Cervical Length Measurement
Obstetric Labor, Premature
Pregnancy Trimester, Second
Pregnancy Trimester, Third
Uterine Cervical Incompetence
Axial Length, Eye
Reproducibility of Results
Pregnancy Trimester, First
Predictive Value of Tests
Body Weights and Measures
Sensitivity and Specificity
Fetal Membranes, Premature Rupture
Labor Stage, First
Transvaginal ultrasound measurement of cervical length and efficacy of misoprostol in first-trimester pregnancy failure. (1/53)OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the role of cervical length measurement in predicting successful treatment, by misoprostol administration, of early (first-trimester) pregnancy failure. METHOD: A prospective study was conducted of all patients who agreed to medical treatment of pregnancy failure. Cervical length and other sonographic variables were measured using pelvic ultrasound before medical treatment began. Measurements were compared between the group with successful medical treatment and the group in whom treatment failed. RESULTS: In 125 women included in the study, the success rate of misoprostol treatment was 64.8%. There were no significant differences between the groups with successful and failed treatment for cervical length (29.9 +/- 9.3 vs. 30.4 +/- 6.8 mm, P = 0.75), distance between gestational sac and 'virtual' cervical internal os (23.9 +/- 13 vs. 26.6 +/- 13 mm, P = 0.26), crown-rump length (8.7 +/- 9.7 vs. 6.7 +/- 8.6 mm, P = 0.25), or gestational sac diameter (31.3 +/- 14 vs. 30.1 +/- 15 mm, P = 0.73). CONCLUSION: Cervical length does not predict the success of misoprostol treatment of first-trimester pregnancy failure. (+info)
Ultrasound assessment of cervical length in prolonged pregnancy: prediction of spontaneous onset of labor and successful vaginal delivery. (2/53)(+info)
Cervical length as a predictor of preterm delivery: gestational age-related percentiles vs fixed cut-offs. (3/53)BACKGROUND: To determine whether preterm delivery is more effectively predicted by sonographic cervical length measurement using fixed cut-off or gestational age-specific percentiles. METHODS: One hundred and eight patients hospitalized for suspected preterm labor (PTL) were studied prospectively between the 20th and the 33rd week of gestation. RESULTS: Cervical length below 15 mm, 25 mm and the 2.5th centile showed substantially equivalent odds ratios for delivery within 7 days (7.5, 7.6, and 7.1, respectively), while for delivery before the 34th week the odds ratios varied between 3.6 with cervical length <2.5rh centile and 6.2 with cervical length <25 mm. Moreover, the negative predictive value for delivery within 7 days exceeded 90% when cervical length was above 25 mm, the 10th and the 2.5th percentile, and 85% when above 15 mm. CONCLUSION: The comparison of fixed and gestational age-specific cut-offs demonstrates a better reliability of fixed cut-offs (15 or 25 mm) in predicting preterm delivery, both before 34 weeks and within 7 days of the ultrasound examination. (+info)
Cervical length at mid-pregnancy and the risk of primary cesarean delivery. (4/53)(+info)
Selective use of sonographic cervical length measurement for predicting imminent preterm delivery in women with preterm labor and intact membranes. (5/53)(+info)
Sonographic longitudinal cervical length measurements in nulliparous women at term: prediction of spontaneous onset of labor. (6/53)(+info)
Cervical length and maternal factors in expectantly managed prolonged pregnancy: prediction of onset of labor and mode of delivery. (7/53)(+info)
Transperineal versus transvaginal sonographic cervical length measurement in second- and third-trimester pregnancies. (8/53)(+info)
Premature labor can be classified into several types based on the duration of labor:
1. Preterm contractions: These are contractions that occur before 37 weeks of gestation but do not lead to delivery.
2. Preterm labor with cervical dilation: This is when the cervix begins to dilate before 37 weeks of gestation.
3. Premature rupture of membranes (PROM): This is when the amniotic sac surrounding the fetus ruptures before 37 weeks of gestation, which can lead to infection and preterm labor.
Signs and symptoms of premature obstetric labor may include:
1. Contractions that occur more frequently than every 10 minutes
2. Strong, regular contractions that last for at least 60 seconds
3. Cervical dilation or effacement (thinning)
4. Rupture of membranes (water breaking)
5. Decrease in fetal movement
6. Pelvic pressure or discomfort
7. Abdominal cramping or back pain
Premature obstetric labor can lead to several complications for both the mother and the baby, including:
1. Preterm birth: This is the most common complication of premature labor, which can increase the risk of health problems in the baby such as respiratory distress syndrome, intraventricular hemorrhage, and necrotizing enterocolitis.
2. Increased risk of cesarean delivery
3. Maternal infection: Premature labor can increase the risk of infection, such as group B strep or urinary tract infections.
