A parameter usually used in PRENATAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY to measure the length of the uterine neck (CERVIX UTERI). Cervical length or its shortening is used to identify and prevent early cervical opening and PRETERM BIRTH.
The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.
Onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR before term (TERM BIRTH) but usually after the FETUS has become viable. In humans, it occurs sometime during the 29th through 38th week of PREGNANCY. TOCOLYSIS inhibits premature labor and can prevent the BIRTH of premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE).
A change in the CERVIX UTERI with respect to its readiness to relax. The cervix normally becomes softer, more flexible, more distensible, and shorter in the final weeks of PREGNANCY. These cervical changes can also be chemically induced (LABOR, INDUCED).
The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.
CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).
The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.
The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Two individuals derived from two FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother. Twins are either monozygotic (TWINS, MONOZYGOTIC) or dizygotic (TWINS, DIZYGOTIC).
Incompetent UTERINE CERVIX is usually diagnosed in the second trimester of PREGNANCY. It is characterized by passive painless cervical dilation in the absence of UTERINE CONTRACTION; BLEEDING; INFECTION; and sometimes with the amniotic sac (AMNIOTIC MEMBRANE) bulging through the partially dilated cervix. Left untreated, this condition may lead to premature pregnancy loss, such as HABITUAL ABORTION.
The surgical closure of the incompetent cervix uteri with suture material.
A term used to describe pregnancies that exceed the upper limit of a normal gestational period. In humans, a prolonged pregnancy is defined as one that extends beyond 42 weeks (294 days) after the first day of the last menstrual period (MENSTRUATION), or birth with gestational age of 41 weeks or more.
The distance between the anterior and posterior poles of the eye, measured either by ULTRASONOGRAPHY or by partial coherence interferometry.
Artificially induced UTERINE CONTRACTION. Generally, LABOR, OBSTETRIC is induced with the intent to cause delivery of the fetus and termination of pregnancy.
The beginning of true OBSTETRIC LABOR which is characterized by the cyclic uterine contractions of increasing frequency, duration, and strength causing CERVICAL DILATATION to begin (LABOR STAGE, FIRST ).
Either one of the two small elongated rectangular bones that together form the bridge of the nose.
Measurement of distances or movements by means of the phenomena caused by the interference of two rays of light (optical interferometry) or of sound (acoustic interferometry).
The number of pregnancies, complete or incomplete, experienced by a female. It is different from PARITY, which is the number of offspring borne. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Pregnancy in which the mother and/or FETUS are at greater than normal risk of MORBIDITY or MORTALITY. Causes include inadequate PRENATAL CARE, previous obstetrical history (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS), pre-existing maternal disease, pregnancy-induced disease (GESTATIONAL HYPERTENSION), and MULTIPLE PREGNANCY, as well as advanced maternal age above 35.
The use of statistical and mathematical methods to analyze biological observations and phenomena.
In utero measurement corresponding to the sitting height (crown to rump) of the fetus. Length is considered a more accurate criterion of the age of the fetus than is the weight. The average crown-rump length of the fetus at term is 36 cm. (From Williams Obstetrics, 18th ed, p91)
Any drug treatment modality designed to inhibit UTERINE CONTRACTION. It is used in pregnant women to arrest PREMATURE LABOR.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
UTERINE BLEEDING from a GESTATION of less than 20 weeks without any CERVICAL DILATATION. It is characterized by vaginal bleeding, lower back discomfort, or midline pelvic cramping and a risk factor for MISCARRIAGE.
The beginning third of a human PREGNANCY, from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (MENSTRUATION) through the completion of 14 weeks (98 days) of gestation.
Maintenance of TELOMERE length. During DNA REPLICATION, chromosome ends loose some of their telomere sequence (TELOMERE SHORTENING.) Various cellular mechanism are involved in repairing, extending, and recapping the telomere ends.
The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).
A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
The condition of carrying two or more FETUSES simultaneously.
Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.
Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
The loss of some TELOMERE sequence during DNA REPLICATION of the first several base pairs of a linear DNA molecule; or from DNA DAMAGE. Cells have various mechanisms to restore length (TELOMERE HOMEOSTASIS.) Telomere shortening is involved in the progression of CELL AGING.
Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Spontaneous tearing of the membranes surrounding the FETUS any time before the onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR. Preterm PROM is membrane rupture before 37 weeks of GESTATION.
Metabolites or derivatives of PROGESTERONE with hydroxyl group substitution at various sites.
Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Three individuals derived from three FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother.
A condition of abnormally high AMNIOTIC FLUID volume, such as greater than 2,000 ml in the LAST TRIMESTER and usually diagnosed by ultrasonographic criteria (AMNIOTIC FLUID INDEX). It is associated with maternal DIABETES MELLITUS; MULTIPLE PREGNANCY; CHROMOSOMAL DISORDERS; and congenital abnormalities.
The space in the eye, filled with aqueous humor, bounded anteriorly by the cornea and a small portion of the sclera and posteriorly by a small portion of the ciliary body, the iris, and that part of the crystalline lens which presents through the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p109)
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
Period from the onset of true OBSTETRIC LABOR to the complete dilatation of the CERVIX UTERI.
Contraction of the UTERINE MUSCLE.
Devices worn in the vagina to provide support to displaced uterus or rectum. Pessaries are used in conditions such as UTERINE PROLAPSE; CYSTOCELE; or RECTOCELE.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.
Percutaneous transabdominal puncture of the uterus during pregnancy to obtain amniotic fluid. It is commonly used for fetal karyotype determination in order to diagnose abnormal fetal conditions.

