A supernumerary rib developing from an abnormal enlargement of the costal element of the C7 vertebra. This anomaly is found in 1-2% of the population and can put pressure on adjacent structures causing CERVICAL RIB SYNDROME; THORACIC OUTLET SYNDROME; or other conditions.
A condition associated with compression of the BRACHIAL PLEXUS; SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY; and SUBCLAVIAN VEIN at the thoracic outlet and caused by a complete or incomplete anomalous CERVICAL RIB or fascial band connecting the tip of a cervical rib with the first thoracic rib. Clinical manifestations may include pain in the neck and shoulder which radiates into the upper extremity, PARESIS or PARALYSIS of brachial plexus innervated muscles; sensory loss; PARESTHESIAS; ISCHEMIA; and EDEMA. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p214)
A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs.
A neurovascular syndrome associated with compression of the BRACHIAL PLEXUS; SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY; and SUBCLAVIAN VEIN at the superior thoracic outlet. This may result from a variety of anomalies such as a CERVICAL RIB, anomalous fascial bands, and abnormalities of the origin or insertion of the anterior or medial scalene muscles. Clinical features may include pain in the shoulder and neck region which radiates into the arm, PARESIS or PARALYSIS of brachial plexus innervated muscles, PARESTHESIA, loss of sensation, reduction of arterial pulses in the affected extremity, ISCHEMIA, and EDEMA. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp214-5).
Artery arising from the brachiocephalic trunk on the right side and from the arch of the aorta on the left side. It distributes to the neck, thoracic wall, spinal cord, brain, meninges, and upper limb.
A syndrome associated with defective sympathetic innervation to one side of the face, including the eye. Clinical features include MIOSIS; mild BLEPHAROPTOSIS; and hemifacial ANHIDROSIS (decreased sweating)(see HYPOHIDROSIS). Lesions of the BRAIN STEM; cervical SPINAL CORD; first thoracic nerve root; apex of the LUNG; CAROTID ARTERY; CAVERNOUS SINUS; and apex of the ORBIT may cause this condition. (From Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, pp500-11)
Diseases of the sixth cranial (abducens) nerve or its nucleus in the pons. The nerve may be injured along its course in the pons, intracranially as it travels along the base of the brain, in the cavernous sinus, or at the level of superior orbital fissure or orbit. Dysfunction of the nerve causes lateral rectus muscle weakness, resulting in horizontal diplopia that is maximal when the affected eye is abducted and ESOTROPIA. Common conditions associated with nerve injury include INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ISCHEMIA; and INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS.
Dilation of pupils to greater than 6 mm combined with failure of the pupils to constrict when stimulated with light. This condition may occur due to injury of the pupillary fibers in the oculomotor nerve, in acute angle-closure glaucoma, and in ADIE SYNDROME.
The splitting of the vessel wall in one or both (left and right) internal carotid arteries (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL). Interstitial hemorrhage into the media of the vessel wall can lead to occlusion of the internal carotid artery and aneurysm formation.
Pupillary constriction. This may result from congenital absence of the dilatator pupillary muscle, defective sympathetic innervation, or irritation of the CONJUNCTIVA or CORNEA.
Abnormally diminished or absent perspiration. Both generalized and segmented (reduced or absent sweating in circumscribed locations) forms of the disease are usually associated with other underlying conditions.
Recurrent clonic contraction of facial muscles, restricted to one side. It may occur as a manifestation of compressive lesions involving the seventh cranial nerve (FACIAL NERVE DISEASES), during recovery from BELL PALSY, or in association with other disorders. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1378)
A continuing periodic change in displacement with respect to a fixed reference. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An occupational disorder resulting from prolonged exposure to vibration, affecting the fingers, hands, and forearms. It occurs in workers who regularly use vibrating tools such as jackhammers, power chain saws, riveters, etc. Symptoms include episodic finger blanching, NUMBNESS, tingling, and loss of nerve sensitivity.
An idiopathic vascular disorder characterized by bilateral Raynaud phenomenon, the abrupt onset of digital paleness or CYANOSIS in response to cold exposure or stress.
Four or five slender jointed digits in humans and primates, attached to each HAND.
An institute of the CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION which is responsible for assuring safe and healthful working conditions and for developing standards of safety and health. Research activities are carried out pertinent to these goals.
Accidentally acquired infection in laboratory workers.
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.

Analysis of cervical ribs in a series of human fetuses. (1/5)


A delayed diagnosis that altered the professional orientation of an athlete with upper limb chronic arterial embolization. (2/5)

BACKGROUND: Vascular disorders of the upper extremity in young and physically active patients present a complex and challenging problem for the treating physician. Initial presentation may often be subtle and the consequences of misdiagnosis, delayed diagnosis or mistreatment can be severe. CASE REPORT: In this report, we discuss a case of a young woman with chronic upper limb ischemia due to an arterial thoracic outlet syndrome in whom even though symptoms persisted over a number of years during which she frequently sought medical consultation, remained undiagnosed until finally presenting with limb-threatening ischemia. Furthermore, due to this delay, the patient was forced to withdraw from her professional carrier in athletics. CONCLUSIONS: A thoughtful and through approach combining the history, physical findings, and use of appropriate diagnostic aids will provide the physician and patient with the greatest opportunity for a satisfactory outcome. Furthermore, a delay in definitive treatment may not only cause health deterioration, but may also incur social, economic and occupational consequences.  (+info)

Cervical ribs: a common variant overlooked in CT imaging. (3/5)


Histology shows that elongated neck ribs in sauropod dinosaurs are ossified tendons. (4/5)


Torsion and bending in the neck and tail of sauropod dinosaurs and the function of cervical ribs: insights from functional morphology and biomechanics. (5/5)


The cervical rib is a small bone that arises from the seventh cervical vertebra (C7) and extends laterally into the neck. In some individuals, this bone can become prominent or fused with other bones, leading to compression of the nerves and blood vessels that pass through the Thoracic Outlet.

Symptoms of cervical rib syndrome may include pain in the neck and shoulder region, numbness or tingling sensation in the arm and hand, weakness in the hand, and difficulty with coordination and balance. Treatment for cervical rib syndrome usually involves physical therapy exercises to improve range of motion and strength, and medications to relieve pain and inflammation. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to release the compressed nerves and blood vessels.

It is important to note that not everyone has a cervical rib, it's only present in some individuals, so if you have any of these symptoms, it doesn't necessarily mean you have cervical rib syndrome.

The thoracic outlet is a narrow passageway between the scalene muscles and the first and second ribs. It contains several important structures, including the brachial plexus nerves, the subclavian artery and vein, and the phrenic nerve. When these structures are compressed or irritated, it can cause symptoms in the arm and hand.

TOS is relatively rare, but it can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

1. Congenital defects, such as a narrow thoracic outlet or abnormal development of the rib cage.
2. Trauma, such as a fall onto the shoulder or a direct blow to the chest.
3. Repetitive movements, such as typing or using a computer mouse.
4. Poor posture or body mechanics.
5. Muscle imbalances or weakness in the neck and shoulder muscles.
6. Ganglion cysts or other soft tissue masses that compress the nerves or blood vessels.
7. Fractures or dislocations of the clavicle or shoulder blade.
8. Tumors or other abnormal growths in the chest or neck.
9. Inflammatory conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis or thyroiditis.

Symptoms of TOS can vary depending on the location and severity of the compression. They may include:

1. Pain in the shoulder or arm, which can be exacerbated by movement or activity.
2. Numbness, tingling, or weakness in the hand or fingers.
3. Difficulty coordinating movements or performing fine motor tasks.
4. Weakness or fatigue in the muscles of the shoulder and arm.
5. Decreased grip strength or dexterity.
6. Pain or tingling that radiates down the arm or into the hand.
7. Swelling or redness in the neck or shoulder.
8. Difficulty swallowing or breathing, in severe cases.