4. Maternal complications: Premature labor can lead to complications such as placental abruption (separation of the placenta from the uterus), preeclampsia (high blood pressure), and HELLP syndrome (hemolytic anemia, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count).
5. Fetal distress: Premature labor can lead to fetal distress, which can result in long-term health problems for the baby.
6. Intensive care unit admission: Preterm babies may require intensive care unit admission, which can be stressful and expensive.
To manage premature labor, healthcare providers may recommend the following:
1. Bed rest or hospitalization: Rest and monitoring in a hospital setting may be recommended to prevent further premature contractions.
2. Tocolytic medications: These medications can help slow down or stop contractions.
3. Corticosteroids: These medications can help mature the fetal lungs, reducing the risk of respiratory distress syndrome.
4. Planned delivery: If premature labor cannot be halted, a planned delivery may be necessary to ensure the best possible outcome for both the mother and the baby.
5. Close monitoring: Regular monitoring of the mother and baby is crucial to detect any complications early on and provide appropriate treatment.
6. Supportive care: Premature babies may require oxygen therapy, incubators, and other supportive care to help them survive and thrive.
In summary, premature labor can be a serious condition that requires close monitoring and prompt medical intervention to prevent complications for both the mother and the baby. Understanding the signs of premature labor and seeking immediate medical attention if they occur can help improve outcomes.
Premature birth can be classified into several categories based on gestational age at birth:
1. Extreme prematurity: Born before 24 weeks of gestation.
2. Very preterm: Born between 24-27 weeks of gestation.
3. Moderate to severe preterm: Born between 28-32 weeks of gestation.
4. Late preterm: Born between 34-36 weeks of gestation.
The causes of premature birth are not fully understood, but several factors have been identified as increasing the risk of premature birth. These include:
1. Previous premature birth
2. Multiple gestations (twins, triplets etc.)
3. History of cervical surgery or cervical incompetence
4. Chronic medical conditions such as hypertension and diabetes
5. Infections such as group B strep or urinary tract infections
6. Pregnancy-related complications such as preeclampsia and placenta previa
7. Stress and poor social support
8. Smoking, alcohol and drug use during pregnancy
9. Poor nutrition and lack of prenatal care.
Premature birth can have significant short-term and long-term health consequences for the baby, including respiratory distress syndrome, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, intraventricular hemorrhage, retinopathy of prematurity and necrotizing enterocolitis. Children who are born prematurely may also have developmental delays, learning disabilities and behavioral problems later in life.
There is no single test that can predict premature birth with certainty, but several screening tests are available to identify women at risk. These include ultrasound examination, maternal serum screening for estriol and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A), and cervical length measurement.
While there is no proven way to prevent premature birth entirely, several strategies have been shown to reduce the risk, including:
1. Progesterone supplementation: Progesterone appears to help prevent preterm labor in some women with a history of previous preterm birth or other risk factors.
2. Corticosteroids: Corticosteroids given to mothers at risk of preterm birth can help mature the baby's lungs and reduce the risk of respiratory distress syndrome.
3. Calcium supplementation: Calcium may help improve fetal bone development and reduce the risk of premature birth.
4. Good prenatal care: Regular prenatal check-ups, proper nutrition and avoiding smoking, alcohol and drug use during pregnancy can help reduce the risk of premature birth.
5. Avoiding stress: Stress can increase the risk of premature birth, so finding ways to manage stress during pregnancy is important.
6. Preventing infections: Infections such as group B strep and urinary tract infections can increase the risk of premature birth, so it's important to take steps to prevent them.
7. Maintaining a healthy weight gain during pregnancy: Excessive weight gain during pregnancy can increase the risk of premature birth.
8. Avoiding preterm contractions: Preterm contractions can be a sign of impending preterm labor, so it's important to be aware of them and seek medical attention if they occur.
9. Prolonged gestation: Prolonging pregnancy beyond 37 weeks may reduce the risk of premature birth.
10. Cervical cerclage: A cervical cerclage is a stitch used to close the cervix and prevent preterm birth in women with a short cervix or other risk factors.
It's important to note that not all of these strategies will be appropriate or effective for every woman, so it's important to discuss your individual risk factors and any concerns you may have with your healthcare provider.
First Trimester Exams
The first trimester is a critical period in pregnancy, as most miscarriages occur during this time. To evaluate the health of the pregnancy and detect any potential problems early on, healthcare providers typically perform several exams and tests during the first trimester. These may include:
1. Ultrasound: This painless test uses high-frequency sound waves to create images of the fetus and placenta, allowing healthcare providers to assess fetal development, check for any physical abnormalities, and calculate the due date.
2. Blood tests: These can detect certain conditions such as anemia, diabetes, and thyroid disorders that may affect the pregnancy. They can also screen for genetic disorders like Down syndrome.
