
Crumbling or smashing of cancellous BONE by forces acting parallel to the long axis of bone. It is applied particularly to vertebral body fractures (SPINAL FRACTURES). (Blauvelt and Nelson, A Manual of Orthopedic Terminology, 1994, p4)
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Deficient development or degeneration of a portion of the VERTEBRA, usually in the pars interarticularis (the bone bridge between the superior and inferior facet joints of the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE) leading to SPONDYLOLISTHESIS.
Deformities of the SPINE characterized by an exaggerated convexity of the vertebral column. The forward bending of the thoracic region usually is more than 40 degrees. This deformity sometimes is called round back or hunchback.
Polymerized methyl methacrylate monomers which are used as sheets, moulding, extrusion powders, surface coating resins, emulsion polymers, fibers, inks, and films (From International Labor Organization, 1983). This material is also used in tooth implants, bone cements, and hard corneal contact lenses.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Deformities of the SPINE characterized by abnormal bending or flexure in the vertebral column. They may be bending forward (KYPHOSIS), backward (LORDOSIS), or sideway (SCOLIOSIS).
The cavity within the SPINAL COLUMN through which the SPINAL CORD passes.
The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
A dead body, usually a human body.
Region of the back including the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, SACRUM, and nearby structures.
Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.
Devices which are used in the treatment of orthopedic injuries and diseases.
Procedures to restore vertebrae to their original shape following vertebral compression fractures by inflating a balloon inserted into the vertebrae, followed by removal of the balloon and injection of BONE CEMENTS to fill the cavity.
The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
Osteitis or caries of the vertebrae, usually occurring as a complication of tuberculosis of the lungs.
Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.

Wasting of the small hand muscles in upper and mid-cervical cord lesions. (1/2270)

Four patients are described with destructive rheumatoid arthritis of the cervical spine and neurogenic wasting of forearm and hand muscles. The pathological connection is not immediately obvious, but a relationship between these two observations is described here with clinical, radiological, electrophysiological and necropsy findings. Compression of the anterior spinal artery at upper and mid-cervical levels is demonstrated to be the likely cause of changes lower in the spinal cord. These are shown to be due to the resulting ischaemia of the anterior part of the lower cervical spinal cord, with degeneration of the neurones innervating the forearm and hand muscles. These findings favour external compression of the anterior spinal artery leading to ischaemia in a watershed area as the likeliest explanation for this otherwise inappropriate and bizarre phenomenon.  (+info)

Genetic influences on cervical and lumbar disc degeneration: a magnetic resonance imaging study in twins. (2/2270)

OBJECTIVE: Degenerative intervertebral disc disease is common; however, the importance of genetic factors is unknown. This study sought to determine the extent of genetic influences on disc degeneration by classic twin study methods using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: We compared MRI features of degenerative disc disease in the cervical and lumbar spine of 172 monozygotic and 154 dizygotic twins (mean age 51.7 and 54.4, respectively) who were unselected for back pain or disc disease. An overall score for disc degeneration was calculated as the sum of the grades for disc height, bulge, osteophytosis, and signal intensity at each level. A "severe disease" score (excluding minor grades) and an "extent of disease" score (number of levels affected) were also calculated. RESULTS: For the overall score, heritability was 74% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 64-81%) at the lumbar spine and 73% (95% CI 64-80%) at the cervical spine. For "severe disease," heritability was 64% and 79% at the lumbar and cervical spine, respectively, and for "extent of disease," heritability was 63% and 63%, respectively. These results were adjusted for age, weight, height, smoking, occupational manual work, and exercise. Examination of individual features revealed that disc height and bulge were highly heritable at both sites, and osteophytes were heritable in the lumbar spine. CONCLUSION: These results suggest an important genetic influence on variation in intervertebral disc degeneration. However, variation in disc signal is largely influenced by environmental factors shared by twins. The use of MRI scans to determine the phenotype in family and population studies should allow a better understanding of disease mechanisms and the identification of the genes involved.  (+info)

Disabling injuries of the cervical spine in Argentine rugby over the last 20 years. (3/2270)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence and risk factors of disabling injuries to the cervical spine in rugby in Argentina. METHODS: A retrospective review of all cases reported to the Medical Committee of the Argentine Rugby Union (UAR) and Rugby Amistad Foundation was carried out including a follow up by phone. Cumulative binomial distribution, chi 2 test, Fisher test, and comparison of proportions were used to analyse relative incidence and risk of injury by position and by phase of play (Epi Info 6, Version 6.04a). RESULTS: Eighteen cases of disabling injury to the cervical spine were recorded from 1977 to 1997 (0.9 cases per year). The forwards (14 cases) were more prone to disabling injury of the cervical spine than the backs (four cases) (p = 0.03). Hookers (9/18) were at highest risk of injury (p < 0.01). The most frequent cervical injuries occurred at the 4th, 5th, and 6th vertebrae. Seventeen of the injuries occurred during match play. Set scrums were responsible for most of the injuries (11/18) but this was not statistically significant (p = 0.44). The mean age of the injured players was 22. Tetraplegia was initially found in all cases. Physical rehabilitation has been limited to the proximal muscles of the upper limbs, except for two cases of complete recovery. One death, on the seventh day after injury, was reported. CONCLUSIONS: The forwards suffered a higher number of injuries than the backs and this difference was statistically significant. The chance of injury for hookers was statistically higher than for the rest of the players and it was particularly linked to scrummaging. However, the number of injuries incurred in scrums was not statistically different from the number incurred in other phases of play.  (+info)

Cluster headache-like attack as an opening symptom of a unilateral infarction of the cervical cord: persistent anaesthesia and dysaesthesia to cold stimuli. (4/2270)

A 54 year old man experienced excruciating left retro-orbital pain with lacrimation and redness of the eye representative of a cluster headache attack. This was followed by left hemiparesis with plegia of the lower limb and left Horner's syndrome. Five days later the hemiparesis recovered while the patient developed hypoanaesthesia to cold stimuli that evoked painful burning dysaesthesia on the right side below the C4 level. MRI disclosed a discrete infarct in the left lateral aspect of the cord at C2 level concomitant to a left vertebral artery thrombosis. This limited infarct and the clinical symptoms suggest a hypoperfusion in the peripheral arterial system of the left hemicord, supplied both by the anterior and posterior spinal arteries. Cluster headache-like attack and persistent dysaesthesia to cold stimuli are discussed respectively in view of the central sympathetic involvement and partial spinothalamic system dysfunction.  (+info)

Bilateral vertebral artery occlusion following cervical spine trauma--case report. (5/2270)

A 41-year-old female presented with a rare case of bilateral vertebral artery occlusion following C5-6 cervical spine subluxation after a fall of 30 feet. Digital subtraction angiography showed occlusion of the bilateral vertebral arteries. Unlocking of the facet joint, posterior wiring with iliac crest grafting, and anterior fusion were performed. The patient died on the 3rd day after the operation. This type of injury has a grim prognosis with less than a third of the patients achieving a good outcome.  (+info)

In vivo and in vitro CT analysis of the occiput. (6/2270)

Arguments concerning the best procedure for occipito-cervical fusion have rarely been based upon occipital bone thickness or only based on in vitro studies. To close this gap and to offer an outlook on preoperative evaluation of the patient, 28 patients were analysed in vivo by means of spiral CT. Ten macerated human skulls were measured by means of CT and directly. Measurements were taken according to a matrix of 66 points following a grid with 1 cm spacing based upon McRae's line. Maximum thickness in the patient group was met 4 cm above the reference plane in the median slice (11.87 mm; SD 3.41 mm) and 5 cm above it in the skull group (15.85 mm; SD 1.81 mm). Correlation between CT and direct measurements was good (91.79%). Intra-individual discrepancies from one side to the respective point on the other side are common (difference > 1 mm in 60%). Judging areas suitable for operative fixation using the 10% percentile value (6.68 mm for the maximum value of 11.87 mm) led to the conclusion that screws should only be inserted along the occipital crest in an area extending from 1.5 cm above the posterior margin of the foramen magnum to the external occipital protuberance (EOP). At the level of the EOP screws may also be inserted up to 1 cm lateral of the midline. A reduction of screw length to 7 mm (9 mm for the EOP) is proposed. Preoperative evaluation of the patient should be carried out by spiral CT with 1 mm slicing and sagittal reconstructions.  (+info)

A clinico-pathological study of cervical myelopathy in rheumatoid arthritis: post-mortem analysis of two cases. (7/2270)

