Spinal Cord Compression: Acute and chronic conditions characterized by external mechanical compression of the SPINAL CORD due to extramedullary neoplasm; EPIDURAL ABSCESS; SPINAL FRACTURES; bony deformities of the vertebral bodies; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations vary with the anatomic site of the lesion and may include localized pain, weakness, sensory loss, incontinence, and impotence.Spinal NeoplasmsSpinal Cord Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplasms which occur within the substance of the spinal cord (intramedullary neoplasms) or in the space between the dura and spinal cord (intradural extramedullary neoplasms). The majority of intramedullary spinal tumors are primary CNS neoplasms including ASTROCYTOMA; EPENDYMOMA; and LIPOMA. Intramedullary neoplasms are often associated with SYRINGOMYELIA. The most frequent histologic types of intradural-extramedullary tumors are MENINGIOMA and NEUROFIBROMA.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Laminectomy: A surgical procedure that entails removing all (laminectomy) or part (laminotomy) of selected vertebral lamina to relieve pressure on the SPINAL CORD and/or SPINAL NERVE ROOTS. Vertebral lamina is the thin flattened posterior wall of vertebral arch that forms the vertebral foramen through which pass the spinal cord and nerve roots.Cervical Vertebrae: The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.Thoracic Vertebrae: A group of twelve VERTEBRAE connected to the ribs that support the upper trunk region.Spinal Cord Diseases: Pathologic conditions which feature SPINAL CORD damage or dysfunction, including disorders involving the meninges and perimeningeal spaces surrounding the spinal cord. Traumatic injuries, vascular diseases, infections, and inflammatory/autoimmune processes may affect the spinal cord.Spinal Canal: The cavity within the SPINAL COLUMN through which the SPINAL CORD passes.Epidural Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the space between the vertebral PERIOSTEUM and DURA MATER surrounding the SPINAL CORD. Tumors in this location are most often metastatic in origin and may cause neurologic deficits by mass effect on the spinal cord or nerve roots or by interfering with blood supply to the spinal cord.Decompression, Surgical: A surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Spinal DiseasesMyelography: X-ray visualization of the spinal cord following injection of contrast medium into the spinal arachnoid space.Paraplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in the lower extremities and lower portions of the trunk. This condition is most often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, although BRAIN DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause bilateral leg weakness.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Hematopoiesis, Extramedullary: The formation and development of blood cells outside the BONE MARROW, as in the SPLEEN; LIVER; or LYMPH NODES.Epidural Space: Space between the dura mater and the walls of the vertebral canal.Scheuermann Disease: A type of juvenile osteochondrosis affecting the fibrocartilaginous disc (INTERVERTEBRAL DISC) in the thoracic or thoracolumbar region of the SPINE. It is characterized by a forward concave SPINAL CURVATURE or KYPHOSIS.Diagnostic Techniques, Surgical: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of disease or dysfunction by examination of the pathological site or operative field during surgical intervention.Hematoma, Epidural, Spinal: A rare epidural hematoma in the spinal epidural space, usually due to a vascular malformation (CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM VASCULAR MALFORMATIONS) or TRAUMA. Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma is a neurologic emergency due to a rapidly evolving compressive MYELOPATHY.Spine: The spinal or vertebral column.Quadriplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in all four limbs which may result from BRAIN DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or rarely MUSCULAR DISEASES. The locked-in syndrome is characterized by quadriplegia in combination with cranial muscle paralysis. Consciousness is spared and the only retained voluntary motor activity may be limited eye movements. This condition is usually caused by a lesion in the upper BRAIN STEM which injures the descending cortico-spinal and cortico-bulbar tracts.Neurosurgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.Cauda Equina: The lower part of the SPINAL CORD consisting of the lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal nerve roots.Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Paraparesis: Mild to moderate loss of bilateral lower extremity motor function, which may be a manifestation of SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; MUSCULAR DISEASES; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; parasagittal brain lesions; and other conditions.Hyperostosis: Increase in the mass of bone per unit volume.Rheumatic Nodule: A small round or oval, mostly subcutaneous nodule made up chiefly of a mass of Aschoff bodies and seen in cases of rheumatic fever. It is differentiated from the RHEUMATOID NODULE which appears in rheumatoid arthritis, most frequently over bony prominences. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Epidural Abscess: Circumscribed collections of suppurative material occurring in the spinal or intracranial EPIDURAL SPACE. The majority of epidural abscesses occur in the spinal canal and are associated with OSTEOMYELITIS of a vertebral body; ANALGESIA, EPIDURAL; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations include local and radicular pain, weakness, sensory loss, URINARY INCONTINENCE, and FECAL INCONTINENCE. Cranial epidural abscesses are usually associated with OSTEOMYELITIS of a cranial bone, SINUSITIS, or OTITIS MEDIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p710 and pp1240-1; J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998 Aug;65(2):209-12)Osteochondroma: A cartilage-capped benign tumor that often appears as a stalk on the surface of bone. It is probably a developmental malformation rather than a true neoplasm and is usually found in the metaphysis of the distal femur, proximal tibia, or proximal humerus. Osteochondroma is the most common of benign bone tumors.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Spinal Fusion: Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)Balloon Embolectomy: The use of balloon CATHETERS to remove emboli by retraction of the balloon that is inflated behind the EMBOLUS.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Odontoid Process: The toothlike process on the upper surface of the axis, which articulates with the CERVICAL ATLAS above.Arachnoid Cysts: Intracranial or spinal cavities containing a cerebrospinal-like fluid, the wall of which is composed of arachnoidal cells. They are most often developmental or related to trauma. Intracranial arachnoid cysts usually occur adjacent to arachnoidal cistern and may present with HYDROCEPHALUS; HEADACHE; SEIZURES; and focal neurologic signs. