Age Determination by Skeleton
X-Ray Intensifying Screens
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Bone and Bones
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Orthopedic Fixation Devices
Wasting of the small hand muscles in upper and mid-cervical cord lesions. (1/2270)Four patients are described with destructive rheumatoid arthritis of the cervical spine and neurogenic wasting of forearm and hand muscles. The pathological connection is not immediately obvious, but a relationship between these two observations is described here with clinical, radiological, electrophysiological and necropsy findings. Compression of the anterior spinal artery at upper and mid-cervical levels is demonstrated to be the likely cause of changes lower in the spinal cord. These are shown to be due to the resulting ischaemia of the anterior part of the lower cervical spinal cord, with degeneration of the neurones innervating the forearm and hand muscles. These findings favour external compression of the anterior spinal artery leading to ischaemia in a watershed area as the likeliest explanation for this otherwise inappropriate and bizarre phenomenon. (+info)
Genetic influences on cervical and lumbar disc degeneration: a magnetic resonance imaging study in twins. (2/2270)OBJECTIVE: Degenerative intervertebral disc disease is common; however, the importance of genetic factors is unknown. This study sought to determine the extent of genetic influences on disc degeneration by classic twin study methods using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: We compared MRI features of degenerative disc disease in the cervical and lumbar spine of 172 monozygotic and 154 dizygotic twins (mean age 51.7 and 54.4, respectively) who were unselected for back pain or disc disease. An overall score for disc degeneration was calculated as the sum of the grades for disc height, bulge, osteophytosis, and signal intensity at each level. A "severe disease" score (excluding minor grades) and an "extent of disease" score (number of levels affected) were also calculated. RESULTS: For the overall score, heritability was 74% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 64-81%) at the lumbar spine and 73% (95% CI 64-80%) at the cervical spine. For "severe disease," heritability was 64% and 79% at the lumbar and cervical spine, respectively, and for "extent of disease," heritability was 63% and 63%, respectively. These results were adjusted for age, weight, height, smoking, occupational manual work, and exercise. Examination of individual features revealed that disc height and bulge were highly heritable at both sites, and osteophytes were heritable in the lumbar spine. CONCLUSION: These results suggest an important genetic influence on variation in intervertebral disc degeneration. However, variation in disc signal is largely influenced by environmental factors shared by twins. The use of MRI scans to determine the phenotype in family and population studies should allow a better understanding of disease mechanisms and the identification of the genes involved. (+info)
Disabling injuries of the cervical spine in Argentine rugby over the last 20 years. (3/2270)OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence and risk factors of disabling injuries to the cervical spine in rugby in Argentina. METHODS: A retrospective review of all cases reported to the Medical Committee of the Argentine Rugby Union (UAR) and Rugby Amistad Foundation was carried out including a follow up by phone. Cumulative binomial distribution, chi 2 test, Fisher test, and comparison of proportions were used to analyse relative incidence and risk of injury by position and by phase of play (Epi Info 6, Version 6.04a). RESULTS: Eighteen cases of disabling injury to the cervical spine were recorded from 1977 to 1997 (0.9 cases per year). The forwards (14 cases) were more prone to disabling injury of the cervical spine than the backs (four cases) (p = 0.03). Hookers (9/18) were at highest risk of injury (p < 0.01). The most frequent cervical injuries occurred at the 4th, 5th, and 6th vertebrae. Seventeen of the injuries occurred during match play. Set scrums were responsible for most of the injuries (11/18) but this was not statistically significant (p = 0.44). The mean age of the injured players was 22. Tetraplegia was initially found in all cases. Physical rehabilitation has been limited to the proximal muscles of the upper limbs, except for two cases of complete recovery. One death, on the seventh day after injury, was reported. CONCLUSIONS: The forwards suffered a higher number of injuries than the backs and this difference was statistically significant. The chance of injury for hookers was statistically higher than for the rest of the players and it was particularly linked to scrummaging. However, the number of injuries incurred in scrums was not statistically different from the number incurred in other phases of play. (+info)
Cluster headache-like attack as an opening symptom of a unilateral infarction of the cervical cord: persistent anaesthesia and dysaesthesia to cold stimuli. (4/2270)A 54 year old man experienced excruciating left retro-orbital pain with lacrimation and redness of the eye representative of a cluster headache attack. This was followed by left hemiparesis with plegia of the lower limb and left Horner's syndrome. Five days later the hemiparesis recovered while the patient developed hypoanaesthesia to cold stimuli that evoked painful burning dysaesthesia on the right side below the C4 level. MRI disclosed a discrete infarct in the left lateral aspect of the cord at C2 level concomitant to a left vertebral artery thrombosis. This limited infarct and the clinical symptoms suggest a hypoperfusion in the peripheral arterial system of the left hemicord, supplied both by the anterior and posterior spinal arteries. Cluster headache-like attack and persistent dysaesthesia to cold stimuli are discussed respectively in view of the central sympathetic involvement and partial spinothalamic system dysfunction. (+info)