Two patients who developed cervical myelopathy secondary to rheumatoid arthritis were analyzed post mortem. One patient had anterior atlanto-axial subluxation (AAS) combined with subaxial subluxation (SS), and the other had vertical subluxation (VS) combined with SS. In the patient with AAS, the posterior aspect of the spinal cord demonstrated severe constriction at the C2 segment, which arose from dynamic osseous compression by the C1 posterior arch. A histological cross-section of the spinal cord at the segment was characterized by distinct necrosis in the posterior white columns and the gray matter. In the patient with VS, the upper cervical cord and medulla oblongata showed angulation over the invaginated odontoid process, whereas no significant pathological changes were observed. At the level of SS, the spinal cord was pinched and compressed between the upper corner of the vertebral body and the lower edge of the lamina. Histologically, demyelination and gliosis were observed in the posterior and lateral white columns.  (+info)

Hypoglossal nerve injury as a complication of anterior surgery to the upper cervical spine. (8/2270)

Injury to the hypoglossal nerve is a recognised complication after soft tissue surgery in the upper part of the anterior aspect of the neck, e.g. branchial cyst or carotid body tumour excision. However, this complication has been rarely reported following surgery of the upper cervical spine. We report the case of a 35-year-old woman with tuberculosis of C2-3. She underwent corpectomy and fusion from C2 to C5 using iliac crest bone graft, through a left anterior oblique incision. She developed hypoglossal nerve palsy in the immediate postoperative period, with dysphagia and dysarthria. It was thought to be due to traction neurapraxia with possible spontaneous recovery. At 18 months' follow-up, she had a solid fusion and tuberculosis was controlled. The hypoglossal palsy persisted, although with minimal functional disability. The only other reported case of hypoglossal lesion after anterior cervical spine surgery in the literature also failed to recover. It is concluded that hypoglossal nerve palsy following anterior cervical spine surgery is unlikely to recover spontaneously and it should be carefully identified.  (+info)

The main features of KFS include:

1. Fusion of two or more cervical vertebrae (cervical vertebral fusion)
2. Limited range of motion in the neck
3. Abnormalities in the shape and position of the spine
4. Neurological symptoms such as weakness, numbness, or paralysis in the arms and legs
5. Delayed development of motor skills and coordination
6. Learning disabilities and cognitive impairments
7. Facial asymmetry and/or craniofacial abnormalities
8. Other congenital anomalies such as cardiac, gastrointestinal, or urologic defects

The symptoms of KFS can vary in severity and may be present at birth or develop later in childhood. The exact cause of KFS is unknown, but it is thought to result from genetic mutations or environmental factors during fetal development.

Diagnosis of KFS typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging studies such as X-rays or MRIs, and genetic testing. Treatment for KFS depends on the severity of symptoms and may include:

1. Physical therapy to improve range of motion and strength in the neck and limbs
2. Bracing or orthotics to support the spine and promote proper posture
3. Medications to manage pain, weakness, or other neurological symptoms
4. Surgery to correct cervical deformities or relieve compression on the spinal cord
5. Other interventions such as speech therapy, occupational therapy, or special education to address cognitive and developmental delays.

Overall, early diagnosis and appropriate management of KFS can improve the quality of life for individuals with this condition. However, the prognosis for KFS is highly variable, and some individuals may experience significant ongoing disability or developmental delays despite treatment.

Some examples of musculoskeletal abnormalities include:

- Carpal tunnel syndrome: Compression of the median nerve in the wrist that can cause numbness, tingling, and weakness in the hand and arm.

- Kyphosis: An exaggerated curvature of the spine, often resulting from osteoporosis or other conditions that affect the bones.

- Osteoarthritis: Wear and tear on the joints, leading to pain, stiffness, and limited mobility.

- Clubfoot: A congenital deformity in which the foot is turned inward or outward.

- Scoliosis: An abnormal curvature of the spine that can be caused by genetics, injury, or other factors.

Musculoskeletal abnormalities can be diagnosed through physical examination, imaging tests such as X-rays and MRIs, and other diagnostic procedures. Treatment options vary depending on the specific condition but may include medication, physical therapy, braces or orthotics, or surgery in severe cases.

Some common types of spinal diseases include:

1. Degenerative disc disease: This is a condition where the discs between the vertebrae in the spine wear down over time, leading to pain and stiffness in the back.
2. Herniated discs: This occurs when the gel-like center of a disc bulges out through a tear in the outer layer, putting pressure on nearby nerves and causing pain.
3. Spinal stenosis: This is a narrowing of the spinal canal, which can put pressure on the spinal cord and nerve roots, causing pain, numbness, and weakness in the legs.
4. Spondylolisthesis: This is a condition where a vertebra slips out of place, either forward or backward, and can cause pressure on nearby nerves and muscles.
5. Scoliosis: This is a curvature of the spine that can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, injury, or disease.
6. Spinal infections: These are infections that can affect any part of the spine, including the discs, vertebrae, and soft tissues.
7. Spinal tumors: These are abnormal growths that can occur in the spine, either primary ( originating in the spine) or metastatic (originating elsewhere in the body).
8. Osteoporotic fractures: These are fractures that occur in the spine as a result of weakened bones due to osteoporosis.
9. Spinal cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that can form in the spine, either as a result of injury or as a congenital condition.
10. Spinal degeneration: This is a general term for any type of wear and tear on the spine, such as arthritis or disc degeneration.

If you are experiencing any of these conditions, it is important to seek medical attention to receive an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

Types of Spinal Neoplasms:

1. Benign tumors: Meningiomas, schwannomas, and osteochondromas are common types of benign spinal neoplasms. These tumors usually grow slowly and do not spread to other parts of the body.
2. Malignant tumors: Primary bone cancers (chordoma, chondrosarcoma, and osteosarcoma) and metastatic cancers (cancers that have spread to the spine from another part of the body) are types of malignant spinal neoplasms. These tumors can grow rapidly and spread to other parts of the body.

Causes and Risk Factors:

1. Genetic mutations: Some genetic disorders, such as neurofibromatosis type 1 and tuberous sclerosis complex, increase the risk of developing spinal neoplasms.
2. Previous radiation exposure: People who have undergone radiation therapy in the past may have an increased risk of developing a spinal tumor.
3. Family history: A family history of spinal neoplasms can increase an individual's risk.
4. Age and gender: Spinal neoplasms are more common in older adults, and males are more likely to be affected than females.


1. Back pain: Pain is the most common symptom of spinal neoplasms, which can range from mild to severe and may be accompanied by other symptoms such as numbness, weakness, or tingling in the arms or legs.
2. Neurological deficits: Depending on the location and size of the tumor, patients may experience neurological deficits such as paralysis, loss of sensation, or difficulty with balance and coordination.
3. Difficulty with urination or bowel movements: Patients may experience changes in their bladder or bowel habits due to the tumor pressing on the spinal cord or nerve roots.
4. Weakness or numbness: Patients may experience weakness or numbness in their arms or legs due to compression of the spinal cord or nerve roots by the tumor.
5. Fractures: Spinal neoplasms can cause fractures in the spine, which can lead to a loss of height, an abnormal curvature of the spine, or difficulty with movement and balance.


1. Medical history and physical examination: A thorough medical history and physical examination can help identify the presence of symptoms and determine the likelihood of a spinal neoplasm.
2. Imaging studies: X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, or PET scans may be ordered to visualize the spine and detect any abnormalities.
3. Biopsy: A biopsy may be performed to confirm the diagnosis and determine the type of tumor present.
4. Laboratory tests: Blood tests may be ordered to assess liver function, electrolyte levels, or other parameters that can help evaluate the patient's overall health.


1. Surgery: Surgical intervention is often necessary to remove the tumor and relieve pressure on the spinal cord or nerve roots.
2. Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy may be used before or after surgery to kill any remaining cancer cells.
3. Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy may be used in combination with radiation therapy or as a standalone treatment for patients who are not candidates for surgery.
4. Supportive care: Patients may require supportive care, such as physical therapy, pain management, and rehabilitation, to help them recover from the effects of the tumor and any treatment-related complications.


The prognosis for patients with spinal neoplasms depends on several factors, including the type and location of the tumor, the extent of the disease, and the patient's overall health. In general, the prognosis is better for patients with slow-growing tumors that are confined to a specific area of the spine, as compared to those with more aggressive tumors that have spread to other parts of the body.

Survival rates:

The survival rates for patients with spinal neoplasms vary depending on the type of tumor and other factors. According to the American Cancer Society, the 5-year survival rate for primary spinal cord tumors is about 60%. However, this rate can be as high as 90% for patients with slow-growing tumors that are confined to a specific area of the spine.