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch44, pp105-115)Tuberculosis, Spinal: Osteitis or caries of the vertebrae, usually occurring as a complication of tuberculosis of the lungs.Spinal Nerve Roots: Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.Exostoses, Multiple Hereditary: Hereditary disorder transmitted by an autosomal dominant gene and characterized by multiple exostoses (multiple osteochondromas) near the ends of long bones. The genetic abnormality results in a defect in the osteoclastic activity at the metaphyseal ends of the bone during the remodeling process in childhood or early adolescence. The metaphyses develop benign, bony outgrowths often capped by cartilage. A small number undergo neoplastic transformation.Spinal Stenosis: Narrowing of the spinal canal.Diphosphonates: Organic compounds which contain P-C-P bonds, where P stands for phosphonates or phosphonic acids. These compounds affect calcium metabolism. They inhibit ectopic calcification and slow down bone resorption and bone turnover. Technetium complexes of diphosphonates have been used successfully as bone scanning agents.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Arachnoid: A delicate membrane enveloping the brain and spinal cord. It lies between the PIA MATER and the DURA MATER. It is separated from the pia mater by the subarachnoid cavity which is filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID.Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Spinal Injuries: Injuries involving the vertebral column.Hemangioma: A vascular anomaly due to proliferation of BLOOD VESSELS that forms a tumor-like mass. The common types involve CAPILLARIES and VEINS. It can occur anywhere in the body but is most frequently noticed in the SKIN and SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE. (from Stedman, 27th ed, 2000)Data Compression: Information application based on a variety of coding methods to minimize the amount of data to be stored, retrieved, or transmitted. Data compression can be applied to various forms of data, such as images and signals. It is used to reduce costs and increase efficiency in the maintenance of large volumes of data.Spinal Osteophytosis: Outgrowth of immature bony processes or bone spurs (OSTEOPHYTE) from the VERTEBRAE, reflecting the presence of degenerative disease and calcification. It commonly occurs in cervical and lumbar SPONDYLOSIS.Spinal Fractures: Broken bones in the vertebral column.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Spondylosis: A degenerative spinal disease that can involve any part of the VERTEBRA, the INTERVERTEBRAL DISK, and the surrounding soft tissue.Spinal Cord Ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the spinal cord which is supplied by the anterior spinal artery and the paired posterior spinal arteries. This condition may be associated with ARTERIOSCLEROSIS, trauma, emboli, diseases of the aorta, and other disorders. Prolonged ischemia may lead to INFARCTION of spinal cord tissue.Fractures, Spontaneous: Fractures occurring as a result of disease of a bone or from some undiscoverable cause, and not due to trauma. (Dorland, 27th ed)Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Nerve Compression Syndromes: Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.Spinal Nerves: The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.Reconstructive Surgical Procedures: Procedures used to reconstruct, restore, or improve defective, damaged, or missing structures.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Myelitis: Inflammation of the spinal cord. Relatively common etiologies include infections; AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES; SPINAL CORD; and ischemia (see also SPINAL CORD VASCULAR DISEASES). Clinical features generally include weakness, sensory loss, localized pain, incontinence, and other signs of autonomic dysfunction.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Anesthesia, Spinal: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.Umbilical Cord: The flexible rope-like structure that connects a developing FETUS to the PLACENTA in mammals. The cord contains blood vessels which carry oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the fetus and waste products away from the fetus.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Phrenic Nerve: The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.Anterior Horn Cells: MOTOR NEURONS in the anterior (ventral) horn of the SPINAL CORD which project to SKELETAL MUSCLES.Longitudinal Ligaments: Two extensive fibrous bands running the length of the vertebral column. The anterior longitudinal ligament (ligamentum longitudinale anterius; lacertus medius) interconnects the anterior surfaces of the vertebral bodies; the posterior longitudinal ligament (ligamentum longitudinale posterius) interconnects the posterior surfaces. The commonest clinical consideration is OSSIFICATION OF POSTERIOR LONGITUDINAL LIGAMENT. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Paralysis: A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)Stockings, Compression: Tight coverings for the foot and leg that are worn to aid circulation in the legs, and prevent the formation of EDEMA and DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS. PNEUMATIC COMPRESSION STOCKINGS serve a similar purpose especially for bedridden patients, and following surgery.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Cancer Care Facilities: Institutions specializing in the care of cancer patients.Forelimb: A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)Dura Mater: The outermost of the three MENINGES, a fibrous membrane of connective tissue that covers the brain and the spinal cord.Blood Loss, Surgical: Loss of blood during a surgical procedure.Fractures, Compression: Crumbling or smashing of cancellous BONE by forces acting parallel to the long axis of bone. It is applied particularly to vertebral body fractures (SPINAL FRACTURES). (Blauvelt and Nelson, A Manual of Orthopedic Terminology, 1994, p4)Intervertebral Disc: Any of the 23 plates of fibrocartilage found between the bodies of adjacent VERTEBRAE.Posterior Horn Cells: Neurons in the SPINAL CORD DORSAL HORN whose cell bodies and processes are confined entirely to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They receive collateral or direct terminations of dorsal root fibers. They send their axons either directly to ANTERIOR HORN CELLS or to the WHITE MATTER ascending and descending longitudinal fibers.Spinal Cord Regeneration: Repair of the damaged neuron function after SPINAL CORD INJURY or SPINAL CORD DISEASES.Spinal Cord Stimulation: Application of electric current to the spine for treatment of a variety of conditions involving innervation from the spinal cord.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Ligamentum Flavum: The paired bands of yellow elastic tissue that connect adjoining laminae of the vertebrae. With the laminae, it forms the posterior wall of the spinal canal and helps hold the body erect.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Cervical Atlas: The first cervical vertebra.Osteochondromatosis: A condition marked by the presence of multiple osteochondromas. (Dorland, 27th ed)Neck: The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.Palliative Care: Care alleviating symptoms without curing the underlying disease. (Stedman, 25th ed)Ganglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.Contusions: Injuries resulting in hemorrhage, usually manifested in the skin.
