Cervical Rib Syndrome
Thoracic Outlet Syndrome
Abducens Nerve Diseases
Carotid Artery, Internal, Dissection
Hand-Arm Vibration Syndrome
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (U.S.)
Analysis of cervical ribs in a series of human fetuses. (1/5)(+info)
A delayed diagnosis that altered the professional orientation of an athlete with upper limb chronic arterial embolization. (2/5)BACKGROUND: Vascular disorders of the upper extremity in young and physically active patients present a complex and challenging problem for the treating physician. Initial presentation may often be subtle and the consequences of misdiagnosis, delayed diagnosis or mistreatment can be severe. CASE REPORT: In this report, we discuss a case of a young woman with chronic upper limb ischemia due to an arterial thoracic outlet syndrome in whom even though symptoms persisted over a number of years during which she frequently sought medical consultation, remained undiagnosed until finally presenting with limb-threatening ischemia. Furthermore, due to this delay, the patient was forced to withdraw from her professional carrier in athletics. CONCLUSIONS: A thoughtful and through approach combining the history, physical findings, and use of appropriate diagnostic aids will provide the physician and patient with the greatest opportunity for a satisfactory outcome. Furthermore, a delay in definitive treatment may not only cause health deterioration, but may also incur social, economic and occupational consequences. (+info)
Cervical ribs: a common variant overlooked in CT imaging. (3/5)(+info)
Histology shows that elongated neck ribs in sauropod dinosaurs are ossified tendons. (4/5)(+info)
Torsion and bending in the neck and tail of sauropod dinosaurs and the function of cervical ribs: insights from functional morphology and biomechanics. (5/5)(+info)
The cervical rib is a small bone that arises from the seventh cervical vertebra (C7) and extends laterally into the neck. In some individuals, this bone can become prominent or fused with other bones, leading to compression of the nerves and blood vessels that pass through the Thoracic Outlet.
Symptoms of cervical rib syndrome may include pain in the neck and shoulder region, numbness or tingling sensation in the arm and hand, weakness in the hand, and difficulty with coordination and balance. Treatment for cervical rib syndrome usually involves physical therapy exercises to improve range of motion and strength, and medications to relieve pain and inflammation. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to release the compressed nerves and blood vessels.
It is important to note that not everyone has a cervical rib, it's only present in some individuals, so if you have any of these symptoms, it doesn't necessarily mean you have cervical rib syndrome.
The thoracic outlet is a narrow passageway between the scalene muscles and the first and second ribs. It contains several important structures, including the brachial plexus nerves, the subclavian artery and vein, and the phrenic nerve. When these structures are compressed or irritated, it can cause symptoms in the arm and hand.
TOS is relatively rare, but it can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
1. Congenital defects, such as a narrow thoracic outlet or abnormal development of the rib cage.
2. Trauma, such as a fall onto the shoulder or a direct blow to the chest.
3. Repetitive movements, such as typing or using a computer mouse.
4. Poor posture or body mechanics.
5. Muscle imbalances or weakness in the neck and shoulder muscles.
6. Ganglion cysts or other soft tissue masses that compress the nerves or blood vessels.
7. Fractures or dislocations of the clavicle or shoulder blade.
8. Tumors or other abnormal growths in the chest or neck.
9. Inflammatory conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis or thyroiditis.
Symptoms of TOS can vary depending on the location and severity of the compression. They may include:
1. Pain in the shoulder or arm, which can be exacerbated by movement or activity.
2. Numbness, tingling, or weakness in the hand or fingers.
3. Difficulty coordinating movements or performing fine motor tasks.
4. Weakness or fatigue in the muscles of the shoulder and arm.
5. Decreased grip strength or dexterity.
6. Pain or tingling that radiates down the arm or into the hand.
7. Swelling or redness in the neck or shoulder.
8. Difficulty swallowing or breathing, in severe cases.
TOS can be difficult to diagnose, as the symptoms can be similar to those of other conditions such as carpal tunnel syndrome or a heart attack. A thorough physical examination and medical history are important for making an accurate diagnosis. Imaging studies such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI may also be used to help identify any underlying structural abnormalities or nerve compression. Electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction studies (NCS) may also be performed to assess nerve function and determine the extent of nerve damage.