Bilateral vertebral artery occlusion following cervical spine trauma--case report. (5/2270)A 41-year-old female presented with a rare case of bilateral vertebral artery occlusion following C5-6 cervical spine subluxation after a fall of 30 feet. Digital subtraction angiography showed occlusion of the bilateral vertebral arteries. Unlocking of the facet joint, posterior wiring with iliac crest grafting, and anterior fusion were performed. The patient died on the 3rd day after the operation. This type of injury has a grim prognosis with less than a third of the patients achieving a good outcome. (+info)
In vivo and in vitro CT analysis of the occiput. (6/2270)Arguments concerning the best procedure for occipito-cervical fusion have rarely been based upon occipital bone thickness or only based on in vitro studies. To close this gap and to offer an outlook on preoperative evaluation of the patient, 28 patients were analysed in vivo by means of spiral CT. Ten macerated human skulls were measured by means of CT and directly. Measurements were taken according to a matrix of 66 points following a grid with 1 cm spacing based upon McRae's line. Maximum thickness in the patient group was met 4 cm above the reference plane in the median slice (11.87 mm; SD 3.41 mm) and 5 cm above it in the skull group (15.85 mm; SD 1.81 mm). Correlation between CT and direct measurements was good (91.79%). Intra-individual discrepancies from one side to the respective point on the other side are common (difference > 1 mm in 60%). Judging areas suitable for operative fixation using the 10% percentile value (6.68 mm for the maximum value of 11.87 mm) led to the conclusion that screws should only be inserted along the occipital crest in an area extending from 1.5 cm above the posterior margin of the foramen magnum to the external occipital protuberance (EOP). At the level of the EOP screws may also be inserted up to 1 cm lateral of the midline. A reduction of screw length to 7 mm (9 mm for the EOP) is proposed. Preoperative evaluation of the patient should be carried out by spiral CT with 1 mm slicing and sagittal reconstructions. (+info)
A clinico-pathological study of cervical myelopathy in rheumatoid arthritis: post-mortem analysis of two cases. (7/2270)Two patients who developed cervical myelopathy secondary to rheumatoid arthritis were analyzed post mortem. One patient had anterior atlanto-axial subluxation (AAS) combined with subaxial subluxation (SS), and the other had vertical subluxation (VS) combined with SS. In the patient with AAS, the posterior aspect of the spinal cord demonstrated severe constriction at the C2 segment, which arose from dynamic osseous compression by the C1 posterior arch. A histological cross-section of the spinal cord at the segment was characterized by distinct necrosis in the posterior white columns and the gray matter. In the patient with VS, the upper cervical cord and medulla oblongata showed angulation over the invaginated odontoid process, whereas no significant pathological changes were observed. At the level of SS, the spinal cord was pinched and compressed between the upper corner of the vertebral body and the lower edge of the lamina. Histologically, demyelination and gliosis were observed in the posterior and lateral white columns. (+info)
Hypoglossal nerve injury as a complication of anterior surgery to the upper cervical spine. (8/2270)Injury to the hypoglossal nerve is a recognised complication after soft tissue surgery in the upper part of the anterior aspect of the neck, e.g. branchial cyst or carotid body tumour excision. However, this complication has been rarely reported following surgery of the upper cervical spine. We report the case of a 35-year-old woman with tuberculosis of C2-3. She underwent corpectomy and fusion from C2 to C5 using iliac crest bone graft, through a left anterior oblique incision. She developed hypoglossal nerve palsy in the immediate postoperative period, with dysphagia and dysarthria. It was thought to be due to traction neurapraxia with possible spontaneous recovery. At 18 months' follow-up, she had a solid fusion and tuberculosis was controlled. The hypoglossal palsy persisted, although with minimal functional disability. The only other reported case of hypoglossal lesion after anterior cervical spine surgery in the literature also failed to recover. It is concluded that hypoglossal nerve palsy following anterior cervical spine surgery is unlikely to recover spontaneously and it should be carefully identified. (+info)
The main features of KFS include:
1. Fusion of two or more cervical vertebrae (cervical vertebral fusion)
2. Limited range of motion in the neck
3. Abnormalities in the shape and position of the spine
4. Neurological symptoms such as weakness, numbness, or paralysis in the arms and legs
5. Delayed development of motor skills and coordination
6. Learning disabilities and cognitive impairments
7. Facial asymmetry and/or craniofacial abnormalities
8. Other congenital anomalies such as cardiac, gastrointestinal, or urologic defects
The symptoms of KFS can vary in severity and may be present at birth or develop later in childhood. The exact cause of KFS is unknown, but it is thought to result from genetic mutations or environmental factors during fetal development.