Transvaginal ultrasound measurement of cervical length and efficacy of misoprostol in first-trimester pregnancy failure. (1/53)

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the role of cervical length measurement in predicting successful treatment, by misoprostol administration, of early (first-trimester) pregnancy failure. METHOD: A prospective study was conducted of all patients who agreed to medical treatment of pregnancy failure. Cervical length and other sonographic variables were measured using pelvic ultrasound before medical treatment began. Measurements were compared between the group with successful medical treatment and the group in whom treatment failed. RESULTS: In 125 women included in the study, the success rate of misoprostol treatment was 64.8%. There were no significant differences between the groups with successful and failed treatment for cervical length (29.9 +/- 9.3 vs. 30.4 +/- 6.8 mm, P = 0.75), distance between gestational sac and 'virtual' cervical internal os (23.9 +/- 13 vs. 26.6 +/- 13 mm, P = 0.26), crown-rump length (8.7 +/- 9.7 vs. 6.7 +/- 8.6 mm, P = 0.25), or gestational sac diameter (31.3 +/- 14 vs. 30.1 +/- 15 mm, P = 0.73). CONCLUSION: Cervical length does not predict the success of misoprostol treatment of first-trimester pregnancy failure.  (+info)

Ultrasound assessment of cervical length in prolonged pregnancy: prediction of spontaneous onset of labor and successful vaginal delivery. (2/53)


Cervical length as a predictor of preterm delivery: gestational age-related percentiles vs fixed cut-offs. (3/53)

BACKGROUND: To determine whether preterm delivery is more effectively predicted by sonographic cervical length measurement using fixed cut-off or gestational age-specific percentiles. METHODS: One hundred and eight patients hospitalized for suspected preterm labor (PTL) were studied prospectively between the 20th and the 33rd week of gestation. RESULTS: Cervical length below 15 mm, 25 mm and the 2.5th centile showed substantially equivalent odds ratios for delivery within 7 days (7.5, 7.6, and 7.1, respectively), while for delivery before the 34th week the odds ratios varied between 3.6 with cervical length <2.5rh centile and 6.2 with cervical length <25 mm. Moreover, the negative predictive value for delivery within 7 days exceeded 90% when cervical length was above 25 mm, the 10th and the 2.5th percentile, and 85% when above 15 mm. CONCLUSION: The comparison of fixed and gestational age-specific cut-offs demonstrates a better reliability of fixed cut-offs (15 or 25 mm) in predicting preterm delivery, both before 34 weeks and within 7 days of the ultrasound examination.  (+info)