Treatment for TOS depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. Conservative treatments may include:
1. Rest and avoidance of activities that exacerbate the symptoms.
2. Physical therapy to improve posture, strength, and range of motion.
3. Anti-inflammatory medications or pain relievers to reduce swelling and relieve pain.
4. Muscle relaxants to reduce muscle spasm and tension.
5. Injections of steroids or local anesthetics to reduce inflammation and relieve pain.
6. Surgery may be necessary in severe cases, such as when there is significant nerve compression or instability of the shoulder joint.
It's important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of TOS, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent long-term complications and improve outcomes.
There are different types of rib fractures, including:
1. Linear fractures: These are simple cracks in the ribs without any displacement of the bone fragments.
2. Compression fractures: These occur when the rib is crushed due to pressure, causing the vertebrae to collapse.
3. Stress fractures: These are small cracks that develop over time due to repetitive stress or strain on the ribs.
4. Hairline fractures: These are very thin cracks in the ribs that do not necessarily displace the bone fragments.
Rib fractures can cause significant pain and discomfort, especially when taking deep breaths or coughing. Other symptoms may include bruising, swelling, and difficulty moving the chest wall. In severe cases, rib fractures can lead to complications such as pneumonia, respiratory failure, or even cardiac arrest.
Diagnosis of rib fractures is typically made through X-rays or CT scans, which can reveal the location and severity of the fracture. Treatment may involve pain management with medication, rest, and breathing exercises, as well as immobilization of the affected area with a cast or brace. In severe cases, surgery may be required to stabilize the bones or repair any damage to organs or blood vessels.
Overall, rib fractures can be serious injuries that require prompt medical attention to prevent complications and ensure proper healing.
The main symptoms of Horner syndrome include:
1. Pain and numbness in the face and arm on one side of the body
2. Weakness or paralysis of the muscles on one side of the face, arm, and hand
3. Difficulty swallowing
4. Reduced sweating on one side of the body
5. Increased heart rate and blood pressure
6. Narrowing of the pupil (anisocoria)
7. Dilation of the unaffected pupil (paralysis of the parasympathetic nervous system)
8. Decreased reflexes
9. Loss of sensation in the skin over the chest and abdomen
10. Pale or clammy skin on one side of the body
The symptoms of Horner syndrome can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
1. Trauma to the thoracolumbar spine
2. Injury or tumor in the brainstem or spinal cord
3. Aneurysm or arteriovenous malformation (AVM) in the neck or chest
4. Multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), or other neurodegenerative diseases
5. Inflammatory conditions such as sarcoidosis or tuberculosis
6. Infections such as meningitis or abscesses
7. Vasospasm or thrombosis of the blood vessels in the neck or chest.
The diagnosis of Horner syndrome is based on a combination of clinical findings, neuroimaging studies (such as MRI or CT scans), and laboratory tests to rule out other causes of the symptoms. Treatment of the condition depends on the underlying cause and may include surgery, medication, or other interventions. In some cases, Horner syndrome may be a sign of a more serious underlying condition that requires prompt medical attention.
Some common abducens nerve diseases include:
1. Abducens paresis or palsy: This is a weakness or paralysis of the abducens nerve that can cause difficulty moving the eyeball outward or away from the nose.
2. Brown syndrome: This is a condition where the nerve is compressed or damaged, leading to difficulty moving the eye laterally.
3. Congenital abducens palsy: This is a condition present at birth that affects the development of the abducens nerve and can result in limited or absent movement of one or both eyes.
4. Trauma to the abducens nerve: This can occur due to head injuries, facial trauma, or other forms of injury that damage the nerve.
5. Tumors or cysts: Growths in the orbit or near the abducens nerve can compress or damage the nerve and cause abducens nerve diseases.
6. Inflammatory conditions: Conditions such as Graves' disease, multiple sclerosis, or sarcoidosis can inflame the nerve and cause abducens nerve diseases.
7. Stroke or cerebral vasculature disorders: These conditions can damage the nerve due to reduced blood flow or bleeding in the brain.
Symptoms of abducens nerve diseases may include double vision, difficulty moving one or both eyes, and difficulty focusing. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, imaging studies such as MRI or CT scans, and electrophysiological tests such as electromyography. Treatment options vary depending on the underlying cause of the disease and may include glasses or contact lenses for double vision, prism lenses to align the eyes, or surgery to correct any anatomical abnormalities. In some cases, medications such as steroids or immunosuppressants may be prescribed to reduce inflammation and promote healing.