3. Pelvic exam: This involves checking the shape and position of the uterus and cervix, as well as assessing the condition of the vaginal tissues.
4. Cervical length measurement: This can help determine if the cervix is shortening too early, which may be an indication of incompetence or preterm labor.
5. Hormone level testing: These can measure the levels of certain hormones such as estriol and progesterone, which are important for maintaining a healthy pregnancy.
Early Detection and Prevention of Uterine Cervical Incompetence
While there is no guaranteed way to prevent uterine cervical incompetence entirely, early detection can improve the chances of a successful pregnancy. Healthcare providers may recommend the following to help reduce the risk of incompetence:
1. Regular prenatal care: This includes regular check-ups with a healthcare provider, who can monitor the progress of the pregnancy and detect any potential complications early on.
2. Progesterone supplementation: Some studies suggest that progesterone may help prevent incompetence by supporting the cervix and maintaining its strength.
3. Cervical cerclage: This is a surgical procedure where stitches are placed around the cervix to help hold it closed and prevent preterm labor. It may be recommended for women who have had a previous preterm birth or other risk factors for incompetence.
4. Vaginal progesterone: Some studies suggest that using vaginal progesterone suppositories or creams may also help reduce the risk of incompetence.
5. Lifestyle modifications: Maintaining a healthy weight, avoiding smoking and alcohol, and managing stress can all help reduce the risk of complications during pregnancy.
Uterine cervical incompetence is a common condition that can lead to preterm labor and delivery. While there is no cure for incompetence, there are several risk reduction strategies that women can use to reduce their risk of experiencing complications during pregnancy. These include regular prenatal care, progesterone supplementation, cervical cerclage, vaginal progesterone, and lifestyle modifications. By working with a healthcare provider to develop a personalized plan for reducing the risk of incompetence, women can help ensure a healthy pregnancy and delivery.
Prolonged pregnancy can increase the risk of complications for both the mother and the baby. Some potential risks include:
1. Preterm labor: As the pregnancy extends beyond 42 weeks, the risk of preterm labor increases, which can lead to premature birth and related health issues.
2. Gestational diabetes: Prolonged pregnancy can increase the risk of developing gestational diabetes, a type of diabetes that develops during pregnancy.
3. Hypertension: Prolonged pregnancy can lead to high blood pressure, which can be dangerous for both the mother and the baby.
4. Preeclampsia: This is a condition characterized by high blood pressure, swelling, and protein in the urine, which can be life-threatening for both the mother and the baby.
5. Placenta previa: This is a condition where the placenta covers the cervix, which can cause bleeding and other complications.
6. Fetal growth restriction: The baby may not grow at a normal rate, leading to low birth weight and other health issues.
7. Stillbirth: In rare cases, prolonged pregnancy can increase the risk of stillbirth.
To monitor the progression of a prolonged pregnancy, healthcare providers may use various techniques such as ultrasound, non-stress tests, and biophysical profiles to assess fetal well-being and determine if delivery is necessary. In some cases, labor may be induced or cesarean section may be performed to avoid potential complications.
Prolonged pregnancy can be a challenging and stressful experience for expectant mothers, but with proper medical care and monitoring, the risks can be minimized, and a healthy baby can be delivered safely.
Threatened abortion refers to a pregnancy that is at risk of ending prematurely, either due to complications or circumstances that could potentially harm the developing fetus or the mother. In this situation, the pregnancy is not yet fully developed, and the fetus may not have formed fully. Threatened abortion can occur in any trimester of pregnancy and can be caused by various factors.
Types of Threatened Abortion:
There are different types of threatened abortion, including:
1. Threatened miscarriage: This occurs when the pregnancy is at risk of ending prematurely due to complications such as bleeding, cramping, or spotting.
2. Threatened ectopic pregnancy: This occurs when the fertilized egg implants outside the uterus, often in the fallopian tube.
3. Threatened molar pregnancy: This occurs when a non-viable mass of cells develops in the uterus instead of a normal fetus.
4. Threatened hydatidiform mole: This is a type of molar pregnancy that occurs when the fertilized egg does not properly divide and forms a mass of cells that can be benign or malignant.
Causes of Threatened Abortion:
Threatened abortion can be caused by various factors, including:
1. Hormonal changes: Fluctuations in hormone levels can affect the development of the fertilized egg and increase the risk of threatened abortion.
2. Infections: Bacterial or viral infections can cause inflammation in the uterus and increase the risk of threatened abortion.
3. Uterine abnormalities: Structural problems with the uterus, such as fibroids or polyps, can increase the risk of threatened abortion.
4. Trauma: Physical trauma, such as a fall or a car accident, can cause the pregnancy to become threatened.
5. Maternal medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as diabetes or hypertension, can increase the risk of threatened abortion.