Diagnosis of KFS typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging studies such as X-rays or MRIs, and genetic testing. Treatment for KFS depends on the severity of symptoms and may include:
1. Physical therapy to improve range of motion and strength in the neck and limbs
2. Bracing or orthotics to support the spine and promote proper posture
3. Medications to manage pain, weakness, or other neurological symptoms
4. Surgery to correct cervical deformities or relieve compression on the spinal cord
5. Other interventions such as speech therapy, occupational therapy, or special education to address cognitive and developmental delays.
Overall, early diagnosis and appropriate management of KFS can improve the quality of life for individuals with this condition. However, the prognosis for KFS is highly variable, and some individuals may experience significant ongoing disability or developmental delays despite treatment.
Some examples of musculoskeletal abnormalities include:
- Carpal tunnel syndrome: Compression of the median nerve in the wrist that can cause numbness, tingling, and weakness in the hand and arm.
- Kyphosis: An exaggerated curvature of the spine, often resulting from osteoporosis or other conditions that affect the bones.
- Osteoarthritis: Wear and tear on the joints, leading to pain, stiffness, and limited mobility.
- Clubfoot: A congenital deformity in which the foot is turned inward or outward.
- Scoliosis: An abnormal curvature of the spine that can be caused by genetics, injury, or other factors.
Musculoskeletal abnormalities can be diagnosed through physical examination, imaging tests such as X-rays and MRIs, and other diagnostic procedures. Treatment options vary depending on the specific condition but may include medication, physical therapy, braces or orthotics, or surgery in severe cases.
Some common types of spinal diseases include:
1. Degenerative disc disease: This is a condition where the discs between the vertebrae in the spine wear down over time, leading to pain and stiffness in the back.
2. Herniated discs: This occurs when the gel-like center of a disc bulges out through a tear in the outer layer, putting pressure on nearby nerves and causing pain.
3. Spinal stenosis: This is a narrowing of the spinal canal, which can put pressure on the spinal cord and nerve roots, causing pain, numbness, and weakness in the legs.
4. Spondylolisthesis: This is a condition where a vertebra slips out of place, either forward or backward, and can cause pressure on nearby nerves and muscles.
5. Scoliosis: This is a curvature of the spine that can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, injury, or disease.
6. Spinal infections: These are infections that can affect any part of the spine, including the discs, vertebrae, and soft tissues.
7. Spinal tumors: These are abnormal growths that can occur in the spine, either primary ( originating in the spine) or metastatic (originating elsewhere in the body).
8. Osteoporotic fractures: These are fractures that occur in the spine as a result of weakened bones due to osteoporosis.
9. Spinal cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that can form in the spine, either as a result of injury or as a congenital condition.
10. Spinal degeneration: This is a general term for any type of wear and tear on the spine, such as arthritis or disc degeneration.
If you are experiencing any of these conditions, it is important to seek medical attention to receive an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
Types of Spinal Neoplasms:
1. Benign tumors: Meningiomas, schwannomas, and osteochondromas are common types of benign spinal neoplasms. These tumors usually grow slowly and do not spread to other parts of the body.
2. Malignant tumors: Primary bone cancers (chordoma, chondrosarcoma, and osteosarcoma) and metastatic cancers (cancers that have spread to the spine from another part of the body) are types of malignant spinal neoplasms. These tumors can grow rapidly and spread to other parts of the body.
Causes and Risk Factors:
1. Genetic mutations: Some genetic disorders, such as neurofibromatosis type 1 and tuberous sclerosis complex, increase the risk of developing spinal neoplasms.
2. Previous radiation exposure: People who have undergone radiation therapy in the past may have an increased risk of developing a spinal tumor.
3. Family history: A family history of spinal neoplasms can increase an individual's risk.
4. Age and gender: Spinal neoplasms are more common in older adults, and males are more likely to be affected than females.
1. Back pain: Pain is the most common symptom of spinal neoplasms, which can range from mild to severe and may be accompanied by other symptoms such as numbness, weakness, or tingling in the arms or legs.
2. Neurological deficits: Depending on the location and size of the tumor, patients may experience neurological deficits such as paralysis, loss of sensation, or difficulty with balance and coordination.
3. Difficulty with urination or bowel movements: Patients may experience changes in their bladder or bowel habits due to the tumor pressing on the spinal cord or nerve roots.
4. Weakness or numbness: Patients may experience weakness or numbness in their arms or legs due to compression of the spinal cord or nerve roots by the tumor.
5. Fractures: Spinal neoplasms can cause fractures in the spine, which can lead to a loss of height, an abnormal curvature of the spine, or difficulty with movement and balance.
1. Medical history and physical examination: A thorough medical history and physical examination can help identify the presence of symptoms and determine the likelihood of a spinal neoplasm.
2. Imaging studies: X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, or PET scans may be ordered to visualize the spine and detect any abnormalities.
