Cervical Vertebrae: The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.Cervical Atlas: The first cervical vertebra.Age Determination by Skeleton: Establishment of the age of an individual by examination of their skeletal structure.Klippel-Feil Syndrome: A syndrome characterised by a low hairline and a shortened neck resulting from a reduced number of vertebrae or the fusion of multiple hemivertebrae into one osseous mass.AxisThoracic Vertebrae: A group of twelve VERTEBRAE connected to the ribs that support the upper trunk region.Greek World: A historical and cultural entity dispersed across a wide geographical area under the influence of Greek civilization, culture, and science. The Greek Empire extended from the Greek mainland and the Aegean islands from the 16th century B.C., to the Indus Valley in the 4th century under Alexander the Great, and to southern Italy and Sicily. Greek medicine began with Homeric and Aesculapian medicine and continued unbroken to Hippocrates (480-355 B.C.). The classic period of Greek medicine was 460-136 B.C. and the Graeco-Roman period, 156 B.C.-576 A.D. (From A. Castiglioni, A History of Medicine, 2d ed; from F. H. Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed)Byzantium: An ancient city, the site of modern Istanbul. From the 4th to 15th centuries the empire extended from southeastern Europe to western Asia, reaching its greatest extent under Justinian (527-565). By about 1000 A.D. it comprised the southern Balkans, Greece, Asia Minor, and parts of southern Italy. The capture of Constantinople in 1453 marked the formal end of the Byzantine Empire. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)Spine: The spinal or vertebral column.Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Cephalometry: The measurement of the dimensions of the HEAD.Catarrhini: An infraorder of PRIMATES comprised of the families CERCOPITHECIDAE (old world monkeys); HYLOBATIDAE (siamangs and GIBBONS); and HOMINIDAE (great apes and HUMANS). With the exception of humans, they all live exclusively in Africa and Asia.Musculoskeletal Abnormalities: Congenital structural abnormalities and deformities of the musculoskeletal system.Carpal Bones: The eight bones of the wrist: SCAPHOID BONE; LUNATE BONE; TRIQUETRUM BONE; PISIFORM BONE; TRAPEZIUM BONE; TRAPEZOID BONE; CAPITATE BONE; and HAMATE BONE.Antisepsis: The destruction of germs causing disease.Alouatta: A genus of the subfamily ALOUATTINAE, family ATELIDAE, inhabiting the forests of Central and South America. Howlers travel in groups and define their territories by howling accompanied by vigorously shaking and breaking branches.Hand Bones: The CARPAL BONES; METACARPAL BONES; and FINGER PHALANGES. In each hand there are eight carpal bones, five metacarpal bones, and 14 phalanges.Atelinae: A subfamily in the family ATELIDAE, comprising three genera: woolly monkeys (Lagothrix), spider monkeys (Ateles), and woolly spider monkeys (Brachyteles).Dinosaurs: General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.X-Ray Intensifying Screens: Screens which absorb the energy in the x-ray beam that has penetrated the patient and convert this energy into a light pattern which has as nearly as possible the same information as the original x-ray beam. The more light a screen produces for a given input of x-radiation, the less x-ray exposure and thus shorter exposure time are needed to expose the film. In most film-screen systems, the film is sandwiched between two screens in a cassette so that the emulsion on each side is exposed to the light from its contiguous screen.Vertebral Artery: The first branch of the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY with distribution to muscles of the NECK; VERTEBRAE; SPINAL CORD; CEREBELLUM; and interior of the CEREBRUM.Intervertebral Disc: Any of the 23 plates of fibrocartilage found between the bodies of adjacent VERTEBRAE.Bone Screws: Specialized devices used in ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY to repair bone fractures.Spinal NeoplasmsInternal Fixators: Internal devices used in osteosynthesis to hold the position of the fracture in proper alignment. By applying the principles of biomedical engineering, the surgeon uses metal plates, nails, rods, etc., for the correction of skeletal defects.Bone Development: The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.Odontoid Process: The toothlike process on the upper surface of the axis, which articulates with the CERVICAL ATLAS above.Scapula: Also called the shoulder blade, it is a flat triangular bone, a pair of which form the back part of the shoulder girdle.Spinal Fusion: Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)Malocclusion: Such malposition and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth as to interfere with the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Neck: The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.Genes, Homeobox: Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Spinal Fractures: Broken bones in the vertebral column.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Ambystoma mexicanum: A salamander found in Mexican mountain lakes and accounting for about 30 percent of the urodeles used in research. The axolotl remains in larval form throughout its life, a phenomenon known as neoteny.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Sacrum: Five fused VERTEBRAE forming a triangle-shaped structure at the back of the PELVIS. It articulates superiorly with the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, inferiorly with the COCCYX, and anteriorly with the ILIUM of the PELVIS. The sacrum strengthens and stabilizes the PELVIS.Vertebroplasty: Procedures to repair or stabilize vertebral fractures, especially compression fractures accomplished by injecting BONE CEMENTS into the fractured VERTEBRAE.Ribs: A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs.Fractures, Compression: Crumbling or smashing of cancellous BONE by forces acting parallel to the long axis of bone. It is applied particularly to vertebral body fractures (SPINAL FRACTURES). (Blauvelt and Nelson, A Manual of Orthopedic Terminology, 1994, p4)Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Apamin: A highly neurotoxic polypeptide from the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). It consists of 18 amino acids with two disulfide bridges and causes hyperexcitability resulting in convulsions and respiratory paralysis.Kyphosis: Deformities of the SPINE characterized by an exaggerated convexity of the vertebral column. The forward bending of the thoracic region usually is more than 40 degrees. This deformity sometimes is called round back or hunchback.Polymethyl Methacrylate: Polymerized methyl methacrylate monomers which are used as sheets, moulding, extrusion powders, surface coating resins, emulsion polymers, fibers, inks, and films (From International Labor Organization, 1983). This material is also used in tooth implants, bone cements, and hard corneal contact lenses.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Spinal Curvatures: Deformities of the SPINE characterized by abnormal bending or flexure in the vertebral column. They may be bending forward (KYPHOSIS), backward (LORDOSIS), or sideway (SCOLIOSIS).TailSpinal Canal: The cavity within the SPINAL COLUMN through which the SPINAL CORD passes.Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.Lumbosacral Region: Region of the back including the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, SACRUM, and nearby structures.Bone Cements: Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.Orthopedic Fixation Devices: Devices which are used in the treatment of orthopedic injuries and diseases.Kyphoplasty: Procedures to restore vertebrae to their original shape following vertebral compression fractures by inflating a balloon inserted into the vertebrae, followed by removal of the balloon and injection of BONE CEMENTS to fill the cavity.Compressive Strength: The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Tuberculosis, Spinal: Osteitis or caries of the vertebrae, usually occurring as a complication of tuberculosis of the lungs.Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.

Wasting of the small hand muscles in upper and mid-cervical cord lesions. (1/2270)

Four patients are described with destructive rheumatoid arthritis of the cervical spine and neurogenic wasting of forearm and hand muscles. The pathological connection is not immediately obvious, but a relationship between these two observations is described here with clinical, radiological, electrophysiological and necropsy findings. Compression of the anterior spinal artery at upper and mid-cervical levels is demonstrated to be the likely cause of changes lower in the spinal cord. These are shown to be due to the resulting ischaemia of the anterior part of the lower cervical spinal cord, with degeneration of the neurones innervating the forearm and hand muscles. These findings favour external compression of the anterior spinal artery leading to ischaemia in a watershed area as the likeliest explanation for this otherwise inappropriate and bizarre phenomenon.  (+info)

Genetic influences on cervical and lumbar disc degeneration: a magnetic resonance imaging study in twins. (2/2270)

OBJECTIVE: Degenerative intervertebral disc disease is common; however, the importance of genetic factors is unknown. This study sought to determine the extent of genetic influences on disc degeneration by classic twin study methods using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: We compared MRI features of degenerative disc disease in the cervical and lumbar spine of 172 monozygotic and 154 dizygotic twins (mean age 51.7 and 54.4, respectively) who were unselected for back pain or disc disease. An overall score for disc degeneration was calculated as the sum of the grades for disc height, bulge, osteophytosis, and signal intensity at each level. A "severe disease" score (excluding minor grades) and an "extent of disease" score (number of levels affected) were also calculated. RESULTS: For the overall score, heritability was 74% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 64-81%) at the lumbar spine and 73% (95% CI 64-80%) at the cervical spine. For "severe disease," heritability was 64% and 79% at the lumbar and cervical spine, respectively, and for "extent of disease," heritability was 63% and 63%, respectively. These results were adjusted for age, weight, height, smoking, occupational manual work, and exercise. Examination of individual features revealed that disc height and bulge were highly heritable at both sites, and osteophytes were heritable in the lumbar spine. CONCLUSION: These results suggest an important genetic influence on variation in intervertebral disc degeneration. However, variation in disc signal is largely influenced by environmental factors shared by twins. The use of MRI scans to determine the phenotype in family and population studies should allow a better understanding of disease mechanisms and the identification of the genes involved.  (+info)

Disabling injuries of the cervical spine in Argentine rugby over the last 20 years. (3/2270)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence and risk factors of disabling injuries to the cervical spine in rugby in Argentina. METHODS: A retrospective review of all cases reported to the Medical Committee of the Argentine Rugby Union (UAR) and Rugby Amistad Foundation was carried out including a follow up by phone. Cumulative binomial distribution, chi 2 test, Fisher test, and comparison of proportions were used to analyse relative incidence and risk of injury by position and by phase of play (Epi Info 6, Version 6.04a). RESULTS: Eighteen cases of disabling injury to the cervical spine were recorded from 1977 to 1997 (0.9 cases per year). The forwards (14 cases) were more prone to disabling injury of the cervical spine than the backs (four cases) (p = 0.03). Hookers (9/18) were at highest risk of injury (p < 0.01). The most frequent cervical injuries occurred at the 4th, 5th, and 6th vertebrae. Seventeen of the injuries occurred during match play. Set scrums were responsible for most of the injuries (11/18) but this was not statistically significant (p = 0.44). The mean age of the injured players was 22. Tetraplegia was initially found in all cases. Physical rehabilitation has been limited to the proximal muscles of the upper limbs, except for two cases of complete recovery. One death, on the seventh day after injury, was reported. CONCLUSIONS: The forwards suffered a higher number of injuries than the backs and this difference was statistically significant. The chance of injury for hookers was statistically higher than for the rest of the players and it was particularly linked to scrummaging. However, the number of injuries incurred in scrums was not statistically different from the number incurred in other phases of play.  (+info)

Cluster headache-like attack as an opening symptom of a unilateral infarction of the cervical cord: persistent anaesthesia and dysaesthesia to cold stimuli. (4/2270)