Lifestyle modifications:

There are no specific lifestyle modifications that can cure spinal neoplasms, but certain changes may help improve the patient's quality of life and overall health. These may include:

1. Exercise: Gentle exercise, such as yoga or swimming, can help improve mobility and strength.
2. Diet: A balanced diet that includes plenty of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean protein can help support overall health.
3. Rest: Getting enough rest and avoiding strenuous activities can help the patient recover from treatment-related fatigue.
4. Managing stress: Stress management techniques, such as meditation or deep breathing exercises, can help reduce anxiety and improve overall well-being.
5. Follow-up care: Regular follow-up appointments with the healthcare provider are crucial to monitor the patient's condition and make any necessary adjustments to their treatment plan.

In conclusion, spinal neoplasms are rare tumors that can develop in the spine and can have a significant impact on the patient's quality of life. Early diagnosis is essential for effective treatment, and survival rates vary depending on the type of tumor and other factors. While there are no specific lifestyle modifications that can cure spinal neoplasms, certain changes may help improve the patient's overall health and well-being. It is important for patients to work closely with their healthcare provider to develop a personalized treatment plan and follow-up care to ensure the best possible outcome.

Overbite: This occurs when the upper teeth overlap the lower teeth too much.

Underbite: This happens when the lower teeth overlap the upper teeth too much.

Crossbite: This is when the upper teeth do not align with the lower teeth, causing them to point towards the inside of the mouth.

Open bite: This occurs when the upper and lower teeth do not meet properly, resulting in a gap or an open bite.

Overjet: This is when the upper teeth protrude too far forward, overlapping the lower teeth.

Crowding: This refers to when there is not enough space in the mouth for all the teeth to fit properly, leading to overlapping or misalignment.

Spacing: This occurs when there is too much space between the teeth, which can lead to gum problems and other issues.

Each type of malocclusion can cause a range of symptoms, including difficulty chewing, jaw pain, headaches, and difficulty opening and closing the mouth fully. Treatment options for malocclusion depend on the severity of the problem and may include orthodontic braces, aligners, or surgery to correct the bite and improve oral function and aesthetics.

There are several types of spinal fractures, including:

1. Vertebral compression fractures: These occur when the vertebrae collapses due to pressure, often caused by osteoporosis or trauma.
2. Fracture-dislocations: This type of fracture occurs when the vertebra is both broken and displaced from its normal position.
3. Spondylolysis: This is a type of fracture that occurs in the spine, often due to repetitive stress or overuse.
4. Spondylolisthesis: This is a type of fracture where a vertebra slips out of its normal position and into the one below it.
5. Fracture-subluxation: This type of fracture occurs when the vertebra is both broken and partially dislocated from its normal position.

The diagnosis of spinal fractures typically involves imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI to confirm the presence of a fracture and determine its severity and location. Treatment options for spinal fractures depend on the severity of the injury and may include pain management, bracing, physical therapy, or surgery to stabilize the spine and promote healing. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to realign the vertebrae and prevent further damage.

Overall, spinal fractures can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, and it is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

1. Parvovirus (Parvo): A highly contagious viral disease that affects dogs of all ages and breeds, causing symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, and severe dehydration.
2. Distemper: A serious viral disease that can affect dogs of all ages and breeds, causing symptoms such as fever, coughing, and seizures.
3. Rabies: A deadly viral disease that affects dogs and other animals, transmitted through the saliva of infected animals, and causing symptoms such as aggression, confusion, and paralysis.
4. Heartworms: A common condition caused by a parasitic worm that infects the heart and lungs of dogs, leading to symptoms such as coughing, fatigue, and difficulty breathing.
5. Ticks and fleas: These external parasites can cause skin irritation, infection, and disease in dogs, including Lyme disease and tick-borne encephalitis.
6. Canine hip dysplasia (CHD): A genetic condition that affects the hip joint of dogs, causing symptoms such as arthritis, pain, and mobility issues.
7. Osteosarcoma: A type of bone cancer that affects dogs, often diagnosed in older dogs and causing symptoms such as lameness, swelling, and pain.
8. Allergies: Dog allergies can cause skin irritation, ear infections, and other health issues, and may be triggered by environmental factors or specific ingredients in their diet.
9. Gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV): A life-threatening condition that occurs when a dog's stomach twists and fills with gas, causing symptoms such as vomiting, pain, and difficulty breathing.
10. Cruciate ligament injuries: Common in active dogs, these injuries can cause joint instability, pain, and mobility issues.

It is important to monitor your dog's health regularly and seek veterinary care if you notice any changes or abnormalities in their behavior, appetite, or physical condition.

* Thoracic scoliosis: affects the upper back (thoracic spine)
* Cervical scoliosis: affects the neck (cervical spine)
* Lumbar scoliosis: affects the lower back (lumbar spine)

Scoliosis can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

* Genetics: inherited conditions that affect the development of the spine
* Birth defects: conditions that are present at birth and affect the spine
* Infections: infections that affect the spine, such as meningitis or tuberculosis
* Injuries: injuries to the spine, such as those caused by car accidents or falls
* Degenerative diseases: conditions that affect the spine over time, such as osteoporosis or arthritis

Symptoms of scoliosis can include:

* An uneven appearance of the shoulders or hips
* A difference in the height of the shoulders or hips
* Pain or discomfort in the back or legs
* Difficulty standing up straight or maintaining balance

Scoliosis can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including:

* X-rays: images of the spine that show the curvature
* Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): images of the spine and surrounding tissues
* Computed tomography (CT) scans: detailed images of the spine and surrounding tissues

Treatment for scoliosis depends on the severity of the condition and can include:

* Observation: monitoring the condition regularly to see if it progresses
* Bracing: wearing a brace to support the spine and help straighten it
* Surgery: surgical procedures to correct the curvature, such as fusing vertebrae together or implanting a metal rod.

It is important for individuals with scoliosis to receive regular monitoring and treatment to prevent complications and maintain proper spinal alignment.

Compression fractures are more common in older adults due to the natural aging process that weakens bones, causing them to become brittle and prone to breaking. This type of fracture can also be caused by other conditions such as cancer or infections that weaken bones.

Compression fractures are often diagnosed with X-rays or CT scans, which show the extent of the fracture and any damage to surrounding tissue. Treatment typically involves pain management, bracing to support the spine, and medication to prevent further bone loss. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to stabilize the spine or correct deformities.

Compression fractures can have a significant impact on quality of life, causing chronic back pain, limited mobility, and emotional distress. However, with proper treatment and support, many people are able to recover and maintain their independence.

Preventing compression fractures is essential, particularly for older adults or those with osteoporosis. This can be achieved through a healthy diet rich in calcium and vitamin D, regular exercise, and avoiding smoking and excessive alcohol consumption. Additionally, falling prevention strategies such as removing tripping hazards from the home environment and improving lighting can help reduce the risk of compression fractures.

Overall, compression fractures are a common condition that can significantly impact quality of life. Understanding the causes, diagnosis, and treatment options is crucial for effective management and prevention of this condition.

The term "spondylolysis" comes from the Greek words "spondylo," meaning "vertebra," and "lysis," meaning "destruction." Together, they refer to a condition where there is a fracture or degeneration of one or more vertebrae in the spine.

Spondylolysis can occur at any level of the spine, but it is most common in the lower back (lumbar spine) and the neck (cervical spine). It can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

1. Overuse or repetitive strain: This is the most common cause of spondylolysis, particularly in athletes who participate in high-impact sports. The repeated stress and strain on the vertebrae can lead to small fractures or degeneration over time.
2. Trauma: Spondylolysis can also be caused by a sudden injury, such as a fall or a blow to the back. This type of trauma can cause a fracture or compression of one or more vertebrae.
3. Genetics: Some people may be more prone to developing spondylolysis due to inherited factors, such as a family history of spinal problems.
4. Degenerative conditions: Spondylolysis can also be caused by degenerative conditions such as osteoporosis, which can lead to weakened bones and increased risk of fracture.

The symptoms of spondylolysis can vary depending on the location and severity of the condition. Common symptoms include:

1. Back pain: This is the most common symptom of spondylolysis, and it can range from mild to severe.
2. Stiffness: Patients with spondylolysis may experience stiffness in their back, particularly after periods of rest or inactivity.
3. Limited mobility: Spondylolysis can cause limited mobility in the affected area, making it difficult to bend or twist.
4. Muscle spasms: Muscle spasms are common in patients with spondylolysis, particularly in the back muscles.
5. Tenderness: The affected area may be tender to the touch, and patients may experience pain when pressure is applied to the area.
6. Decreased range of motion: Spondylolysis can cause a decrease in range of motion, making it difficult to move or bend.
7. Numbness or tingling: Patients with spondylolysis may experience numbness or tingling sensations in the affected area.