3. Biopsy: A biopsy may be performed to confirm the diagnosis and determine the type of tumor present.
4. Laboratory tests: Blood tests may be ordered to assess liver function, electrolyte levels, or other parameters that can help evaluate the patient's overall health.
1. Surgery: Surgical intervention is often necessary to remove the tumor and relieve pressure on the spinal cord or nerve roots.
2. Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy may be used before or after surgery to kill any remaining cancer cells.
3. Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy may be used in combination with radiation therapy or as a standalone treatment for patients who are not candidates for surgery.
4. Supportive care: Patients may require supportive care, such as physical therapy, pain management, and rehabilitation, to help them recover from the effects of the tumor and any treatment-related complications.
The prognosis for patients with spinal neoplasms depends on several factors, including the type and location of the tumor, the extent of the disease, and the patient's overall health. In general, the prognosis is better for patients with slow-growing tumors that are confined to a specific area of the spine, as compared to those with more aggressive tumors that have spread to other parts of the body.
The survival rates for patients with spinal neoplasms vary depending on the type of tumor and other factors. According to the American Cancer Society, the 5-year survival rate for primary spinal cord tumors is about 60%. However, this rate can be as high as 90% for patients with slow-growing tumors that are confined to a specific area of the spine.
There are no specific lifestyle modifications that can cure spinal neoplasms, but certain changes may help improve the patient's quality of life and overall health. These may include:
1. Exercise: Gentle exercise, such as yoga or swimming, can help improve mobility and strength.
2. Diet: A balanced diet that includes plenty of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean protein can help support overall health.
3. Rest: Getting enough rest and avoiding strenuous activities can help the patient recover from treatment-related fatigue.
4. Managing stress: Stress management techniques, such as meditation or deep breathing exercises, can help reduce anxiety and improve overall well-being.
5. Follow-up care: Regular follow-up appointments with the healthcare provider are crucial to monitor the patient's condition and make any necessary adjustments to their treatment plan.
In conclusion, spinal neoplasms are rare tumors that can develop in the spine and can have a significant impact on the patient's quality of life. Early diagnosis is essential for effective treatment, and survival rates vary depending on the type of tumor and other factors. While there are no specific lifestyle modifications that can cure spinal neoplasms, certain changes may help improve the patient's overall health and well-being. It is important for patients to work closely with their healthcare provider to develop a personalized treatment plan and follow-up care to ensure the best possible outcome.
Overbite: This occurs when the upper teeth overlap the lower teeth too much.
Underbite: This happens when the lower teeth overlap the upper teeth too much.
Crossbite: This is when the upper teeth do not align with the lower teeth, causing them to point towards the inside of the mouth.
Open bite: This occurs when the upper and lower teeth do not meet properly, resulting in a gap or an open bite.
Overjet: This is when the upper teeth protrude too far forward, overlapping the lower teeth.
Crowding: This refers to when there is not enough space in the mouth for all the teeth to fit properly, leading to overlapping or misalignment.
Spacing: This occurs when there is too much space between the teeth, which can lead to gum problems and other issues.
Each type of malocclusion can cause a range of symptoms, including difficulty chewing, jaw pain, headaches, and difficulty opening and closing the mouth fully. Treatment options for malocclusion depend on the severity of the problem and may include orthodontic braces, aligners, or surgery to correct the bite and improve oral function and aesthetics.
There are several types of spinal fractures, including:
1. Vertebral compression fractures: These occur when the vertebrae collapses due to pressure, often caused by osteoporosis or trauma.
2. Fracture-dislocations: This type of fracture occurs when the vertebra is both broken and displaced from its normal position.
3. Spondylolysis: This is a type of fracture that occurs in the spine, often due to repetitive stress or overuse.
4. Spondylolisthesis: This is a type of fracture where a vertebra slips out of its normal position and into the one below it.
5. Fracture-subluxation: This type of fracture occurs when the vertebra is both broken and partially dislocated from its normal position.
The diagnosis of spinal fractures typically involves imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI to confirm the presence of a fracture and determine its severity and location. Treatment options for spinal fractures depend on the severity of the injury and may include pain management, bracing, physical therapy, or surgery to stabilize the spine and promote healing. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to realign the vertebrae and prevent further damage.
Overall, spinal fractures can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, and it is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
1. Parvovirus (Parvo): A highly contagious viral disease that affects dogs of all ages and breeds, causing symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, and severe dehydration.
2. Distemper: A serious viral disease that can affect dogs of all ages and breeds, causing symptoms such as fever, coughing, and seizures.
3. Rabies: A deadly viral disease that affects dogs and other animals, transmitted through the saliva of infected animals, and causing symptoms such as aggression, confusion, and paralysis.
4. Heartworms: A common condition caused by a parasitic worm that infects the heart and lungs of dogs, leading to symptoms such as coughing, fatigue, and difficulty breathing.
5. Ticks and fleas: These external parasites can cause skin irritation, infection, and disease in dogs, including Lyme disease and tick-borne encephalitis.