A 54 year old man experienced excruciating left retro-orbital pain with lacrimation and redness of the eye representative of a cluster headache attack. This was followed by left hemiparesis with plegia of the lower limb and left Horner's syndrome. Five days later the hemiparesis recovered while the patient developed hypoanaesthesia to cold stimuli that evoked painful burning dysaesthesia on the right side below the C4 level. MRI disclosed a discrete infarct in the left lateral aspect of the cord at C2 level concomitant to a left vertebral artery thrombosis. This limited infarct and the clinical symptoms suggest a hypoperfusion in the peripheral arterial system of the left hemicord, supplied both by the anterior and posterior spinal arteries. Cluster headache-like attack and persistent dysaesthesia to cold stimuli are discussed respectively in view of the central sympathetic involvement and partial spinothalamic system dysfunction.  (+info)

Bilateral vertebral artery occlusion following cervical spine trauma--case report. (5/2270)

A 41-year-old female presented with a rare case of bilateral vertebral artery occlusion following C5-6 cervical spine subluxation after a fall of 30 feet. Digital subtraction angiography showed occlusion of the bilateral vertebral arteries. Unlocking of the facet joint, posterior wiring with iliac crest grafting, and anterior fusion were performed. The patient died on the 3rd day after the operation. This type of injury has a grim prognosis with less than a third of the patients achieving a good outcome.  (+info)

In vivo and in vitro CT analysis of the occiput. (6/2270)

Arguments concerning the best procedure for occipito-cervical fusion have rarely been based upon occipital bone thickness or only based on in vitro studies. To close this gap and to offer an outlook on preoperative evaluation of the patient, 28 patients were analysed in vivo by means of spiral CT. Ten macerated human skulls were measured by means of CT and directly. Measurements were taken according to a matrix of 66 points following a grid with 1 cm spacing based upon McRae's line. Maximum thickness in the patient group was met 4 cm above the reference plane in the median slice (11.87 mm; SD 3.41 mm) and 5 cm above it in the skull group (15.85 mm; SD 1.81 mm). Correlation between CT and direct measurements was good (91.79%). Intra-individual discrepancies from one side to the respective point on the other side are common (difference > 1 mm in 60%). Judging areas suitable for operative fixation using the 10% percentile value (6.68 mm for the maximum value of 11.87 mm) led to the conclusion that screws should only be inserted along the occipital crest in an area extending from 1.5 cm above the posterior margin of the foramen magnum to the external occipital protuberance (EOP). At the level of the EOP screws may also be inserted up to 1 cm lateral of the midline. A reduction of screw length to 7 mm (9 mm for the EOP) is proposed. Preoperative evaluation of the patient should be carried out by spiral CT with 1 mm slicing and sagittal reconstructions.  (+info)

A clinico-pathological study of cervical myelopathy in rheumatoid arthritis: post-mortem analysis of two cases. (7/2270)

Two patients who developed cervical myelopathy secondary to rheumatoid arthritis were analyzed post mortem. One patient had anterior atlanto-axial subluxation (AAS) combined with subaxial subluxation (SS), and the other had vertical subluxation (VS) combined with SS. In the patient with AAS, the posterior aspect of the spinal cord demonstrated severe constriction at the C2 segment, which arose from dynamic osseous compression by the C1 posterior arch. A histological cross-section of the spinal cord at the segment was characterized by distinct necrosis in the posterior white columns and the gray matter. In the patient with VS, the upper cervical cord and medulla oblongata showed angulation over the invaginated odontoid process, whereas no significant pathological changes were observed. At the level of SS, the spinal cord was pinched and compressed between the upper corner of the vertebral body and the lower edge of the lamina. Histologically, demyelination and gliosis were observed in the posterior and lateral white columns.  (+info)

Hypoglossal nerve injury as a complication of anterior surgery to the upper cervical spine. (8/2270)

Injury to the hypoglossal nerve is a recognised complication after soft tissue surgery in the upper part of the anterior aspect of the neck, e.g. branchial cyst or carotid body tumour excision. However, this complication has been rarely reported following surgery of the upper cervical spine. We report the case of a 35-year-old woman with tuberculosis of C2-3. She underwent corpectomy and fusion from C2 to C5 using iliac crest bone graft, through a left anterior oblique incision. She developed hypoglossal nerve palsy in the immediate postoperative period, with dysphagia and dysarthria. It was thought to be due to traction neurapraxia with possible spontaneous recovery. At 18 months' follow-up, she had a solid fusion and tuberculosis was controlled. The hypoglossal palsy persisted, although with minimal functional disability. The only other reported case of hypoglossal lesion after anterior cervical spine surgery in the literature also failed to recover. It is concluded that hypoglossal nerve palsy following anterior cervical spine surgery is unlikely to recover spontaneously and it should be carefully identified.  (+info)

*Ventral root of spinal nerve

In anatomy and neurology, the ventral root or anterior root is the efferent motor root of a spinal nerve. At its distal end, the ventral root joins with the dorsal root to form a mixed spinal nerve. ...

*Bird anatomy

The vertebral column is divided into four sections of vertebrae: cervical (11-25) (neck), trunk (dorsal or throacic) vertebrae ... 2. cervical vertebrae. 3. furcula. 4. coracoid. 5. uncinate processes of ribs. 6. keel. 7. patella. 8. tarsometatarsus. 9. ... caudal vertebrae. 17. pygostyle. 18. synsacrum. 19. scapula. 20. dorsal vertebrae. 21. humerus. 22. ulna. 23. radius. 24. ... Birds also have more cervical (neck) vertebrae than many other animals; most have a highly flexible neck consisting of 13-25 ...

*Respiratory system

1. skull; 2. cervical vertebrae; 3. furcula; 4. coracoid; 5. vertebral ribs; 6. sternum and its keel; 7. patella; 8. tarsus; 9 ... 8). These accessory muscles of inhalation are muscles that extend from the cervical vertebrae and base of the skull to the ... caudal vertebrae; 17. pygostyle; 18. synsacrum; 19. scapula; 20. dorsal vertebrae; 21. humerus; 22. ulna; 23. radius; 24. ...

*Bird anatomy

2. cervical vertebrae. 3. furcula. 4. coracoid. 5. uncinate processes of ribs. 6. keel. 7. patella. 8. tarsometatarsus. 9. ... The neck of a bird is composed of 13-25 cervical vertebrae enabling birds to have increased flexibility. [7] A flexible neck ... caudal vertebrae. 17. pygostyle. 18. synsacrum. 19. scapula. 20. dorsal vertebrae. 21. humerus. 22. ulna. 23. radius. 24. ... pneumatized cervical vertebrae.[6] Axial skeleton[edit]. The bird skeleton is highly adapted for flight. It is extremely ...

*CT scan

Normal cervical vertebrae (Click here to scroll through the image stacks). For the axial skeleton and extremities, CT is often ...

*Nemegt Formation

Fragmentary cervical vertebrae.[25] Estimated to be one of the largest of the Azhdarchids, it has been nicknamed the "Mongol ...

*Bird anatomy

The vertebral column is divided into four sections of vertebrae: cervical (11-25) (neck), trunk (dorsal or throacic) vertebrae ... 2. cervical vertebrae. 3. furcula. 4. coracoid. 5. uncinate processes of ribs. 6. keel. 7. patella. 8. tarsometatarsus. 9. ... caudal vertebrae. 17. pygostyle. 18. synsacrum. 19. scapula. 20. dorsal vertebrae. 21. humerus. 22. ulna. 23. radius. 24. ... Birds also have more cervical (neck) vertebrae than many other animals; most have a highly flexible neck consisting of 13-25 ...

*Vertebral column

There are seven cervical vertebrae, twelve thoracic vertebrae and five lumbar vertebrae. The number of vertebrae in a region ... There are seven cervical vertebrae, twelve thoracic vertebrae and five lumbar vertebrae. The number of vertebrae in a region ... all mammals have seven cervical vertebrae.[14] In other vertebrates, the number of cervical vertebrae can range from a single ... The upper cervical spine has a curve, convex forward, that begins at the axis (second cervical vertebra) at the apex of the ...

*Condyloid fossa

Skull and cervical vertebra. Position of condyloid fossa shown in red.. Details. ... X-ray of cervical spine (neck) in flexion and extension (bending backwards) ...

*CT scan

Scrollable computed tomography images of normal cervical vertebrae.. For the axial skeleton and extremities, CT is often used ...

*Natural selection

Galis, Frietson (April 1999). "Why do almost all mammals have seven cervical vertebrae? Developmental constraints, Hox genes, ... Some nonlethal regulatory mutations occur in HOX genes in humans, which can result in a cervical rib[95] or polydactyly, an ...

*Natural selection

Galis, Frietson (April 1999). "Why do almost all mammals have seven cervical vertebrae? Developmental constraints, Hox genes, ... Some nonlethal regulatory mutations occur in HOX genes in humans, which can result in a cervical rib[94] or polydactyly, an ...

*Akhshtyrskaya Cave

... cervical vertebrae; rib; vertebrae; lumbar vertebrae; thoracic vertebrae; Excavation (2005): Level 3 M Mousterian. This level ...

*Air sac

In early sauropods only the cervical (neck) vertebrae show these features. If the developmental sequence found in bird embryos ... The rest of this diagram shows the air sacs and other parts of a bird's respiratory system:1 cervical air sac, 2 clavicular air ... One study in 2007 concluded that prosauropods likely had abdominal and cervical air sacs, based on the evidence for them in ... In advanced sauropods ("neosauropods") the vertebrae of the lower back and hip regions show signs of air sacs. ...

*Physiology of dinosaurs

In early sauropods only the cervical (neck) vertebrae show these features. If the developmental sequence found in bird embryos ... One study in 2007 concluded that prosauropods likely had abdominal and cervical air sacs, based on the evidence for them in ... In advanced sauropods ("neosauropods") the vertebrae of the lower back and hip regions show signs of air sacs. ... especially in the vertebrae. Pneumatization of the skull (such as paranasal sinuses) is found in both synapsids and archosaurs ...

*Specimens of Tyrannosaurus

The specimen also includes several cervical, dorsal, sacral, and caudal vertebrae; several chevrons; some cervical and dorsal ... At the time of discovery, a complete cervical (neck vertebrae) series for Tyrannosaurus was not previously known, so it was ... Also, two of the cervical vertebrae are fused, and another has additional bone growth. This could have been caused by another ... He attributes the difference to the awkward spacing the mounted skeleton shows between its cervical vertebrae and its cranium.[ ...

*Elasmosaurus - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

It had 71 cervical vertebrae.[1]. It was suggested by D.M.S. Watson that their method was as surface swimmers, mostly eating ... The large number of neck vertebrae is probably linked to the modest degree of flexibility between adjacent vertebrae. ...

*Cambridge Greensand

"Cervical vertebrae." "Vertebrae." Acanthopholis eucercus - "[Two] caudal centra." Acanthopholis platypus (in part) - "Phalanx, ... "Vertebrae." Eucercosaurus tanyspondylus - "Vertebrae." Trachodon cantabrigiensis - "Dentary tooth." Acanthopholis platypus (in ... Enaliornis barrette - "Braincases, vertebrae, pelvis [and] limb elements.." Enaliornis sedgwicki - "Hindlimb elements." ... caudal centra." Acanthopholis macrocercus (aka Syngonosaurus) - "Osteoderms." "Vertebrae, fragmentary skeleton elements." ...