Spondylolysis is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI. Treatment for spondylolysis depends on the severity of the condition and may include:

1. Rest and relaxation: Patients with mild cases of spondylolysis may be advised to rest and avoid activities that exacerbate the condition.
2. Physical therapy: Physical therapy can help improve range of motion, strength, and flexibility in patients with spondylolysis.
3. Medications: Over-the-counter pain relievers such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen may be prescribed to manage pain associated with spondylolysis.
4. Bracing: Wearing a brace can help support the affected area and improve mobility.
5. Surgery: In severe cases of spondylolysis, surgery may be necessary to repair or stabilize the affected vertebrae.

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of spondylolysis, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent further damage and improve outcomes.

There are several types of kyphosis, including:

1. Postural kyphosis: This type of kyphosis is caused by poor posture and is often seen in teenagers.
2. Scheuermann's kyphosis: This type of kyphosis is caused by a structural deformity of the spine and is most common during adolescence.
3. Degenerative kyphosis: This type of kyphosis is caused by degenerative changes in the spine, such as osteoporosis or degenerative disc disease.
4. Neuromuscular kyphosis: This type of kyphosis is caused by neuromuscular disorders such as cerebral palsy or muscular dystrophy.

Symptoms of kyphosis can include:

* An abnormal curvature of the spine
* Back pain
* Difficulty breathing
* Difficulty maintaining posture
* Loss of height
* Tiredness or fatigue

Kyphosis can be diagnosed through a physical examination, X-rays, and other imaging tests. Treatment options for kyphosis depend on the type and severity of the condition and can include:

* Physical therapy
* Bracing
* Medication
* Surgery

It is important to seek medical attention if you or your child is experiencing any symptoms of kyphosis, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent further progression of the condition and improve quality of life.

Kyphosis is an exaggerated forward curvature of the spine, also known as "roundback" or "hunchback". This type of curvature can be caused by a variety of factors such as osteoporosis, degenerative disc disease, and Scheuermann's disease.

Lordosis is an excessive inward curvature of the spine, also known as "swayback". This type of curvature can be caused by factors such as pregnancy, obesity, and spinal injuries.

Scoliosis is a sideways curvature of the spine, which can be caused by a variety of factors such as genetics, injury, or birth defects. Scoliosis can be classified into two main types: Cervical (neck) scoliosis and Thoracic (chest) scoliosis.

All three types of curvatures can cause discomfort, pain and decreased mobility if left untreated. Treatment options vary depending on the severity of the curvature and may include physical therapy, bracing, or surgery.

In medicine, cadavers are used for a variety of purposes, such as:

1. Anatomy education: Medical students and residents learn about the human body by studying and dissecting cadavers. This helps them develop a deeper understanding of human anatomy and improves their surgical skills.
2. Research: Cadavers are used in scientific research to study the effects of diseases, injuries, and treatments on the human body. This helps scientists develop new medical techniques and therapies.
3. Forensic analysis: Cadavers can be used to aid in the investigation of crimes and accidents. By examining the body and its injuries, forensic experts can determine cause of death, identify suspects, and reconstruct events.
4. Organ donation: After death, cadavers can be used to harvest organs and tissues for transplantation into living patients. This can improve the quality of life for those with organ failure or other medical conditions.
5. Medical training simulations: Cadavers can be used to simulate real-life medical scenarios, allowing healthcare professionals to practice their skills in a controlled environment.

In summary, the term "cadaver" refers to the body of a deceased person and is used in the medical field for various purposes, including anatomy education, research, forensic analysis, organ donation, and medical training simulations.

Symptoms of spinal tuberculosis may include:

* Back pain
* Weakness or numbness in the arms or legs
* Difficulty walking or maintaining balance
* Fever, fatigue, and weight loss
* Loss of bladder or bowel control

If left untreated, spinal tuberculosis can lead to severe complications such as paralysis, nerve damage, and infection of the bloodstream. Treatment typically involves a combination of antibiotics and surgery to remove infected tissue.

Spinal TB is a rare form of TB, but it is becoming more common due to the increasing number of people living with HIV/AIDS, which weakens the immune system and makes them more susceptible to TB infections. Spinal TB can be difficult to diagnose as it may present like other conditions such as cancer or herniated discs.

The prognosis for spinal tuberculosis is generally good if treated early, but the condition can be challenging to treat and may require long-term management.

There are several types of osteoporosis, including:

1. Postmenopausal osteoporosis: This type of osteoporosis is caused by hormonal changes that occur during menopause. It is the most common form of osteoporosis and affects women more than men.
2. Senile osteoporosis: This type of osteoporosis is caused by aging and is the most common form of osteoporosis in older adults.
3. Juvenile osteoporosis: This type of osteoporosis affects children and young adults and can be caused by a variety of genetic disorders or other medical conditions.
4. secondary osteoporosis: This type of osteoporosis is caused by other medical conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, or ulcerative colitis.

The symptoms of osteoporosis can be subtle and may not appear until a fracture has occurred. They can include:

1. Back pain or loss of height
2. A stooped posture
3. Fractures, especially in the spine, hips, or wrists
4. Loss of bone density, as determined by a bone density test

The diagnosis of osteoporosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests, such as X-rays or bone density tests. Treatment for osteoporosis can include medications, such as bisphosphonates, hormone therapy, or rANK ligand inhibitors, as well as lifestyle changes, such as regular exercise and a balanced diet.

Preventing osteoporosis is important, as it can help to reduce the risk of fractures and other complications. To prevent osteoporosis, individuals can:

1. Get enough calcium and vitamin D throughout their lives
2. Exercise regularly, especially weight-bearing activities such as walking or running
3. Avoid smoking and excessive alcohol consumption
4. Maintain a healthy body weight
5. Consider taking medications to prevent osteoporosis, such as bisphosphonates, if recommended by a healthcare provider.