Cervical length at mid-pregnancy and the risk of primary cesarean delivery. (4/53)


Selective use of sonographic cervical length measurement for predicting imminent preterm delivery in women with preterm labor and intact membranes. (5/53)


Sonographic longitudinal cervical length measurements in nulliparous women at term: prediction of spontaneous onset of labor. (6/53)


Cervical length and maternal factors in expectantly managed prolonged pregnancy: prediction of onset of labor and mode of delivery. (7/53)


Transperineal versus transvaginal sonographic cervical length measurement in second- and third-trimester pregnancies. (8/53)


Premature labor can be classified into several types based on the duration of labor:

1. Preterm contractions: These are contractions that occur before 37 weeks of gestation but do not lead to delivery.
2. Preterm labor with cervical dilation: This is when the cervix begins to dilate before 37 weeks of gestation.
3. Premature rupture of membranes (PROM): This is when the amniotic sac surrounding the fetus ruptures before 37 weeks of gestation, which can lead to infection and preterm labor.

Signs and symptoms of premature obstetric labor may include:

1. Contractions that occur more frequently than every 10 minutes
2. Strong, regular contractions that last for at least 60 seconds
3. Cervical dilation or effacement (thinning)
4. Rupture of membranes (water breaking)
5. Decrease in fetal movement
6. Pelvic pressure or discomfort
7. Abdominal cramping or back pain

Premature obstetric labor can lead to several complications for both the mother and the baby, including:

1. Preterm birth: This is the most common complication of premature labor, which can increase the risk of health problems in the baby such as respiratory distress syndrome, intraventricular hemorrhage, and necrotizing enterocolitis.
2. Increased risk of cesarean delivery
3. Maternal infection: Premature labor can increase the risk of infection, such as group B strep or urinary tract infections.
4. Maternal complications: Premature labor can lead to complications such as placental abruption (separation of the placenta from the uterus), preeclampsia (high blood pressure), and HELLP syndrome (hemolytic anemia, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count).
5. Fetal distress: Premature labor can lead to fetal distress, which can result in long-term health problems for the baby.
6. Intensive care unit admission: Preterm babies may require intensive care unit admission, which can be stressful and expensive.

To manage premature labor, healthcare providers may recommend the following:

1. Bed rest or hospitalization: Rest and monitoring in a hospital setting may be recommended to prevent further premature contractions.
2. Tocolytic medications: These medications can help slow down or stop contractions.
3. Corticosteroids: These medications can help mature the fetal lungs, reducing the risk of respiratory distress syndrome.
4. Planned delivery: If premature labor cannot be halted, a planned delivery may be necessary to ensure the best possible outcome for both the mother and the baby.
5. Close monitoring: Regular monitoring of the mother and baby is crucial to detect any complications early on and provide appropriate treatment.
6. Supportive care: Premature babies may require oxygen therapy, incubators, and other supportive care to help them survive and thrive.

In summary, premature labor can be a serious condition that requires close monitoring and prompt medical intervention to prevent complications for both the mother and the baby. Understanding the signs of premature labor and seeking immediate medical attention if they occur can help improve outcomes.

Premature birth can be classified into several categories based on gestational age at birth:

1. Extreme prematurity: Born before 24 weeks of gestation.
2. Very preterm: Born between 24-27 weeks of gestation.
3. Moderate to severe preterm: Born between 28-32 weeks of gestation.
4. Late preterm: Born between 34-36 weeks of gestation.