6. Smoking and drug use: Smoking and using drugs can increase the risk of threatened abortion by reducing blood flow to the developing fetus.
7. Poor prenatal care: Lack of proper prenatal care can increase the risk of threatened abortion by not detecting potential complications early on.
Signs and Symptoms of Threatened Abortion:
The signs and symptoms of threatened abortion can vary depending on the individual, but they may include:
1. Vaginal bleeding: This is the most common sign of threatened abortion and can range from light spotting to heavy bleeding.
2. Cramping: Women may experience mild to severe cramps in the lower abdomen.
3. Passing tissue or clots: Women may pass tissue or clots through the vagina, which can be a sign of a threatened abortion.
4. Decreased fetal movement: If the fetus is not developing properly, women may notice a decrease in fetal movement.
5. Premature contractions: Women may experience premature contractions, which can indicate a threatened abortion.
6. Cervical dilation: The cervix may begin to dilate before labor, which can be a sign of a threatened abortion.
7. Changes in vaginal discharge: Women may notice changes in their vaginal discharge, such as an increase in amount or a change in color or consistency.
Diagnosis and Treatment of Threatened Abortion:
If you suspect that you are experiencing a threatened abortion, it is essential to seek medical attention immediately. Your healthcare provider will perform a physical examination and may order additional tests, such as an ultrasound or blood tests, to confirm the diagnosis.
Treatment for a threatened abortion depends on the underlying cause and the stage of pregnancy. Your healthcare provider may recommend:
1. Bed rest: Women who are experiencing a threatened abortion may be advised to rest in bed and avoid strenuous activities.
2. Medication: In some cases, medication may be prescribed to help prevent the abortion from occurring.
3. Corticosteroids: If the fetus is not developing properly, corticosteroids may be given to help mature the fetus's lungs and other organs.
4. Antibiotics: If an infection is suspected, antibiotics may be prescribed to prevent or treat the infection.
5. Hospitalization: In severe cases, women may require hospitalization to monitor their condition and receive appropriate treatment.
6. Surgical intervention: In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to remove the fetus or repair any damage to the uterus.
Prevention of Threatened Abortion:
While some cases of threatened abortion cannot be prevented, there are steps that women can take to reduce their risk. These include:
1. Practicing good prenatal care: Regular check-ups with a healthcare provider can help identify any potential issues early on and prevent complications.
2. Avoiding harmful substances: Smoking, drug use, and excessive alcohol consumption can increase the risk of threatened abortion.
3. Maintaining a healthy diet: Eating a balanced diet that is rich in essential nutrients can help support fetal development and reduce the risk of complications.
4. Managing chronic medical conditions: Women with conditions like diabetes, hypertension, or thyroid disorders should work closely with their healthcare provider to manage their condition and prevent any complications.
5. Avoiding stress: High levels of stress can increase the risk of threatened abortion. Engaging in stress-reducing activities, such as exercise, meditation, or therapy, can help reduce stress and promote a healthy pregnancy.
6. Getting regular ultrasounds: Regular ultrasounds can help monitor fetal development and identify any potential issues early on.
In conclusion, threatened abortion is a serious condition that requires prompt medical attention. While some cases cannot be prevented, women can take steps to reduce their risk by practicing good prenatal care, avoiding harmful substances, maintaining a healthy diet, managing chronic medical conditions, avoiding stress, and getting regular ultrasounds. With appropriate treatment, many women who experience threatened abortion can go on to have a healthy pregnancy and a healthy baby.
Premature rupture of fetal membranes is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, ultrasound, and laboratory tests. Treatment options for PROM include:
1. Expectant management: In this approach, the woman is monitored closely without immediately inducing labor. This option is usually chosen if the baby is not yet ready to be born and the mother has no signs of infection or preterm labor.
2. Induction of labor: If the baby is mature enough to be born, labor may be induced to avoid the risks associated with preterm birth.
3. Cesarean delivery: In some cases, a cesarean section may be performed if the woman has signs of infection or if the baby is in distress.
4. Antibiotics: If the PROM is caused by an infection, antibiotics may be given to treat the infection and prevent complications.
5. Steroids: If the baby is less than 24 hours old, steroids may be given to help mature the lungs and reduce the risk of respiratory distress syndrome.
Prevention of premature rupture of fetal membranes includes good prenatal care, avoiding activities that can cause trauma to the abdomen, and avoiding infections such as group B strep. Early detection and management of PROM are crucial to prevent complications for the baby.