TOS can be difficult to diagnose, as the symptoms can be similar to those of other conditions such as carpal tunnel syndrome or a heart attack. A thorough physical examination and medical history are important for making an accurate diagnosis. Imaging studies such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI may also be used to help identify any underlying structural abnormalities or nerve compression. Electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction studies (NCS) may also be performed to assess nerve function and determine the extent of nerve damage.

Treatment for TOS depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. Conservative treatments may include:

1. Rest and avoidance of activities that exacerbate the symptoms.
2. Physical therapy to improve posture, strength, and range of motion.
3. Anti-inflammatory medications or pain relievers to reduce swelling and relieve pain.
4. Muscle relaxants to reduce muscle spasm and tension.
5. Injections of steroids or local anesthetics to reduce inflammation and relieve pain.
6. Surgery may be necessary in severe cases, such as when there is significant nerve compression or instability of the shoulder joint.

It's important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of TOS, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent long-term complications and improve outcomes.

There are different types of rib fractures, including:

1. Linear fractures: These are simple cracks in the ribs without any displacement of the bone fragments.
2. Compression fractures: These occur when the rib is crushed due to pressure, causing the vertebrae to collapse.
3. Stress fractures: These are small cracks that develop over time due to repetitive stress or strain on the ribs.
4. Hairline fractures: These are very thin cracks in the ribs that do not necessarily displace the bone fragments.

Rib fractures can cause significant pain and discomfort, especially when taking deep breaths or coughing. Other symptoms may include bruising, swelling, and difficulty moving the chest wall. In severe cases, rib fractures can lead to complications such as pneumonia, respiratory failure, or even cardiac arrest.

Diagnosis of rib fractures is typically made through X-rays or CT scans, which can reveal the location and severity of the fracture. Treatment may involve pain management with medication, rest, and breathing exercises, as well as immobilization of the affected area with a cast or brace. In severe cases, surgery may be required to stabilize the bones or repair any damage to organs or blood vessels.

Overall, rib fractures can be serious injuries that require prompt medical attention to prevent complications and ensure proper healing.

The main symptoms of Horner syndrome include:

1. Pain and numbness in the face and arm on one side of the body
2. Weakness or paralysis of the muscles on one side of the face, arm, and hand
3. Difficulty swallowing
4. Reduced sweating on one side of the body
5. Increased heart rate and blood pressure
6. Narrowing of the pupil (anisocoria)
7. Dilation of the unaffected pupil (paralysis of the parasympathetic nervous system)
8. Decreased reflexes
9. Loss of sensation in the skin over the chest and abdomen
10. Pale or clammy skin on one side of the body

The symptoms of Horner syndrome can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

1. Trauma to the thoracolumbar spine
2. Injury or tumor in the brainstem or spinal cord
3. Aneurysm or arteriovenous malformation (AVM) in the neck or chest
4. Multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), or other neurodegenerative diseases
5. Inflammatory conditions such as sarcoidosis or tuberculosis
6. Infections such as meningitis or abscesses
7. Vasospasm or thrombosis of the blood vessels in the neck or chest.

The diagnosis of Horner syndrome is based on a combination of clinical findings, neuroimaging studies (such as MRI or CT scans), and laboratory tests to rule out other causes of the symptoms. Treatment of the condition depends on the underlying cause and may include surgery, medication, or other interventions. In some cases, Horner syndrome may be a sign of a more serious underlying condition that requires prompt medical attention.

Some common abducens nerve diseases include:

1. Abducens paresis or palsy: This is a weakness or paralysis of the abducens nerve that can cause difficulty moving the eyeball outward or away from the nose.
2. Brown syndrome: This is a condition where the nerve is compressed or damaged, leading to difficulty moving the eye laterally.
3. Congenital abducens palsy: This is a condition present at birth that affects the development of the abducens nerve and can result in limited or absent movement of one or both eyes.
4. Trauma to the abducens nerve: This can occur due to head injuries, facial trauma, or other forms of injury that damage the nerve.
5. Tumors or cysts: Growths in the orbit or near the abducens nerve can compress or damage the nerve and cause abducens nerve diseases.
6. Inflammatory conditions: Conditions such as Graves' disease, multiple sclerosis, or sarcoidosis can inflame the nerve and cause abducens nerve diseases.
7. Stroke or cerebral vasculature disorders: These conditions can damage the nerve due to reduced blood flow or bleeding in the brain.

Symptoms of abducens nerve diseases may include double vision, difficulty moving one or both eyes, and difficulty focusing. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, imaging studies such as MRI or CT scans, and electrophysiological tests such as electromyography. Treatment options vary depending on the underlying cause of the disease and may include glasses or contact lenses for double vision, prism lenses to align the eyes, or surgery to correct any anatomical abnormalities. In some cases, medications such as steroids or immunosuppressants may be prescribed to reduce inflammation and promote healing.

Mydriasis is a condition where the pupil remains dilated for an extended period, even in low light conditions. It can be caused by various factors such as injury to the head or eye, stroke, brain tumors, multiple sclerosis, and certain medications. Mydriasis can cause problems with vision, including blurred vision, double vision, and sensitivity to light. Treatment options for mydriasis depend on the underlying cause, but may include glasses or contact lenses to correct refractive errors, prism lenses to align images properly, or medications to reduce inflammation or treat underlying conditions.

Causes of Mydriasis

Mydriasis can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

1. Trauma to the head or eye: A blow to the head or a penetrating eye injury can cause mydriasis due to damage to the nerves that control pupil size.
2. Stroke or cerebral vasculature disorders: A stroke or other conditions that affect blood flow to the brain can cause mydriasis due to damage to the nerves that control pupillary constriction.
3. Brain tumors: Tumors in the brain, such as melanoma, can cause mydriasis by compressing or damaging the nerves that control pupil size.
4. Multiple sclerosis: This autoimmune disease can damage the nerves that control pupillary constriction, leading to mydriasis.
5. Medications: Certain medications, such as anticholinergic drugs and certain antihistamines, can cause mydriasis as a side effect.

Symptoms of Mydriasis

The symptoms of mydriasis may include:

1. Dilated pupils that do not constrict in response to light
2. Blurred vision or double vision
3. Sensitivity to light
4. Headaches or eye strain
5. Seeing halos around lights
6. Difficulty seeing at night or in low light conditions
7. Nausea and vomiting

Diagnosis of Mydriasis

To diagnose mydriasis, a comprehensive eye exam is necessary to rule out other causes of dilated pupils. The doctor may perform a series of tests to evaluate the function of the nervous system and the muscles that control pupillary constriction. These tests may include:

1. Pupillometry: This test measures the size of the pupils and their reaction to light.
2. Ophthalmoscopy: This test allows the doctor to visualize the inside of the eye and assess the function of the retina and optic nerve.
3. Eye movement testing: This test evaluates the muscles that control eye movement and their coordination with the pupillary constriction reflex.
4. Neurological exam: A neurological exam may be performed to rule out other conditions that can cause dilated pupils, such as brain tumors or multiple sclerosis.

Treatment of Mydriasis

The treatment of mydriasis depends on the underlying cause of the condition. In some cases, treating the underlying condition can resolve the mydriasis. Other treatments that may be used to manage mydriasis include:

1. Pupillary constriction medications: These medications can help reduce the size of dilated pupils and improve vision.
2. Prism glasses: In some cases, prism glasses may be prescribed to help align the visual fields and improve binocular vision.
3. Eye exercises: Eye exercises may be recommended to strengthen the muscles that control eye movement and improve coordination between the pupils.
4. Surgery: In rare cases, surgery may be necessary to treat mydriasis caused by a physical obstruction or other abnormality in the eye.