The causes of premature birth are not fully understood, but several factors have been identified as increasing the risk of premature birth. These include:

1. Previous premature birth
2. Multiple gestations (twins, triplets etc.)
3. History of cervical surgery or cervical incompetence
4. Chronic medical conditions such as hypertension and diabetes
5. Infections such as group B strep or urinary tract infections
6. Pregnancy-related complications such as preeclampsia and placenta previa
7. Stress and poor social support
8. Smoking, alcohol and drug use during pregnancy
9. Poor nutrition and lack of prenatal care.

Premature birth can have significant short-term and long-term health consequences for the baby, including respiratory distress syndrome, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, intraventricular hemorrhage, retinopathy of prematurity and necrotizing enterocolitis. Children who are born prematurely may also have developmental delays, learning disabilities and behavioral problems later in life.

There is no single test that can predict premature birth with certainty, but several screening tests are available to identify women at risk. These include ultrasound examination, maternal serum screening for estriol and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A), and cervical length measurement.

While there is no proven way to prevent premature birth entirely, several strategies have been shown to reduce the risk, including:

1. Progesterone supplementation: Progesterone appears to help prevent preterm labor in some women with a history of previous preterm birth or other risk factors.
2. Corticosteroids: Corticosteroids given to mothers at risk of preterm birth can help mature the baby's lungs and reduce the risk of respiratory distress syndrome.
3. Calcium supplementation: Calcium may help improve fetal bone development and reduce the risk of premature birth.
4. Good prenatal care: Regular prenatal check-ups, proper nutrition and avoiding smoking, alcohol and drug use during pregnancy can help reduce the risk of premature birth.
5. Avoiding stress: Stress can increase the risk of premature birth, so finding ways to manage stress during pregnancy is important.
6. Preventing infections: Infections such as group B strep and urinary tract infections can increase the risk of premature birth, so it's important to take steps to prevent them.
7. Maintaining a healthy weight gain during pregnancy: Excessive weight gain during pregnancy can increase the risk of premature birth.
8. Avoiding preterm contractions: Preterm contractions can be a sign of impending preterm labor, so it's important to be aware of them and seek medical attention if they occur.
9. Prolonged gestation: Prolonging pregnancy beyond 37 weeks may reduce the risk of premature birth.
10. Cervical cerclage: A cervical cerclage is a stitch used to close the cervix and prevent preterm birth in women with a short cervix or other risk factors.

It's important to note that not all of these strategies will be appropriate or effective for every woman, so it's important to discuss your individual risk factors and any concerns you may have with your healthcare provider.

First Trimester Exams

The first trimester is a critical period in pregnancy, as most miscarriages occur during this time. To evaluate the health of the pregnancy and detect any potential problems early on, healthcare providers typically perform several exams and tests during the first trimester. These may include:

1. Ultrasound: This painless test uses high-frequency sound waves to create images of the fetus and placenta, allowing healthcare providers to assess fetal development, check for any physical abnormalities, and calculate the due date.
2. Blood tests: These can detect certain conditions such as anemia, diabetes, and thyroid disorders that may affect the pregnancy. They can also screen for genetic disorders like Down syndrome.
3. Pelvic exam: This involves checking the shape and position of the uterus and cervix, as well as assessing the condition of the vaginal tissues.
4. Cervical length measurement: This can help determine if the cervix is shortening too early, which may be an indication of incompetence or preterm labor.
5. Hormone level testing: These can measure the levels of certain hormones such as estriol and progesterone, which are important for maintaining a healthy pregnancy.

Early Detection and Prevention of Uterine Cervical Incompetence

While there is no guaranteed way to prevent uterine cervical incompetence entirely, early detection can improve the chances of a successful pregnancy. Healthcare providers may recommend the following to help reduce the risk of incompetence:

1. Regular prenatal care: This includes regular check-ups with a healthcare provider, who can monitor the progress of the pregnancy and detect any potential complications early on.
2. Progesterone supplementation: Some studies suggest that progesterone may help prevent incompetence by supporting the cervix and maintaining its strength.
3. Cervical cerclage: This is a surgical procedure where stitches are placed around the cervix to help hold it closed and prevent preterm labor. It may be recommended for women who have had a previous preterm birth or other risk factors for incompetence.
4. Vaginal progesterone: Some studies suggest that using vaginal progesterone suppositories or creams may also help reduce the risk of incompetence.
5. Lifestyle modifications: Maintaining a healthy weight, avoiding smoking and alcohol, and managing stress can all help reduce the risk of complications during pregnancy.