Causes of Polyhydramnios:
There are several possible causes of polyhydramnios, including:
1. Chromosomal abnormalities: Genetic disorders such as Down syndrome can cause an excessive amount of amniotic fluid.
2. Maternal diabetes: Diabetes in the mother can cause an imbalance in the placenta and lead to polyhydramnios.
3. Previous stillbirth: Women who have had a previous stillbirth are at higher risk for developing polyhydramnios in subsequent pregnancies.
4. Fetal anomalies: Abnormalities in the fetus, such as heart or spinal cord defects, can cause an accumulation of amniotic fluid.
5. Maternal hypertension: High blood pressure in the mother can lead to polyhydramnios.
6. Preeclampsia: This is a condition that causes high blood pressure and damage to organs such as the liver and kidneys.
7. Urinary tract infections: Infections in the urinary tract can cause an excessive amount of amniotic fluid.
8. Maternal obesity: Obese women are at higher risk for developing polyhydramnios due to their increased body mass index (BMI).
Symptoms of Polyhydramnios:
Polyhydramnios can cause a range of symptoms, including:
1. Enlarged uterus: The uterus may become enlarged due to the excessive amount of amniotic fluid.
2. Abdominal pain: Women with polyhydramnios may experience abdominal pain and discomfort.
3. Increased urination: Drinking more water may be necessary to accommodate the excessive amount of amniotic fluid.
4. Pressure on the bladder: The excessive fluid can put pressure on the bladder, leading to frequent urination and discomfort.
5. Difficulty breathing: In severe cases, the excessive fluid can put pressure on the lungs, making it difficult to breathe.
6. Premature labor: Polyhydramnios can increase the risk of premature labor.
7. Preterm rupture of membranes (PROM): The amniotic sac may rupture before 37 weeks of gestation, leading to preterm labor and delivery.
8. Fetal distress: The excessive fluid can cause fetal distress, which can lead to complications during delivery.
Treatment of Polyhydramnios:
Treatment for polyhydramnios depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. Some possible treatments include:
1. Bed rest or hospitalization: Women with polyhydramnios may be advised to rest in bed or be hospitalized to monitor the condition and prevent complications.
2. Diuretics: Medications that increase urine production can help reduce the amount of amniotic fluid.
3. Amnioreduction: A procedure in which a needle is inserted into the uterus to remove excess amniotic fluid.
4. Induction of labor: In severe cases, labor may be induced to prevent complications.
5. Cesarean section: If the condition is not resolved with other treatments, a cesarean section may be necessary to deliver the baby safely.
In conclusion, polyhydramnios is a condition characterized by an excessive amount of amniotic fluid during pregnancy. It can cause discomfort, difficulty breathing, and increase the risk of complications such as premature labor and preterm rupture of membranes. Treatment options include bed rest, diuretics, amnioreduction, induction of labor, and cesarean section. If you suspect you have polyhydramnios, it is essential to consult with your healthcare provider for proper diagnosis and treatment.
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- Sonography shows an incidental finding of a short cervical canal measuring 6 mm. (medscape.com)
- Many factors contribute to the risk of delivering preterm, including short cervical length measured by sonography. (nih.gov)
- To assess the association between sonography-derived cervical length measurement and preterm birth. (bvsalud.org)
- To describe the various techniques to measure cervical length using sonography. (bvsalud.org)
Evaluation of cervical length1
- 10. Transvaginal sonographic evaluation of cervical length in the second trimester of asymptomatic singleton pregnancies, and the risk of preterm delivery. (nih.gov)
- Cervical incompetence (cervical insufficiency) is the inability of the uterine cervix to retain a pregnancy in the absence of uterine contractions. (medscape.com)
- 16. Is there a role for cervical assessment and uterine artery Doppler in the first trimester of pregnancy as a screening test for spontaneous preterm delivery? (nih.gov)
- A parameter usually used in PRENATAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY to measure the length of the uterine neck ( CERVIX UTERI ). (nih.gov)
- The following measurements were performed: indentation depth, indentation angle, uterine fundal wall thickness, external fundal indentation, and indentation-to-wall-thickness (I:WT) ratio. (unav.edu)
- C128706 GAIA Antenatal Bleeding Level of Diagnostic Certainty Terminology C113492 Dysfunctional Labor Uterine contractions (less than 3 in 10 minutes or inadequate strength) that do not result in progressive cervical dilation. (nih.gov)
- Diagnosis of a delay in labor is dependent upon careful monitoring of uterine contraction intensity, duration, and frequency, cervical dilation, and the descent of the fetus through the pelvis. (nih.gov)
- cervical dilation of at least 2cm and/or cervical effacement , which happens with regular uterine contractions . (wikidoc.org)
- Preterm labor may be caused by infection , uterine ovedistension , decidual senescence , vascular disorders , stress , cervical disease , decline in progesterone action, or breakdown in maternal - fetal tolerance. (wikidoc.org)
- In some cases, a doctor may recommend a transvaginal ultrasound to measure cervical thickness and length, as this method is likely more accurate. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- 18. Transvaginal ultrasonographic measurement of cervical length in asymptomatic high-risk women with a short cervical length in the previous pregnancy. (nih.gov)