... tumor spinal cord compression, 5% of cases), treatment-resistant diarrhea (tumor vasoactive intestinal peptide secretion, 4% of ... cervical tumor, 2.4% of cases), opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome and ataxia (suspected paraneoplastic cause, 1.3% of cases), and ... A tumor in the chest may cause breathing problems. A tumor pressing on the spinal cord may cause weakness and thus an inability ... with ipsilateral lymph node positive for tumor; identifiable contralateral lymph node negative for tumor. Stage 3: Tumor ...
... transection of the cervical spinal cord). Second-order neuron disorder: Preganglionic lesions (e.g. compression of the ... such as a Pancoast tumor (tumor in the apex of the lung) or thyrocervical venous dilatation). Causes can be divided according ... The nerves of the sympathetic trunk arise from the spinal cord in the chest, and from there ascend to the neck and face. The ... Third-order neuron disorder: Postganglionic lesions at the level of the internal carotid artery (e.g. a tumor in the cavernous ...
... of the spinal cord is usually marked with bleeding from tumor growth in the subarachnoid space and is the result of compression ... tumor cells are found diffusely in the subarachnoid space from the cervical to sacral levels. In some cases however there are ... a 3mm deep furrow on the anterior side of the spinal cord, to the anterior horn of the spinal cord, the ventral grey matter of ... Tumor cell infiltration is associated with spongy changes in the white matter of the spinal cord beneath the pia mater with ...
Spinal cord compression About three percent of cancer patients experience spinal cord compression, usually from expansion of ... Nerve infiltration or compression Infiltration or compression of a nerve by a primary tumor causes peripheral neuropathy in one ... Seventy percent of cases involve the thoracic, 20 percent the lumbar, and 10 percent the cervical spine; and about 20 percent ... Compression of the long tracts of the cord itself produces funicular pain and compression of a spinal nerve root (fig. 5) ...
The cause is often compression, e.g. by a ruptured intervertebral disk or tumor. Since the nerves damaged in CES are actually ... Central cord syndrome, almost always resulting from damage to the cervical spinal cord, is characterized by weakness in the ... The part of the spinal cord that was damaged corresponds to the spinal nerves at that level and below. Injuries can be cervical ... A spinal cord injury (SCI) is damage to the spinal cord that causes changes in its function, either temporary or permanent. ...
April-June 2009). "Localisation of cervical spinal cord compression by TMS and MRI". Funct Neurol. 24 (2): 99-105. PMID ... It can show the spinal cord, nerve roots, and surrounding areas, as well as enlargement, degeneration, and tumors. It shows ... In the cervical spinal cord, a symptomatic posterolateral herniation between two vertebrae will impinge on the nerve which ... A primary focus of surgery is to remove pressure or reduce mechanical compression on a neural element- either the spinal cord, ...
Primary spinal tumors begin in either the spinal cord or spinal column, whereas secondary spinal tumors begin elsewhere and ... This may lead to compression of the nerve root of the spinal cord and result in pain of the lower back and lower extremities. ... There are many recognized spinal diseases, some more common than others. Spinal disease also includes cervical spine diseases, ... TumorsEdit. A spinal tumor is when unusual tissue begins growing and spreading in the spinal columns or spinal cords. The ...
... arthritis of the spinal discs, or spondylosis. In cervical cord compression, patients may have difficulty with gait, balance ... Spinal cord trauma Traumatic injuries of peripheral nerves Tumors of the spine, spinal cord and peripheral nerves Intracerebral ... Some indications for spine surgery include spinal cord compression resulting from trauma, ... other central nervous system infections including abscesses Spinal disc herniation Cervical spinal stenosis and Lumbar spinal ...
... arthritis of the spinal discs, or spondylosis. In cervical cord compression, patients may have difficulty with gait, balance ... Tumors of the spine, spinal cord and peripheral nerves. *Intracerebral hemorrhage, such as subarachnoid hemorrhage, ... Some indications for spine surgery include spinal cord compression resulting from trauma, ... Neuropathology is a specialty within the study of pathology focused on the disease of the brain, spinal cord, and neural tissue ...
... lateral cord, median nerve, medial cord, and ulnar nerve. The five roots are the five anterior rami of the spinal nerves, after ... An athlete can incur this injury in a collision that can cause cervical axial compression, flexion, or extension of nerve roots ... Tumors that may occur in the brachial plexus are schwannomas, neurofibromas and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. ... Additionally, the compression of cords can cause pain radiating down the arm, numbness, paresthesia, erythema, and weakness of ...