Uterine cervical incompetence is a common condition that can lead to preterm labor and delivery. While there is no cure for incompetence, there are several risk reduction strategies that women can use to reduce their risk of experiencing complications during pregnancy. These include regular prenatal care, progesterone supplementation, cervical cerclage, vaginal progesterone, and lifestyle modifications. By working with a healthcare provider to develop a personalized plan for reducing the risk of incompetence, women can help ensure a healthy pregnancy and delivery.

Prolonged pregnancy can increase the risk of complications for both the mother and the baby. Some potential risks include:

1. Preterm labor: As the pregnancy extends beyond 42 weeks, the risk of preterm labor increases, which can lead to premature birth and related health issues.
2. Gestational diabetes: Prolonged pregnancy can increase the risk of developing gestational diabetes, a type of diabetes that develops during pregnancy.
3. Hypertension: Prolonged pregnancy can lead to high blood pressure, which can be dangerous for both the mother and the baby.
4. Preeclampsia: This is a condition characterized by high blood pressure, swelling, and protein in the urine, which can be life-threatening for both the mother and the baby.
5. Placenta previa: This is a condition where the placenta covers the cervix, which can cause bleeding and other complications.
6. Fetal growth restriction: The baby may not grow at a normal rate, leading to low birth weight and other health issues.
7. Stillbirth: In rare cases, prolonged pregnancy can increase the risk of stillbirth.

To monitor the progression of a prolonged pregnancy, healthcare providers may use various techniques such as ultrasound, non-stress tests, and biophysical profiles to assess fetal well-being and determine if delivery is necessary. In some cases, labor may be induced or cesarean section may be performed to avoid potential complications.

Prolonged pregnancy can be a challenging and stressful experience for expectant mothers, but with proper medical care and monitoring, the risks can be minimized, and a healthy baby can be delivered safely.

Threatened abortion refers to a pregnancy that is at risk of ending prematurely, either due to complications or circumstances that could potentially harm the developing fetus or the mother. In this situation, the pregnancy is not yet fully developed, and the fetus may not have formed fully. Threatened abortion can occur in any trimester of pregnancy and can be caused by various factors.

Types of Threatened Abortion:

There are different types of threatened abortion, including:

1. Threatened miscarriage: This occurs when the pregnancy is at risk of ending prematurely due to complications such as bleeding, cramping, or spotting.
2. Threatened ectopic pregnancy: This occurs when the fertilized egg implants outside the uterus, often in the fallopian tube.
3. Threatened molar pregnancy: This occurs when a non-viable mass of cells develops in the uterus instead of a normal fetus.
4. Threatened hydatidiform mole: This is a type of molar pregnancy that occurs when the fertilized egg does not properly divide and forms a mass of cells that can be benign or malignant.

Causes of Threatened Abortion:

Threatened abortion can be caused by various factors, including:

1. Hormonal changes: Fluctuations in hormone levels can affect the development of the fertilized egg and increase the risk of threatened abortion.
2. Infections: Bacterial or viral infections can cause inflammation in the uterus and increase the risk of threatened abortion.
3. Uterine abnormalities: Structural problems with the uterus, such as fibroids or polyps, can increase the risk of threatened abortion.
4. Trauma: Physical trauma, such as a fall or a car accident, can cause the pregnancy to become threatened.
5. Maternal medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as diabetes or hypertension, can increase the risk of threatened abortion.
6. Smoking and drug use: Smoking and using drugs can increase the risk of threatened abortion by reducing blood flow to the developing fetus.
7. Poor prenatal care: Lack of proper prenatal care can increase the risk of threatened abortion by not detecting potential complications early on.