- Objective: To determine whether the transvaginal ultrasonographic measurement of the cervical volume at 19¿22 weeks could predict a post-term pregnancy. (unav.edu)
- The inclusion criteria were sonographic reference ranges that could be used at any confirmation of gestational age, absence of risk gestational period for prompt identification of factors for PTB (Table 1)24, and uncomplicated women with changes in cervical length. (who.int)
- 11. Sonographic cervical length in singleton pregnancies with intact membranes presenting with threatened preterm labor. (nih.gov)
- 12. Prediction of patient-specific risk of early preterm delivery using maternal history and sonographic measurement of cervical length: a population-based prospective study. (nih.gov)
- But what about the value of cerclage in high-risk women with prior early preterm births found to have sonographic evidence of significant cervical shortening around 20 weeks? (contemporaryobgyn.net)
- In this study, a subset of patients with prior preterm birth at less than 35 weeks had sonographic measurements of their cervices and were randomized to cerclage or no cerclage. (contemporaryobgyn.net)
- 6 Of the 831 eligible women who underwent initial sonographic assessment of cervical length, 318 (31%) were found to have a cervical length of less than 2.5 cm, and 302 were randomized to either the no-cerclage (n=153) or cerclage (n=148) group. (contemporaryobgyn.net)
- In this article, we look at cervical effacement, including how it relates to dilation and how to measure it. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The process of dilation and effacement is called cervical ripening. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Cervical changes, including dilation and effacement, cause movement or loss of the mucus plug. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Contractions involve the tightening and relaxing of the uterus to help cervical dilation and effacement. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Although they may occur at different speeds, cervical effacement and dilation can go hand in hand. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- In patients with a history of pregnancy loss, it is prudent to establish a baseline cervical-length measurement at 12-14 weeks of gestation. (medscape.com)
- In patients at risk for pregnancy loss, placement of cervical cerclages in response to ultrasound-detected shortening of the endocervical canal is an acceptable alternative to elective cerclage. (medscape.com)
- ABSTRACT: This study was aimed to establish reference values of cervical length in normal pregnancy. (who.int)
- The purpose of our study was to assess changes equal to the distance from the anterior lip to in cervical length during physiologic pregnancy, the cervical canal. (who.int)
- 13. Fertility and pregnancy outcome following large loop excision of the cervical transformation zone. (nih.gov)
- Conclusion: It seems that there is no relationship between the cervical volume measured in the ultrasound of 20-week gestation and the prolongation of pregnancy beyond week 41. (unav.edu)
- Her pregnancy was dated by a 6-week crown rump length measurement. (medscape.com)
- The authors conclude that measuring fetal fibronectin at 18 -21 weeks pregnancy appears to offer a similar predictive value to measurements at 22-27 weeks. (ogpnews.com)
- We hope to carry out further trials to establish whether biomarker testing at an earlier stage of pregnancy could help us to intervene where necessary before cervical shortening is normally detected, and thus improve the prospects of giving birth safely for more women. (ogpnews.com)
- This is your 7th cervical (or C7) vertebra - and the top of your torso length. (ridetsg.com)
- Modeling) that may use this information to initialize searches for the boundaries of individual vertebrae of the spine, and present initial results of testing this algorithm on cervical spine images. (nih.gov)
- A-C. Cervical vertebrae. (svpow.com)
- The short answer is, yeah, in most sauropods, and maybe all, the cervical vertebrae did lengthen over ontogeny. (svpow.com)
- The cervical vertebrae of Pleurocoelus are uniformly short, with a maximum EI of only 2.4 in all of the Arundel material (Table 4). (svpow.com)
- Carpenter & McIntosh (1994) described cervical vertebrae from juvenile individuals of Apatosaurus and Camarasaurus . (svpow.com)
- Measurements and proportions of cervical vertebrae from adults and juveniles of each genus are given in Table 4. (svpow.com)
- In AMNH 5761, referred to C. supremus , the average EI of the cervical vertebrae is 2.4, with a maximum of 3.5. (svpow.com)