*Cryolophosaurus

... cervical vertebrae 7-10; several posterior cervical ribs; several anterior dorsal vertebrae; most mid and posterior dorsal ... vertebrae; several dorsal ribs; the fifth sacral vertebrae; three chevrons; many partial and complete caudal vertebrae and ... When the type specimen was discovered, several long cervical ribs, of a supposed prosauropod dinosaur were found in the mouth ...

*Sauropodomorpha

... with ten or more elongated cervical vertebrae) and a counterbalancing long tail (with one to three extra sacral vertebrae). ... The presence of a minimum of 10 cervical vertebrae that are typically elongated ... The presence of three or more sacral vertebrae.. *The teeth are thin, flat and are spatula-like, with bladed and serrated ...

*Sternohyoid muscle

Section of the neck at about the level of the sixth cervical vertebra. ...

*Specimens of Archaeopteryx

The cervical vertebrae, for example, are all but one preserved in their natural pose. Analysis of these vertebrae led Dames to ... It is also one of the least complete specimens, consisting mostly of limb bones and isolated cervical vertebrae and ribs.[117] ... Only a few remains of cervical and dorsal vertebrae are preserved, though the last four dorsals remain articulated and fifteen ... The vertebral column of the London specimen shows an incomplete cervical series, 22 articulated vertebrae above the tail, five ...

*Tawa hallae

A neck vertebrae adaptation in Tawa supports the hypothesis that cervical air sacs predate the origin of the Neotheropoda and ... and cervical vertebrae (GR 243). All of these specimens are from the Hayden Quarry, a site in New Mexico which preserves many ...

*Neimongosaurus

It had elongated cervical vertebrae. Its scapula had a tapering end. Neimongosaurus is thought to have been about 2.3 meters in ...

*Zhejiangopterus

The cervical vertebrae were elongated. The first six dorsal vertebrae had fused into a notarium. Several pairs of belly ribs ...

*Gracilisuchus

... nearly complete cervical and dorsal vertebrae, partial sacral and caudal vertebrae, the hip girdle, most of the left hindlimb, ... the lack of keels in the cervical vertebrae; and the presence of two osteoderm rows over each vertebra instead of one. The ... Another series of cervical vertebrae ("Series B") underwent a similar reassignment. A scapula and coracoid overlapping the ... There are eight cervical vertebrae. Unlike Turfanosuchus, Euparkeria, Fasolasuchus, Saurosuchus, and sphenosuchians, the suture ...

*Nyasasaurus - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

... three cervical vertebrae). ... The find was six vertebrae and a humerus from one specimen, and ... Approximation of animal based on partial skeleton shown in black (first specimen, six vertebrae and a humerus) and blue (second ... five vertebrae from another. The humerus has a muscle attachment which is characteristic of dinosaurs (a long 'deltopectoral ...