If the spinal cord is transected above C3, then spontaneous breathing is not possible. The last four cervical spinal nerves, C5 ... Such injuries can be because of injury or trauma, or compression. Compression of nerves can occur because of a tumour mass or ... These nerve roots are named according to the spinal vertebrata which they are adjacent to. In the cervical region, the spinal ... For the rest of the body, spinal nerves are responsible for somatosensory information. These arise from the spinal cord. ...
About 80% of tumors of the parotid gland are benign. The most common of these include pleomorphic adenoma (70% of tumors, ... The rounded terminal ends of the cords form the acini of the glands. Secretion by the parotid glands via the parotid duct ... The gland is mainly drained into the preauricular or parotid lymph nodes which ultimately drain to the deep cervical chain. The ... The cell bodies of the preganglionic sympathetics usually lie in the lateral horns of upper thoracic spinal segments. ...
In a radiculopathy, the problem occurs at or near the root of the nerve, shortly after its exit from the spinal cord. However, ... Most often the radiculopathy found in the patients are located in the cervical spine, most commonly affecting C6-C8 spinal ... Radiculopathy is a mechanical compression of a nerve root usually at the exit foramen or lateral recess. It may be secondary to ... Less common causes of radiculopathy include injury caused by tumor (which can compress nerve roots locally) and diabetes (which ...
A surgical treatment of nerve root or spinal cord compression by decompressing the spinal cord and nerve roots of the cervical ... Causes may include osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, spinal tumors, trauma, Paget's disease of the bone, scoliosis, ... Cervical (spondylotic) myelopathy, a syndrome caused by compression of the cervical spinal cord which is associated with "numb ... or the spinal cord. The most common forms are cervical spinal stenosis, which are at the level of the neck, and lumbar spinal ...
Cervical spinal nerves (C1-C4)Edit. Further information: Cervical plexus. The first 4 cervical spinal nerves, C1 through C4, ... Such injuries can be because of injury or trauma, or compression. Compression of nerves can occur because of a tumour mass or ... For the rest of the body, spinal nerves are responsible for somatosensory information. These arise from the spinal cord. ... The last four cervical spinal nerves, C5 through C8, and the first thoracic spinal nerve, T1, combine to form the brachial ...
... corresponding to the collateral activity as the sensory fibers synapse in the lumbar spinal cord. More rostrally, a cervical ... compression, multiple sclerosis, tumor or other focal lesions. SEPs are also sensitive to cortical attenuation due to diffuse ... In the course of conduction, the sensory fibers then transverse the cervical roots and enter the cervical cord. The median ... used for monitoring the spinal cord during scoliosis procedures and other surgical interventions in which the spinal cord is at ...
Rubin, Michael (October 2014). "Compression of the Spinal Cord". Merck Manual. Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. Retrieved 25 November ... spinal tumors and rib fractures may mimic thoracic pain/radicular pain. Other possible sources of referral pain into the ... Commonly intra-scapular pain is referred from the lower cervical spine. Contributing factors to injury include; lack of ... in the legs or loss of bowel or bladder control in the presence of thoracic spine pain can indicate spinal cord compression and ...
The rubrospinal tract facilitates motor neurons in the cervical spinal cord supplying the flexor muscles of the upper ... Such conditions include traumatic brain injury, stroke, intracranial hemorrhage, brain tumors, and encephalopathy.[not in ... It is exhibited by people with lesions or compression in the midbrain and lesions in the cerebellum. Decerebrate posturing is ... posturing is the disruption of the lateral corticospinal tract which facilitates motor neurons in the lower spinal cord ...
... spinal tumors) are corrected when possible. Surgical decompression of the foramen magnum and upper cervical cord is the only ... and sometimes peripheral sensory or motor deficits due to medullary compression. A syrinx results when a watery, protective ... A syrinx can also develop in patients who have a spinal cord tumor, scarring due to previous spinal trauma, or no known ... In the case of syringomyelia, the syrinx can expand and elongate over time, destroying the spinal cord. Since the spinal cord ...
Trisomy 8 Tropical splenomegaly syndrome Trotter's syndrome Truman Syndrome Tsukuhara syndrome Tumor lysis syndrome Tumor ... Cerebellar stroke syndrome Cerebellopontine angle syndrome Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome cervical disc syndrome Cervical ... à deux Follicle-stimulating hormone insensitivity foramen magnum compression syndrome Forbes-Albright syndrome Foreign accent ... Conradi-Hünermann syndrome Constriction ring syndrome Contiguous gene syndrome Conus medullaris syndrome Cooks syndrome Cord ...
... move downward through the foramen magnum possibly causing compression of the lower brainstem and upper cervical spinal cord as ... Brain oedema Haematoma Stroke Tumour Infection Decompressive craniectomy Second-impact syndrome Barr RM, Gean AD, Le TH (2007 ... the hole in the base of the skull through which the spinal cord connects with the brain). Herniation can be caused by a number ... This type of MRI examines flow of CSF at the cranio-cervical joint. For persons experiencing symptoms but without clear MRI ...
It is caused by degeneration and protrusion of the disk and compression of the spinal cord. It occurs most commonly in the ... occipital bone interferes with spinal fluid circulation and results in fluid accumulation in the cervical spinal cord. This is ... Canine transmissible venereal tumor is a tumor of the external genitalia (penis, vulva). It is spread by sexual contact and is ... Most are not clinically significant, but they can cause compression of the spinal cord by deforming the vertebral canal or ...