- Cervical effacement refers to the shortening and thinning of the cervix. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- What is cervical effacement? (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Cervical effacement is the shortening and thinning of the cervix. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Measurement of effacement is usually in percentages. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Certain signs and symptoms may indicate that cervical effacement has begun. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Cervical effacement often occurs after the head of the fetus drops lower into the pelvis. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- According to March of Dimes , Braxton-Hicks contractions may play a role in cervical effacement. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- A healthcare professional often performs a pelvic exam to measure cervical effacement. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The amount of time it takes for complete cervical effacement during labor varies greatly. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- For others, cervical effacement may occur slowly over several weeks. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The results indicated that by 8 cm dilated, 95% of the women had complete cervical effacement. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Changes in the extracellular matrix proteins leads to cervical effacement and is the result of an increase in glycosaminoglycans and loss in collagen cross-linking results in a decrease in the tensile strength of the cervix . (wikidoc.org)
- To evaluate the cost - effectiveness of combining cervical-length (CL) measurement and fetal fibronectin (fFN) testing in women with symptoms of preterm labor between 24 and 34 weeks' gestation . (bvsalud.org)
- Two further factors which clinicians normally consider are the length of cervix and levels of a biomarker found in vaginal fluid known as fetal fibronectin. (ogpnews.com)
- In the study, published in Obstetrics and Gynecology , researchers compared measurements of this new fetal fibronectin test in the vaginal fluid of women at 18 to 21 weeks of gestation with measurements made at 22-27 weeks of gestation, to see which time period offered the best prediction of spontaneous preterm birth. (ogpnews.com)
- The manual birth (PTB) rates, which of course, vary widely assessment of the cervical length is subjective among different populations studied because of and has a poor intra observer variability17. (who.int)
- 5. Cervical length and obstetric history predict spontaneous preterm birth: development and validation of a model to provide individualized risk assessment. (nih.gov)
- La determinación de la longitud cervical o del acortamiento del cuello del útero se utiliza para identificar y prevenir la dilatación cervical precoz y el PARTO PREMATURO. (bvsalud.org)
- Strategies using fFN testing and CL measurement separately to predict preterm delivery are associated with higher costs and incidence of adverse neonatal outcomes compared with strategies that combine both tests. (bvsalud.org)
- 1. Large loop excision of transformation zone and cervical length in the prediction of spontaneous preterm delivery. (nih.gov)
- 4. Predictive value of volume of cervical tissue removed during LLETZ on subsequent preterm delivery: a cohort study. (nih.gov)
- 15. First-trimester screening for spontaneous preterm delivery with maternal characteristics and cervical length. (nih.gov)
- 17. Cervical length at 18-22 weeks of gestation for prediction of spontaneous preterm delivery in Hong Kong Chinese women. (nih.gov)
- The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC) recommends offering serial ultrasound to assess cervical length to pregnant women whose history suggests a risk for cervical insufficiency (1 or 2 prior mid-trimester losses or extreme premature deliveries), but for whom cerclage is not considered or justified. (medscape.com)
- Biometric analysis involved measurements that include centrum height (CH), centrum width (CW), centrum length (CL), width of zygapophyses, and others. (palaeo-electronica.org)
- For a juvenile cervical of these proportions to develop into an elongate cervical comparable to those of Sauroposeidon , the length of the centrum would have to increase by more than 100% relative to its diameter. (svpow.com)
- C6 of Apatosaurus CM 555 - despite having an unfused neural arch and cervical ribs, the centrum proportions are about the same as in an adult. (svpow.com)
- This paper updates work toward the computer-assisted indexing of a collection of 17,000 digitized x-ray images of the cervical and lumbar spine by content of the images. (nih.gov)
- Examples of high-level features of interest to researchers in rheumatology include the presence and degree of anterior osteophytes, disc space narrowing, and subluxation in the cervical spine images. (nih.gov)
- Cervical Syndrome Tests - To help determine the nature of your leg length inequality or further damage which may be present in your spine. (connect33chiropractic.com)
- We take a three dimensional view of the upper cervical spine (where head rests on body) and take some additional views to help determine if further supportive care is necessary. (connect33chiropractic.com)
- Determinación de la longitud del CUELLO UTERINO, que suele usarse en la ECOGRAFÍA OBSTÉTRICA. (bvsalud.org)
- High-resolution ultrasonography allows the most important imaging signs of cervical incompetence to be determined. (medscape.com)
- See the ultrasound images below regarding cervical incompetence. (medscape.com)
- Anticipated clinical and technological improvements in 3-dimensional ultrasonography and MRI may hopefully depict those changes in the cervical connective structures that are responsible for incompetence. (medscape.com)
- A self-check of the cervix is not a substitute for a cervical exam by a healthcare professional, however. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- However, the consistency of the cervix (soft or firm), an important sign of cervical 'change' that is suggestive of impending miscarriage, can be assessed only digitally. (medscape.com)
- Ultrasound measurement of the cervix should be performed by a standardized method. (medscape.com)
- Cervical swabs were collected between 16 and 20 weeks of gestation. (nih.gov)