Prognosis of Mydriasis

The prognosis for mydriasis is generally good if the underlying cause is treated promptly and effectively. However, if the condition is left untreated, it can lead to complications such as:

1. Vision loss: Prolonged dilated pupils can lead to vision loss due to retinal damage or optic nerve damage.
2. Eye strain: Dilated pupils can cause eye strain and fatigue, which can lead to headaches and other symptoms.
3. Increased risk of eye injuries: Dilated pupils may increase the risk of eye injuries, as the pupil is more vulnerable to trauma when it is dilated.
4. Increased risk of infection: Dilated pupils may increase the risk of infection, as the pupil is more exposed to foreign substances and bacteria.

Prevention of Mydriasis

There are several steps you can take to help prevent mydriasis:

1. Get regular eye exams: Regular eye exams can help detect any underlying conditions that may be causing dilated pupils, such as cataracts or glaucoma.
2. Wear protective eyewear: Wearing protective eyewear, such as goggles or safety glasses, can help prevent eye injuries and reduce the risk of mydriasis.
3. Avoid exposure to bright lights: Bright lights can cause dilated pupils, so it is best to avoid exposure to bright lights, especially during the day.
4. Use artificial tears: Artificial tears can help keep the eyes moist and reduce the risk of mydriasis.
5. Get enough sleep: Getting enough sleep can help prevent eye strain and fatigue, which can lead to mydriasis.
6. Take breaks when working on a computer: Taking breaks when working on a computer can help reduce eye strain and fatigue, which can lead to mydriasis.
7. Use good lighting: Good lighting can help reduce eye strain and fatigue, which can lead to mydriasis.
8. Avoid smoking: Smoking can increase the risk of mydriasis, so it is best to avoid smoking.
9. Maintain good hygiene: Maintaining good hygiene, such as washing your hands frequently and avoiding sharing makeup or other products, can help prevent infection and reduce the risk of mydriasis.


Mydriasis is a common condition that can cause eye strain and fatigue, as well as increase the risk of eye injuries and infection. There are several steps you can take to prevent mydriasis, including avoiding smoking, getting enough sleep, using artificial tears, and taking breaks when working on a computer. Additionally, maintaining good hygiene and using good lighting can help reduce the risk of mydriasis. If you experience any symptoms of mydriasis, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible to prevent complications.

Symptoms of CAID may include sudden weakness or numbness on one side of the body, difficulty speaking, dizziness, and loss of vision in one eye. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as CT or MRI scans, and Doppler ultrasound.

Treatment for CAID usually involves medications to dissolve blood clots and prevent further complications. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair the damaged artery. Preventive measures include avoiding trauma to the neck and head, controlling high blood pressure, and managing underlying medical conditions that increase the risk of CAID.

The carotid arteries are located on either side of the neck and supply oxygen-rich blood to the brain, making them a critical part of the vascular system. Internal dissection of the carotid artery can lead to serious complications if left untreated, so prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for preventing long-term damage.

There are several potential causes of hypohidrosis, including:

1. Neurological disorders: Conditions such as Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and spinal cord injuries can damage the nerves that control sweat glands, leading to hypohidrosis.
2. Endocrine disorders: Hormonal imbalances or deficiencies, such as hypopituitarism or hypothyroidism, can affect the body's ability to produce sweat.
3. Medications: Certain medications, such as anticholinergics and beta blockers, can suppress sweat production.
4. Infections: Bacterial or fungal infections can inflame and damage sweat glands, leading to hypohidrosis.
5. Trauma: Burns, wounds, or other injuries to the skin can damage sweat glands and lead to hypohidrosis.
6. Genetic conditions: Some inherited disorders, such as familial hyperhidrosis, can cause hypohidrosis.

Symptoms of hypohidrosis may include:

* Dry, hot skin
* Increased body temperature
* Fatigue or weakness
* Headaches
* Dizziness or lightheadedness
* Nausea and vomiting

Treatment for hypohidrosis depends on the underlying cause. In some cases, treating the underlying condition can resolve the hypohidrosis. For example, if the condition is caused by a medication side effect, stopping or switching to a different medication may be sufficient. In other cases, treatment may involve managing symptoms and preventing complications. This may include:

* Drinking plenty of water to stay hydrated
* Avoiding strenuous activities in hot weather
* Using cooling devices, such as fans or air conditioners, to keep the environment at a comfortable temperature
* Taking medications to help regulate body temperature and prevent complications, such as dantrolene or bromocriptine
* In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat complications, such as heat stroke.

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience symptoms of hypohidrosis, especially during hot weather or after exposure to high temperatures. Early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.

Hemifacial spasm is a relatively rare movement disorder that affects one side of the face. It is characterized by involuntary muscle contractions and twitching on half of the face, which can be quite distressing for those who experience it. While there are several possible causes, including nerve compression or brain tumors, the exact cause is often difficult to determine.

One of the most common symptoms of HFS is muscle spasms and twitching on one side of the face, which can be quite pronounced and unpredictable. These spasms can occur in any of the muscles on the affected side, including those around the eyes, mouth, and jaw. In some cases, these spasms can also affect the eyelids, causing them to droop or close involuntarily.

The exact cause of hemifacial spasm is not always clear, but it is believed to be related to nerve compression or irritation of the facial nerve. This nerve runs from the brain down through the face and controls many of the muscles in the face, including those involved in eyelid movement and facial expressions. When this nerve is compressed or irritated, it can cause the muscles on one side of the face to spasm and twitch involuntarily.

There are several possible causes of HFS, including:

* Compression of the facial nerve by a blood vessel or tumor
* Trauma to the face or head
* Inflammatory conditions such as multiple sclerosis or sarcoidosis
* Brain tumors or cysts
* Stroke or other forms of brain damage

Treatment for hemifacial spasm usually involves a combination of medications and other therapies. Botulinum toxin injections are often used to relax the affected muscles and reduce spasms. Medications such as anticonvulsants, muscle relaxants, or anti-anxiety drugs may also be prescribed to help manage symptoms. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to relieve compression on the facial nerve.

In addition to these medical treatments, there are also several self-care techniques that can help manage hemifacial spasm. These include:

* Avoiding triggers such as stress or fatigue
* Applying warm compresses to the affected side of the face
* Practicing relaxation techniques such as deep breathing or meditation
* Using eye exercises to strengthen the muscles around the eyes and improve eyelid function.

It is important to seek medical attention if you are experiencing symptoms of hemifacial spasm, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes. With proper management, many people with HFS are able to effectively manage their symptoms and lead normal lives.

HAVS is typically caused by prolonged exposure to vibrations from hand-held power tools, such as jackhammers, drills, and sanders. The vibrations can cause damage to the blood vessels, nerves, and joints in the hands, leading to the development of HAVS.

There are several risk factors for developing HAVS, including:

1. Prolonged exposure to hand-transmitted vibrations
2. Use of high-vibration tools and equipment
3. Poor tool maintenance and repair
4. Inadequate training on the safe use of tools and equipment
5. Smoking and other cardiovascular risk factors

The symptoms of HAVS can vary in severity and may include:

1. Numbness, tingling, or pain in the hands and fingers
2. Reduced dexterity and grip strength
3. Fatigue and weakness in the hands and arms
4. Tremors or spasms in the hands and fingers
5. Pale or discolored skin on the fingers and hands
6. Decreased sensation in the fingertips
7. Swelling, redness, or warmth in the hands and fingers

If left untreated, HAVS can lead to more severe symptoms, including:

1. Permanent nerve damage
2. Loss of dexterity and grip strength
3. Decreased sensation in the fingertips
4. Finger ulcers and amputations
5. Carpal tunnel syndrome
6. Other neurological disorders

There is no cure for HAVS, but it can be managed with a combination of medical treatment and lifestyle changes. Treatment options may include:

1. Medications to relieve symptoms such as pain and inflammation
2. Physical therapy to improve dexterity and grip strength
3. Lifestyle modifications such as avoiding cold temperatures and taking regular breaks to warm up hands
4. Assistive devices such as gloves, splints, or hand braces
5. Surgery in severe cases to relieve compression on nerves or repair damaged tissue.