*Mihai Neșu

Neșu broke a cervical vertebra in his neck and was left without any feeling in his body from the neck down and fighting for ... Neșu broke his cervical vertebrae. The doctors said that it may take days, weeks or even several months before it becomes clear ...
Introduction Patients suffering from remaining disability after anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF) surgery for cervical disc disease may be prescribed physical activity (PPA) or neck-specific exercises (NSEs). Currently, we lack data for the success of either approach. There is also a knowledge gap concerning the use of internet-based care for cervical disc disease. The scarcity of these data, and the high proportion of patients with various degrees of incapacity following ACDF, warrant increased efforts to investigate and improve cost-effective rehabilitation. The objective is to compare the effectiveness of a structured, internet-based NSE programme, versus PPA following ACDF surgery. Methods and analysis This is a prospective, randomised, multicentre study that includes 140 patients with remaining disability (amp;gt;= 30% on the Neck Disability Index, NDI) following ACDF for radiculopathy due to cervical disc disease. Patient recruitment occurs following attendance at routine ...
The invention discloses a posterior cervical vertebra plate clamp. The overall structure of the posterior cervical vertebra plate clamp is in a bridge shape, the posterior cervical vertebra plate clamp is composed of a connecting plate mainly of a supporting structure, an inner clamping plate and an outer clamping plate, the inner clamping plate and the outer clamping plate are arranged on the two sides, and fixed tooth and fixed holes are arranged on the inner clamping plate and the outer clamping plate respectively. The posterior cervical vertebra plate clamp can be used for auxiliary treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy, congenital cervical spinal stenosis, multi-segmental cervical degeneration with spinal canal stenosis, ossification of posterior longitudinal ligaments, excessive cervical lordosis and other diseases. Compared with a traditional nail rod system and an unilateral door opening fixing system, surgical risks can be effectively reduced, the surgical process can be
Define Cervical vertebrae. Cervical vertebrae synonyms, Cervical vertebrae pronunciation, Cervical vertebrae translation, English dictionary definition of Cervical vertebrae. adj. 1. Of or relating to the uterine cervix. 2. Of or relating to the neck. adj of or relating to the neck or cervix adj. of or pertaining to the cervix or...
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Description of disease C1 (cervical vertebra). Treatment C1 (cervical vertebra). Symptoms and causes C1 (cervical vertebra) Prophylaxis C1 (cervical vertebra)
1. Which statement about the cervical spine and its injuries is true?. a. Less than one half of spinal cord injuries result from cervical spine fractures.. b. The upper cervical spine isdefined as extending from C1 through C3.. c. Seventy-five percent (75%) of cervical spine injuries occur in the upper cervical spine.. d. The most common area of cervical injury is C3 to C7.. 2. Which statement best reflects current thinking about imaging studies for cervical spine evaluation?. a. Radiographic films should always be performed initially.. b. Computed tomography (CT) scans should always be first-line studies.. c. There is controversy whether radiography or CT scan should be performed first.. d. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is not needed to examine cervical spine injuries.. 3. The teardrop fracture. a. is a stable fracture.. b. involves disruption of all 3 spinal columns.. c. results from forceful flexion with compression.. d. is difficult to visualize on plain radiographs.. 4. Management of a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sagittal alignment of the cervical spine after the laminoplasty. AU - Suk, Kyung Soo. AU - Kim, Ki Tack. AU - Lee, Jung Hee. AU - Lee, Sang Hun. AU - Lim, Yang Jin. AU - Kim, Jin Soo. PY - 2007/11/1. Y1 - 2007/11/1. N2 - STUDY DESIGN. Prospective study. OBJECTIVE. To identify the impact of laminoplasty on range of motion (ROM) and sagittal alignment of the cervical spine. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA. Cervical laminoplasty is an effective procedure decompressing multilevel spinal cord compression. Preoperative lordosis of the cervical spine is a prerequisite for laminoplasty, and maintaining postoperative lordosis is also important for decompression of the spinal cord. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Eighty-five patients who planned open door laminoplasty from C3-C7 were studied. Preoperative diagnosis included myelopathy cases associated with cervical spondylosis in 52, ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament in 29, and multilevel disc herniation in 4 cases. Cervical spine lateral ...
Background Safe placement of the screws is a critical aspect of trans-pedicle internal fixation, and little information on in vivo morphology of the cervical vertebrae pedicle measured with imaging methods is available. The aim of this study was to measure the dimensions of cervical vertebrae C3 to C7 and provide screw length, screw diameter and tilt angle for clinical cervical vertebra trans-pedicle internal fixation.. Methods Thirty Chinese men and women underwent high-speed spiral computed tomography measurements to obtain data for C3 to C7, and the morphology of the cervical vertebra pedicles was reconstructed.. Results Reconstructed computer tomography image data revealed that: (1) pedicle sponge width increased incrementally from C3 to C7, (2) pedicle depth was similar for C3 to C7, (3) pedicle angle decreased incrementally from 47.20 degrees to 33.76 degrees for C3 to C7, and (4) pedicle point to midline distance was similar for C3 to C7. There were no statistical differences in ...
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Cervical spine surgery side effects - What does it mean to have cervical spine surgery? On the neck. The cervical spine is the neck area. Common cervical spine operations address disk problems, nerve pressure or irritation, spinal cord problems. Other problems are tumors, infections, broken bones.
Complex disorders of the cervical spine can be serious conditions that need to be properly managed by specialists. The most common symptoms of cervical
We conducted a prospective randomized study to investigate predictive factors for short- and long-term outcome of anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF) as measured by current pain intensity on the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and by disability using the Neck Disability Index (NDI). Current understanding about how preoperative and short-term outcome data predict long-term outcome is sparse, and there are few studies involving analysis of short-term follow-up using multivariate approaches with quantification of the relative importance of each variable studied. A total of 95 patients were randomly allocated for ACDF with the cervical intervertebral fusion cage or the Cloward procedure. The mean follow-up time was 19 months (range 12-24) for short-term follow-up and 76 months (range 56-94 months) for long-term. Background factors, radiologically detected findings, physiological measurements, treatment type, pain, and disability were used as potential predictors. Multivariate statistical ...
Complications in cervical spine surgery can be avoided by proper treatment measures. Dheerajbojwani consultants will make cervical spine surgery treatment...
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Cervical Disc Disease, Cervical Disc Herniation, Cervical Radiculopathy, Cervical Disc Herniation Management, Cervical Disc Disorder with Radiculopathy.
Anterior cervical arthrodesis has been widely used to treat the degenerative cervical spine. Although the results of ACDF are generally in the good to excellent range, interbody fusion of the cervical spine after cervical discectomy, aside from causing restriction of neck movements, also accelerates degeneration of adjacent disc levels because of the increased stress from fusion. Long-term radiographic follow-up of patients with anterior cervical fusion has demonstrated degenerative changes in the non-fused segments of the spine including disc space narrowing and osteophyte formation.. To conclude, fusion provokes a functional overload of the discs bordering the fusion that is directly correlated to the number of fused levels. Radiographic observations show a greater mechanical stress on the discs, especially in the arthrodeses involving more than one level.. Artificial discs were designed to replace the entire intervertebral disc and to preserve the physiological motion of the operated level. ...
This program explains posterior cervical fusion. Posterior cervical fusion is also known as PCF. The program includes the following sections: the anatomy of the spine, the symptoms and causes of cervical fracture, alternative treatments for cervical fracture, treating cervical fracture with posterior cervical fusion, risks and complications of posterior cervical fusion, and what to expect after posterior cervical fusion.
Fig. (1) Measure of Cervicothoracic Lordosis. A) the line between the centroid of C2 and the centroid of C7; B) the line between the centroid of C7 and the centroid of T6. ...
BACKGROUND: Context: Degenerative changes in the cervical spine occur in an age-dependent manner. As the U.S. population continues to age, the incidence of age-dependent, multi-level, degenerative cervical pathologies is expected to increase. Similarly, the average age of patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) will likely trend upward. Posterior cervical fusion (PCF) is often the treatment modality of choice in the management of multi-level cervical spine disease. Although outcomes following anterior cervical fusion for degenerative disease have been studied among older patients (aged 80 years and older), it is unknown if these results extend to octogenarian patients undergoing PCF for the surgical management of CSM ...
Experimental Mechanics in Nano and Biotechnology: Development of a Virtual Model and Experimental Simulator for the Human Cervical Spine
Cervical Spine MRI - MedHelps Cervical Spine MRI Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for Cervical Spine MRI. Find Cervical Spine MRI information, treatments for Cervical Spine MRI and Cervical Spine MRI symptoms.
This life-size skull includes 7 cervical vertebrae, nerve branches and vertebral artery, all mounted on a fixed base. Skull features a removable calvarium, 3 lower teeth and a hinged lower jaw on springs. Cannot be removed from base. Size: 8-1/4w x 11-1/4h x 8-1/4d.
Significant progress has been made in lumbar and cervical disc replacement therapy. Several cervical disc prostheses have recently gained FDA approval. Although arthroplasty has not been previously described in the thoracic spine, selected patients with long-segment fusion to the level of C-7 have altered cervicothoracic and upper thoracic biomechanics and may benefit from motion-preservation therapy for T1-2 disc herniation. Currently, FDA-approved prostheses are indicated only for patients with single-level degenerative disc disease between C-3 and C-7 and no history of cervical arthrodesis.. The authors describe a 52-year-old woman who had previously undergone C3-7 fusion and returned 4 years later with symptoms of C-8 myeloradiculopathy and radiological evidence of T1-2 degenerative disc disease. She underwent T1-2 arthroplasty in which a Prestige artificial cervical disc was placed via an anterior cervicothoracic approach. Motion at C7-T1 and T1-2 was preserved, and the patient made an ...
The cervical spine is composed of many different anatomic structures, including muscles, bones, ligaments, and joints. Each of these structures has nerve endings that can detect painful problems when they occur. The different parts of the cervical spine are normally well balanced and able to handle all of the movements, stresses, and strains of the body gracefully. However, when the different parts of the cervical spine are injured or start to wear out, your neck can be a significant source of pain and discomfort.. Studies show that approximately fifty percent of the population has evidence of degenerative changes in their cervical spine by the age of fifty. These changes happen because the discs that act as shock absorbers between the vertebral bodies of the cervical spine wear out, as we grow older. As the intervertebral disks wear out, they begin to collapse, or herniate, and become less flexible. The common causes of neck pain and cervical disorders include arthritis, injuries, and trauma. ...
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of the evaluation technique on the outcome of the Cloward procedure in cervical radiculopathy. The retrospective study included 94 consecutive patients operated on with anterior decompression and fusion with heterologous bone (Surgibone, Unilab). There were 56 men and 38 women, with a mean age of 48 years (range 27-78 years). Sixty-six patients had a single-level fusion, 26 a two-level fusion and one patient had a three-level fusion. The follow-up rate was 91/94 (97%) and evaluation was performed by an independent observer. Pain was quantified by visual analogue scale (VAS, range 0-100), functional disability by the new functional index Cervical Spine Functional Score (CSFS, range 0-100) and by the Neck Pain Disability Index (NPDI, range 0-100). The overall clinical outcome was assessed as excellent, good, fair or poor by both the patient and by the independent observer using Odoms criteria. At a mean follow-up of 26 months ...
593 Hansraj FINAL Neuro and Spine Surgery SURGICAL TECHNOLOGY INTERNATIONAL XXV Assessment of Stresses in the Cervical Spine Caused by Posture and Position of the Head KENNETH K. HANSRAJ, MD CHIEF OF SPINE SURGERY NEW YORK SPINE SURGERY & REHABILITATION MEDICINE NEW YORK, NEW YORK ABSTRACT P reamble. Billions of people are using cell phone devices on the planet, essentially in poor posture. The purpose of this study is to assess the forces incrementally seen by the cervical spine as the head is tilt- ed forward, into worsening posture. This data is also necessary for cervical spine surgeons to under- stand in the reconstruction of the neck. -1- #593 Hansraj FINAL Assessment of Stresses in the Cervical Spine Caused by Posture and Position of the Head HANSRAJ DiscussionDISCUSSION MATERIALS AND METHODS A model of the cervical spine was created with realistic values in Cosmosworks, a finite element assessment package. Calculations were made and then forces were extracted in newtons and then ...
Emerging Scientific Studies. Several scientific reports regarding "Artificial Cervical Joint Devices" have become available. One such initial "long term follow-up" for "Artificial Disc Implantation" was reported at the American Association of Neurological Surgeons Annual Meeting held in San Francisco on 26 April 2006. The report was based upon a European Multi-center Study that was tabulated in Leuven, Belgium and consisted of 67 patients, some of whom have been monitored for up to 9 years. The authors identified several unanticipated consequences of the "artificial disc" that was used in this study (the "Bryan"-type device shown in Figures 15 & 16 above.) Whereas it was hoped that progression of Spondylosis (Bone Spur formation) at the adjacent Cervical Levels would be markedly reduced, if not aborted entirely, in actual fact there was progression of the Spondylosis at the adjacent level(s) in 20 of 38 patients (52.6%).. It appears that the device designers and manufacturers, have ...
This is one of many cross sections from a CT (computed tomography) scan in a person who sustained a severe fracture of C2 (second cervical vertebrae). Bone in this CT image is the white density in the middle of the image. The fracture of C2 is seen as a disruption of this white density. - Stock Image M330/1254
Since spinal arthritis and disc disease (SADD) is commonly found at areas of altered stress (force per unit area) and strain (deformation), an engineering analysis is necessary to determine the exacting loads acting on the cervical spine vertebra in different spine configurations. The model developed looked at the loads on the cortical (outside covering of the vertebra) and the medullary (spongy vertebra core) bone of the cervical vertebra C2-T1.. The model developed by Harrison and colleagues identified that the stresses (forces per unit area) acting on the cervical vertebra and discs in translation postures are very large in the lower spine segments (C2-T1) and opposite in direction compared to a normal lordosis. It was found that the anterior or forward head translation posture was associated with the largest combined stresses; their model predicted that the stresses were up to 4.25 times greater compared to the normal, healthy lordosis of the cervical spine.. This analysis provides the basis ...