- Cervical length was measured per standard clinical care during a clinically indicated ultrasound at approximately 20 weeks of gestation. (nih.gov)
- 14. Cervical length at 23 weeks' gestation--relation to demographic characteristics and previous obstetric history in South African women. (nih.gov)
- After admission to the hospital, the patient experienced rapid cervical change and subsequently delivered a malformed fetus (Figures 1 and 2). (medscape.com)
- All of them had undergone cervical length measurement and cervical volume estimation at 19¿22 weeks. (unav.edu)
- Cost-effectiveness of diagnostic testing strategies including cervical-length measurement and fibronectin testing in women with symptoms of preterm labor. (bvsalud.org)
- This was a model-based cost-effectiveness analysis evaluating seven test- treatment strategies based on CL measurement and/or fFN testing in women with symptoms of preterm labor from a societal perspective, in which neonatal outcomes and costs were weighted. (bvsalud.org)
- The proportion of women at risk of PTB for cervical length measurements, which might is about 7% in France and 8% to 9% in Italy13. (who.int)
- 8. Follow-up cervical length in asymptomatic high-risk women and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth. (nih.gov)
- Measurements were similar for women, though smaller, and increased with increasing body mass index for both genders. (nih.gov)
- We found in males that the anterior depth of the esophagus increases from the cervical to the lower esophagus, 5 to 14 cm, while the posterior depth remains nearly constant, about 10 to 13 cm. (nih.gov)
- Combining cervical length with the biomarker test was found to improve the diagnostic accuracy further. (ogpnews.com)
- Quantitative measurements of the human anatomy for groups of patients are rare, making these data a unique resource of anatomical variations. (nih.gov)
- We are researching algorithms to segment anatomy in these images and to derive from the segmented data measurements useful for indexing this image set for characteristics important to researchers in rheumatology, bone morphometry, and related areas. (nih.gov)
- HN - 2008 BX - AFLP Analysis FX - Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length MH - Anatomists UI - D054814 MN - M1.526.485.133 MN - N2.360.133 MS - Those persons skilled in anatomy or dissection. (nih.gov)
- Comparisons to taxa whose ontogenetic development can be estimated suggest much more modest increases in length. (svpow.com)
- This improved prediction of the timing of delivery compared to cervical length measurement alone could be helpful to optimize care of patients-for example, to help determine place of care or administration of antenatal steroids. (nih.gov)
- Some factors increase the risk of PPROM such as cervical shortening or intra-amniotic infection . (wikidoc.org)
- We measured the esophagus length and position on Computed Tomography images of 30 female and 30 male patients. (nih.gov)
- The parameters assessed include the cervical length and the appearance of the internal os. (medscape.com)
- An alternative is to measure the length in cm. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Morphometric ratios [Vertebral Length Index (VLI), Height Index (HI), and Breadth Index (BI)] were plotted along the length of the vertebral column and on bivariate graphs where the analysis is independent of vertebral position and correct sequencing. (palaeo-electronica.org)
- These ratios represent an increase in length relative to diameter of 30 to 50% over the juvenile Camarasaurus . (svpow.com)
- Our study shows an increase in cervical length with gestational age. (who.int)
- 6. Impact of past obstetric history and cervical excision on preterm birth rate. (nih.gov)
- We did not observe differences in the mean cervical volume between term delivery (37.37 cm3, 95% CI: 34.59¿40.14) and those who had post-term delivery (38.06 cm3, 95% CI: 33.34¿42.77) (p = 0.788). (unav.edu)
- Cervical length or its shortening is used to identify and prevent early cervical opening and PRETERM BIRTH . (nih.gov)
- Supine Leg Length Inequality - A non-gravitational spinal balance test which helps determine if there's tension on the spinal cord. (connect33chiropractic.com)
- Standing Laser Hip Caliper Measurement - A gravitational spinal balance test which also helps determine if there's tension on the spinal cord. (connect33chiropractic.com)
- Carestream's desktop CARESTREAM Vita CR Systems or DRX-1 combined with Image Suite Software provide a streamlined workflow and equip clinics with automated tools that can enhance the speed and simplicity of performing measurements. (carestream.com)
- Added to the accuracy of skin temperature measurement, there's no messy urine strips, no confusing charts with multiple parameters, and no need to remember to test. (ovusense.com)
- The YBT-UQ was executed assessing medial, inferolateral and superolateral reach directions normalized to the upper limb length together with a composite score. (frontiersin.org)
- 3. Sequential cervical length screening in pregnancies after loop excision of the transformation zone conisation: a retrospective analysis. (nih.gov)
- use AMANITINS 1980-2007 FX - Mushroom Poisoning MH - Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis UI - D054458 MN - E5.393.290.382 MN - E5.393.620.500.324 MS - The detection of RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISMS by selective PCR amplification of restriction fragments derived from genomic DNA followed by electrophoretic analysis of the amplified restriction fragments. (nih.gov)