... (CES) is symptoms due to damage to the bundle of nerves below the end of the spinal cord known as the ... a tumor or tumors, a herniated disc or an abnormal bone growth. If the tumor cannot be removed surgically and it is malignant ... Compression, trauma or other damage to this region of the spinal canal can result in cauda equina syndrome. The symptoms may ... the European Spinal Deformity Society, and the European Section of the Cervical Spine Research Society. 20 (5): 690-7. doi: ...
Spasticity Spina bifida Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy Spinal cord injury Spinal cord tumors Spinal muscular atrophy Spinal ... Cockayne syndrome Coffin-Lowry syndrome Coma Complex regional pain syndrome Compression neuropathy Congenital distal spinal ... dysgenesis-neuropathy-ichthyosis-keratoderma syndrome Cerebral gigantism Cerebral palsy Cerebral vasculitis Cervical spinal ... Tardive dysphrenia Tarlov cyst Tay-Sachs disease Temporal arteritis Temporal lobe epilepsy Tetanus Tethered spinal cord ...
The first group, hereditary ataxias, affect the cerebellum and spinal cord and are passed from one generation to the next ... It has also been proven effective in treating cervical and cranial-cervical dystonia. Treatment of tics present in conditions ... HFS may be due to vascular compression of the nerves going to the muscles of the face. For these patients, surgical ... Possible causes of ataxias may include stroke, tumor, infection, trauma, or degenerative changes in the cerebellum. These types ...
... describes any neurologic deficit related to the spinal cord. When due to trauma, it is known as (acute) spinal cord injury. When inflammatory, it is known as myelitis. Disease that is vascular in nature is known as vascular myelopathy. The most common form of myelopathy in human, cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM), is caused by arthritic changes (spondylosis) of the cervical spine, which result in narrowing of the spinal canal (spinal stenosis) ultimately causing compression of the spinal cord. In Asian populations, spinal cord compression often occurs due to a different, inflammatory process affecting the posterior longitudinal ligament. Clinical signs and symptoms ...
... (OPLL) is a process of fibrosis, calcification, and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the spine, that may involve the spinal dura. Once considered a disorder unique to people of Asian heritage, it is now recognized as an uncommon disorder in a variety of patients with myelopathy. The causes of OPLL are unknown. However, genetic and environmental factors appear to play a role in pathogenesis. OPLL may also be associated with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis Myeolography, including post-myelographic CT is likely the most effective imaging study an accurate diagnosis. Surgical management options include extensive cervical laminectomy with or without an additional posterior arthrodesis, anterior decompression and arthrodesis, and posterior cervical laminoplasty. Treatment decisions can be made based on a grading systems devised by Hirabayashi et al., supplemented by the Nurick myelopathy ...
Testosterone promotes growth of many prostate tumors and therefore reducing circulating testosterone to very low (castration) levels is often the treatment goal in the management of men with advanced prostate cancer. GnRH antagonists are used to provide fast suppression of testosterone without the surge in testosterone levels that is seen when treating patients with GnRH agonists.[1] In patients with advanced disease, this surge in testosterone can lead to a flare-up of the tumour, which can precipitate a range of clinical symptoms such as bone pain, urethral obstruction, and spinal cord compression. Drug agencies have issued warnings regarding this phenomenon in the prescribing information for GnRH agonists. As testosterone surge does not occur with GnRH antagonists, there is no need for patients to receive an antiandrogen as flare protection during prostate cancer treatment. GnRH agonists also induce an increase in ...
... is bleeding into the epidural space in the spine. These may arise spontaneously (e.g. during childbirth), or as a rare complication of epiduralanaesthesia or of surgery (such as laminectomy).[citation needed] Symptoms usually include back pain which radiates to the arms or the legs. They may cause pressure on the spinal cord or cauda equina, which may present as pain, muscle weakness, or dysfunction of the bladder and bowel. The best way to confirm the diagnosis is MRI. Risk factors include anatomical abnormalities and bleeding disorders. Treatment is generally with emergency surgery. The risk following epidural anaesthesia is difficult to quantify; estimates vary from 1 per 10,000 to 1 per 100,000 epidural anaesthetics.[citation needed] The anatomy of the epidural space is such that spinal epidural hematoma has a different presentation from intracranial epidural hematoma. In the spine, the epidural space contains loose ...
... is an orthopaedic/neurosurgical surgical procedure for treating spinal stenosis by relieving pressure on the spinal cord. The procedure involves cutting the lamina on both sides of the affected vertebrae (cutting through on one side and merely cutting a groove on the other) and then "swinging" the freed flap of bone open thus relieving the pressure on the spinal cord. The spinous process may be removed to allow the lamina bone flap to be swung open. The bone flap is then propped open using small wedges or pieces of bone such that the enlarged spinal canal will remain in place. This technique contrasts with vertebral laminectomy in the amount of bone and muscle tissue that has to be removed, displaced, or dissected in the procedure. Animated Cervical ...
A spinal tumor is when unusual tissue begins growing and spreading in the spinal columns or spinal cords. The unusual tissue builds up from abnormal cells that multiply quickly in a specific region. Tumors generally are broken down into categories known as benign, meaning non-cancerous, or malignant, meaning cancerous, and also primary or secondary. Primary spinal tumors begin in either the spinal cord or spinal column, whereas secondary spinal tumors begin elsewhere and spread to the spinal region.[9] Symptoms for spinal tumors may vary due to factors such as the type of tumor, the region of the spine, and ...