Mydriasis is a condition where the pupil remains dilated for an extended period, even in low light conditions. It can be caused by various factors such as injury to the head or eye, stroke, brain tumors, multiple sclerosis, and certain medications. Mydriasis can cause problems with vision, including blurred vision, double vision, and sensitivity to light. Treatment options for mydriasis depend on the underlying cause, but may include glasses or contact lenses to correct refractive errors, prism lenses to align images properly, or medications to reduce inflammation or treat underlying conditions.
Causes of Mydriasis
Mydriasis can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
1. Trauma to the head or eye: A blow to the head or a penetrating eye injury can cause mydriasis due to damage to the nerves that control pupil size.
2. Stroke or cerebral vasculature disorders: A stroke or other conditions that affect blood flow to the brain can cause mydriasis due to damage to the nerves that control pupillary constriction.
3. Brain tumors: Tumors in the brain, such as melanoma, can cause mydriasis by compressing or damaging the nerves that control pupil size.
4. Multiple sclerosis: This autoimmune disease can damage the nerves that control pupillary constriction, leading to mydriasis.
5. Medications: Certain medications, such as anticholinergic drugs and certain antihistamines, can cause mydriasis as a side effect.
Symptoms of Mydriasis
The symptoms of mydriasis may include:
1. Dilated pupils that do not constrict in response to light
2. Blurred vision or double vision
3. Sensitivity to light
4. Headaches or eye strain
5. Seeing halos around lights
6. Difficulty seeing at night or in low light conditions
7. Nausea and vomiting
Diagnosis of Mydriasis
To diagnose mydriasis, a comprehensive eye exam is necessary to rule out other causes of dilated pupils. The doctor may perform a series of tests to evaluate the function of the nervous system and the muscles that control pupillary constriction. These tests may include:
1. Pupillometry: This test measures the size of the pupils and their reaction to light.
2. Ophthalmoscopy: This test allows the doctor to visualize the inside of the eye and assess the function of the retina and optic nerve.
3. Eye movement testing: This test evaluates the muscles that control eye movement and their coordination with the pupillary constriction reflex.
4. Neurological exam: A neurological exam may be performed to rule out other conditions that can cause dilated pupils, such as brain tumors or multiple sclerosis.
Treatment of Mydriasis
The treatment of mydriasis depends on the underlying cause of the condition. In some cases, treating the underlying condition can resolve the mydriasis. Other treatments that may be used to manage mydriasis include:
1. Pupillary constriction medications: These medications can help reduce the size of dilated pupils and improve vision.
2. Prism glasses: In some cases, prism glasses may be prescribed to help align the visual fields and improve binocular vision.
3. Eye exercises: Eye exercises may be recommended to strengthen the muscles that control eye movement and improve coordination between the pupils.
4. Surgery: In rare cases, surgery may be necessary to treat mydriasis caused by a physical obstruction or other abnormality in the eye.
Prognosis of Mydriasis
The prognosis for mydriasis is generally good if the underlying cause is treated promptly and effectively. However, if the condition is left untreated, it can lead to complications such as:
1. Vision loss: Prolonged dilated pupils can lead to vision loss due to retinal damage or optic nerve damage.
2. Eye strain: Dilated pupils can cause eye strain and fatigue, which can lead to headaches and other symptoms.
3. Increased risk of eye injuries: Dilated pupils may increase the risk of eye injuries, as the pupil is more vulnerable to trauma when it is dilated.
4. Increased risk of infection: Dilated pupils may increase the risk of infection, as the pupil is more exposed to foreign substances and bacteria.
Prevention of Mydriasis
There are several steps you can take to help prevent mydriasis:
1. Get regular eye exams: Regular eye exams can help detect any underlying conditions that may be causing dilated pupils, such as cataracts or glaucoma.
2. Wear protective eyewear: Wearing protective eyewear, such as goggles or safety glasses, can help prevent eye injuries and reduce the risk of mydriasis.
3. Avoid exposure to bright lights: Bright lights can cause dilated pupils, so it is best to avoid exposure to bright lights, especially during the day.
4. Use artificial tears: Artificial tears can help keep the eyes moist and reduce the risk of mydriasis.
5. Get enough sleep: Getting enough sleep can help prevent eye strain and fatigue, which can lead to mydriasis.
6. Take breaks when working on a computer: Taking breaks when working on a computer can help reduce eye strain and fatigue, which can lead to mydriasis.