Amendia has launched the Ceres midline cervical plate.. The Ceres midline cervical plate system is intended for anterior screw fixation of the cervical spine (C2-C7) as an adjunct to fusion. It is indicated for degenerative disc disease, spondylolisthesis, trauma, spinal stenosis, deformity, tumour, pseudarthrosis or failed previous fusion.. With a width of 10.5mm and low profile 2.3mm, the Ceres midline cervical plate is designed for one and two-level surgeries and is available in 18 different length sizes.. ...
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
Fusion of the cervical spine is indicated for instability. If instability of the cervical spine is not treated, kyphosis with neurological deficits may develop. One complication of spinal fusion is...
STUDY DESIGN: Prospective clinical trial. OBJECTIVE: The authors present their initial multicenter experience in the surgical management of 1-level degenerative disc disease of the cervical spine with anterior cervical discectomy and fusions (ACDF) u
ACDF - Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion is a common surgical procedure used to treat neck problems such as bulging, herniated disc, degenerative disc disease and spinal instability etc. Discectomy is the removal of the disc and any fragments between the vertebrae. After the disc is removed, the space is filled with a bone graft, the goal is to help the bones to fuse together into one solid bone.
Usually, patients with fracture of the cervical vertebrae suffered a direct trauma or an accident and the healing process has already started, therefore, depending on the type of fracture and precise diagnostic investigations they have particular protective guardians.. When the process of consolidation of the fracture is radiologically proven, it is crucial to start a specific rehabilitation program.. The first goal is the recovery of mobility through cautious passive manual traction performed strictly in line, and stretching into the active form of the paravertebral cervical dorsal and trapezius. To complete this step is also necessary postural correction of the cervical-thoracic spine in seated position and standing in front of the mirror.. Then you can move on to the second phase, the recovery of the strength of the deep muscles of the cervical spine through progressive isometric exercises at first with low intensity to prevent excessive sliding of the vertebral endplates on each other and of ...
Depending on your particular situation, you may have a choice between two cervical spine decompression options: open neck surgery or minimally invasive decompression.. Open neck surgery - An open neck surgery typically requires a large incision in the neck or throat, muscle disruption and removal of vertebral bone and/or soft tissues impinging upon the spinal cord or a nerve root. If a large portion of spinal anatomy must be removed, the affected area of the spine may require a fusion procedure. Spinal fusion involves the insertion of bone grafts and stabilizing hardware, such as a support cage, rods and screws to fuse two vertebrae together. Hospitalization is required, along with a lengthy recovery. Full range of motion will never be restored to the fused area of the spine.. Minimally invasive decompression - During a minimally invasive decompression procedure, the surgeon is able to spare surrounding muscles and tissue from being cut or torn. Using a small incision, the surgeon is able to ...
Cervical spine surgical treatment is a fragile complex operation employed for problems in negligence the spine running with the neck area and which entail the vertebrae, disks, and nerves. The cervical area describes seven vertebrae and eight pairs of spine nerves (C1 to C8).. The health conditions that individuals generally experience in this region are herniation and stenosis and both need surgery like a treatment solution.. A herniated intervertebral disk or tucked disk because it is more generally known takes place when a component or every part of the disk change from its place or break open because of injuries or strain and pressure via a weakened disk. This places pressure on spine nerves located within the disk causing extreme discomfort, weakness and numbness.. A tucked disk usually happens in the low back or lumbar part of the spine and affects middle-aged and older men more frequently than every other population. Other medication is born using the condition.. Spine stenosis is ...
Author: Marc Heller, DC. Title: Common Clinical Patterns in the Middle and Lower Cervical Spine. Summary: I love when I get to see a familiar clinical situation with new eyes; when I can fill in the blanks and more fully understand the pattern.
div class=citation vocab=http://schema.org/,,i class=fa fa-external-link-square fa-fw,,/i, Data from ,span resource=http://link.collegeofphysicians.org/resource/Bn9-tY5hQ0I/ typeof=CreativeWork http://bibfra.me/vocab/lite/Work,,span property=name http://bibfra.me/vocab/lite/label,,a href=http://link.collegeofphysicians.org/resource/Bn9-tY5hQ0I/,(#21) Cervical vertebrae, fragments; prob. small child. Cryer Collection,/a,,/span, - ,span property=potentialAction typeOf=OrganizeAction,,span property=agent typeof=LibrarySystem http://library.link/vocab/LibrarySystem resource=http://link.collegeofphysicians.org/,,span property=name http://bibfra.me/vocab/lite/label,,a property=url href=http://link.collegeofphysicians.org/,College of Physicians of Philadelphia,/a,,/span,,/span,,/span,,/span,,/div ...
Research Report on Global Cervical Vertebra Tractor Market Professional Survey Report 2017. The Report includes market price, demand, trends, size, Share, Growth, Forecast, Analysis & Overview.
Learn Thoracic and Cervical Vertebrae facts using a simple interactive process (flashcard, matching, or multiple choice). Finally a format that helps you memorize and understand. Browse or search in thousands of pages or create your own page using a simple wizard. No signup required!
The cervical vertebrae are seven in number; they are smaller than those in the other regions, which results from the size of the body and processes being less than that of the corresponding parts in the dorsal and lumbar classes.
Active Release Techniques® Spine Level 2 is designed to provide instruction in anatomy, palpation, and treatment of soft-tissue disorders and associated articulations. This advanced course includes 75 protocols. Certification in Spine Level 1 is a prerequisite for this course.. ART® treatment utilizes manual techniques to move tissues and joints while under tension. The system allows for relative motion between the tissues and articulations.. The course emphasizes the manipulation of the neuromusculoskeletal system to diagnose and correct alterations in tissue texture, tension, movement, and function between tissues. All treatments protocols are designed to correct tissue alterations, assist the provider with articular adjustments, and ultimately shorten treatment regimens required to resolve a case. Evaluation and treatment occur simultaneously.. ...
The cervical spine is the most flexible region of the spine, providing the most generous amounts of flexion, extension, lateral flexion and rotation. The 1st and 2nd cervical vertebrae, known as the atlas and axis respectively, have highly unique structures which allow them to form a pivot joint. This joint alone provides approximately 90 degrees of rotation in the cervical spine. These same vertebrae also contain special receptors within their joints which provide the brain with important information essential for the maintenance of balance and coordination. As you will see in "Causes", injury or irritation to these mechanoreceptors results in balance disturbances and problems with coordination. The remaining cervical vertebrae also provide large degrees of motion but mainly in flexion, extension and lateral flexion (side bending). Unfortunately, theres an inverse relationship between mobility and stability. Thus, the cervical spine is more susceptible to injury compared with other areas of ...
The cervical spine is the most flexible region of the spine, providing the most generous amounts of flexion, extension, lateral flexion and rotation. The 1st and 2nd cervical vertebrae, known as the atlas and axis respectively, have highly unique structures which allow them to form a pivot joint. This joint alone provides approximately 90 degrees of rotation in the cervical spine. These same vertebrae also contain special receptors within their joints which provide the brain with important information essential for the maintenance of balance and coordination. As you will see in "Causes", injury or irritation to these mechanoreceptors results in balance disturbances and problems with coordination. The remaining cervical vertebrae also provide large degrees of motion but mainly in flexion, extension and lateral flexion (side bending). Unfortunately, theres an inverse relationship between mobility and stability. Thus, the cervical spine is more susceptible to injury compared with other areas of ...
The cervical nerves consist of eight paired nerves that are a part of the peripheral nervous system. They emerge from the spinal cord through the seven cervical vertebrae. The cervical vertebrae are the spinal bones located just below the skull. Below the cervical vertebrae are the thoracic vertebrae, which are
Diagnosis Code S12.100B information, including descriptions, synonyms, code edits, diagnostic related groups, ICD-9 conversion and references to the diseases index.
The rate of surgery for degenerative cervical spine disease (DCSD) increased by 74% in Norway between 2008 and 2014 [ 15 ] and in the United States
I was injured while working. I fell and injured my neck and back. Ive gone thru all the non surgical treatments and none of it worked. My doctor wants to put a ROIC-C Cervical Cage in at C 4, 5, 6 and fuse 7. This device is relatively new and recently approved here in the US by the FDA. Has anyone had this device put in? My doctor tells me I will lose approximately 18 % in range of motion and will be on light duty for 3 months. He also said I will have bad sore throat pain for about a week. Any information given here will be greatly appreciated... ...
The cervical spine consists of seven vertebrae and is located at the base of the skull. Its function is to support the skull, enabling head movements back and forth, and from side to side, as well as protecting the spinal cord. The upper section of the cervical spine consists of
Hi dont really know where to start, 2 years ago I had a cervical discectomy with fusion c5 - c7 , when I had the surgery I was only suppose to stay one night , but then although in terrible pain in my neck I lost all feeling from my hips down , I could not move my legs or anything and it was like that for about 30 mins, we were petrified , also annoyed at something the surgeon had said but that is another story, they sent me for this ultra sound of my legs and said didnt see blood clot but they kept me for 3 more days and kept coming in giving me injections in my stomach which hurt so bad and my entire bely was black and blue .... needless to say its 2 years later and I can barely move my neck, my arms hurt and so do my shoulder blades .... so I go see a different surgeon because well quite honestly with the bedside manner of this surgeon and a few other things I was afraid of him , I absolutely love my new surgeon, he said listen I can not fix you , but if you will be realistic and understand ...
Cervical Disk Replacement Surgery What is cervical disk replacement surgery? Your cervical spine is made up of the 7 bones, called cervical vertebrae, stacked on top of each other forming the neck area. The cervical disks are the cushions that lie between the cervical vertebrae. They act as shock absorbers to allow your neck to move freely. Your cervical spine also forms a protective tunnel for the upper part of your spinal cord to pass through. This part of your spinal cord contains the spinal nerves t...
Definition of epistropheus in US English - The axis (second cervical vertebra). In early use also: †the atlas (first cervical vertebra) (obsolete).
When looking at the neck from the left side, the cervical curve should look "C-shaped", or lordotic. This develops when infants learn to lift and hold their head up while laying on their stomach and continues to progress when a child starts moving around on all fours. When we bend our head forward and backward, the most active cervical vertebrae are the C4, C5, and C6 vertebrae that make up the mid-lower cervical spine. Therefore, this region normally "wears out" first, resulting in degenerative joint disease (DJD) and degenerative disk disease (DDD). This is part of the normal, natural aging process, and can flatten and/or reverse ones cervical curve. However, trauma can significantly accelerate degeneration. Among some practitioners and researchers, there has been speculation that abnormal cervical curvature may result in altered blood flow from the heart to the back of the brain. A 2015 study looked specifically at the hemodynamics (the dynamics of blood flow) through the vertebral arteries ...
When looking at the neck from the left side, the cervical curve should look "C-shaped", or lordotic. This develops when infants learn to lift and hold their head up while laying on their stomach and continues to progress when a child starts moving around on all fours. When we bend our head forward and backward, the most active cervical vertebrae are the C4, C5, and C6 vertebrae that make up the mid-lower cervical spine. Therefore, this region normally "wears out" first, resulting in degenerative joint disease (DJD) and degenerative disk disease (DDD). This is part of the normal, natural aging process, and can flatten and/or reverse ones cervical curve. However, trauma can significantly accelerate degeneration. Among some practitioners and researchers, there has been speculation that abnormal cervical curvature may result in altered blood flow from the heart to the back of the brain. A 2015 study looked specifically at the hemodynamics (the dynamics of blood flow) through the vertebral arteries ...
When looking at the neck from the left side, the cervical curve should look "C-shaped", or lordotic. This develops when infants learn to lift and hold their head up while laying on their stomach and continues to progress when a child starts moving around on all fours.. When we bend our head forward and backward, the most active cervical vertebrae are the C4, C5, and C6 vertebrae that make up the mid-lower cervical spine. Therefore, this region normally "wears out" first, resulting in degenerative joint disease (DJD) and degenerative disk disease (DDD). This is part of the normal, natural aging process, and can flatten and/or reverse ones cervical curve. However, trauma can significantly accelerate degeneration.. Among some practitioners and researchers, there has been speculation that abnormal cervical curvature may result in altered blood flow from the heart to the back of the brain.. A 2015 study looked specifically at the hemodynamics (the dynamics of blood flow) through the vertebral ...
Five cartilaginous centers arise as anlagen to all vertebrae and ribs. One center forms the body, two anterolateral centers form the costal elements, two posterolateral centers form the vertebral arch elements. In this vertebra the body anlage begins to ossify during the third intrauterine month. At this time the ossification centers for the costal and arch anlagen appear and merge into paired lateral centers. At birth, the three ossifying centers are still separate. The two laminae unite during the second year, but they do not join the body until years three to six. This fusion typically begins cranially and proceeds caudally. Secondary centers appear on the tips of the transverse and spinous processes and on the inferior and superior surfaces of the bodies. These secondary centers appear during the middle teen years and fuse in the mid-twenties ...
This overview of cervical spine anatomy describes the vertebrae, ligaments, nerves, veins, and arteries of the cervical spine / neck.
The Cox7 Tables cervical spine headpiece for treating cervical spine pain conditions affecting neck and arm pain is the smoothest unit, allowing the doctor control to monitor all motions in the neck.
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Cervical Spine Imaging in Acute Traumatic Injury, Acute Cervical Spine Imaging.