A spinal cord injury (SCI) is damage to the spinal cord that causes changes in its function, either temporary or permanent. These changes translate into loss of muscle function, sensation, or autonomic function in parts of the body served by the spinal cord below the level of the lesion. Injuries can occur at any level of the spinal cord and can be classified as complete injury, a total loss of sensation and muscle function, or incomplete, meaning some nervous signals are able to travel past the injured area of the cord. Depending on the location and severity of damage along the spinal cord, the symptoms can vary widely, from pain or numbness to paralysis to incontinence. The prognosis also ranges widely, from full recovery in rare cases to ...
... s are illnesses that affect the cervical spine, which is made up of the upper first seven vertebrae, encasing and shielding the spinal cord. This fragment of the spine starts from the region above the shoulder blades and ends by supporting and connecting the Skull. The cervical spine contains many different anatomic compositions, including muscles, bones, ligaments, and joints. All of these structures have nerve endings that can detect painful problems when they occur. Such nerves supply muscular control and sensations to the skull and arms while correspondingly providing our bodies with flexibility and motion.[1] However, if the cervical spine is injured it can cause many minor or traumatic problems, and although these injuries vary specifically they are more commonly known as "cervical spine disorders" as a whole.[1] It is through upper frontal chest discomfort (also known as ...
A compression lock, muscle lock, muscle slicer or muscle crusher, is a grappling hold which causes severe pain by pressing a muscle into a bone. A compression lock can cause a joint lock in a nearby joint when it is applied by squeezing a limb over a fulcrum. A forceful compression lock may damage muscles and tendons, and if accompanied by a joint lock, may also result in torn ligaments, dislocation or bone fractures. Compression locks can be used as pain compliance holds, and are sometimes featured in combat sports as submission holds. An Achilles lock (also called an Achilles hold or Achilles squeeze or Ashi-Hishigi in judo) is a compression lock that involves pressing the Achilles tendon into the back of the ankle or lower leg. It is typically performed by wedging a forearm, especially a bony part of it, into the Achilles tendon, while leveraging the foot and the leg over the forearm serving as a fulcrum. This causes ...
Spinal tumors are neoplasms located in the spinal cord. Extradural tumors are more common than intradural neoplasms. Depending on their location, the spinal cord tumors can be: Extradural - outside the dura mater lining (most common) Intradural - part of the dura Intramedullary - inside the spinal cord Extramedullary- inside the dura, but outside the spinal cord Extradural tumors are mostly metastases from primary cancers elsewhere (commonly breast, prostate and lung cancer). Intradural tumours can be classified as intramedullary (within the spinal parenchyma) or extramedullary (within the dura, but outside the spinal parenchyma). ...
... was an American medical device company with headquarters in San Jose, California. It was known for its development of minimally invasive therapeutic devices built upon a radiofrequency platform for the treatment of spinal diseases. The platform included two applications, the StabiliT Vertebral Augmentation System for the treatment of vertebral compression fractures and the STAR Tumor Ablation System for pain relief treatment of metastatic spinal tumors. DFINE was founded in 2004 in San Jose, California. It has had five rounds of funding since inception. The first being $35 million in 2009 led by Prospect Venture Partners. In January 2010 it received an additional $2.8 million. It received $36.2 million in equity finance in July 2010, led by Split Rock Partners with participation from OrbiMed, Prospect Venture Partners, and Vanguard Ventures. Its fourth round was $25 million with an additional $1.8 ...
A spinal tumor is when unusual tissue begins growing and spreading in the spinal columns or spinal cords. The unusual tissue builds up from abnormal cells that multiply quickly in a specific region. Tumors generally are broken down into categories known as benign, meaning non-cancerous, or malignant, meaning cancerous, and also primary or secondary. Primary spinal tumors begin in either the spinal cord or spinal column, whereas secondary spinal tumors begin elsewhere and spread to the spinal region.[9] Symptoms for spinal tumors may vary due to factors such as the type of tumor, the region of the spine, and ...
Four Guardians of the Kōdōkan refers to the four notable judo competitors of the early Kōdōkan: Tsunejiro Tomita, Yamashita Yoshiaki, Yokoyama Sakujiro, and Saigō Shirō. "Kōdōkan Shiten'nō" (講道館四天王) literally translates as Four Heavenly Kings of the Kōdōkan. Shiten'nō refers to four Devarajas, Hindu gods, historically adapted by the Japanese in Buddhism. Traditionally, the Four Heavenly Kings are the guardian gods that are worshipped as the protecting deities of Buddhist sanctuaries. When Kanō Jigorō began to develop judo from jujutsu, his efforts met with opposition from jujutsu practitioners. However, Kano drew a loyal following that included exceptional fighters. Hence the term "Four Guardians of the Kōdōkan" came into existence referring to Tsunejiro Tomita along with Yamashita Yoshiaki, Yokoyama Sakujiro, and Saigō Shirō. Shitennō (samurai) Shitennō (Tokugawa clan) Brown, Ju; Brown, John (2006). China, Japan, Korea Culture and Customs. Ju Brown. p. 93. ISBN ...
We diagnosed him with cervical myelopathy caused by the compression of the spinal cord due to an intra-canal tumor, and ... revealed the compression of spinal cord at the C6/7 and spinal canal stenosis at the L3/4 level. The tumor was hypointense or ... Giudicissi-Filho M, de Holanda CV, Borba LA, Rassi-Neto A, Ribeiro CA, de Oliveira JG (2006) Cervical spinal cord compression ... Magnetic resonance images of whole spine showed severe compression of spinal cord at the C6/7 and spinal canal stenosis at the ...