7. Use good lighting: Good lighting can help reduce eye strain and fatigue, which can lead to mydriasis.
8. Avoid smoking: Smoking can increase the risk of mydriasis, so it is best to avoid smoking.
9. Maintain good hygiene: Maintaining good hygiene, such as washing your hands frequently and avoiding sharing makeup or other products, can help prevent infection and reduce the risk of mydriasis.
Mydriasis is a common condition that can cause eye strain and fatigue, as well as increase the risk of eye injuries and infection. There are several steps you can take to prevent mydriasis, including avoiding smoking, getting enough sleep, using artificial tears, and taking breaks when working on a computer. Additionally, maintaining good hygiene and using good lighting can help reduce the risk of mydriasis. If you experience any symptoms of mydriasis, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible to prevent complications.
Symptoms of CAID may include sudden weakness or numbness on one side of the body, difficulty speaking, dizziness, and loss of vision in one eye. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as CT or MRI scans, and Doppler ultrasound.
Treatment for CAID usually involves medications to dissolve blood clots and prevent further complications. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair the damaged artery. Preventive measures include avoiding trauma to the neck and head, controlling high blood pressure, and managing underlying medical conditions that increase the risk of CAID.
The carotid arteries are located on either side of the neck and supply oxygen-rich blood to the brain, making them a critical part of the vascular system. Internal dissection of the carotid artery can lead to serious complications if left untreated, so prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for preventing long-term damage.
There are several potential causes of hypohidrosis, including:
1. Neurological disorders: Conditions such as Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and spinal cord injuries can damage the nerves that control sweat glands, leading to hypohidrosis.
2. Endocrine disorders: Hormonal imbalances or deficiencies, such as hypopituitarism or hypothyroidism, can affect the body's ability to produce sweat.
3. Medications: Certain medications, such as anticholinergics and beta blockers, can suppress sweat production.
4. Infections: Bacterial or fungal infections can inflame and damage sweat glands, leading to hypohidrosis.
5. Trauma: Burns, wounds, or other injuries to the skin can damage sweat glands and lead to hypohidrosis.
6. Genetic conditions: Some inherited disorders, such as familial hyperhidrosis, can cause hypohidrosis.
Symptoms of hypohidrosis may include:
* Dry, hot skin
* Increased body temperature
* Fatigue or weakness
* Dizziness or lightheadedness
* Nausea and vomiting
Treatment for hypohidrosis depends on the underlying cause. In some cases, treating the underlying condition can resolve the hypohidrosis. For example, if the condition is caused by a medication side effect, stopping or switching to a different medication may be sufficient. In other cases, treatment may involve managing symptoms and preventing complications. This may include:
* Drinking plenty of water to stay hydrated
* Avoiding strenuous activities in hot weather
* Using cooling devices, such as fans or air conditioners, to keep the environment at a comfortable temperature
* Taking medications to help regulate body temperature and prevent complications, such as dantrolene or bromocriptine
* In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat complications, such as heat stroke.
It is important to seek medical attention if you experience symptoms of hypohidrosis, especially during hot weather or after exposure to high temperatures. Early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.
Hemifacial spasm is a relatively rare movement disorder that affects one side of the face. It is characterized by involuntary muscle contractions and twitching on half of the face, which can be quite distressing for those who experience it. While there are several possible causes, including nerve compression or brain tumors, the exact cause is often difficult to determine.
One of the most common symptoms of HFS is muscle spasms and twitching on one side of the face, which can be quite pronounced and unpredictable. These spasms can occur in any of the muscles on the affected side, including those around the eyes, mouth, and jaw. In some cases, these spasms can also affect the eyelids, causing them to droop or close involuntarily.
The exact cause of hemifacial spasm is not always clear, but it is believed to be related to nerve compression or irritation of the facial nerve. This nerve runs from the brain down through the face and controls many of the muscles in the face, including those involved in eyelid movement and facial expressions. When this nerve is compressed or irritated, it can cause the muscles on one side of the face to spasm and twitch involuntarily.
There are several possible causes of HFS, including:
* Compression of the facial nerve by a blood vessel or tumor
* Trauma to the face or head
* Inflammatory conditions such as multiple sclerosis or sarcoidosis
* Brain tumors or cysts
* Stroke or other forms of brain damage
Treatment for hemifacial spasm usually involves a combination of medications and other therapies. Botulinum toxin injections are often used to relax the affected muscles and reduce spasms. Medications such as anticonvulsants, muscle relaxants, or anti-anxiety drugs may also be prescribed to help manage symptoms. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to relieve compression on the facial nerve.