6. Canine hip dysplasia (CHD): A genetic condition that affects the hip joint of dogs, causing symptoms such as arthritis, pain, and mobility issues.
7. Osteosarcoma: A type of bone cancer that affects dogs, often diagnosed in older dogs and causing symptoms such as lameness, swelling, and pain.
8. Allergies: Dog allergies can cause skin irritation, ear infections, and other health issues, and may be triggered by environmental factors or specific ingredients in their diet.
9. Gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV): A life-threatening condition that occurs when a dog's stomach twists and fills with gas, causing symptoms such as vomiting, pain, and difficulty breathing.
10. Cruciate ligament injuries: Common in active dogs, these injuries can cause joint instability, pain, and mobility issues.
It is important to monitor your dog's health regularly and seek veterinary care if you notice any changes or abnormalities in their behavior, appetite, or physical condition.
* Thoracic scoliosis: affects the upper back (thoracic spine)
* Cervical scoliosis: affects the neck (cervical spine)
* Lumbar scoliosis: affects the lower back (lumbar spine)
Scoliosis can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
* Genetics: inherited conditions that affect the development of the spine
* Birth defects: conditions that are present at birth and affect the spine
* Infections: infections that affect the spine, such as meningitis or tuberculosis
* Injuries: injuries to the spine, such as those caused by car accidents or falls
* Degenerative diseases: conditions that affect the spine over time, such as osteoporosis or arthritis
Symptoms of scoliosis can include:
* An uneven appearance of the shoulders or hips
* A difference in the height of the shoulders or hips
* Pain or discomfort in the back or legs
* Difficulty standing up straight or maintaining balance
Scoliosis can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including:
* X-rays: images of the spine that show the curvature
* Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): images of the spine and surrounding tissues
* Computed tomography (CT) scans: detailed images of the spine and surrounding tissues
Treatment for scoliosis depends on the severity of the condition and can include:
* Observation: monitoring the condition regularly to see if it progresses
* Bracing: wearing a brace to support the spine and help straighten it
* Surgery: surgical procedures to correct the curvature, such as fusing vertebrae together or implanting a metal rod.
It is important for individuals with scoliosis to receive regular monitoring and treatment to prevent complications and maintain proper spinal alignment.
Compression fractures are more common in older adults due to the natural aging process that weakens bones, causing them to become brittle and prone to breaking. This type of fracture can also be caused by other conditions such as cancer or infections that weaken bones.
Compression fractures are often diagnosed with X-rays or CT scans, which show the extent of the fracture and any damage to surrounding tissue. Treatment typically involves pain management, bracing to support the spine, and medication to prevent further bone loss. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to stabilize the spine or correct deformities.
Compression fractures can have a significant impact on quality of life, causing chronic back pain, limited mobility, and emotional distress. However, with proper treatment and support, many people are able to recover and maintain their independence.
Preventing compression fractures is essential, particularly for older adults or those with osteoporosis. This can be achieved through a healthy diet rich in calcium and vitamin D, regular exercise, and avoiding smoking and excessive alcohol consumption. Additionally, falling prevention strategies such as removing tripping hazards from the home environment and improving lighting can help reduce the risk of compression fractures.
Overall, compression fractures are a common condition that can significantly impact quality of life. Understanding the causes, diagnosis, and treatment options is crucial for effective management and prevention of this condition.
The term "spondylolysis" comes from the Greek words "spondylo," meaning "vertebra," and "lysis," meaning "destruction." Together, they refer to a condition where there is a fracture or degeneration of one or more vertebrae in the spine.
Spondylolysis can occur at any level of the spine, but it is most common in the lower back (lumbar spine) and the neck (cervical spine). It can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
1. Overuse or repetitive strain: This is the most common cause of spondylolysis, particularly in athletes who participate in high-impact sports. The repeated stress and strain on the vertebrae can lead to small fractures or degeneration over time.
2. Trauma: Spondylolysis can also be caused by a sudden injury, such as a fall or a blow to the back. This type of trauma can cause a fracture or compression of one or more vertebrae.
3. Genetics: Some people may be more prone to developing spondylolysis due to inherited factors, such as a family history of spinal problems.
4. Degenerative conditions: Spondylolysis can also be caused by degenerative conditions such as osteoporosis, which can lead to weakened bones and increased risk of fracture.
The symptoms of spondylolysis can vary depending on the location and severity of the condition. Common symptoms include:
1. Back pain: This is the most common symptom of spondylolysis, and it can range from mild to severe.
2. Stiffness: Patients with spondylolysis may experience stiffness in their back, particularly after periods of rest or inactivity.
3. Limited mobility: Spondylolysis can cause limited mobility in the affected area, making it difficult to bend or twist.
4. Muscle spasms: Muscle spasms are common in patients with spondylolysis, particularly in the back muscles.
5. Tenderness: The affected area may be tender to the touch, and patients may experience pain when pressure is applied to the area.