Illustration of cervical vertebrae Shape of cervical vertebrae (shown in blue and yellow). Animation. 3D image Cervical ... Diagram at Cervical Spine Anatomy Mnemonic for Landmarks Cervical vertebra quiz Cervical vertebrae - BlueLink ... cervical vertebrae (singular: vertebra) are the vertebrae of the neck, immediately below the skull. Truncal vertebrae (divided ... of cervical vertebrae. In sauropsid species, the cervical vertebrae bear cervical ribs. In lizards and saurischian dinosaurs, ...
... cervical vertebrae; rib; vertebrae; lumbar vertebrae; thoracic vertebrae Excavation (2005): Level 3 M Mousterian. This level is ...
It surrounds the paraspinous muscles and cervical vertebrae. The carotid sheath is also considered a component of the deep ... The alar fascia is a portion of the deep cervical fascia. The deep cervical fascia is often divided into a superficial, middle ... Sagittal Section Showing Deep Cervical Fascial Layers Infrahyoid Cross-Section Showing Layers of Deep Cervical Fascia ... The deep cervical fascia (or fascia colli in older texts) lies under cover of the platysma, and invests the muscles of the neck ...
... a posterior cervical vertebra; cervical ribs; multiple dorsal vertebrae and dorsal ribs; the sacrum; 32 caudal vertebrae and 18 ... It includes a partial anterior cervical vertebra, multiple dorsal vertebrae and ribs, the sacrum, seven caudal vertebrae and ... the vertebrae have a triangular process that extends over the centrum towards each preceding vertebra. Just like modern ... The first vertebra of the tail has a ridge on its ventral surface called a keel. In the first third of the tail, the bases of ...
"Cervical vertebrae." "Vertebrae." Acanthopholis eucercus - "[Two] caudal centra." Acanthopholis platypus (in part) - "Phalanx, ... "Vertebrae." Trachodon cantabrigiensis - "Dentary tooth." Macrurosaurus semnus - "Caudal vertebrae" Amblydectes crassidens A. ... Enaliornis barrette - "Braincases, vertebrae, pelvis [and] limb elements.." E sedgwicki - "Hindlimb elements." E. seeleyi - " ... caudal centra." Acanthopholis macrocercus (aka Syngonosaurus) - "Osteoderms." "Vertebrae, fragmentary skeleton elements." ...
... cervical vertebrae 7-10; several posterior cervical ribs; several anterior dorsal vertebrae; most mid and posterior dorsal ... vertebrae; several dorsal ribs; the fifth sacral vertebrae; three chevrons; many partial and complete caudal vertebrae and ... When the type specimen was discovered, several long cervical ribs, of a supposed prosauropod dinosaur were found in the mouth ...
Skull and cervical vertebra. Position of condyloid fossa shown in red. X-ray of cervical spine (neck) in flexion and extension ...
A cervical rib in humans is an extra rib which arises from the seventh cervical vertebra. Their presence is a congenital ... In mammals, the ventral parts of the transverse processes of the cervical vertebrae are the fused-on cervical ribs. Recent ... "The ossification of the costal element of the seventh cervical vertebra with particular reference to cervical ribs". Journal of ... A cervical rib is estimated to occur in 0.2% to 0.5% (1 in 200 to 500) of the population. People may have a cervical rib on the ...
... and cervical vertebrae (GR 243). All of these specimens are from the Hayden Quarry, a site in New Mexico, which preserves many ... A neck vertebral adaptation in Tawa supports the hypothesis that cervical air sacs antedate the origin of the Neotheropoda and ...
The cervical vertebrae were elongated. The first six dorsal vertebrae had fused into a notarium. Several pairs of belly ribs ...
... nearly complete cervical and dorsal vertebrae, partial sacral and caudal vertebrae, the hip girdle, most of the left hindlimb, ... the lack of keels in the cervical vertebrae; and the presence of two osteoderm rows over each vertebra instead of one. The ... Another series of cervical vertebrae ("Series B") underwent a similar reassignment. A scapula and coracoid overlapping the ... There are eight cervical vertebrae. Unlike Turfanosuchus, Euparkeria, Fasolasuchus, Saurosuchus, and sphenosuchians, the suture ...
At the second cervical vertebra, the axis, a flat bone plate with a length of nineteen millimeters was found. Apart from this, ... The cervical vertebrae are short. The vertebral centra are wider than they are long, a typical ankylosaur feature, but they ... Thirteen "free" vertebrae have been preserved in the tail base. Five additional vertebrae are enclosed in a structure made of ... After the eighteenth vertebra, all the vertebrae are missing: only the cavity within the macuahuitl gives an indication of how ...
... had five cervical (neck) vertebrae. The atlas, the first cervical (C1), has a pair of deep cavities for insertion of ... though these groups all have a much longer sacral vertebra series (marsupials are restricted to two sacral vertebrae). ... The articular surface (the part that joints to another vertebra) of the axis (C2) is slightly concave on the front side, and ... The diaphophyses (an upward-angled projection on either the side of the vertebra) of the atlas are relatively short and thick, ...
... bears 26 cervical (neck) vertebrae. The parts of the atlas and axis, the first two cervical vertebrae, are not ... The cervical vertebrae increase in size towards the back of the neck, and the articulations between the neural arches and ... The cervical ribs are double-headed (the surface connecting to the vertebrae is forked) and their heads are roughly circular. ... holes on the bottom of the vertebrae) is located. The moderately long cervical centra are amphicoelous (concave on both sides) ...
Tinker, Spencer (1 January 1988). "The Vertebrae of the Cervical Region". Whales of the World. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-935848-47-2. ... The fusing of the neck vertebrae, while increasing stability when swimming at high speeds, decreases flexibility, making it ...
Tinker, Spencer (1988-01-01). "The Vertebrae of the Cervical Region". Whales of the World. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-935848-47-2. ... their neck vertebrae are not fused together, meaning they have greater flexibility than other non-terrestrial aquatic mammals, ...
Lamparski (1972) used the cervical vertebrae and found them to be as reliable and valid as the hand-wrist area for assessing ... Hassel & Farman (1995) developed an index based on the second, third, and fourth cervical vertebrae (C2, C3, C4) and proved ... Patcas, R.; Signorelli, L.; Peltomaki, T.; Schatzle, M. (2012). "Is the use of the cervical vertebrae maturation method ... Lamparski, DG (1972). "Skeletal Age Assessment Utilizing Cervical Vertebrae". Master Science Thesis. Caldas, Maria de Paula; ...
... all cervical vertebrae, and all dorsal (12) and sacral vertebrae (5), as well as several cervical, dorsal and sacral ribs, a ... both cervical vertebrae are relatively elongated; the sacricostal yoke excepts the first sacral rib; and an extremely robust ... The series of dorsal vertebrae has a length of 372 centimetres. The thighbone is 165 centimetres long, and the tibia is 98 cm. ... Xinjiangtitan was diagnosed based on the following traits: the presence of a ventral keel on the penultimate cervical centrum ...
The SCG is located opposite the second and third cervical vertebrae. It lies deep to the sheath of the internal carotid artery ... The cervical plexus is formed from a unification of the anterior divisions of the upper four cervical nerves. Each receives a ... Superior cervical ganglion Sympathetic connections of the ciliary and superior cervical ganglia. The position and relation of ... In his further studies of the superior cervical ganglion, Langley discovered that the superior cervical ganglion is ...
The cervical vertebrae too are relatively long. The naris is confluent with the antorbital fenestra, but these large openings ...
Cervical fracture Cervical vertebrae Stahel, Philip F.; Weckbach, Sebastian (2022). "20. Spine fractures". In Pape, Hans- ... In a study based in Norway, 60% of reported cervical fractures came from falls and 21% from motor-related accidents. According ... 2006) based on 30 cases within 41 patients treated by using anterior cervical fixation and fusion and 11 cases treated by a ... James R, Nasmyth-Jones R (Apr 1992). "The occurrence of cervical fractures in victims of judicial hanging". Forensic Science ...
... anteroposteriorly compressed cervical vertebrae, and robust, proportionally short hindlimbs with a tibia shorter than femur ... It contained elements including a left and partial right maxillae; basicranium; both dentaries; teeth; cervical, a dorsal, ... sacral and caudal vertebrae; haemal arches; ribs; ilia, pubis and proximal ischia; left and distal end of right femur; left ...
The spine comprised 10 cervical (neck) vertebrae; 14 dorsal (trunk) vertebrae; three sacral (hip) vertebrae; and ca. 50 caudal ... tail) vertebrae. In contrast to the later sauropods, the sides of the dorsal vertebrae did not show deep cavities caused by air ...
Entrapment may occur at any point from the spine at cervical vertebra C7 to the wrist; the most common point of entrapment is ... Cervical Vertebrae Ulnar neuropathy Aguiar, Paulo Henrique; Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson; Gomes-Pinto, Fernando; Almeida- Leme, Ricardo ... cervical spine pathology, compression by anterior scalene muscles Problems originating in the chest: compression by pectoralis ...
It may ossify, particularly around cervical vertebrae. The posterior longitudinal ligament has a high density of vasomotor ... It extends along the posterior surfaces of the bodies of the vertebrae, from the body of the axis to the sacrum and possibly ... The ligament is thicker in the thoracic than in the cervical and lumbar regions. In the thoracic and lumbar regions, it ... Superficial fibres run between multiple vertebrae. The posterior longitudinal ligament weakly prevents hyperflexion of the ...