Trauma, spinal cord compression by tumor, cervical spondylitis, MS. Brainstem. Loss of pain and temperature sensation in ... LMN lesion, cerebellar; rarely myopathies, "spinal shock" (e.g. early response after a spinal cord trauma) ... Anterior Cord Syndrome15: ǞǞ Caused by infarction in anterior spinal artery territory, tumor invasion or inflammatory myelitis ... Brain tumors ✓✓ Spinal cord disorders ✓✓ Diabetic neuropathy • Huntingtons disease ✓✓ Alzheimers disease (AD) • Bellʼs (CN ...
Brown tumors (BT) are benign focal bone lesions that may appear in the context of primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism ( ... Kaya RA, Cavuşoğlu H, Tanik C, Kahyaoğlu O, Dilbaz S, Tuncer C, Aydin Y (2007) Spinal cord compression caused by a brown tumor ... Mak KC, Wong YW, Lik KDK (2009) Spinal cord compression secondary to brown tumour in a patient on long-term haemodialysis: a ... Brown tumor Cord compression Giant cell tumor Hyperparathyroidism Osteitis fibrosa cystica This is a preview of subscription ...
The spinal level of intramedullary spinal cord tumors was predominantly cervical (53.8%), followed by thoracic (40.8%). Overall ... Radiologic images showed a bony tumor arising from the C4 lamina with evidence of significant spinal cord compression and cord ... Radiologic images showed a bony tumor arising from the C4 lamina with evidence of significant spinal cord compression and cord ... Radiologic images showed a bony tumor arising from the C3 lamina with evidence of severe spinal cord compression. The second ...
Radiologic images showed a bony tumor arising from the C4 lamina with evidence of significant spinal cord compression and cord ... cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) for the treatment of symptomatic cervical radiculopathy with or without cord compression ... Radiologic images showed a bony tumor arising from the C4 lamina with evidence of significant spinal cord compression and cord ... Radiologic images showed a bony tumor arising from the C3 lamina with evidence of severe spinal cord compression. The second ...
Left: Preoperative radiograph revealing severe kyphosis and spinal cord compression due to destructive tumor involvement at the ... Left: Preoperative radiograph revealing severe kyphosis and spinal cord compression due to destructive tumor involvement at the ... Sundaresan NDigiacinto GVHughes JEet al: Treatment of neoplastic spinal cord compression: results of a prospective study. ... Metastatic tumors of the cervical spine. Clin Neurosurg 37:740-7551991Perrin RG McBroom RJ: Metastatic tumors of the cervical ...
... cervical spine MRIs with/without gadolinium shows a large C5-C6 epidural tumor causing severe spinal cord compression and ... the cervical spine MRI shows satisfactory decompression of the spinal cord.. Figure 2A. Post-operative cervical x-ray shows C4 ... Cervical MRI with gadolinium shows a large C5-C6 epidural tumor.. Figure 1B. Cervical MRI without gadolinium shows a large C5- ... The anterior approach to both decompression of the spinal cord and resection of the tumor, is the initial approach of choice. ...
... such as neural tumors, spinal cord compression, dural ectasia, instability, etc. ... Cervical kyphosis in NF-1 patients may develop with or without laminectomy, but cervical laminectomy at 9-years of age probably ... Figure 3. Sagittal MRI showing ventral spinal cord compression at C5-C6. Image courtesy of Christopher I. Shaffrey, MD, and ... The imaging studies demonstrated the severe C4-C6 kyphotic deformity and compression of the spinal cord. Although the child had ...
Study Spinal Cord Compression flashcards from Jason Hsu ... tumour. degen - discs, OP, spondylosis. infection - IVDU. ... Spinal Cord Compression Flashcards Preview Jasons MD2 ED/Amb Rotation , Spinal Cord Compression , Flashcards ... spinal shock and takes time to get upper motor normal symptoms. will get weakness ... older ppl with comorbidities with vague spinal pain, perhaps from ulcers or other causes ...
Competing diagnoses that can mimic spinal cord tumors and compression.. Differential diagnosis includes degenerative cervical ... Diagnostic Confirmation: Are you sure your patient has spinal cord tumor and compression?. Reliable, consistent elicitation of ... C. History Part 3: Competing diagnoses that can mimic spinal cord tumors and compression. ... Diagnostic Confirmation: Are you sure your patient has spinal cord tumor and compression? ...
Although SRS has been shown to be successful in a multitude of extradural metastatic tumors causing cord compression, very few ... Rapid and complete radiological resolution of an intradural cervical cord lung cancer metastasis treated with spinal ... of an intradural extramedullary metastatic small cell lung cancer lesion to the cervical spine resulting in cord compression in ... The median duration between stages was 34 days, and median tumor volumes at the first and second SSRS were 10.5 cm3 (range 2.4- ...
... or diseases which cause spinal cord compression (myelopathy) such as cervical spondylitis, tumors, or degenerative arthritis. A ... "the Hoffmann test is not a reliable screening tool for predicting the presence of cervical spinal cord compression." However, ... cross over at the top of the cervical spine and travel down each side of the spinal cord. This path is the corticospinal tract ... the same researchers suggest that it is possible the Hoffmann test was more sensitive for finding early spinal cord dysfunction ...
Disorders causing muscle wasting or weakness, especially nerve root compression, spinal cord or brachial plexus tumors, ... A cervical spine MRI can aid in the diagnosis of suspected cervical radiculopathy. ... Therefore, an MRI of the appropriate levels of the cord should be obtained urgently to evaluate for spinal cord compression. ... MRI of brain, C-spine and T-spine showed multifocal diffuse T2 hyperintensity throughout brain and spinal cord. Cerebral spinal ...