6. Decreased range of motion: Spondylolysis can cause a decrease in range of motion, making it difficult to move or bend.
7. Numbness or tingling: Patients with spondylolysis may experience numbness or tingling sensations in the affected area.
Spondylolysis is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI. Treatment for spondylolysis depends on the severity of the condition and may include:
1. Rest and relaxation: Patients with mild cases of spondylolysis may be advised to rest and avoid activities that exacerbate the condition.
2. Physical therapy: Physical therapy can help improve range of motion, strength, and flexibility in patients with spondylolysis.
3. Medications: Over-the-counter pain relievers such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen may be prescribed to manage pain associated with spondylolysis.
4. Bracing: Wearing a brace can help support the affected area and improve mobility.
5. Surgery: In severe cases of spondylolysis, surgery may be necessary to repair or stabilize the affected vertebrae.
It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of spondylolysis, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent further damage and improve outcomes.
There are several types of kyphosis, including:
1. Postural kyphosis: This type of kyphosis is caused by poor posture and is often seen in teenagers.
2. Scheuermann's kyphosis: This type of kyphosis is caused by a structural deformity of the spine and is most common during adolescence.
3. Degenerative kyphosis: This type of kyphosis is caused by degenerative changes in the spine, such as osteoporosis or degenerative disc disease.
4. Neuromuscular kyphosis: This type of kyphosis is caused by neuromuscular disorders such as cerebral palsy or muscular dystrophy.
Symptoms of kyphosis can include:
* An abnormal curvature of the spine
* Back pain
* Difficulty breathing
* Difficulty maintaining posture
* Loss of height
* Tiredness or fatigue
Kyphosis can be diagnosed through a physical examination, X-rays, and other imaging tests. Treatment options for kyphosis depend on the type and severity of the condition and can include:
* Physical therapy
It is important to seek medical attention if you or your child is experiencing any symptoms of kyphosis, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent further progression of the condition and improve quality of life.
Kyphosis is an exaggerated forward curvature of the spine, also known as "roundback" or "hunchback". This type of curvature can be caused by a variety of factors such as osteoporosis, degenerative disc disease, and Scheuermann's disease.
Lordosis is an excessive inward curvature of the spine, also known as "swayback". This type of curvature can be caused by factors such as pregnancy, obesity, and spinal injuries.
Scoliosis is a sideways curvature of the spine, which can be caused by a variety of factors such as genetics, injury, or birth defects. Scoliosis can be classified into two main types: Cervical (neck) scoliosis and Thoracic (chest) scoliosis.
All three types of curvatures can cause discomfort, pain and decreased mobility if left untreated. Treatment options vary depending on the severity of the curvature and may include physical therapy, bracing, or surgery.
In medicine, cadavers are used for a variety of purposes, such as:
1. Anatomy education: Medical students and residents learn about the human body by studying and dissecting cadavers. This helps them develop a deeper understanding of human anatomy and improves their surgical skills.
2. Research: Cadavers are used in scientific research to study the effects of diseases, injuries, and treatments on the human body. This helps scientists develop new medical techniques and therapies.
3. Forensic analysis: Cadavers can be used to aid in the investigation of crimes and accidents. By examining the body and its injuries, forensic experts can determine cause of death, identify suspects, and reconstruct events.
4. Organ donation: After death, cadavers can be used to harvest organs and tissues for transplantation into living patients. This can improve the quality of life for those with organ failure or other medical conditions.
5. Medical training simulations: Cadavers can be used to simulate real-life medical scenarios, allowing healthcare professionals to practice their skills in a controlled environment.
In summary, the term "cadaver" refers to the body of a deceased person and is used in the medical field for various purposes, including anatomy education, research, forensic analysis, organ donation, and medical training simulations.
Symptoms of spinal tuberculosis may include:
* Back pain
* Weakness or numbness in the arms or legs
* Difficulty walking or maintaining balance
* Fever, fatigue, and weight loss
* Loss of bladder or bowel control
If left untreated, spinal tuberculosis can lead to severe complications such as paralysis, nerve damage, and infection of the bloodstream. Treatment typically involves a combination of antibiotics and surgery to remove infected tissue.
Spinal TB is a rare form of TB, but it is becoming more common due to the increasing number of people living with HIV/AIDS, which weakens the immune system and makes them more susceptible to TB infections. Spinal TB can be difficult to diagnose as it may present like other conditions such as cancer or herniated discs.
The prognosis for spinal tuberculosis is generally good if treated early, but the condition can be challenging to treat and may require long-term management.
There are several types of osteoporosis, including:
1. Postmenopausal osteoporosis: This type of osteoporosis is caused by hormonal changes that occur during menopause. It is the most common form of osteoporosis and affects women more than men.
2. Senile osteoporosis: This type of osteoporosis is caused by aging and is the most common form of osteoporosis in older adults.