In addition to these medical treatments, there are also several self-care techniques that can help manage hemifacial spasm. These include:
* Avoiding triggers such as stress or fatigue
* Applying warm compresses to the affected side of the face
* Practicing relaxation techniques such as deep breathing or meditation
* Using eye exercises to strengthen the muscles around the eyes and improve eyelid function.
It is important to seek medical attention if you are experiencing symptoms of hemifacial spasm, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes. With proper management, many people with HFS are able to effectively manage their symptoms and lead normal lives.
HAVS is typically caused by prolonged exposure to vibrations from hand-held power tools, such as jackhammers, drills, and sanders. The vibrations can cause damage to the blood vessels, nerves, and joints in the hands, leading to the development of HAVS.
There are several risk factors for developing HAVS, including:
1. Prolonged exposure to hand-transmitted vibrations
2. Use of high-vibration tools and equipment
3. Poor tool maintenance and repair
4. Inadequate training on the safe use of tools and equipment
5. Smoking and other cardiovascular risk factors
The symptoms of HAVS can vary in severity and may include:
1. Numbness, tingling, or pain in the hands and fingers
2. Reduced dexterity and grip strength
3. Fatigue and weakness in the hands and arms
4. Tremors or spasms in the hands and fingers
5. Pale or discolored skin on the fingers and hands
6. Decreased sensation in the fingertips
7. Swelling, redness, or warmth in the hands and fingers
If left untreated, HAVS can lead to more severe symptoms, including:
1. Permanent nerve damage
2. Loss of dexterity and grip strength
3. Decreased sensation in the fingertips
4. Finger ulcers and amputations
5. Carpal tunnel syndrome
6. Other neurological disorders
There is no cure for HAVS, but it can be managed with a combination of medical treatment and lifestyle changes. Treatment options may include:
1. Medications to relieve symptoms such as pain and inflammation
2. Physical therapy to improve dexterity and grip strength
3. Lifestyle modifications such as avoiding cold temperatures and taking regular breaks to warm up hands
4. Assistive devices such as gloves, splints, or hand braces
5. Surgery in severe cases to relieve compression on nerves or repair damaged tissue.
Prevention is the best course of action for HAVS, and it involves taking steps to reduce exposure to cold temperatures and other risk factors. Some ways to prevent HAVS include:
1. Using proper protective gear such as gloves, hats, and scarves in cold environments
2. Avoiding prolonged exposure to cold temperatures
3. Taking regular breaks to warm up hands and fingers
4. Exercising regularly to improve circulation and reduce risk factors such as smoking and obesity
5. Maintaining a healthy diet and getting enough sleep.
The exact cause of Raynaud disease is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to an autoimmune disorder, in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue. The condition can occur on its own or as a secondary symptom of another underlying medical condition such as scleroderma or rheumatoid arthritis.
Symptoms of Raynaud Disease:
1) Discoloration: Raynaud disease causes the affected areas to turn white or blue in response to cold temperatures or stress.
2) Pain: The constriction of blood vessels can cause pain in the affected areas.
3) Numbness or tingling: The lack of blood flow can cause numbness or tingling sensations in the fingers and toes.
4) Swelling: In severe cases, swelling may occur in the affected areas.
5) Burning sensation: Some people with Raynaud disease may experience a burning sensation in their hands and feet.
Diagnosis of Raynaud Disease:
1) Medical history: A doctor will ask about symptoms, medical history, and any triggers that may cause the condition.
2) Physical examination: The doctor will perform a physical examination to look for signs of discoloration or swelling in the affected areas.
3) Tests: Additional tests such as nailfold capillary microscopy, pulse volume recording and thermography may be ordered to confirm the diagnosis.
Treatment options for Raynaud Disease:
1) Medications: Drugs such as calcium channel blockers, alpha-blockers, and anticoagulants can help to relax blood vessels and improve blood flow.
2) Lifestyle changes: Avoiding triggers such as cold temperatures and taking steps to keep hands and feet warm can help manage the condition.
3) Alternative therapies: Some people with Raynaud disease may find relief with alternative therapies such as acupuncture or biofeedback.