The cervical vertebrae are short and broad. Six dorsal vertebrae have been preserved, nine ribs and six belly ribs at the left ... The tail vertebrae at the base, the authenticity of which is certain, are short. The wings are relatively short. The humerus is ...
Short, flat-front cervical vertebra without bifide spines. No spine in the fifth cervical vertebra. Number of thoracic vertebra ... Transverse apophysis of C6 and C7 vertebra are more like a human's. Cervical vertebra lack foramen for containing the nerves ( ... Five vertebrae in the loins (could refer to lumbar vertebrae, of which monkey and apes have six). Lumbar vertebrae are straight ... Same number of vertebra or elements in the sacrum as an ape. Thirteen ribs on each side; humans have twelve. Smaller thumb ...
He fractured his C3 and C4 cervical vertebrae. About two weeks later, he was transferred to Kessler Institute for ...
The cervical vertebra are considered "high and short". The anterior cervical ribs are double-headed while the posterior ... The genus is known only from a lower jaw, a vertebra, and fragments of a pectoral girdle. It is believed this genus lived in ... cervical ribs are single-headed. The coracoids are elongated and the clavicles are well developed. List of plesiosaur genera ...
The neural arches of the cervical vertebrae were not always sutured to the centra (the bodies of the vertebrae), and the neural ... The cervical vertebrae of the neck tapered towards the head and became progressively longer front to back. Their zygapophyses ( ... cervical (neck), dorsal (back), and caudal (tail) vertebrae; ribs; a sternum; both scapulae (shoulder blades); both coracoids; ... The cervical ribs were short, similar to those of crocodiles, and possibly overlapped each other somewhat. The centra of the ...
... flerovi is based on a holotype specimen including six cervical or neck vertebrae and a partial right ilium or ...
Though cervical vertebrae and caudal vertebrae have been preserved, their exact number is unknown. The femur is bowed and has ... It consists of a better preserved, perhaps smaller, skull and some neck vertebrae. Both specimens represent juvenile or at ...
... the last five cervical vertebrae are fused to give the head greater rigidity during digging. The animal swims through the soil ...
... sternbergi type specimen as two cervical and one dorsal vertebrae rather than two dorsal vertebrae as Williston had reported in ... LeConte sent the vertebrae to Edward Drinker Cope for study. Cope recognized the find as a significant plesiosaur discovery and ... Several Elasmosaurus vertebrae and gastroliths were found near the site where the type specimen of the genus itself was ... 2017). A study on the anatomy of the vertebra of Vegasaurus molyi and its implications for the anatomy of the nervous system of ...
In late February 2009, he again suffered a season-ending injury when his C5 cervical vertebra was broken in a team bus accident ...
Additionally, an indeterminate cervical vertebra from the Phu Kradung Formation of Thailand demonstrates survival of ...
Cervical vertebra A portion of the spinal cord, showing its right lateral surface. The dura is opened and arranged to show the ... The cervical enlargement, stretching from the C5 to T1 vertebrae, is where sensory input comes from and motor output goes to ... There are 31 spinal cord nerve segments in a human spinal cord: 8 cervical segments forming 8 pairs of cervical nerves (C1 ... L5 refer to the location of a specific vertebra in either the cervical, thoracic, or lumbar region of the spine.) Spinal cord ...
It is most commonly seen in high-energy trauma, often associated with other skull and/or cervical spine injuries. The presence ... vertebra. Functionally it allows the head to move from side to side, up and down, as well as to rotate. A combination of a ... Symptoms of an isolated occipital condyle fracture resemble those of other craniocervical injuries, including high cervical ... which function in articulation with the superior facets of the atlas vertebra. The condyles are oval or reniform (kidney-shaped ...
... shows characters of the humeral head, acromion, and anterior cervical vertebrae, that were previously known only in ...
... historically found in Scottish gamekeepers Spine Neck sprain at the cervical vertebrae Whiplash (Traumatic Cervical Spine ... "Pathology and Treatment of Traumatic Cervical Spine Syndrome: Whiplash Injury". Advances in Orthopedics. 2018: 4765050. doi: ...
... an anterior cervical vertebra and QM F12217&2, associated posterior cervical vertebrae. Eromangasaurus was first named by ...
Gerber's neck injury was initially thought to be a compression fracture of a cervical vertebra and it was believed that he ... On 13 December 2009, while playing for Atlant, Gerber suffered an apparent fracture of the fourth vertebrae when an opposing ...
Behind it are the transverse process of the seventh cervical vertebra, the sympathetic trunk and its inferior cervical ganglion ... They then proceed superiorly, in the transverse foramen of each cervical vertebra. Once they have passed through the transverse ... then enter deep to the transverse process at the level of the 6th cervical vertebrae (C6), or occasionally (in 7.5% of cases) ... prior to entering the transverse foramen of 6th cervical vertebra).[citation needed] The carotid tubercle separates the ...
... the extra movement afforded by the beluga's unfused cervical vertebrae allows a greater range of apparent expression. Between ... Whale ribs loosely articulate with their thoracic vertebrae at the proximal end, but they do not form a rigid rib cage. This ... Whale ribs loosely articulate with their thoracic vertebrae at the proximal end, but do not form a rigid rib cage. This ... The fusing of the neck vertebrae, while increasing stability when swimming at high speeds, decreases flexibility; whales are ...
8 cervical vertebrae, 11 partial dorsal vertebrae, the sacrum, 7 caudal vertebrae, partial hindlimbs with the right foot, and a ... A second specimen is represented by the less complete paratype MPC-D 100/21 that includes two caudal vertebrae and a nearly ... Pneumatic foramina are present in the holotypic anterior sacral vertebrae. The femur and tibia of the holotype measure 27.3 cm ... pleurocoels are present on the anterior sacral vertebrae; and the anterior border of the anterior blade in the ilium is ...
The massive tail vertebrae in the front area of the tail suggest a strong musculature. Among other things, this concerns the ... The articular surfaces as the point of attachment of the cervical spine curved far outwards and were relatively larger than in ... The vertebrae were massively shaped, both at the vertebral bodies and at the lateral transverse processes. However, the ...
It is necessary to take into consideration the skull base, the mandible, the cervical vertebrae and a cranial reference plane. ...
Lilienthal had a fracture of the third cervical vertebra and soon became unconscious. Later that day he was transported in a ...
The lower edge of each vertebra possessed a large keel which was deepest towards the rear. Isolated cervical neural spines were ... two articulated mid-neck vertebrae, two articulated mid-back vertebrae, the last back vertebrae, the sacrum with sacral ribs, ... The two incompletely preserved cervical (neck) vertebrae were amphicoelous (concave from both the front and the rear), with a ... The caudals (tail vertebrae) near the hip were tall and generally similar to the dorsals, except that their zygapophyses were ...
... extending the development of their cervical vertebrae; they retain the usual mammalian number of these vertebrae, seven. This ... Where a typical vertebrate like a mouse has only around 60 vertebrae, snakes have between around 150 to 400, giving them ... The assumption is that disrupting this would kill the embryo rather than giving it more vertebrae. Heterochrony can be ...
He was subsequently taken to Tin Shui Wai Hospital with injuries to his cervical vertebrae, as he was kicked in the back of the ...
... has less than five cervical vertebrae and its pectoral girdle is very close to its skull. 114 caudal or tail ... It is laterally compressed due to the long neural spines and chevrons that extend from each vertebra. The radius, ulna, fibula ... neck vertebrae). Concavispina has a large skull, short neck, short limbs, and long tail. ZMNH M8804 is 364 centimetres (11.94 ... vertebrae. Both its generic and specific names refer to these autapomorphies (unique characteristics), as Concavispina means " ...
2015). "2 Anterior Cervical Decompression and Fusion Techniques: Anterior Cervical Decompression and Fusion, Corpectomy, and ... There is a risk of early infection or damage to the operated vertebrae if the animal moves too quick and uncontrolled. Adverse ... "The foramen is probed with a nerve hook to ensure that the nerve is free". To decompress a longer part of the cervical canal a ... Depending on the width or lateral extension of the slot some dogs may suffer from subluxation of included vertebrae. One can ...
Section of the neck at about the level of the sixth cervical vertebra. Showing the arrangement of the fascia coli. Henry Gray ( ... It arises from the anterior tubercles of the transverse processes of the third, fourth, fifth, and sixth cervical vertebrae, ... The middle scalene arises from the posterior tubercles of the transverse processes of the lower six cervical vertebrae. It ... The scalene muscles originate from the transverse processes from the cervical vertebrae of C2 to C7 and insert onto the first ...
... is invagination (infolding) of the base of the skull that occurs when the top of the C2 vertebra migrates ... thus relieving pressure on the spinal cord Using a neck collar or cervical-thoracic suit If there is pressure on the spinal ... without corticosteroids to relieve inflammation Cervical traction, in which the neck is pulled along its length, ...
... three cervical vertebrae, six dorsal vertebrae, ten caudal vertebrae, ossified tendon fragments, three cerival and thirteen ...