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Cervical spine - Painful cervical spine? Ubiquitous. Degenerative neck and back pain is akin to wrinkles in the skin. Age happens, and the alternative (bring aging to a grinding halt with death) is not appealing. Accept some aches and pain, use nsaids/tylenol to control, salonpas hot patches, strengthen the core, consider mckenzie pt (docs rx needed). If persistent, further evaluation. Should not be life altering under most circumstances.
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6 months ago I had a cervical corpectomy and 3 level fusion C5,6 and 7. I never felt full pain relief and continued to have pain in neck, shoulders, shoulder blades and arm numbing. I was continually t...
International shipping requires more complicated shipping procedures (such as both countries customs, transit stations etc.), also will effect by many factors, such as holidays, weather conditions etc, so it will probably take longer time for your items to arrive at the final destination. Thank you for your understanding on this matter ...
The obliquus capitis inferior is a fleshy, thick muscle located in the neck. It is the bigger and longer of the two oblique muscles in the neck. This muscle originates from the outer part of the spinous process of the second cervical vertebra, also called the axis.
For a better grasp of the problem, it is important to understand the difference between static and dynamic conditions. When the body is in motion, there are dynamic changes in weight distribution, which may lead to a momentary compression of nerves and bloodstream. These stresses are purely temporary and unproblematic for the body, since it returns to a resting position sooner or later: the influences and compressions disappear ...
Because this product contains batteries, it can only be shipped via select shipping methods. These shipping methods are displayed when you check out the order ...
Find out more: radial styloid bone, skull bones anatomy, microscopic anatomy of compact bone, thigh bones crossword, medial forearm bone, structure of long bone, temporal bone radi...
Dr Templin offers cervical spine and lumbar spine treatments in New Lenox and Joliet, IL. Click here to learn more about thoracic spine.
The cervical spine is composed of 32 synovial joints. The occiput-C1 and C1-C2 articulations rely on soft tissue integrity for stability. In the subaxial
The cervical spine consists of two special vertebrae - the atlas and axis - connecting the spine with the cranium in a complex set of joints and ligaments, and
This blog describes common cervical spine conditions causing neck pain - from degenerative diseases to herniated disc - and how they are treated.
A cervical spine MRI can help evaluate various symptoms and also help diagnose tumors, bleeding, swelling, infections, or inflammatory conditions in the vertebrae or surrounding tissues.
A cervical spine MRI can help evaluate various symptoms and also help diagnose tumors, bleeding, swelling, infections, or inflammatory conditions in the vertebrae or surrounding tissues.
There are many different types of surgeries that are necessary for stabilizing the neck or cervical spine. Common surgeries include "cervical fusion" and "discectomy". In a cervical fusion one or more bones (vertebrae) are fused in the neck to stabilize the area. This may be due to fractures or for other reasons such as the removal of a disc between the vertebrae "discectomy".. How physical therapy helps ...
Dr. Corenman teaches understanding x-rays of the neck. Analyzing the cervical spine anatomy can help give the health of the discs and spinal alignment.
Spinous process should be in midline and in good alignment. If one of the spinous process is displaced to one side, a facet dislocation should be suspected.. ...
Can you name the Cervical Spine regions? Test your knowledge on this science quiz to see how you do and compare your score to others. Quiz by krgouge
... problems can be very serious for the person suffering with them. Not only can these conditions lead to severe pain and disability, they are also very frustrating because they are very slow to heal.This article will discuss wha ..
My husband who just turned 39 this 2nd of September will be undergoing a delicate and serious surgery for his cervical vertebrae. His herniation and extrusion is so bad that it is not just pinching nerves but his spinal cord in half. We knew by the results of his neck MRIs that things may be headed that direction but we didnt realize the emergence of it and didnt expect it to be so soon. We were made aware of it this week that we will be traveling out of state for his surgery. We have always taken pride in the fact that we have been pretty healthy all our lives and that our kids have been the same, so to come to the realization of how vulnerable and delicate our bodies are, can affect us in all levels ...
The value of MR imaging in differentiating between hard and soft cervical disc disease: a comparison with intraoperative findings.: The aim of this study is to
In 2002 I put my Harley Sportster down at about 50 miles per hour the hard way on City Terrace Blvd in East L.A. (I understand, what was I even hanging around in that area - LONG Story!). I was in L.A. County General for 9 weeks, complete traction with the bolts drilled into my skull. No Enjoyable. Substance Fractures of my cervical vertebra and 17 pinched nerves. When I went out I was having headaches and discomforts shooting down my best arm and leg. The clinical physicians only had one treatment. Drugs. MEANS too many medicines. Went through that for 3 years not knowing any much better. Then a friend recommended Dr Steve Jones to me. Already I was ready to try anything. 3 treatments later I was PAIN FREE for the first time in 3 & 1/2 years. After my 4th treatment I had the ability to stop ALL the discomfort medication. (That was MAJOR!). Through regular treatments, stretches, workouts and other home treatments, 6 months later on I began just having to go in for treatment every 60 days. Now I ...
Working in the office at the computer sitting in one position adversely affects the posture. Strongly straining cervical vertebrae, there is a pain in the back. Exercises for
Collafoam is used to treat neck strains and sprains by restricting movement of the cervical vertebrae and supporting the head. Collafoam is used fo...
Printed in New Statesman in October 1994 in a competition asking for poems by doctors. Yet another awful day which sets me thinking glumly. That its time to write a letter to the dreaded Mrs Bottomley.. "Dear Sir, My frank opinion of your Health Reforms is this:. That they do not work and never will: theyre just a load of contribution!. What seems to be the problem, and please do not say Im lying,. Is Ive just rung seven hospitals while patients here are likely to require only tender loving care,. And some say Try Mount Vernon and others Tooting Bec. When I see that Trust Director I will dislocate several of his cervical vertebrae!. If youd only seen me earlier before you drafted bills. Id have diagnosed the problem and prescribed these special - cant quite read what I wrote there -. Next please! " I mean "Yours Faithfully". I hope I really shocked her,. "An overbudget, overworked but loyal General Practitioner, B. Chir, M.R.C.P., L.R.C.S.". ...
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اطلاعات مندرج در این پایگاه فقط جهت مطالعه کاربران با رعایت شرایط اعلام شده است. نسخه‌برداری و بازنشر اطلاعات به هر روش، در هر نوع رسانه و با هر هدفی ممنوع و پیگرد قانونی دارد. ...
A prosthetic spinous process includes a member and a plurality of crosslinking rods connected to the member at an angle relative to each other, wherein the member includes at least one opening therethrough.
Hello all! Glad to see such a supportive community here. I am not diagnosed with MS, but have a range of symptoms. My doctor had me go through PT for some arm numbness and tingling before my insurance would approve an MRI of the cervical spine. That is currently being scheduled since PT did not improve my symptoms. I do not know if MS will end up being my diagnosis, but most of my personal searches have led me to these sites as I am trying to find explanations for some of what I have been
As of October 2014, the ICD-9 code for cervicalgia is 723.1, according to ICD9Data. The condition refers to pain in the neck, including both chronic and acute cervical spine...
Objective. The optimal surgical treatment for multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy (MCSM) remains controversial. This study compared the outcomes of three surgical approaches for MSCM treatment, focusing on the efficacy and safety of a combined approach.. Methods. This retrospective study included 153 consecutive MCSM patients (100 men, 53 women; mean age +/- standard deviation, 55.7 +/- 9.4 years) undergoing operations involving >= 3 intervertebral segments. The patients were divided into three groups according to surgical approach: anterior (n = 19), posterior (n = 76), and combined (n = 58). We assessed demographic variables, perioperative parameters, and clinical outcomes >= 12 months after surgery (20.5 +/- 7.6 months), including Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score, improvement, recovery rate, and complications.. Results. The anterior group had the most favorable preoperative conditions, including the highest preoperative JOA score (12.95 +/- 1.86, rho = 0.046). In contrast, ...
Cervical spine disorders are illnesses that affect the cervical spine, which is made up of the upper first seven vertebrae, encasing and shielding the spinal cord. This fragment of the spine starts from the region above the shoulder blades and ends by supporting and connecting the Skull. The cervical spine contains many different anatomic compositions, including muscles, bones, ligaments, and joints. All of these structures have nerve endings that can detect painful problems when they occur. Such nerves supply muscular control and sensations to the skull and arms while correspondingly providing our bodies with flexibility and motion.[1] However, if the cervical spine is injured it can cause many minor or traumatic problems, and although these injuries vary specifically they are more commonly known as "cervical spine disorders" as a whole.[1] It is through upper frontal chest discomfort (also known as cervical angina) and scapular pains which signs of cervical spine disorders are shown. In 1937 a ...
[108 Pages Report] Check for Discount on United States Cervical Interbody Fusion Cages Market Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. In this report, the United States Cervical Interbody Fusion Cages...
Cervical spinal stenosis is a bone disease involving the narrowing of the spinal canal at the level of the neck. It is frequently due to chronic degeneration, but may also be congenital. Treatment is frequently surgical. Cervical spinal stenosis is one of the most common forms of spinal stenosis, along with lumbar spinal stenosis (which occurs at the level of the lower back instead of in the neck). Thoracic spinal stenosis, at the level of the mid-back, is much less common. Cervical spinal stenosis can be far more dangerous by compressing the spinal cord. Cervical canal stenosis may lead to serious symptoms such as major body weakness and paralysis. Such severe spinal stenosis symptoms are virtually absent in lumbar stenosis, however, as the spinal cord terminates at the top end of the adult lumbar spine, with only nerve roots (cauda equina) continuing further down. Cervical spinal stenosis is a condition involving narrowing of the spinal canal at the level of the neck. It is frequently due to ...
Looking for online definition of cervical spine injury in the Medical Dictionary? cervical spine injury explanation free. What is cervical spine injury? Meaning of cervical spine injury medical term. What does cervical spine injury mean?
J Neurosurg Spine 27:403-409, 2017. The goal of this study was to characterize the long-term clinical and radiological results of articular segmental decompression surgery using endoscopy (cervical microendoscopic laminotomy [CMEL]) for cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) and to compare outcomes to conventional expansive laminoplasty (ELAP).. METHODS Consecutive patients with CSM who required surgical treatment were enrolled. All enrolled patients (n = 78) underwent CMEL or ELAP. All patients were followed postoperatively for more than 5 years. The preoperative and 5-year follow-up evaluations included neurological assessment (Japanese Orthopaedic Association [JOA] score), JOA recovery rates, axial neck pain (using a visual analog scale), the SF-36, and cervical sagittal alignment (C2-7 subaxial cervical angle).. RESULTS Sixty-one patients were included for analysis, 31 in the CMEL group and 30 in the ELAP group. The mean preoperative JOA score was 10.1 points in the CMEL group and 10.9 points ...
A cervicogenic headache is a term used to describe a secondary headache, which really means the cause of the head pain is the result of another physical issue or illness. Some healthcare professionals call it "referred pain.". Cervicogenic headaches are characterized by a disorder that stems from the cervical spine and its discs or soft tissues. There are many structures in the upper neck and the back of the head that can be sensitive to pain. Cervicogenic headache is not a term you automatically apply to a headache with neck pain though. There are different headaches, such as a migraine and tension headaches that can be linked with neck pain and tension; however, people who suffer from cervicogenic headaches have a disorder or lesion in the cervical spine or soft tissues.. Cervicogenic headache pain tends to be located at the base of the skull as opposed to the front and sides of the skull. The trigeminal nerve is a cranial nerve located in the brain and it is responsible for transmitting ...
Posterior occipitocervical fixation and fusion are often required to address occipitocervical instability. Safe, stable internal fixation with screws is vital for the success of such surgery. Thus, poor selection of an internal fixation technique may cause fixation and fusion failure, possibly leading to neurovascular injury. Hence, in certain cases, such as in patients with severe instability of an occipitocervical deformity or osteoporosis, we hypothesized that having a third anchor point (a screw in C2) could enhance the stability of the occipitocervical fixation. A 31-year-old man with occipitocervical deformity and spinal cord edema underwent a traditional occipitocervical fixation procedure but with the addition of a spinous process screw in C2 as a third anchor point. The procedure included posterior internal fixation and fusion. The occipitocervical fixation was completed by inserting occipital screws, bilateral C2 pedicle screws, C3 lateral mass screws, and a spinous process screw in C2 as a
... (DISH) is a form of degenerative arthritis characterized by excessive bone growth along the sides of the vertebrae of the spine. Also known as Forestier disease, DISH causes stiffness in the upper back, and may also affect the neck and lower back. Some people experience DISH-associated inflammation and calcification (bone growth) at other areas of the body where tendons and ligaments attach to bone, such as at the heels, ankles, hips, shoulders, elbows, knees and hands. The exact cause of DISH remains unknown, although risk factors such as age, gender, long-term use of certain medications and chronic health conditions have been identified ...
Density of Calcium Release Units Decreased, Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis, Diminished Respiratory Excursion Symptom Checker: Possible causes include Ankylosing Spondylitis, Laryngeal Edema, Asthma. Check the full list of possible causes and conditions now! Talk to our Chatbot to narrow down your search.
Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis is the hardening of the spinal ligament where they attach to bone. Gentle care for this condition is available at Hutter Chiropractic Office.
What is a Nerve Root Block?. A nerve root block is typically an injection onto the sheath surrounding a nerve root in the spine. The aim of a nerve root block is to decrease the pain temporarily and then define it more precisely.. A selective nerve root block is primarily used to diagnose the specific source of nerve root pain and secondarily, for therapeutic relief of low back pain and/or leg pain.. Pain relief from the procedure of a nerve root block varies from minimal to long-term, depending on the specific symptoms.. When is a Thoracic Nerve Root Block used?. A thoracic (of mid back) nerve root block is carried out to indicate towards the nerve causing pain by placing temporary numbing medicine over the nerve root of concern.. If the usual pain improves after the injection, the nerve in concern is most likely causing the pain. By confirming or denying the exact source of pain, it provides information facilitating proper treatment that may further include additional nerve blocks or surgery ...