Prevention is the best course of action for HAVS, and it involves taking steps to reduce exposure to cold temperatures and other risk factors. Some ways to prevent HAVS include:

1. Using proper protective gear such as gloves, hats, and scarves in cold environments
2. Avoiding prolonged exposure to cold temperatures
3. Taking regular breaks to warm up hands and fingers
4. Exercising regularly to improve circulation and reduce risk factors such as smoking and obesity
5. Maintaining a healthy diet and getting enough sleep.

The exact cause of Raynaud disease is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to an autoimmune disorder, in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue. The condition can occur on its own or as a secondary symptom of another underlying medical condition such as scleroderma or rheumatoid arthritis.

Symptoms of Raynaud Disease:

1) Discoloration: Raynaud disease causes the affected areas to turn white or blue in response to cold temperatures or stress.

2) Pain: The constriction of blood vessels can cause pain in the affected areas.

3) Numbness or tingling: The lack of blood flow can cause numbness or tingling sensations in the fingers and toes.

4) Swelling: In severe cases, swelling may occur in the affected areas.

5) Burning sensation: Some people with Raynaud disease may experience a burning sensation in their hands and feet.

Diagnosis of Raynaud Disease:

1) Medical history: A doctor will ask about symptoms, medical history, and any triggers that may cause the condition.

2) Physical examination: The doctor will perform a physical examination to look for signs of discoloration or swelling in the affected areas.

3) Tests: Additional tests such as nailfold capillary microscopy, pulse volume recording and thermography may be ordered to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment options for Raynaud Disease:

1) Medications: Drugs such as calcium channel blockers, alpha-blockers, and anticoagulants can help to relax blood vessels and improve blood flow.

2) Lifestyle changes: Avoiding triggers such as cold temperatures and taking steps to keep hands and feet warm can help manage the condition.

3) Alternative therapies: Some people with Raynaud disease may find relief with alternative therapies such as acupuncture or biofeedback.

It is important to note that in some cases, Raynaud disease can be a symptom of an underlying autoimmune disorder, such as lupus or scleroderma. If you suspect you have Raynaud disease, it is essential to seek medical attention to rule out any other conditions.

A laboratory infection is an infection that occurs in a healthcare worker or laboratory personnel while working in a laboratory setting, typically with infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, or fungi. These infections can be acquired through exposure to infected samples, equipment, or surfaces in the laboratory.

The risk of laboratory infection is higher in settings where high-risk agents are handled, such as in the study of highly infectious diseases like Ebola or SARS. The transmission of infectious agents in laboratories can occur through various routes, including:

1. Direct contact with infected samples or materials.
2. Contact with contaminated surfaces or equipment.
3. Inhalation of aerosols generated during procedures such as centrifugation or pipetting.
4. Exposure to infected personnel or animals in the laboratory.

To prevent laboratory infections, healthcare workers and laboratory personnel must follow strict safety protocols, including wearing personal protective equipment (PPE) such as gloves, gowns, and masks, and adhering to proper sterilization and decontamination techniques. Laboratories should also have ventilation systems that filter out infectious agents and should be designed with containment levels to minimize the risk of exposure.

Laboratory infections can have serious consequences for both the individuals involved and the broader community, including the potential for transmitting infectious diseases to others outside of the laboratory setting. Therefore, it is essential to have strict safety protocols and proper training for laboratory personnel to minimize the risk of laboratory-acquired infections.

1. Asbestosis: a lung disease caused by inhaling asbestos fibers.
2. Carpal tunnel syndrome: a nerve disorder caused by repetitive motion and pressure on the wrist.
3. Mesothelioma: a type of cancer caused by exposure to asbestos.
4. Pneumoconiosis: a lung disease caused by inhaling dust from mining or other heavy industries.
5. Repetitive strain injuries: injuries caused by repetitive motions, such as typing or using vibrating tools.
6. Skin conditions: such as skin irritation and dermatitis caused by exposure to chemicals or other substances in the workplace.
7. Hearing loss: caused by loud noises in the workplace.
8. Back injuries: caused by lifting, bending, or twisting.
9. Respiratory problems: such as asthma and other breathing difficulties caused by exposure to chemicals or dust in the workplace.
10. Cancer: caused by exposure to carcinogens such as radiation, certain chemicals, or heavy metals in the workplace.

Occupational diseases can be difficult to diagnose and treat, as they often develop gradually over time and may not be immediately attributed to the work environment. In some cases, these diseases may not appear until years after exposure has ended. It is important for workers to be aware of the potential health risks associated with their job and take steps to protect themselves, such as wearing protective gear, following safety protocols, and seeking regular medical check-ups. Employers also have a responsibility to provide a safe work environment and follow strict regulations to prevent the spread of occupational diseases.