... has five or six cervical vertebrae, all of which are very flattened and wide, with low neural spines. Only one ... 34 caudal vertebrae are preserved, although some may be missing, and the first three of them have transverse processes. Only ... There are four sacral vertebrae, with distally expanded pleurapophyses enclosing a foramen between each pair. ... dorsal vertebra can be seen beneath the carapace. ...
The cervical ribs were slender and may have bent easily. The atlas bone (the first cervical vertebra which attaches to the ... Dilophosaurus had 10 cervical (neck), 14 dorsal (back), and 45 caudal (tail) vertebrae, and air sacs grew into the vertebrae. ... The cervical vertebrae were unusually light; their centra (the "bodies" of the vertebrae) were hollowed out by pleurocoels ( ... The axis bone (the second cervical vertebra) had a heavy spine, and its postzygapophyses (the processes of the vertebrae that ...
They are the smallest, and lightest vertebrae of the vertebral column. ... There are seven cervical vertebrae which are located in the neck. ... There are seven cervical vertebrae which are located in the neck. They are the smallest, and lightest vertebrae of the ...
ICD-10 code S13.12 for Subluxation and dislocation of C1/C2 cervical vertebrae is a medical classification as listed by WHO ... Excludes2: fracture of cervical vertebrae (S12.0-S12.3-). Code also: any associated:. open wound of neck (S11.-). spinal cord ... ICD-10-CM Code for Subluxation and dislocation of C1/C2 cervical vertebrae S13.12 ICD-10 code S13.12 for Subluxation and ... dislocation of C1/C2 cervical vertebrae is a medical classification as listed by WHO under the range - Injury, poisoning and ...
The cervical vertebrae ranging from C3 to C6 are of the typical variety. Lets learn their anatomical features. ...
View our free comprehensive resource on everything you need to know about the Vertebrae including Cervical Vertebrae and Colum ... The atlas is the first cervical vertebra. It is a ring of bone and is very different from a typical vertebra, with specific ... In common with the other cervical vertebrae, the transverse processes are also perforated by foramina transversaria. ... The body is small, wide and oval in shape - it does not have to carry as much weight as vertebrae lower down the column. The ...
MSQ Quiz 254) Cervical vertebrae mechanics. Sign up today to get access! ...
... choose the high quality cervical vertebra tractor from China ... Neck stretche Inflatable Cervical Vertebra Tractor. Contact Now ... Inflatable adjustable comfortable cervical vertebra tractor. Contact Now Neck Support Traction Device Cervical Vertebra Tractor ...
LIMA, Silas Henrique Rabelo de et al. The forensic importance of cervical vertebrae in human identification cases. RFO UPF [ ... Palavras-chave : Cervical vertebrae; Dentistry forensic; Development indicators. · resumo em Português · texto em Português · ... Results: There is a strong correlation between the main age and bone age obtained from cervical vertebrae, resulting in r= ... Objective: To verify the viability of bone age determination by the cervical vertebrae, focusing on its use by forensic ...
... that 10 minutes of below-knee assembly work can increase neck and back pain and cause changes in the active CROM and cervical ... Changes in neck and back pain, cervical range of motion and cervical and lumbar flexion-relaxation ratios after below-knee ... Both the cervical and lumbar FRRs on the left and right sides decreased significantly with below-knee assembly work. ... Neck and back pain VAS scores, active CROM and cervical and lumbar FRRs were measured in all subjects once before and once ...
The discovery documents the first really long-tailed pachypleurosaur with totally 121 (69 caudal) vertebrae, providing new ... c, cervical vertebra; ca, caudal vertebra; d, dorsal vertebra; s, sacral vertebra. ... The 21th vertebra is considered as the first dorsal vertebra because its rib is much longer than that of the last cervical rib ... The vertebral column consists of 121 vertebrae, including 20 cervical, 29 dorsal, three sacral, and 69 caudal vertebrae (Figs. ...
Articulated cervical vertebrae, anterolateral view. Image #206-1. KEYWORDS: Bones joints cartilage, Cervical region, Vertebral ...
MRI video walk through and Xray images of cervical spinal vertebrae with left cervical radiculopathy ... Labels: achy, bulge, c4-c5, c5-c6, cervical radiculopathy, degenerative, herniation, mri, stenosis, vertebrae ... This page about cervical radiculophathy from American Family Physicians page has two MRI photos as well. ... This was very informative! I am a medical student and am searching a lot on Cervical Laminoplasty. Thanks for sharing. Keep ...
Sixth cervical vertebra (C6) The sixth cervical vertebra (C6) is also sometimes classified as an atypical cervical vertebra ... because its anterior tubercles of the transverse processes are larger than those of the other cervical vertebrae. ...
This causes the C7(seventh cervical vertebrae) plumb line to stay behind the perpendicular line passing through the middle of ... and finally cervical extension [17], in the DDD patients with SVA ≤ 50 mm, some present with a compensatory sagittal balance, ... first thoracic vertebrae) tilt, thoracic kyphosis (TK), lumbar lordosis (LL), sacrum slope (SS), pelvic tilt (PT), pelvic ... and those showing horizontal displacement of two femoral heads or irregular superior endplate of the first sacral vertebrae or ...
Ems Low-frequency Hand Rehabilitation Electrotherapy Instrument Cervical Vertebra Massage Instrument. Orionmarts Internati… · ...
Cervical/Neck - the second cervical vertebrae innervates the sinuses. Irritation of the nerve roots may promote congestion and ...
... their cervical vertebrae are not fused; this lateral flexibility allows them to move their head up, down, and side to side. ... Beluga whales or white whales are a small, white-toothed whale and unlike other cetaceans, their cervical vertebrae are not ...
કમર ડોકના મણકાની સારવારમાં નિષ્ણાત - સુજોક થેરાપી,Treatment for lumber and neck/ cervical vertebra in sujok therapy ... કમર ડોકના મણકાની સારવારમાં નિષ્ણાત - સુજોક થેરાપી,Treatment for lumber and neck/ cervical vertebra in sujok therapy Sujok ... કમર ડોકના મણકાની સારવારમાં નિષ્ણાત - સુજોક થેરાપી,Treatment for lumber and neck/ cervical vertebra in sujok therapy Reviewed by ... કમર ડોકના મણકાની સારવારમાં નિષ્ણાત - સુજોક થેરાપી,Treatment for lumber and neck/cervical vertebra in sujok therapy ...
The cervical spine is made up of 7 vertebrae. The first 2, C1 and C2, are highly specialized and are given unique names: atlas ... Lower Cervical Spine. The 5 cervical vertebrae that make up the lower cervical spine, C3-C7, are similar to each other but very ... Although the cervical spine consists of 7 cervical vertebrae interspaced by intervertebral disks, the complex ligamentous ... The upper cervical spine consists of the atlas (C1) and the axis (C2). [1, 2, 3, 4] These first 2 vertebrae are quite different ...
Giraffes, humans, and nearly all other mammals have seven cervical vertebrae. As you might imagine, giraffes vertebrae are not ... 5. You Have the Same Number of Neck Vertebrae as a Giraffe Adult giraffes are two times as tall as the rim of a basketball goal ... A single vertebra in a giraffes neck can measure 11 inches (28 cm) in length, which is longer than the entire neck of most ... With so much of that height found in their necks, it would be sensible to assume they have more neck vertebrae than we do - but ...
Cervical Vertebrae / abnormalities. *Cervical Vertebrae / diagnostic imaging. *Joint Diseases. *Joint Diseases / diagnostic ... A small increase in diagnostic accuracy between the presence of neck stiffness and all forms of cervical degenerative joint ... Results: Referral of pain to the shoulder and neck stiffness showed small degrees of correlation with cervical degenerative ... Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional design was used to correlate cervical radiographic findings with neck pain and related ...
Gray, S., Bennani, H., Kieser, J. A., & Farella, M. (2016). Morphometric analysis of cervical vertebrae in relation to ... Timmins, K., Liversidge, H., Farella, M., Herbison, P., & Kieser, J. (2012). The usefulness of dental and cervical maturation ...
Rheumatoid arthritis can often affect the top two vertebrae of the neck. Treatments include medication, therapy, and surgery. ... cervical spine procedure. . Surgery can include spinal fusion, which helps restabilize the first and second vertebrae, or you ... The C1 vertebrae, also known as the atlas, supports the weight of your head, and the C2, or axis, helps your neck move in ... An unstable vertebra can shift or dislocate over time. This increased movement can put pressure on the spinal cord and nerve ...
Axis Scientific Vertebrae Set - Includes Cervical, Thoracic, and Lumbar Vertebrae with Sacrum and Coccyx Axis Scientific ... Overview This Axis Scientific Vertebrae Set includes Atlas, Axis, Cervical, Thoracic, and Lumbar Vertebrae with Sacrum and ...
Resonance Images (MRIs) of Cervical Vertebra Yunzhi Guan, Shuo Yang, Chi Sun, Yuxuan Zhang, Guangyu Xu, Hongli Wang, Yiman ... Autophagy Activating Kinase 1 Axis in Cervical Cancer as Detected Using Nanomagnetic Beads Yingchao Liang, Beili Wang, Xiaowen ... Effect and Mechanism of Electro-Acupuncture on Neuralgia of Cervical Spondylotic Radiculopathy Based on the Neuron-Gliocyte- ...
Hes back on the air now, too, while recovering from a fractured skull and cervical vertebrae. Ford, who was in the front ...
Categories: Cervical Vertebrae Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted ...
Cervical Radiculopathy)? Learn more about your condition including DOs and DONTs for how to manage your treatment. ... What Is Cervical Radiculopathy?. The cervical (neck) spine has seven vertebrae (bones). Cervical radiculopathy, or pinched ... A cervical pillow at night can help position the neck. Physical therapy for pain and inflammation may include gentle cervical ... How Is Cervical Radiculopathy Diagnosed?. The health care provider takes a careful history and does a physical and sensory ...