Klippel-Feil Syndrome - NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders)Klippel-Feil Syndrome - NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders)

The first seven vertebrae, beginning at the base of the skull, are known as the cervical vertebrae. KFS primarily affects the ... cervical vertebrae) and the upper back (i.e., upper thoracic vertebrae); type II is characterized by fusion at one or two ... cervical or thoracic vertebrae; type III is characterized by fusion of vertebrae of the neck as well as vertebrae of the upper ... vertebrae) within the neck (cervical vertebrae). Some affected individuals may also have an abnormally short neck, restricted ...
more infohttps://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/klippel-feil-syndrome/

Ponticulus posticus: Anatomical Variation in
Posterior Arch of the Atlas Vertebra Evaluated in
Lateral Cephalometric RadiographyPonticulus posticus: Anatomical Variation in Posterior Arch of the Atlas Vertebra Evaluated in Lateral Cephalometric Radiography

Anatomy; cervical atlas; sex characteristics; sex dimorphism; Ponticulus posticus.. Full Article - PDF Page 1-10 Article ... Ponticulus posticus: Anatomical Variation in Posterior Arch of the Atlas Vertebra Evaluated in Lateral Cephalometric ...
more infohttp://www.sciencedomain.org/abstract/19350

Durerea dă în scapula și piciorulDurerea dă în scapula și piciorul

Cervical vertebrae. The scapula AP view is a specialized projection of the scapular bone, performed in conjunction with the ... Vertebra / Ribs / Clavicle / Scapula. The lateral angle of the scapula or glenoid angle also known as the head of the scapula ...
more infohttp://kilydova.tk/eb3967c7714d.html

Treatment of Anderson Type II Odontoid Fracture in Elderly Patients by Posterior Pedicle Screw Fixation Combined with Iliac...Treatment of Anderson Type II Odontoid Fracture in Elderly Patients by Posterior Pedicle Screw Fixation Combined with Iliac...

... the patient after cervical rotation are limited to varying degrees. Conclusion: Posterior pedicle screw fixation combined with ... but long-term cervical rotation function may be affected to varying degrees. ... Postoperative imaging review prompted a good reduction of cervical spine, stable sequence; no pedicle screw loosening, fracture ... the cervical vertebrae showed a good position in the pedicle screw, the atlantoaxial sequence was complete, the cervical ...
more infohttps://file.scirp.org/Html/2-2101650_80329.htm

Klippel-Feil syndrome NGS panel | Connective Tissue Gene TestsKlippel-Feil syndrome NGS panel | Connective Tissue Gene Tests

... is a genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by variable degrees of bony fusion in the cervical vertebra. KFS patients ... is a genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by variable degrees of bony fusion in the cervical vertebra. KFS patients ...
more infohttp://ctgt.net/panel/klippel-feil-syndrome-ngs-panel

Revoluce dinosaurů (Dinosaur revolution)Revoluce dinosaurů (Dinosaur revolution)

Another one is typical for theropods -deep fossas present on the cervical vertebrae laterally to neural canal and on the ... The apomorphies linking the skeleton of these dinosaurs to theropods are numerous, for example wide intercentres of vertebrae, ... axial skeleton (cervical pleurocoels, elongate caudal. prezygapophyses), forelimb (radioulnar shaft apposition, elongate ... three sacral vertebrae) on the remains of this creature. ...
more infohttp://evolutionaryvertebratezoology.blogspot.cz/2013/01/revoluce-dinosauru-dinosaur-revolution.html

SCOLIOSIS INDIA: November 2014SCOLIOSIS INDIA: November 2014

Keep the shoulders away from the ears to lengthen the cervical. .. *Allow the head to drop behind, dont strain the neck by ... Instead of stacking neatly one atop the other, his vertebrae began to drift sideways into an S-shape and his rib cage started ... Kyphosis can be a postural or genetic deformity of the thoracic vertebrae. ... extends the cervical backwards, raises the chest and increases length between the navel and rib cage should be practiced ...
more infohttp://scoliosisindia.blogspot.in/2014/11/

Cervical vertebrae: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia ImageCervical vertebrae: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia Image

They are the smallest, and lightest vertebrae of the vertebral column. ... There are seven cervical vertebrae which are located in the neck. ... There are seven cervical vertebrae which are located in the neck. They are the smallest, and lightest vertebrae of the ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/ency/imagepages/9535.htm

Cervical vertebra | anatomy | Britannica.comCervical vertebra | anatomy | Britannica.com

There is one cervical vertebra with a characteristic projection called the odontoid process and two large facets for ... There may be from 11 (Ambystoma talpoideum) to 60 (Amphiuma) dorsal, or trunk, vertebrae, all but the last 1 or 2 usually ... Other articles where Cervical vertebra is discussed: Caudata: Bones and cartilage: ... There is one cervical vertebra with a characteristic projection called the odontoid process and two large facets for ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/science/cervical-vertebra

Cervical vertebrae [C1-C7] definition | Drugs.comCervical vertebrae [C1-C7] definition | Drugs.com

Definition of cervical vertebrae [C1-C7]. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/dict/cervical-vertebrae-c1-ndash-c7.html

Cervical Spine Vertebrae Diagram & Function | Body MapsCervical Spine Vertebrae Diagram & Function | Body Maps

The vertebrae that make up the cervical spine are the smallest seven within the spinal column. These bones give the neck ... A letter and number identify vertebrae. In the cervical column, the vertebrae are C1 through C7. The "C" stands for "cervical." ... Fracture to any vertebra is considered a medical emergency, but damage to the cervical vertebrae is especially critical. ... The vertebrae that make up the cervical spine are the smallest seven within the spinal column. These bones give the neck ...
more infohttps://www.healthline.com/human-body-maps/cervical-spine-vertebrae/male

Cervical vertebrae - WikipediaCervical vertebrae - Wikipedia

... of cervical vertebrae.[1] In sauropsid species, the cervical vertebrae bear cervical ribs. In lizards and saurischian dinosaurs ... cervical vertebrae (singular: vertebra) are the vertebrae of the neck, immediately below the skull. Truncal vertebrae (divided ... Cervical vertebrae. Position of human cervical vertebrae (shown in red). It consists of 7 bones, from top to bottom, C1, C2, C3 ... The cervical spinal nerves emerge from above the cervical vertebrae. For example, the cervical spinal nerve 3 (C3) passes above ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cervical_vertebra_3

Cervical vertebrae - definition of Cervical vertebrae by The Free DictionaryCervical vertebrae - definition of Cervical vertebrae by The Free Dictionary

Cervical vertebrae synonyms, Cervical vertebrae pronunciation, Cervical vertebrae translation, English dictionary definition of ... Cervical vertebrae. adj. 1. Of or relating to the uterine cervix. 2. Of or relating to the neck. adj of or relating to the neck ... cervical. [ˈsɜːvɪkəl]. A. ADJ → cervical. B. CPD cervical cancer N → cáncer m cervical or del cuello del útero. cervical smear ... cervical. [ˈsɜːrvɪkəl sərˈvaɪkəl] adj [mucus] → vaginal(e) cervical cancer, cervical screeningcervical cancer n → cancer m du ...
more infohttp://www.thefreedictionary.com/Cervical+vertebrae

C3 Cervical Vertebrae Location, Location & Location | Body MapsC3 Cervical Vertebrae Location, Location & Location | Body Maps

The cervical spine consists of seven vertebrae and is located at the base of the skull. Its function is to support the skull, ... The upper section of the cervical spine consists of the first cervical vertebrae (C1) and the second cervical vertebrae (C2). ... The fourth cervical vertebrae (C4) nerve root extends from the third cervical vertebrae (C3). ... The lower section consists of the third cervical vertebrae (C3) through seventh cervical vertebrae (C7). These spinal bones ...
more infohttps://www.healthline.com/human-body-maps/c3-cervical-vertebrae

Vertebra, cervical (neck): MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia ImageVertebra, cervical (neck): MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia Image

... called the cervical vertebra. The top bone, seen on the right of this picture, is called the atlas, and is where the head ... These are the seven bones of the neck, called the cervical vertebra. The top bone, seen on the right of this picture, is called ... The vertebra are numbered from one to seven from the atlas down, and are referred to as C1, C2, C3, etc. ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/ency/imagepages/1772.htm

C1 (Atlas) - 1st Cervical VertebraC1 (Atlas) - 1st Cervical Vertebra

... The C1 vertebra, known as the atlas, is the superior-most vertebra in the spinal column. It ... The atlas is the thinnest and most delicate of the cervical vertebrae, consisting of a thin ring of bone with a few small ... The C1, or first cervical vertebra, is commonly called the atlas due to its unique position in the spine. In Greek mythology, ... Unlike most vertebrae, there is no body or centrum on the anterior end of the atlas. Instead, there is a thin band of bone ...
more infohttps://www.innerbody.com/anatomy/skeletal/c1-atlas-1st-cervical-vertebra

Clipart - Human Cervical Vertebra or  SpineClipart - Human Cervical Vertebra or Spine

A human cervical vertebra or spine. A part of my effort to archive and preserve, public domain Human Anatomy Image classics in ... Human Cervical Vertebra or Spine. By. kephalian_cosmos. Created. 2016-06-02. Description. A human cervical vertebra or spine. A ... Anatomy , Bone , Cervical , Human , Kephalian , Neck , Osteology , Spine , Vertebra. Viewed by. 1165 People. Loved by. 5 People ...
more infohttps://openclipart.org/detail/250545/human-cervical-vertebra-or-spine

Cervical VertebraeCervical Vertebrae

Find out how the cervical vertebrae protect the spinal cord and how to get treatment for conditions that affect the cervical ... Anatomy of the cervical vertebrae. Like the vertebrae in the lumbar (lower) and thoracic (middle) spine, the cervical vertebrae ... Injury and accidents can also contribute to cervical vertebrae disorders.. Treating issues with the cervical vertebrae. If you ... The cervical vertebrae, including the top two bones called the atlas and axis, are subject to a number of disorders, such as ...
more infohttps://www.laserspineinstitute.com/back_problems/spinal_anatomy/vertebrae/cervical/

MOTION ANALYSIS OF CERVICAL VERTEBRAE DURING WHIPLASH LOADINGMOTION ANALYSIS OF CERVICAL VERTEBRAE DURING WHIPLASH LOADING

... http://www.chiro.org/LINKS/ABSTRACTS/Motion_Analysis_of_Cervical. ... Motion Analysis of Cervical Vertebrae. During Whiplash Loading This section is compiled by Frank M. Painter, D.C.. Send all ... STUDY DESIGN: The motion of each cervical vertebra during simulated rear-end car collisions was analyzed. OBJECTIVES: To ... CONCLUSIONS: The cervical spine is forced to move from the lower vertebrae during rear-end collisions. This motion completely ...
more infohttp://www.chiro.org/LINKS/ABSTRACTS/Motion_Analysis_of_Cervical.shtml

C7 (7th Cervical Vertebra) - Anatomy Pictures and InformationC7 (7th Cervical Vertebra) - Anatomy Pictures and Information