A cervical rib is estimated to occur in 0.2% to 0.5% (1 in 200 to 500) of the population. People may have a cervical rib on the ... A cervical rib in humans is an extra rib which arises from the seventh cervical vertebra. Their presence is a congenital ... Most cases of cervical ribs are not clinically relevant and do not have symptoms; cervical ribs are generally discovered ... A positive Adson's sign is non-specific for the presence of a cervical rib however, as many individuals without a cervical rib ...
With Turiasaurus it shares derived features of the braincase; bifurcated cervical (neck) ribs; extremely low neural spines on ... transverse ridges in the posterior cervical vertebrae and anterior dorsal vertebrae; strongly procoelous proximal and distal ... the cervical and anterior dorsal vertebrae; and strongly procoelous proximal caudal vertebrae. The Dalton Wells quarry has also ...
... a cervical rib; OUM J13580, a rib; OUM J29881, an ilium of the pelvis, OUM J13563, a piece of the pubic bone; OUM J13565, a ... A Megalosaurus rib figured in 1856 and 1884 by Sir Richard Owen has a pathological swollen spot near the base of its capitular ... The neck ribs are short. The front dorsal vertebrae are slightly opisthocoelous, with convex front centrum facets and concave ... The Stonesfield Slate material contains no neck vertebrae; but a single broken anterior cervical vertebra is known from the New ...
... a posterior cervical vertebra; cervical ribs; multiple dorsal vertebrae and dorsal ribs; the sacrum; 32 caudal vertebrae and 18 ... It includes a partial anterior cervical vertebra, multiple dorsal vertebrae and ribs, the sacrum, seven caudal vertebrae and ...
Holland, C. T. (1921). Cervical Ribs. British Medical Journal. 2(3167), 418. Holland, C. T. (1921). An Address On The Hour- ...
... cervical ribs; and a badly-preserved pubis. Motta and colleagues recognized that this abelisaurid, along with a coelurosaur and ...
The cervical ribs have expanded lower ends. In the front tail vertebrae, the tops of the neural spines are rounded instead of ... neck ribs, dorsal ribs, chevrons, a left shoulderblade, a complete pelvis, ossified tendons and ten neck and back plates. The ... The ribs are expanded at their lower ends. The neural spines of the tail vertebrae are not bifurcated. The lower end of the ... Though the back plates of the various individuals were not articulated, Saitta managed to order them into cervical, dorsal and ...
Embryonic cervical, lumbar, and sacral ribs. The thirteenth rib of the adult. The seventh cervical rib in the adult. The ...
... a fragmentary sixth cervical centrum; cervical vertebrae 7-10; several posterior cervical ribs; several anterior dorsal ... When the type specimen was discovered, several long cervical ribs, of a supposed prosauropod dinosaur were found in the mouth ... Hammer further noted that since the ribs were found extending all the way back to the theropod's neck region, this individual ... may have choked to death on these ribs. However, Smith et al. concluded that these remains belonged to the Cryolophosaurus ...
This additional material includes FMNH UR 905, a partial foot; FMNH UR 910, cervical ribs; FMNH UR 912, a clavicle; FMNH UR 913 ... The ribs are very long, heavy and curved to form a bulbous body. Ribs are present on all the pre-sacral vertebrae and the first ... also found that the joints between the vertebrae and the dorsal ribs only allowed small ranges of motion of the rib cage, thus ... and a sacrum with a very large anterior sacral rib, while the second and third sacral ribs are small and less specialized. An ...
Associated cervical rib fragments suggested that they were relatively long, extending for the length of at least three centra. ... cervical and (fragmentary) dorsal ribs; portions of the shoulder girdle, including a fragmentary scapula, a left coracoid, and ... though overlapping cervical ribs might have improved stability in Savannasaurus. The Belmont sheep station is part of the ... The ribs on the left side appear to have been crushed prior to fossilization, before all of them were fragmented further. The ...
... some cervical and dorsal ribs; left scapula and coracoid; the furcula; the left ulna; both femora, tibiae, and ulnae; the right ... These include broken ribs and damages in the skull. One of the most prominent injuries are in the neck and the skull. A piece ... Bucky also has a nearly complete set of gastralia, or belly ribs, and an ulna, or lower arm bone. As of now, 101 bones, or ... Additionally, a broken and healed rib on its right side, broken tail vertebra, as well as a hole near the eye socket are ...
... one or more additional spleens Cervical rib - an additional rib Diphallia - having two penes/penises Hermaphroditism - having ... "Cervical ribs and thoracic outlet syndrome". Accessed 10 July 2006. Grumbach, M.M., Conte, F.A., 1998. "Disorders of sex ...
They carry double-headed thin cervical ribs. The dorsal vertebrae are more rounded with flat spines; the first three or four ... carry ribs that contact the sternal ribs; the more posterior ribs contact the gastralia. The first five or six, rather short, ... The fossil comprises a shoulder-blade with wing, a partial leg, a rib and a caudal vertebra. Wild justified the creation of a ... The cervical vertebrae are rather long and strongly built, their upper surface having a roughly square cross-section. ...
"Cervical and dorsal vertebrae, ribs, limb and girdle elements." Pterodactyloidea indet. (belongs to either Boreopteridae or ...
The second specimen includes cervical vertebrae, a rib, and a scapulocoracoid. The third specimen is only represented by ribs. ... pieces of teeth and ribs, an axis vertebra, a dorsal vertebra, three neural spines, the ends of both humeri and a partial hip. ...
... a Sauroposeidon cervical rib measures 3.42 meters (11.2 ft). The cervical vertebrae are on average 1.19 times longer than those ... The remains were found in 1987 when a cervical rib was seen projecting out of a cliff. The fossil site was located in the ... Long overlapping cervical ribs may have limited flexibility. The authors also estimated the stress on the intervertebral joint ... The third specimen preserved a column of cervical vertebrae with articulated ribs, four fused sacral vertebrae, several caudal ...
All of the cervical vertebrae have ribs attached. The initial set are linear; the rest are two-headed. Tendons along the neural ...
... including the cervical ribs). It is thought to be the ninth vertebra in the neck. The cervical ribs are fused to the centrum. ... Most of the cervical vertebra was preserved, but only the centra of the caudal vertebrae are known. Puertasaurus reuilli was ... The cervical vertebra lacks pleurocoels (large cavities) and was not very pneumatic. The length of the restored centrum is ... The cervical vertebra was also notably large, with a transverse width of 140 centimeters (55 inches) ( ...
If anomalous cervical ribs are present, these may be removed as well. Brooke, Benjamin; Freishlag (2010). "Contemporary ... It involves the surgical removal of a segment of the first rib, which is the rib closest to the head, under the collar bone. ... First rib resection is indicated for venous, arterial, and neurogenic TOS. In all cases, the goal of the operation is to ... First rib resection is a surgical procedure used in humans to treat thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) and Paget-Schroetter disease ...
Each cervical centrum has a strong keel along the midline of its underside. Most of the cervical ribs bear two heads that are ... These consisted of cervical and dorsal (back) vertebrae, ribs, and a coracoid. Due to it being a smaller species of Pliosaurus ... The cervical vertebrae bear tall neural spines that are compressed from side to side.: 50 The cervical centra are about half as ... Many of the ribs from the hip and the base of the tail bear enlarged outer ends that seem to articulate with each other. ...
In sauropsid species, the cervical vertebrae bear cervical ribs. In lizards and saurischian dinosaurs, the cervical ribs are ... Sometimes, the seventh cervical vertebra is associated with an abnormal extra rib, known as a cervical rib, which develops from ... The cervical spinal nerves emerge from above the cervical vertebrae. For example, the cervical spinal nerve 3 (C3) passes above ... Illustration of cervical vertebrae Shape of cervical vertebrae (shown in blue and yellow). Animation. 3D image Cervical ...
Thin, pointed cervical ribs begin at the third vertebra. The longest are about 50 mm and total eleven in number. Gastralia, or ... It is also one of the least complete specimens, consisting mostly of limb bones and isolated cervical vertebrae and ribs. In ... Much of the rest of the skeleton is excellently preserved, including the normal vertebral count in Archaeopteryx, cervical ribs ... The cervical vertebrae, for example, are all but one preserved in their natural pose. Analysis of these vertebrae led Dames to ...
Cervical ribs are thick and slightly contact each other. Dorsal (back) vertebrae are taller, wider, and their parapophyses ... Smaller specimens have slightly shorter cervical vertebrae. The lower edge and sides of the cervicals are concave while the rib ... The ilium is low and similar to that of Ticinosuchus, with muscle scars for two sacral ribs on its inner surface and no ... The centrum (main spool-shaped component) of Mandasuchus's longest cervical (neck) vertebrae are about 1.8 times longer than ...