It is important to note that in some cases, Raynaud disease can be a symptom of an underlying autoimmune disorder, such as lupus or scleroderma. If you suspect you have Raynaud disease, it is essential to seek medical attention to rule out any other conditions.
A laboratory infection is an infection that occurs in a healthcare worker or laboratory personnel while working in a laboratory setting, typically with infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, or fungi. These infections can be acquired through exposure to infected samples, equipment, or surfaces in the laboratory.
The risk of laboratory infection is higher in settings where high-risk agents are handled, such as in the study of highly infectious diseases like Ebola or SARS. The transmission of infectious agents in laboratories can occur through various routes, including:
1. Direct contact with infected samples or materials.
2. Contact with contaminated surfaces or equipment.
3. Inhalation of aerosols generated during procedures such as centrifugation or pipetting.
4. Exposure to infected personnel or animals in the laboratory.
To prevent laboratory infections, healthcare workers and laboratory personnel must follow strict safety protocols, including wearing personal protective equipment (PPE) such as gloves, gowns, and masks, and adhering to proper sterilization and decontamination techniques. Laboratories should also have ventilation systems that filter out infectious agents and should be designed with containment levels to minimize the risk of exposure.
Laboratory infections can have serious consequences for both the individuals involved and the broader community, including the potential for transmitting infectious diseases to others outside of the laboratory setting. Therefore, it is essential to have strict safety protocols and proper training for laboratory personnel to minimize the risk of laboratory-acquired infections.
1. Asbestosis: a lung disease caused by inhaling asbestos fibers.
2. Carpal tunnel syndrome: a nerve disorder caused by repetitive motion and pressure on the wrist.
3. Mesothelioma: a type of cancer caused by exposure to asbestos.
4. Pneumoconiosis: a lung disease caused by inhaling dust from mining or other heavy industries.
5. Repetitive strain injuries: injuries caused by repetitive motions, such as typing or using vibrating tools.
6. Skin conditions: such as skin irritation and dermatitis caused by exposure to chemicals or other substances in the workplace.
7. Hearing loss: caused by loud noises in the workplace.
8. Back injuries: caused by lifting, bending, or twisting.
9. Respiratory problems: such as asthma and other breathing difficulties caused by exposure to chemicals or dust in the workplace.
10. Cancer: caused by exposure to carcinogens such as radiation, certain chemicals, or heavy metals in the workplace.
Occupational diseases can be difficult to diagnose and treat, as they often develop gradually over time and may not be immediately attributed to the work environment. In some cases, these diseases may not appear until years after exposure has ended. It is important for workers to be aware of the potential health risks associated with their job and take steps to protect themselves, such as wearing protective gear, following safety protocols, and seeking regular medical check-ups. Employers also have a responsibility to provide a safe work environment and follow strict regulations to prevent the spread of occupational diseases.
Charles Thurstan Holland
Specimens of Tyrannosaurus
Supernumerary body part
First rib resection
Specimens of Archaeopteryx
Alfred Washington Adson
Timeline of plesiosaur research
List of diseases (C)
Renea moutonii singularis
Childhood immunizations in the United States
Charles Rodman Campbell
Sound (medical instrument)
Long thoracic nerve
What is the treatment for cervical rib?