Extradural compression: by metastatic tumour, abscess or degenerative spinal disease. -Intradural, extramedullary compression: ... this is most likely to be due to degenerative cervical canal stenosis ... NEURO - Spinal cord compression Flashcards Preview ► Med Misc 43 , NEURO - Spinal cord compression , Flashcards ... Severe local spinal pain. -Rapidly progressive neurological deficit. -Systemic features of infection. Spinal cord compression ...
... is a compression of the spinal cord in the neck. It often is caused by a natural breakdown of the body as you age. ... The test can confirm if you have spinal cord compression in your neck. It also can show other problems, such as tumors, that ... Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is a compression of the spinal cord in your neck. A compression means pressure, pinching ... This can help reduce or relieve the compression of your spinal cord. ...
... and Brain Tumors. Dr. Kestle is Professor of Neurosurgery and Vice Chair of Cl ... Noncommunicating spinal extradural arachnoid cyst causing spinal cord compression in a child. J Neurosurg, 103(3 Suppl), 266-9. ... McCall TD, Liu JK, Kestle JR (2006). Sporadic osteochondroma of the cervical spine. Case illustration. J Neurosurg, 104(4 Suppl ... Noncommunicating spinal extradural arachnoid cyst causing spinal cord compression in a child. J Neurosurg, 103(3 Suppl), 266-9. ...
Therefore, tumor cells invaded the spinal cord continuously from the medulla oblongata. He was treated with cervical radiation ... One patient presented with a Brown-Séquard syndrome and an extradural spinal cord compression from tumor. The radiological and ... Metastatic tumor of the cervical spinal cord. Med J Aust 1962;1:205-6; ... All patients developed the Brown-Séquard syndrome due to intramedullary tumor in the cervical spinal cord, three within 2 mo ...
Radiculopathy-cervical. *Radiculopathy-lumbar. *Sciatica. *Spinal Cord Compression. *Spinal Cord Tumor. *Spinal Cord- ...
Thoracic spinal roots may be sacrificed to acquire a total resection, yet cervical and lumbar nerve roots should be preserved ... Due to the vulnerable and complex anatomic nature of the spinal cord, maximal resection of the tumors can be achieved with the ... Nerve sheath tumors, including schwannomas and neurofibromas, are closely associated with spinal nerves. Half of the spinal ... A curable complete resection should be achieved if possible while preserving the nervous function of the spinal cord and ...
spinal cord structure in relation to vertebrae types of lesions fibre tracts in spinal cord sensory loss motor loss reflexes ... Orientation of spinal cord and spinal roots with respect to vertebrae. Posterior. Slideshow 6341268 by oren-livingston ... Arrow indicates compression fracture at C5 Arrow indicates fracture-dislocation at C6/C7 ... Spinal cord contusion (bruise. causing bleeding in spinal column),. spinal cord tumors ...
Myelograms can show a nerve being pinched by a herniated disc, bony overgrowth, spinal cord tumors, and spinal abscesses. A CT ... An MRI can detect which disc is damaged and if there is any nerve compression. It can also detect bony overgrowth, spinal cord ... a pair of spinal nerves exit from the spinal cord and branch out to your body. Your spinal cord and the spinal nerves act as a ... Also shown are signs of spinal stenosis, a narrowing of the spinal canal that gives the spinal cord a kinked appearance. ...
"Resection of 2 Intradural Extramedullary Cervical Spine Tumors in a Patient With Neurofibromatosis Type 2: 3-Dimensional ... spine lesions causing spinal cord compression at C4 pression of the spinal cord. The postoperative course and C5. The patient ... spine lesions causing spinal cord compression at C4 pression of the spinal cord. The postoperative course and C5. The patient ... Curvilinear spine cord compression is demon- discussed. KEY WORDS: 3D video, NF2, Cervical spine tumor Operative Neurosurgery 0 ...
As epidural myeloma causing spinal cord compression is a rare condition, its therapeutic approach and clinical results have ... is the most common primary tumor of the spine. ... Extraosseous epidural tumor of immunoglobulin D myelomaJ Spinal ... If the involved level is the cervical or thoracic level, likely these presented cases, more attentions should be paid to ... Another form of spinal involvement of MM is spinal cord compression. Spinal cord compression is reported to develop in 11-24% ...
Symptomatic or untreated leptomeningeal or brain metastases or spinal cord compression; patients with treated central nervous ... cervical cancer in situ, or ductal/lobular carcinoma in situ of the breast that has underwent local treatment); consult the ... This phase I trial studies the side effects and best dose of talazoparib in treating patients with solid tumors that have ... Talazoparib may stop the growth of tumor cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth. ...
... cervical laminectomy C2-C3, excision of mass doneunder GA).Before operation there was a lot of compression andnumbness in my ... I am not sure if the doctors have fully removed the tumour (thru excision) I feel exhausted after the days work and lack ... I was operated in India (Hyderabad) on 14 Jun2001 against spinal tumour C2-C3 level with cordcompression (meningioma).After the ... I was operated in India (Hyderabad) on 14 Jun2001 against spinal tumour C2-C3 level with cordcompression (meningioma).After the ...
  • Sagittal and axial CT scans demonstrated an osseous tumor originating in the neighborhood of the right C6/7 facet joint. (springeropen.com)
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