The cervical ribs are not fused to the centra. The coracoid and procoracoid, which are absent in therians, are present. The ...
... the low neural spines of the cervical vertebrae; the long cervical ribs; the lack of intercentra articulating with the dorsal ... Its cervical ribs - which are long, like that of the adult - face the same direction as the dorsal vertebrae of the adult, ... The long, slender cervical ribs bear frontal projections free of the vertebral bodies, which are also unique to ... After flexing its neck to the side (which would have been facilitated by the slenderness of the cervical ribs), the act of ...
... cervical vertebrae; rib; vertebrae; lumbar vertebrae; thoracic vertebrae Excavation (2005): Level 3 M Mousterian. This level is ...
Humans usually have 24 ribs, in 12 pairs. 1 in 500 people have an extra rib known as a cervical rib. All are attached at the ... Usually dogs have 26 ribs. Mammals usually also only have distinct ribs on the thoracic vertebra, although fixed cervical ribs ... The tubercle is much more prominent in the upper ribs than in the lower ribs. The first seven sets of ribs, known as "true ribs ... Thoracic cage with spine Human ribs (shown in red). It consists of 24 ribs. Left and right of first rib to twelfth rib. ...
Surgical treatment for symptoms produced by cervical ribs and the scalenus anticus muscle". Clinical Orthopaedics and Related ...
... the cervical ribs having slender shafts and being longer than their corresponding vertebrae; and the front end of the ilium ... There are ten cervical vertebrae, twelve dorsal (trunk) vertebrae, and at least sixteen caudal (tail) vertebrae in ... the fifth cervical also has the longest. In the third and fourth cervicals, the latter like other derived troodontids, the ...
Cervical effacement, which is the thinning and stretching of the cervix, and cervical dilation occur during the closing weeks ... which is the process of the baby moving down from the rib cage with the head of the baby engaging deep in the pelvis. The ... Health care providers may assess the mother's progress in labour by performing a cervical exam to evaluate the cervical ... Regular contractions occurring less than 10 minutes apart and progressive cervical dilation or cervical effacement. At least ...
He also reinterpreted the "Elasmosaurus" sternbergi type specimen as two cervical and one dorsal vertebrae rather than two ... Michael Everhart and Glenn Storrs excavated additional Elasmosaurus ribs, vertebrae and gastroliths at the site of the 1991 ... Tanja Wintrich; Martin Scaal; P. Martin Sander (2017). "Foramina in plesiosaur cervical centra indicate a specialized vascular ...
There is usually also tenderness on palpation of the right upper abdomen and tenderness to percussion of the lower ribs which ... Surprisingly there is often no or only minimal pelvic pain, vaginal discharge or cervical motion tenderness, which may lead to ... These bacterial pathogens cause a thinning of cervical mucus and allow bacteria from the vagina into the uterus and fallopian ...
... late infantile Cervical cancer Cervical hypertrichosis neuropathy Cervical hypertrichosis peripheral neuropathy Cervical ribs ... sprengel anomaly polydactyly Cervical spinal stenosis Cervical vertebral fusion Cervicooculoacoustic syndrome Chagas disease ... Congenital skin disorder Congenital spherocytic anemia Congenital spherocytic hemolytic anemia Congenital stenosis of cervical ...
Rib grafts (whether or not accompanied with the latissimus dorsi muscle) are suitable for larger defects and can bear pressure ... and deep cervical lymph nodes. The posterior part is drained to the posterior auricular and occipital lymph nodes. Malignancies ...
Their elongated shells are light brown with fine ribbing (60-70 ribs with a penultimate whorl). The apertural margin in lateral ... There is no cervical callus. The apertural margin can be thick. R. moutoni singularis is possibly the end of an evolutionary ...
The upper right square is the right hypochondriac region and contains the base of the right ribs. The upper left square is the ... The neck area is called the cervix or cervical region. Examples of structures named according to this include the frontalis ... The left upper quadrant (LUQ) includes the lower left ribs, stomach, spleen, and upper left area of the transverse colon. The ... The superior horizontal line is the subcostal line, drawn immediately inferior to the ribs. The inferior horizontal line is ...
... ribs loosely articulate with their thoracic vertebrae at the proximal end, but they do not form a rigid rib cage. This ... the extra movement afforded by the beluga's unfused cervical vertebrae allows a greater range of apparent expression. Between ... Whale ribs loosely articulate with their thoracic vertebrae at the proximal end, but do not form a rigid rib cage. This ...
The rib facets are huge in conjunction with the sacral ribs, but not large enough to annihilate the pits at the base of the ... Isolated cervical neural spines were similar to those of Batrachotomus, being expanded towards their upper front tips into ... Each rib facet of the first sacral vertebra had a distinct upper and lower connection to the trumpet-shaped first sacral rib. ... The dorsal ribs were two-headed, with concave and convex joints corresponding to the convex and concave rib facets of the ...
... resection of the cervical rib. The scalenes used to be known as the lateral vertebral muscles. The muscles are named from Greek ... the posterior scalene lifts the second rib and tilts the neck to the same side. Because they elevate the upper ribs, they also ... originate from the transverse processes from the cervical vertebrae of C2 to C7 and insert onto the first and second ribs. The ... It descends along the side of the vertebral column to insert by a broad attachment into the upper surface of the first rib, ...
Other HPV types can cause normal cells in the body to turn abnormal, and might lead to cancer over time such as cervical cancer ... 1 or 2 in 100 will die In teens and adults symptoms include weight loss loss of bladder control passing out rib fractures from ...
... three cervical vertebrae, six dorsal vertebrae, ten caudal vertebrae, ossified tendon fragments, three cerival and thirteen ... dorsal ribs, five chevrons, the left scapulocoracoid, right scapula, portions of the right manus, a partial pelvis, and more ...
... overlapping cervical ribs, which were fused to the centra. The cervical ribs were slender and may have bent easily. The atlas ... The rib of the first sacral vertebra articulated with the preacetabular process of the ilium, a distinct feature. The centra of ... The holotype had a sulcus (groove or furrow) on the neural arch of a cervical vertebra that may have been due to an injury or ... Dilophosaurus had 10 cervical (neck), 14 dorsal (back), and 45 caudal (tail) vertebrae, and air sacs grew into the vertebrae. ...
It consists of only a left foot, some cervical vertebrae fragments, ribs, tail chevrons and a radius. Neuquenraptor is ...
... had a small and low head on the end of a thin neck containing vertebrae with low neural spines and long cervical ribs. Many ...
Another peculiarity is that the neck ribs only begin to lengthen with the ninth cervical vertebra. The rather short and high ... Agathaumas was named based on a pelvis, several vertebrae, and some ribs collected by Fielding Bradford Meek and Henry Martyn ...
The cervical half-ring osteoderm is more oval in shape than the other osteoderms. The osteoderm has a keel that is strongly ... Two other specimens were referred to Invictarx: UMNH VP 28350, dorsal vertebrae, fragments of dorsal ribs, distal end of ... Another pectoral or cervical osteoderm referred to UMNH VP 28351 is unlike any of the osteoderms referred to Invictarx. The ... The cervical or pectoral osteoderm preserves margins that are rugose and small projecting bumps with abundant neurovascular ...
An autopsy confirmed that he had died of a fracture of the cervical spine, and that his death was quick.[citation needed] Later ... and ribs, a testament to her attacker's aggression. Wicklund also had bruising on her knuckles, suggestive of defensive wounds ...
Rib size increased from ribs 2 through 4, and decreased in size after the fifth presacral vertebrae. Ribs were double-headed to ... Doleserpeton contained ten vertebrae in its cervical column, 24 presacral vertebrae, two sacral vertebrae, and an estimate of ... Rib attachment started at the second presacral vertebrae and continued throughout the length of its body until the sacral ... with corresponding ribs Incomplete sets of forelimbs and hindlimbs Incomplete sets of digits Pectoral girdles Pelvic girdles ...
Hank sounds have a more pronounced curve at the ends, as well as a metal rib on each end. Pratt sounds are longer urethral ... in order to measure the length and direction of the cervical canal and uterus. This reduces the risk of perforating the uterus ... to measure the length and direction of the cervical canal and uterus. Dilators are primarily used to open and dilate the cervix ...