3. Juvenile osteoporosis: This type of osteoporosis affects children and young adults and can be caused by a variety of genetic disorders or other medical conditions.
4. secondary osteoporosis: This type of osteoporosis is caused by other medical conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, or ulcerative colitis.
The symptoms of osteoporosis can be subtle and may not appear until a fracture has occurred. They can include:
1. Back pain or loss of height
2. A stooped posture
3. Fractures, especially in the spine, hips, or wrists
4. Loss of bone density, as determined by a bone density test
The diagnosis of osteoporosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests, such as X-rays or bone density tests. Treatment for osteoporosis can include medications, such as bisphosphonates, hormone therapy, or rANK ligand inhibitors, as well as lifestyle changes, such as regular exercise and a balanced diet.
Preventing osteoporosis is important, as it can help to reduce the risk of fractures and other complications. To prevent osteoporosis, individuals can:
1. Get enough calcium and vitamin D throughout their lives
2. Exercise regularly, especially weight-bearing activities such as walking or running
3. Avoid smoking and excessive alcohol consumption
4. Maintain a healthy body weight
5. Consider taking medications to prevent osteoporosis, such as bisphosphonates, if recommended by a healthcare provider.
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- The cervical spine is made up of 7 vertebrae. (medscape.com)
- The cervical spine is much more mobile than the thoracic or lumbar regions of the spine. (medscape.com)
- Unlike the other parts of the spine, the cervical spine has transverse foramina in each vertebra for the vertebral arteries that supply blood to the brain. (medscape.com)
- The cervical spine is made up of the first 7 vertebrae, referred to as C1-7 (see the images below). (medscape.com)
- The cervical spine may be divided into 2 parts: upper and lower. (medscape.com)
- Lateral radiograph of cervical spine showing all 7 vertebrae. (medscape.com)
- The upper cervical spine consists of the atlas (C1) and the axis (C2). (medscape.com)
- Background: There are few known studies investigating the correlation of symptomatology with the specific subtypes of cervical spine degenerative joint disease demonstrated on radiograph. (chiroindex.org)
- Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that clinical symptoms such as pain level, headaches, shoulder referral and hand radiculopathy or numbness are not reliably correlated with radiographic findings of degenerative joint disease in the cervical spine. (chiroindex.org)
- The cervical (neck) spine has seven vertebrae (bones). (carle.org)
- When his symptoms did not improve, a cervical spine radiograph showed a lytic lesion of the fifth cervical vertebra. (cdc.gov)
- On hospital admission, physical examination was unremarkable, with the exception of pain on palpation over the posterior cervical spine. (cdc.gov)
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical spine demonstrated an enhancing mass that involved the posterior aspects of C5 plus an abnormal signal within the adjacent spinous processes. (cdc.gov)
- It can also complicate manipulations of the cervical spine by reducing the blood flow during extreme rotations of head and neck. (who.int)
- Children who had undergone cervical spine surgery or who had disea- ses not associated with this syndrome were excluded. (bvsalud.org)
- In most cervical spine before practicing sports4,5. (bvsalud.org)
- Overview This Axis Scientific Vertebrae Set includes Atlas, Axis, Cervical, Thoracic, and Lumbar Vertebrae with Sacrum and Coccyx securely fastened to the base for a great desktop reference. (anatomywarehouse.com)
- The vertebrae were analyzed according to a modified Hassel & Farma´s method, which analyzed the bottom edges of C2, C3 and C4, and the vertebral bodies of C3 and C4 by assigning one of six maturation stages (1-be-ginning, 2-acceleration, 3-transition, 4-deceleration, 5-maturation and 6-ending). (bvsalud.org)
- Syndrome Individuals with Down Syndrome using the cervical vertebrae maturation stages. (who.int)
- Is there a correlation between dental and cervical vertebrae maturation stages in growing subjects? (bvsalud.org)
- To assess skeletal maturity among individuals with Down Syndrome using the cervical vertebrae maturation stages. (bvsalud.org)
- The independent t-test and chi-square test were used to determine significant differences among the continuous (age) and categorical variables ( cervical vertebrae maturation stages) respectively when matched with gender and chronological age. (bvsalud.org)
- In common with the other cervical vertebrae, the transverse processes are also perforated by foramina transversaria. (learnsurgeryonline.com)
- Conclusion: Presence of incomplete ponticulus posterior might cause cervical pain and even cerebrovascular disorders due to pressure on third part of vertebral artery present in the vertebral artery groove. (who.int)
- It is sometimes called the vertebra prominens for that reason. (learnsurgeryonline.com)
- Physical therapy for pain and inflammation may include gentle cervical traction, mobilization, and neck-strengthening exercises. (carle.org)