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Thoracic outlet s8
- Lindren and colleagues argue that hypomobility of the first rib within the upper aperture of the thoracic cage can cause neural irritation and lead to symptoms known as thoracic outlet syndrome and limit cervical range of motion as well. (physiotutors.com)
- 7. The significance of cervical ribs in thoracic outlet syndrome. (nih.gov)
- 15. Costochondral calcification, osteophytic degeneration, and occult first rib fractures in patients with venous thoracic outlet syndrome. (nih.gov)
- 16. Remaining or residual first ribs are the cause of recurrent thoracic outlet syndrome. (nih.gov)
- 18. Thoracic outlet syndrome with right subclavian artery dilatation in a child - transaxillary resection of the pediatric cervical rib. (nih.gov)
- 20. Management of cervical ribs causing neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome: a ten year experience in the neurosurgery unit, Tikur Anbessa Hospital. (nih.gov)
- Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is a broad term that refers to compression of the neurovascular structures in the area just above the first rib and behind the clavicle. (slideshare.net)
- Until the advent of electrophysiologic testing in the 1940s, carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) commonly was thought to be the result of compression of the brachial plexus by cervical ribs and other structures in the anterior neck region (so-called thoracic outlet syndrome). (medscape.com)
- Cervical rib/elongated costal process of the seventh cervical vertebra and sacralization of a lumbar vertebra are associated with clinical problems-neurological, vascular, and obstetrical. (nih.gov)
- This study tested three hypotheses from this association: costal process length among individuals with sacralization differs from that among individuals without sacralization for: (1) only the seventh cervical vertebra, (2) only transitional presacral vertebrae-seventh cervical, twelfth thoracic, and fifth lumbar, and (3) presacral vertebrae in general. (nih.gov)
- Cervical rib-usually arises from the seventh cervical vertebra. (slideshare.net)
- A base do tratamento cirúrgico da Síndrome do Desfiladeiro Torácico (SDT) é a ressecção da primeira costela, podendo associar-se à escalenectomia ou ainda à ressecção de costela cervical. (uchile.cl)
- Costal process length was measured on 100 individuals with sacralization and 184 without sacralization for cervical vertebrae 3 to 7, thoracic vertebrae 11 and 12, and all lumbar vertebrae. (nih.gov)
- Compared to individuals without sacralization, those with sacralization: (1) have significantly longer costal process for the last lumbar vertebra, but are nonsignificantly different for costal process lengths of other vertebrae, (2) are nonsignificantly different in prevalence of cervical rib-2.9% with sacralization and 0.4% without sacralization, and (3) are significantly more likely to have an extra presacral vertebra. (nih.gov)
- A supernumerary rib developing from an abnormal enlargement of the costal element of the C7 vertebra. (nih.gov)
- Mild and dull continuous pain at the site of joint between sternum and rib cartilage. (abchomeopathy.com)
- A deformed thoracic outlet as a result of sloping shoulders ,scoliosis and fracture of first rib can also compress the neurovascular structures against the first rib. (slideshare.net)
- It is relationship of neurovascular bundle structure with cervical rib that may cause symptoms. (slideshare.net)
- Second-order preganglionic pupillomotor fibers exit the spinal cord at the level of T1 and enter the cervical sympathetic chain, where they are in close proximity to the pulmonary apex and the subclavian artery. (medscape.com)
- This can happen when there is an extra cervical rib or because of a tight fibrous band that connects the spinal vertebra to the rib. (medlineplus.gov)
- Interestingly, one mutant exhibited an extra pair of ribs as well as alterations in cervical vertebrae identities. (nih.gov)
- The presence of an additional rib narrows this space causing pressure symptoms on the nerves and the vessels. (ndtv.com)
- In fact, most of these patients' have symptoms unrelated to the cervical rib but they are attributed to the cervical rib because it has been seen on the X-ray. (ndtv.com)
- Main symptoms are intercostal pains, rib pain while inhaling, sore ribs (all right side), sore muscles and spams: trapezius, rhomboid, muscle between lower end of the rib and hip. (abchomeopathy.com)
- Cervical rib with resulting gangrene of the fingers. (nih.gov)
- Hi good day, I have Right rib cage dysfunction. (abchomeopathy.com)
- Mild right rib pain when inhaling. (abchomeopathy.com)
- Esta anomalía de encuentra en el 1-2 por ciento de la población y puede presionar en las estructuras adyacentes causando el SÍNDROME DE LA COSTILLA CERVICAL, el SÍNDROME DEL OPÉRCULO TORÁCICO y otras afecciones. (bvsalud.org)
- I would recommend that not withstanding the findings of the rib on the X-ray, get her examined by a competent orthopaedic surgeon to exclude the other causes of should and arm pain. (ndtv.com)
- X-rays shows that she has a cervical rib and the density of the bone has decreased (disk between the bones has been eroded). (ndtv.com)
- Extra cervical rib may be an incidental finding in a small percentage of normal people. (ndtv.com)
- Fisrt thoracic rib - a first thoracic rib can cause compression if it is unusually high, large or irregularly curved. (slideshare.net)
- the costoclavicular triangle, bordered anteriorly by the middle third of the clavicle, posteromedially by the first rib, posterolaterally by the upper border of the scapula. (slideshare.net)
- this triangle is bordered by the anterior scalene muscle anteriorly, the middle scalene muscle posteriorly, and the first rib inferiorly. (slideshare.net)
- A case of cervical ribs. (nih.gov)
- Muscle between edge of the right rib and hip pain. (abchomeopathy.com)