It consists of five vertebral centra, a neural arch, one dorsal and two sacral ribs, the right ischium, the complete right ... Victoria Arbour considered Anodontosaurus distinct from Euoplocephalus in distinctive skull and cervical half ring ... and that sacral ribs were likewise not fused to vertebrae and to the ilium. Other morphological characters supporting that this ...
In Acamptonectes, the front-most cervical (neck) centra were high and short, and the following cervical and dorsal (trunk) ... The ribs were distinct in being robust with a round cross-section; this contrasted with the "8"-shaped cross-section that is ... Its snout was also shallower than those in related species, and its ribs were more rounded in cross-section. According to ... The processes (bony projections that serve as muscle and rib attachments) projecting from the centra were greatly reduced as an ...
The radial nerve, which is from the fifth cervical spinal nerve to the first thoracic spinal nerve, originates as the ... The basilic vein travels on the medial side of the arm and terminates at the level of the seventh rib. The cephalic vein ...
... cervical lymph nodes cervical nerves cervical vertebrae cervical rib Phrases that involve the uterine cervix include cervical ... Look up cervical in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. In anatomy, cervical is an adjective that has two meanings: of or ... Commonly used medical phrases involving the neck are cervical collar cervical disc (intervertebral disc) ... cancer cervical smear or Pap smear This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Cervical. If an internal ...
The long thoracic nerve arises from the anterior rami of the C5, C6, and C7 cervical spinal nerve. The root from C7 may ... various sports injuries, typically occurring from a blow to the ribs underneath an outstretched arm. surgery for shoulder and ...
Two of the fossils displayed traces of cut marks (DIK-55-2, a right rib fragment of a large ungulate & DIK-55-3, a femur shaft ... A study in 2018 found non-carious cervical lesions, caused by acid erosion, on the teeth of A. africanus, probably caused by ...
The degree of serious risks associated with manipulation of the cervical spine is uncertain, with widely differing results ... vertebral and rib fractures, and cauda equina syndrome. In a 1993 study, J.D. Cassidy, DC, and co-workers concluded that the ...
Multiple pathologies were also observed in five ribs and cervical vertebrae 6, thoracics (3rd, 8th, 13th) and chevron of the ... One rib has evidence of a false joint whose components later reconnected. This rib injury occurs at a different location along ... Multiple ribs bear healed fractures and the specimen had a pseudoarthortic belly rib. Lesions from a bite received to the face ... one had a vertebral fusion near the end of the tail fractured ribs while the other just had a fractured rib. In 2001, Bruce ...
Specimen MOR 571 includes a partial skull and lower jaws with associated ribs and vertebrae of an adult. The skull consists of ... The Function and Evolution of the Syncervical in Ceratopsian Dinosaurs with a Review of Cervical Fusion in Tetrapods (Master ...
Prior to the pre-production, Reeves underwent a two-level fusion of his cervical (neck) spine due to spinal cord compression ... including broken ribs, knees, and a dislocated shoulder. Another stuntman was injured by a hydraulic puller during a shot in ...
X-rays shows that ,b,she has a cervical rib,/b, and the density of the bone has decreased (disk between the bones has been ... In fact, most of these patients have symptoms unrelated to the cervical rib but they are attributed to the cervical rib ... What is the treatment for cervical rib?. Answered by: Dr Mathew Varghese , Head, Department of Orthopaedics,. St. Stephens ... A:Extra cervical rib may be an incidental finding in a small percentage of normal people. It is not necessary for this to cause ...
Cervical rib/elongated costal process of the seventh cervical vertebra and sacralization of a lumbar vertebra are associated ... Sacralization is not associated with elongated cervical costal process and cervical rib Robert G Tague. Clin Anat. 2011 Mar. ... Sacralization is not associated with elongated cervical costal process and cervical rib Robert G Tague 1 ... Cervical rib/elongated costal process of the seventh cervical vertebra and sacralization of a lumbar vertebra are associated ...
The Cervical Rotation Lateral Flexion Test assesses 1st rib hypomobility in patients with brachialgia and thoracic outlet ... Cervical Rotation Lateral Flexion Test , First Rib Hypomobility. Lindren and colleagues argue that hypomobility of the first ... In 1990, they came up with the cervical rotation lateral flexion test to assess hypomobility of the first rib, and in 1992 ... Another way to assess for hypomobility of the first rib is the direct assessment of first rib hypomobility. ...
Cervical rib. Cervical rib. *MedGen UID: 102359. *Concept ID: C0158779. *Finding: Congenital Abnormality ...
... in cervical sympathetic chain, at the superior cervical ganglion, or along the carotid artery). [1, 9] ... The fibers ascend through the sympathetic chain and synapse in the superior cervical ganglion at the level of the bifurcation ... Neck trauma (eg, traumatic dislocation of cervical vertebrae or traumatic dissection of the vertebral artery) - Horner syndrome ... Shortly after the postganglionic fibers leave the superior cervical ganglion, vasomotor and sudomotor fibers branch off, ...
... fracture of all ribs; severed cervical spine; fractures of the sternum, clavicles, thoracic vertebrae and pelvis; ruptured ...
Cervical Rib X-Ray. radRounds Team - April 8, 2021. 0. Diagnosis: Cervical Ribs Findings on Imaging (Radiograph): X-ray of... ...
Management of cervical ribs causing neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome: a ten year experience in the neurosurgery unit, Tikur ... Complete cervical rib. Possible neurovascular implications of the upper limb].. Morbidelli A; Miani S; Bortolani E. Minerva ... 7. The significance of cervical ribs in thoracic outlet syndrome.. Chang KZ; Likes K; Davis K; Demos J; Freischlag JA. J Vasc ... transaxillary resection of the pediatric cervical rib.. Sen S; Dişçigil B; Boga M; Ozkisacik E; Inci I. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ...
Mutual relationship of the appearance of the so-called cervical ribs and alterations on the inferior end of the human thorax]. ... Cervical rib with resulting gangrene of the fingers.. Subject(s):. Ribs (Cervical). ...
Cervical Rib Syndrome + Chang Davidson Carlson Syndrome Char syndrome Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease X-linked recessive 2 ...
The 21th vertebra is considered as the first dorsal vertebra because its rib is much longer than that of the last cervical rib ... The sacral ribs are relatively short and stout with the last being the longest. Five pairs of caudal ribs are present (Fig. 4c ... Some cervical ribs are discernable in the left side and their lengths increase posteriorly. ... Table 2 Meristics for presacral, cervical and caudal vertebrae in pachypleurosaurs with relatively complete skeletons.. Full ...
Muscle Energy Technique for cervical, thoracic and ribs DVD. $39.95. Add to cart Show Details ...
I have cervical ribs. When the doc saw it he got all nerdy and got his partner because hed never seen them in real life before ... My dad starts patting her back not nearly hard enough and I realize that if I did the Heimlich on her, I could break a rib. ...
Cervical rib-usually arises from the seventh cervical vertebra. and rarely c6.Usually symmetrical on two sides, sometimes ... Cervical radiography - May demonstrate a skeletal abnormality  Chest radiography  Cervical or first rib: This is usually ... It is relationship of neurovascular bundle structure with cervical rib that may cause symptoms.  Fisrt thoracic rib - a first ... surgery  Supraclavicular approach  Ideal for removal of a cervical rib or a fibrous remanant and allows inspection of artery ...
For subclavian artery aneurysm resection and removal of cervical rib for thoracic outlet, the incisions are supraclavicular and ... Rib resection is facilitated after division of the artery. Management of distal emboli is difficult. Complications include ... For carotid subclavian or carotid transposition, a low transverse cervical incision is used. Prosthetic bypass is preferred. ... Resection of subclavian artery aneurysm and venous bypass and rib resection with thoracic outlet (see the second image below) ...
An increase in fetal variation (supernumerary cervical ribs) occurred at the high dose of 40 mg/kg/day. ...
Rib Cage [A02.835.232.570] * Ribs [A02.835.232.570.500] * Cervical Rib [A02.835.232.570.500.150] ... Cervical Rib Preferred Concept UI. M0534239. Scope Note. A supernumerary rib developing from an abnormal enlargement of the ... Cervical Rib Preferred Term Term UI T748492. Date03/31/2009. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID ... Cervical Rib Syndrome. Thoracic Outlet Syndrome. Public MeSH Note. 2010. History Note. 2010. Date Established. 2010/01/01. Date ...
... or wavy ribs and rudimentary cervical ribs. The percent of fetuses with skeletal variations increased in a dose related fashion ... Exposure to diEGME caused several skeletal malformations and variations; the most common occurred in the ribs and included ...