- What Is Cervical Radiculopathy? (carle.org)
- Cervical radiculopathy, or pinched nerve, is damage to a nerve root near these vertebrae. (carle.org)
- What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Cervical Radiculopathy? (carle.org)
- How Is Cervical Radiculopathy Diagnosed? (carle.org)
- How Is Cervical Radiculopathy Treated? (carle.org)
- Conclusion: Changes observed in the used human cervical vertebrae radiographs showed to be useful to assist in age estimation, contributing to the forensic dentistry expert´s activity before identification cases. (bvsalud.org)
- Radiographs of 322 patients from April 2010 to June 2012 were assessed and evidence of radiographic cervical degenerative joint disease was extracted. (chiroindex.org)
- The Cervical individuals as most of the studies have been limited vertebrae maturations (CVM) stages were thereafter to the hand wrist radiographs.7 correlated with gender and chronological age. (who.int)
- Kamdi Ashish, Ambade Hemlata, Thakre Gourav, Kaore Ashita, Kamdi N.Y.. Study of Incidence of Ponticulus Posterior In Dry Human Atlas Vertebra and Its Clinical Significance. (who.int)
- Each atlas vertebra was carefully observed for the presence or absence of complete or incomplete ponticuli on superior surface of posterior arch of atlas. (who.int)
- This does not allow much rotation of one vertebra on the other, but does allow flexion, extension and lateral flexion. (learnsurgeryonline.com)
- This study examined the changes in neck and back pain visual analog scale (VAS) scores, cervical range of motion (CROM), cervical flexion-relaxation ratio (FRR) and lumbar FRR after below-knee assembly work. (nih.gov)
- The ligamentous laxity and It is imperative that health care professionals generalized hypotonia are characteristics that be aware about the presence of this condition, since contribute to the change of alignment in the atlanto- physical activity involving cervical flexion may cause axial segment in children with Down syndrome1,2. (bvsalud.org)
- The atlas is the first cervical vertebra. (learnsurgeryonline.com)
- The atlas is ring-shaped and does not have a body, unlike the rest of the vertebrae. (medscape.com)
- On those 2 days, gap size was estimated between the atlas cervical vertebra and the skull (cm). (usda.gov)
- Background: Atlas is the first cervical vertebra. (who.int)
- Ponticuli were incomplete in all 7 atlas vertebras. (who.int)
- Complete ring was not observed in any of the atlas vertebra .Out of the 7 ponticuli 6(12%) were found to be unilateral and in only 1 (2%) case it was found to be bilateral. (who.int)
- A 28-year-old man with 15 years' riding experience was thrown to the ground while riding a bull and suffered a fracture of the fifth and sixth cervical vertebrae and an incomplete * spinal cord injury. (cdc.gov)
- Pattern among Down vertebrae as a method of assessment of skeletal maturity has rarely been used among Down Syndrome. (who.int)
- Keywords: Skeletal maturity, Cervical Vertebrae Maturation, Down syndrome. (who.int)
- Cervical vertebrae maturation has rarely been used maturations (CVM) were staged using the method to assess the skeletal maturation of Down Syndrome described by Baccetti et al. (who.int)
- Bones joints cartilage, Cervical region, Vertebral column. (stanford.edu)
- Objective: To verify the viability of bone age determination by the cervical vertebrae, focusing on its use by forensic dentistry expert´s activity. (bvsalud.org)
- It may exist as a separate bone, forming a cervical rib. (learnsurgeryonline.com)
- It is a ring of bone and is very different from a 'typical' vertebra, with specific anatomical features shown below. (learnsurgeryonline.com)
- Results: There is a strong correlation between the main age and bone age obtained from cervical vertebrae, resulting in r=0.8534. (bvsalud.org)
- C3 -4 cervical vertebrae) or the body of the hyoid bone (C3) . (who.int)
- Results: Referral of pain to the shoulder and neck stiffness showed small degrees of correlation with cervical degenerative joint disease, however, these correlations were not maintained when age was accounted for. (chiroindex.org)
- Other symptoms can develop if your vertebrae press on the spinal cord and nerve roots. (healthline.com)
- A small increase in diagnostic accuracy between the presence of neck stiffness and all forms of cervical degenerative joint disease is shown, however, this increase is not at the level expected to change clinical practice. (chiroindex.org)
- Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional design was used to correlate cervical radiographic findings with neck pain and related symptomatology. (chiroindex.org)
- There are spinal nerves on both sides of these vertebrae, and these nerves supply feeling to the scalp. (healthline.com)
- Both the cervical and lumbar FRRs on the left and right sides decreased significantly with below-knee assembly work. (nih.gov)
- Neck and back pain VAS scores, active CROM and cervical and lumbar FRRs were measured in all subjects once before and once after 10 minutes of below-knee assembly work. (nih.gov)
- The discovery documents the first really long-tailed pachypleurosaur with totally 121 (69 caudal) vertebrae, providing new evidence for the vertebral multiplication and ecological adaption of this group. (nature.com)