... gap size was estimated between the atlas cervical vertebra and the skull (cm). The onset of brain death was assessed by ... Title: Broiler chicken euthanasia by cervical dislocation: manual versus mechanical methods Author. JACOBS, LEONIE - Virginia ... Mechanical cervical dislocation is a potential alternative. The aim was to assess the onset of brain stem death based on the ... Technical Abstract: Manual cervical dislocation (MCD) is a common method to euthanize broiler chickens, but can be challenging ...
  • The cervical spine is made up of 7 vertebrae. (
  • The cervical spine is much more mobile than the thoracic or lumbar regions of the spine. (
  • Unlike the other parts of the spine, the cervical spine has transverse foramina in each vertebra for the vertebral arteries that supply blood to the brain. (
  • The cervical spine is made up of the first 7 vertebrae, referred to as C1-7 (see the images below). (
  • The cervical spine may be divided into 2 parts: upper and lower. (
  • Lateral radiograph of cervical spine showing all 7 vertebrae. (
  • The upper cervical spine consists of the atlas (C1) and the axis (C2). (
  • Background: There are few known studies investigating the correlation of symptomatology with the specific subtypes of cervical spine degenerative joint disease demonstrated on radiograph. (
  • Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that clinical symptoms such as pain level, headaches, shoulder referral and hand radiculopathy or numbness are not reliably correlated with radiographic findings of degenerative joint disease in the cervical spine. (
  • The cervical (neck) spine has seven vertebrae (bones). (
  • When his symptoms did not improve, a cervical spine radiograph showed a lytic lesion of the fifth cervical vertebra. (
  • On hospital admission, physical examination was unremarkable, with the exception of pain on palpation over the posterior cervical spine. (
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical spine demonstrated an enhancing mass that involved the posterior aspects of C5 plus an abnormal signal within the adjacent spinous processes. (
  • It can also complicate manipulations of the cervical spine by reducing the blood flow during extreme rotations of head and neck. (
  • Children who had undergone cervical spine surgery or who had disea- ses not associated with this syndrome were excluded. (
  • In most cervical spine before practicing sports4,5. (
  • Overview This Axis Scientific Vertebrae Set includes Atlas, Axis, Cervical, Thoracic, and Lumbar Vertebrae with Sacrum and Coccyx securely fastened to the base for a great desktop reference. (
  • The vertebrae were analyzed according to a modified Hassel & Farma´s method, which analyzed the bottom edges of C2, C3 and C4, and the vertebral bodies of C3 and C4 by assigning one of six maturation stages (1-be-ginning, 2-acceleration, 3-transition, 4-deceleration, 5-maturation and 6-ending). (
  • Syndrome Individuals with Down Syndrome using the cervical vertebrae maturation stages. (
  • Is there a correlation between dental and cervical vertebrae maturation stages in growing subjects? (
  • To assess skeletal maturity among individuals with Down Syndrome using the cervical vertebrae maturation stages. (
  • The independent t-test and chi-square test were used to determine significant differences among the continuous (age) and categorical variables ( cervical vertebrae maturation stages) respectively when matched with gender and chronological age. (
  • In common with the other cervical vertebrae, the transverse processes are also perforated by foramina transversaria. (
  • Conclusion: Presence of incomplete ponticulus posterior might cause cervical pain and even cerebrovascular disorders due to pressure on third part of vertebral artery present in the vertebral artery groove. (
  • Physical therapy for pain and inflammation may include gentle cervical traction, mobilization, and neck-strengthening exercises. (
  • What Is Cervical Radiculopathy? (
  • Cervical radiculopathy, or pinched nerve, is damage to a nerve root near these vertebrae. (
  • What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Cervical Radiculopathy? (
  • How Is Cervical Radiculopathy Diagnosed? (
  • How Is Cervical Radiculopathy Treated? (
  • Conclusion: Changes observed in the used human cervical vertebrae radiographs showed to be useful to assist in age estimation, contributing to the forensic dentistry expert´s activity before identification cases. (
  • Radiographs of 322 patients from April 2010 to June 2012 were assessed and evidence of radiographic cervical degenerative joint disease was extracted. (
  • The Cervical individuals as most of the studies have been limited vertebrae maturations (CVM) stages were thereafter to the hand wrist radiographs.7 correlated with gender and chronological age. (
  • The C1 vertebrae, also known as the atlas, supports the weight of your head, and the C2, or axis, helps your neck move in different directions. (
  • Thus, children with Down syndrome and on the second vertebra (axis)3. (
  • Kamdi Ashish, Ambade Hemlata, Thakre Gourav, Kaore Ashita, Kamdi N.Y.. Study of Incidence of Ponticulus Posterior In Dry Human Atlas Vertebra and Its Clinical Significance. (
  • Each atlas vertebra was carefully observed for the presence or absence of complete or incomplete ponticuli on superior surface of posterior arch of atlas. (
  • This does not allow much rotation of one vertebra on the other, but does allow flexion, extension and lateral flexion. (
  • This study examined the changes in neck and back pain visual analog scale (VAS) scores, cervical range of motion (CROM), cervical flexion-relaxation ratio (FRR) and lumbar FRR after below-knee assembly work. (
  • The ligamentous laxity and It is imperative that health care professionals generalized hypotonia are characteristics that be aware about the presence of this condition, since contribute to the change of alignment in the atlanto- physical activity involving cervical flexion may cause axial segment in children with Down syndrome1,2. (
  • The atlas is the first cervical vertebra. (
  • The atlas is ring-shaped and does not have a body, unlike the rest of the vertebrae. (
  • On those 2 days, gap size was estimated between the atlas cervical vertebra and the skull (cm). (
  • Background: Atlas is the first cervical vertebra. (
  • Ponticuli were incomplete in all 7 atlas vertebras. (
  • Complete ring was not observed in any of the atlas vertebra .Out of the 7 ponticuli 6(12%) were found to be unilateral and in only 1 (2%) case it was found to be bilateral. (
  • A 28-year-old man with 15 years' riding experience was thrown to the ground while riding a bull and suffered a fracture of the fifth and sixth cervical vertebrae and an incomplete * spinal cord injury. (
  • Pattern among Down vertebrae as a method of assessment of skeletal maturity has rarely been used among Down Syndrome. (
  • Keywords: Skeletal maturity, Cervical Vertebrae Maturation, Down syndrome. (
  • Cervical vertebrae maturation has rarely been used maturations (CVM) were staged using the method to assess the skeletal maturation of Down Syndrome described by Baccetti et al. (
  • Manual cervical dislocation (MCD) is a common method to euthanize broiler chickens, but can be challenging due to fatigue or a lack of strength or training. (
  • Mechanical cervical dislocation is a potential alternative. (
  • Bones joints cartilage, Cervical region, Vertebral column. (
  • Objective: To verify the viability of bone age determination by the cervical vertebrae, focusing on its use by forensic dentistry expert´s activity. (
  • It may exist as a separate bone, forming a cervical rib. (
  • It is a ring of bone and is very different from a 'typical' vertebra, with specific anatomical features shown below. (
  • Results: There is a strong correlation between the main age and bone age obtained from cervical vertebrae, resulting in r=0.8534. (
  • C3 -4 cervical vertebrae) or the body of the hyoid bone (C3) [1]. (
  • Results: Referral of pain to the shoulder and neck stiffness showed small degrees of correlation with cervical degenerative joint disease, however, these correlations were not maintained when age was accounted for. (
  • Other symptoms can develop if your vertebrae press on the spinal cord and nerve roots. (
  • A small increase in diagnostic accuracy between the presence of neck stiffness and all forms of cervical degenerative joint disease is shown, however, this increase is not at the level expected to change clinical practice. (
  • Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional design was used to correlate cervical radiographic findings with neck pain and related symptomatology. (
  • There are spinal nerves on both sides of these vertebrae, and these nerves supply feeling to the scalp. (
  • Both the cervical and lumbar FRRs on the left and right sides decreased significantly with below-knee assembly work. (
  • The body is small, wide and oval in shape - it does not have to carry as much weight as vertebrae lower down the column. (
  • The raised superior edges of the body form the uncinate processes, which articulate with the adjacent vertebra. (
  • Neck and back pain VAS scores, active CROM and cervical and lumbar FRRs were measured in all subjects once before and once after 10 minutes of below-knee assembly work. (
  • The discovery documents the first really long-tailed pachypleurosaur with totally 121 (69 caudal) vertebrae, providing new evidence for the vertebral multiplication and ecological adaption of this group. (
  • The results were presented in tables for each vertebra, where, from the average, a single stage of maturation was obtained. (
  • Results: Out of the 50 vertebra studied 7(14%) showed the presence of Ponticuli. (