C7 (7th Cervical Vertebra). The 7th cervical (C7) vertebra is the largest and most inferior vertebra in the neck region. Unlike ... Unlike the notched spinous processes of the C3-C6 vertebrae, the vertebra prominens resembles the T1 vertebra with a spinous ... the C7 has some features of both the cervical and thoracic vertebrae. Like the C3 through C6 vertebrae, C7 has a thicker area ... The C7 is located in the spinal column inferior to the 6th cervical (C6) vertebra and superior to the first thoracic (T1) ...
more infohttps://www.innerbody.com/anatomy/skeletal/c7-7th-cervical-vertebra

Cervical Vertebrae | Technology TrendsCervical Vertebrae | Technology Trends

... cervical vertebrae, cervical, vertebrae:. Cervical Vertebrae - Additional Images. ... Position of cervical vertebrae (shown in ... Cervical Vertebrae. In vertebrates, cervical vertebrae (singular: vertebra) are those vertebrae immediately inferior to the ... There are approximately 40 cervical vertebrae (neck vertebrae), with different specimens preserving 38 to 42 cervical vertebrae ... Read more about Cervical Vertebrae: General Characteristics (C3-C6), Special Cervical Vertebrae (C1, C2, and C7), Movements of ...
more infohttp://www.primidi.com/cervical_vertebrae

Cervical vertebrae - WikipediaCervical vertebrae - Wikipedia

Position of cervical vertebrae (shown in red). Animation. Illustration of cervical vertebrae. Shape of cervical vertebrae ( ... First cervical vertebra, or Atlas Second cervical vertebra, or epistropheus, from above. Second cervical vertebra, epistropheus ... cervical vertebrae (singular: vertebra) are the vertebrae of the neck, immediately below the skull. Thoracic vertebrae in all ... Most mammals have 7 cervical vertebrae. In humans, cervical vertebrae are the smallest of the true vertebrae, and can be ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cervical_vertebrae

Cervical Vertebrae AnatomyCervical Vertebrae Anatomy

... are the remaining five cervical vertebrae (C3-C7). The vertebrae share many anatomical characteristics. Click and start ... Introduction to Cervical Vertebrae Anatomy:. Inferior to the atlas bone (C1) and axis bone (C2) are the five remaining cervical ... These vertebrae share many anatomical characteristics. An examination of one of the bones, such as the third cervical vertebra ... The last cervical vertebra (C7), however, is somewhat distinctive in that it typically has a more elongated spinous process. ...
more infohttps://www.getbodysmart.com/vertebral-column/cervical-vertebrae

Search of: Recruiting, Not yet recruiting, Available Studies | Cervical Vertebrae - List Results - ClinicalTrials.govSearch of: Recruiting, Not yet recruiting, Available Studies | 'Cervical Vertebrae' - List Results - ClinicalTrials.gov

Computer Modelling of the Cervical Spine Movements in Cervical Dystonia. *Cervical Dystonia, Primary ... Cervical Disc at Two Contiguous Levels in the Cervical Spine. *Cervical Degenerative Disc Disease ... Cervical Spine Thrust Joint Manipulation for Temporomandibular Disorder. *Temporomandibular Disorder. *Other: Cervical Spine ... Semirigid Cervical Collar and Nasotracheal Intubation by Glidescope in Cervical Spine Surgery. *Orthosis ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?recr=Open&cond=%22Cervical+Vertebrae%22&show_rss=Y&sel_rss=new14

Search of: Recruiting, Not yet recruiting, Available Studies | Cervical Vertebrae - Results on Map - ClinicalTrials.govSearch of: Recruiting, Not yet recruiting, Available Studies | 'Cervical Vertebrae' - Results on Map - ClinicalTrials.gov

Click on a [studies] link to search within your current results for studies in that region. Use the back button to return to this list and try another region ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results/map?recr=Open&cond=%22Cervical+Vertebrae%22
  • Conclusion: Posterior pedicle screw fixation combined with iliac bone grafting in elderly patients with Anderson II odontoid fracture can achieve good stability, and the prognosis is good, but long-term cervical rotation function may be affected to varying degrees. (scirp.org)
  • Cervical odontoid fracture is a more common type in the elderly patients with spine-related fractures, car accident and other violent trauma caused by elder Anderson II odontoid fracture is relatively rare. (scirp.org)
  • no pedicle screw loosening, fracture, iliac bone graft at the location of the situation, odontoid fracture and bone healing at the good, the patient after cervical rotation are limited to varying degrees. (scirp.org)
  • In addition to the fusion of certain vertebrae, KFS can be associated with a wide variety of additional anomalies affecting many different organ systems of the body. (rarediseases.org)
  • Of the seven cervical vertebrae , C3 through C6 have typical anatomy , while C7 looks very similar. (radiopaedia.org)
  • Bergman R, Afifi A, Miyauchi R. Anatomy Atlases - Cervical Vertebrae. (radiopaedia.org)
  • VARIATIOSS I N T H E ARTICULAR FACETS O F T H E CERVICAL VERTEBRAE CARL C. FRANCIS Department of Anatomy, ?Vestern Reserve University For a number of years clinicians have been interested in the relation of arthritis and other degenerative diseases of the cervical vertebrae to manifestations of nerve irritation and injury. (docme.ru)
  • Unlike the notched spinous processes of the C3-C6 vertebrae, the vertebra prominens resembles the T1 vertebra with a spinous process that is large, straight, and flattened at the end. (innerbody.com)
  • Many extensive studies are available on variations in the total number of cervical vertebrae, on modifications of the spinous processes, and on variability of the foramina in the transverse processes. (docme.ru)
  • Since the union is solid, a bone graft is necessary, which can be taken from the iliac crest, from the spinous processes and laminae (the rear portion of the vertebrae themselves) or it can be of synthetic origin. (humanitas.net)
  • The procedure involves making an incision in the central area of the back and a dissection to expose the spinous processes of the vertebrae and the lamina and to drill holes in the bone in which screws that are necessary to perform arthrodesis are inserted. (humanitas.net)
  • Tlie costal elements have separate centers of chondrification which soon fuse proximally with the bodies of the vertebra: and distally with the tips of the transverse processes of the vertebrae- The dorsal growth of the laminar processes and the formation of the spinous processes of the cervical vertebrae take place in the main like that of the thoracic. (edu.au)
  • Spinous Processes That are Short and Bifid - Visible in all the diagrams as a large, projecting portion of the vertebrae, the spinous processes are formed by the fusion of the two laminae along the midline. (wordpress.com)
  • It should be noted however, that the spinous processes become larger from C3 - C7, and the spinous process of C6 is actually classified as a long spinous process (it is thus an exception to the generalization that the spinous process is short for the typical cervical vertebrae. (wordpress.com)
  • The report puts special emphasis on the most important details of the Global cervical vertebra tractor market professional survey report 2017 market, filtered out with the help of industry-best analytical methods. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • A detailed and professional overview of the Global cervical vertebra tractor market professional survey report 2017 market has been compiled by industry experts and presented in the most concise manner to present only the details that matter the most. (qyresearchreports.com)
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  • Usually, patients with fracture of the cervical vertebrae suffered a direct trauma or an accident and the healing process has already started, therefore, depending on the type of fracture and precise diagnostic investigations they have particular protective guardians. (isokinetic.com)
  • The bodies of the vertebrae are connected to one another. (healthline.com)
  • In the more proximal cervical vertebrae the centers of chondrification appear as basal plates lateral to the anterior end of the bodies of the vertebrae. (edu.au)
  • Conditions affecting the cervical bones commonly occur as a result of aging, as bone density and disc elasticity deteriorate over time. (laserspineinstitute.com)
  • Like the C3 through C6 vertebrae, C7 has a thicker area of bone called the body, located anterior to the vertebral foramen. (innerbody.com)
  • Lamina of the vertebral arch ( lamina archus vertebrae ) is a plate of bone that extends from the pedicle. (getbodysmart.com)
  • The latter is a bar of bone joining the two processes and directed obliquely upward and forward in the upper vertebrae and horizontally in the lower. (imedecin.com)
  • Most of the head's movement is due to the flexion and extension of the joint called the atlanto-occipital which is located between the first cervical vertebrae and the occipital bone of the skull. (spinehealthlife.com)
  • Pain can also be caused due to cervical degeneration due to bone spurs or "osteophytes" which are growths that develop and attach to bones with age. (spinehealthlife.com)
  • PCF may be employed for the management of cervical fractures, bone dislocations, and deformities due to abnormal curvature of the cervical vertebrae. (leedsspineclinic.co.uk)
  • Cervical Pedicle Screw, Orthopedic Implant, Cervical Plate manufacturer / supplier in China, offering Cervical Vertebra Anterior Titanium Plate, Orthopedic Implant Trauma Calcaneus Bone Plates Type Iiiii, Orthopedic Implant Trauma Calcaneus Bone Plates Type III and so on. (stainlesssteelpipefittings.co.in)
  • In this report, the EMEA Cervical Vertebra Tractor market is valued at USD XX million in 2016 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2022, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2016 and 2022. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • Labelled Diagram Of Cervical Vertebrae is free HD wallpaper. (anatomysciences.com)
  • See extra ideas about Cervical vertebrae diagram from Diagram. (valvehome.us)
  • Cervical vertebrae diagram is in truth among pictures libraries inside of our easiest footage gallery. (valvehome.us)
  • These vertebrae share many anatomical characteristics. (getbodysmart.com)
  • Recently, Overton and Grossman ( ' 5 2 ) suggested the possibility that anatomical variations in the articulations of the second and third cervical vertebrae rnay be related to instability of the intervening joints, and thus may be an additional cause for clinical manifestations of nerve damage. (docme.ru)
  • Standard anatomical texts describe the cervical vertebrae in detail and casually mention certain variations. (docme.ru)
  • The majority of the cervical vertebrae (C3-C6) share similar anatomical characteristics in that they each have a bony process, called the pedicle, on either side of the vertebral body which supports the protective arch covering the spinal canal and, within it, the spinal cord. (painneck.com)
  • The costal element is unique, as within the thoracic vertebrae, it projects anteriorly to form the ribs. (wordpress.com)
  • In the cervical vertebrae, you can also imagine the costal element in an attempt to protrude anteriorly to form ribs, but is not able to complete its attempt. (wordpress.com)
  • Variations in the articular facets of the cervical vertebrae. (docme.ru)
  • A careful perusal of the literature failed t o reveal any systematic study of the articular facets in a large series of vertebrae of known age, sex, and race. (docme.ru)
  • Thoracic vertebrae in all mammalian species are those vertebrae that also carry a pair of ribs, and lie caudal to the cervical vertebrae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some investigators hold that the neural arches of the mammalian vertebrae contain elements of both the ventral and dorsal arches found in the lower vertebrates (see Schauinsland Hertwig's Handbuch, 1903). (edu.au)
  • Of course, sauropods weren't the only dinosaurs to have necks, but their disproportionate length--about on a par with the caudal vertebrae (see below) constituting these creatures' tails--put them, well, head and shoulders above others of their breed. (thoughtco.com)