This can happen when there is an extra cervical rib or because of a ... This can happen when there is an extra cervical rib or because of a tight fibrous band that connects the spinal vertebra to the ... rib. There may be pain in the neck and shoulders, and numbness in the last 3 fingers and inner forearm. Thoracic outlet ...
In higher vertebrates the neck vertebrae (cervical) may or may not bear short ribs. The trunk (thoracic) region bears ribs, ... Even the 3 thoracic ribs are decomposed into 7 true ribs attaching directly to the sternum and the Fibonacci number of five (5 ... The thoracic region generally bears twelve ribs. However, there is often a thirteenth floating rib, giving the Fibonacci number ... All had a Fibonacci number of twenty-one (21) radial ribs along the dorsal shell surface [25]. The spiraled shell of the snail ...
Interestingly, one mutant exhibited an extra pair of ribs as well as alterations in cervical vertebrae identities. Some of the ...
... commonly was thought to be the result of compression of the brachial plexus by cervical ribs and other structures in the ...
... increased mortality of offspring and increased cervical rib skeletal anomalies were observed at ≥100 mg/kg/day systemic ...
They are connected to the cervical and thoracic vertebrae and the first two ribs. The cranial thoracic air sacs lie in the ... The surfaces adjacent to the ribs are very indented and the ribs lie within the grooves that are formed such that approximately ... Approximately one third of the lungs lie between the rib bones and any movement of the ribs also affects the lungs. During ... This causes the ribs and sternum to return to their original position. This in turn will reduce the volume of the cavity. In ...
Rib Cage (L/R). Abdomen (9 zones). Posterior Torso. Cervical Spine (C1-C7). Thoracic Spine (T1-T12). Scapular Region (L/R). ... Be able to perform Range of Motion (ROM) Evaluations of the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine, rib cage, transverse ... Be able to perform Tension Test Evaluations of the cranium, cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine, rib cage, thoracic organs, ... Rib Cage Respiration ROM. Pump Handle. Bucket Handle. Caliper. Transverse Diaphragm ROM. Thoracic Inlet. Respiratory Diaphragm ...
... increased mortality of offspring and increased cervical rib skeletal anomalies were observed at ≥100 mg/kg/day systemic ...
  • Lindren and colleagues argue that hypomobility of the first rib within the upper aperture of the thoracic cage can cause neural irritation and lead to symptoms known as thoracic outlet syndrome and limit cervical range of motion as well. (physiotutors.com)
  • 7. The significance of cervical ribs in thoracic outlet syndrome. (nih.gov)
  • 15. Costochondral calcification, osteophytic degeneration, and occult first rib fractures in patients with venous thoracic outlet syndrome. (nih.gov)
  • 16. Remaining or residual first ribs are the cause of recurrent thoracic outlet syndrome. (nih.gov)
  • 18. Thoracic outlet syndrome with right subclavian artery dilatation in a child - transaxillary resection of the pediatric cervical rib. (nih.gov)
  • 20. Management of cervical ribs causing neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome: a ten year experience in the neurosurgery unit, Tikur Anbessa Hospital. (nih.gov)
  •  Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is a broad term that refers to compression of the neurovascular structures in the area just above the first rib and behind the clavicle. (slideshare.net)
  • Until the advent of electrophysiologic testing in the 1940s, carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) commonly was thought to be the result of compression of the brachial plexus by cervical ribs and other structures in the anterior neck region (so-called thoracic outlet syndrome). (medscape.com)
  • Cervical rib/elongated costal process of the seventh cervical vertebra and sacralization of a lumbar vertebra are associated with clinical problems-neurological, vascular, and obstetrical. (nih.gov)
  • This study tested three hypotheses from this association: costal process length among individuals with sacralization differs from that among individuals without sacralization for: (1) only the seventh cervical vertebra, (2) only transitional presacral vertebrae-seventh cervical, twelfth thoracic, and fifth lumbar, and (3) presacral vertebrae in general. (nih.gov)
  •  Cervical rib-usually arises from the seventh cervical vertebra. (slideshare.net)
  • A base do tratamento cirúrgico da Síndrome do Desfiladeiro Torácico (SDT) é a ressecção da primeira costela, podendo associar-se à escalenectomia ou ainda à ressecção de costela cervical. (uchile.cl)
  • Costal process length was measured on 100 individuals with sacralization and 184 without sacralization for cervical vertebrae 3 to 7, thoracic vertebrae 11 and 12, and all lumbar vertebrae. (nih.gov)
  • Compared to individuals without sacralization, those with sacralization: (1) have significantly longer costal process for the last lumbar vertebra, but are nonsignificantly different for costal process lengths of other vertebrae, (2) are nonsignificantly different in prevalence of cervical rib-2.9% with sacralization and 0.4% without sacralization, and (3) are significantly more likely to have an extra presacral vertebra. (nih.gov)
  • A supernumerary rib developing from an abnormal enlargement of the costal element of the C7 vertebra. (nih.gov)
  • Mild and dull continuous pain at the site of joint between sternum and rib cartilage. (abchomeopathy.com)
  • A deformed thoracic outlet as a result of sloping shoulders ,scoliosis and fracture of first rib can also compress the neurovascular structures against the first rib. (slideshare.net)
  • It is relationship of neurovascular bundle structure with cervical rib that may cause symptoms. (slideshare.net)
  • Second-order preganglionic pupillomotor fibers exit the spinal cord at the level of T1 and enter the cervical sympathetic chain, where they are in close proximity to the pulmonary apex and the subclavian artery. (medscape.com)
  • This can happen when there is an extra cervical rib or because of a tight fibrous band that connects the spinal vertebra to the rib. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Interestingly, one mutant exhibited an extra pair of ribs as well as alterations in cervical vertebrae identities. (nih.gov)
  • Diagnosis: Cervical Ribs Findings on Imaging (Radiograph): X-ray of. (radrounds.com)
  • Experience with diagnosis and therapy in a 15-year patient cohort (80 trans-axillary resections of the 1st rib in 67 patients) and a literature review]. (nih.gov)
  • The presence of an additional rib narrows this space causing pressure symptoms on the nerves and the vessels. (ndtv.com)
  • In fact, most of these patients' have symptoms unrelated to the cervical rib but they are attributed to the cervical rib because it has been seen on the X-ray. (ndtv.com)
  • Main symptoms are intercostal pains, rib pain while inhaling, sore ribs (all right side), sore muscles and spams: trapezius, rhomboid, muscle between lower end of the rib and hip. (abchomeopathy.com)
  • Cervical rib with resulting gangrene of the fingers. (nih.gov)
  • Esta anomalía de encuentra en el 1-2 por ciento de la población y puede presionar en las estructuras adyacentes causando el SÍNDROME DE LA COSTILLA CERVICAL, el SÍNDROME DEL OPÉRCULO TORÁCICO y otras afecciones. (bvsalud.org)
  • I would recommend that not withstanding the findings of the rib on the X-ray, get her examined by a competent orthopaedic surgeon to exclude the other causes of should and arm pain. (ndtv.com)
  • X-rays shows that she has a cervical rib and the density of the bone has decreased (disk between the bones has been eroded). (ndtv.com)
  • Extra cervical rib may be an incidental finding in a small percentage of normal people. (ndtv.com)
  • Fisrt thoracic rib - a first thoracic rib can cause compression if it is unusually high, large or irregularly curved. (slideshare.net)
  •  the costoclavicular triangle, bordered  anteriorly by the middle third of the clavicle,  posteromedially by the first rib,  posterolaterally by the upper border of the scapula. (slideshare.net)
  • this triangle is bordered by  the anterior scalene muscle anteriorly,  the middle scalene muscle posteriorly,  and the first rib inferiorly. (slideshare.net)
  • Majority of the patients are known to have cervical rib and seen as an incidental finding on a routine X-ray. (ndtv.com)
  • In a sample of 23 patients, they found an excellent Kappa value of 1 and a positive test correlated with limited elevation of the first rib on cineradiography. (physiotutors.com)
  • What is the treatment for cervical rib? (ndtv.com)
  • Home » Frequently asked Questions on Health » What is the treatment for cervical rib? (ndtv.com)
  • Once you have excluded of these you can then plan for the treatment of the cervical rib. (ndtv.com)
  • Preference to sleep on right side but it aggravated the pain on the right rib. (abchomeopathy.com)
  • While sleeping on the right side makes the right rib pain worser but nose block clears when sleeping on the right side. (abchomeopathy.com)