Signs and Symptoms of Threatened Abortion:

The signs and symptoms of threatened abortion can vary depending on the individual, but they may include:

1. Vaginal bleeding: This is the most common sign of threatened abortion and can range from light spotting to heavy bleeding.
2. Cramping: Women may experience mild to severe cramps in the lower abdomen.
3. Passing tissue or clots: Women may pass tissue or clots through the vagina, which can be a sign of a threatened abortion.
4. Decreased fetal movement: If the fetus is not developing properly, women may notice a decrease in fetal movement.
5. Premature contractions: Women may experience premature contractions, which can indicate a threatened abortion.
6. Cervical dilation: The cervix may begin to dilate before labor, which can be a sign of a threatened abortion.
7. Changes in vaginal discharge: Women may notice changes in their vaginal discharge, such as an increase in amount or a change in color or consistency.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Threatened Abortion:

If you suspect that you are experiencing a threatened abortion, it is essential to seek medical attention immediately. Your healthcare provider will perform a physical examination and may order additional tests, such as an ultrasound or blood tests, to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment for a threatened abortion depends on the underlying cause and the stage of pregnancy. Your healthcare provider may recommend:

1. Bed rest: Women who are experiencing a threatened abortion may be advised to rest in bed and avoid strenuous activities.
2. Medication: In some cases, medication may be prescribed to help prevent the abortion from occurring.
3. Corticosteroids: If the fetus is not developing properly, corticosteroids may be given to help mature the fetus's lungs and other organs.
4. Antibiotics: If an infection is suspected, antibiotics may be prescribed to prevent or treat the infection.
5. Hospitalization: In severe cases, women may require hospitalization to monitor their condition and receive appropriate treatment.
6. Surgical intervention: In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to remove the fetus or repair any damage to the uterus.

Prevention of Threatened Abortion:

While some cases of threatened abortion cannot be prevented, there are steps that women can take to reduce their risk. These include:

1. Practicing good prenatal care: Regular check-ups with a healthcare provider can help identify any potential issues early on and prevent complications.
2. Avoiding harmful substances: Smoking, drug use, and excessive alcohol consumption can increase the risk of threatened abortion.
3. Maintaining a healthy diet: Eating a balanced diet that is rich in essential nutrients can help support fetal development and reduce the risk of complications.
4. Managing chronic medical conditions: Women with conditions like diabetes, hypertension, or thyroid disorders should work closely with their healthcare provider to manage their condition and prevent any complications.
5. Avoiding stress: High levels of stress can increase the risk of threatened abortion. Engaging in stress-reducing activities, such as exercise, meditation, or therapy, can help reduce stress and promote a healthy pregnancy.
6. Getting regular ultrasounds: Regular ultrasounds can help monitor fetal development and identify any potential issues early on.

In conclusion, threatened abortion is a serious condition that requires prompt medical attention. While some cases cannot be prevented, women can take steps to reduce their risk by practicing good prenatal care, avoiding harmful substances, maintaining a healthy diet, managing chronic medical conditions, avoiding stress, and getting regular ultrasounds. With appropriate treatment, many women who experience threatened abortion can go on to have a healthy pregnancy and a healthy baby.

Premature rupture of fetal membranes is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, ultrasound, and laboratory tests. Treatment options for PROM include:

1. Expectant management: In this approach, the woman is monitored closely without immediately inducing labor. This option is usually chosen if the baby is not yet ready to be born and the mother has no signs of infection or preterm labor.
2. Induction of labor: If the baby is mature enough to be born, labor may be induced to avoid the risks associated with preterm birth.
3. Cesarean delivery: In some cases, a cesarean section may be performed if the woman has signs of infection or if the baby is in distress.
4. Antibiotics: If the PROM is caused by an infection, antibiotics may be given to treat the infection and prevent complications.
5. Steroids: If the baby is less than 24 hours old, steroids may be given to help mature the lungs and reduce the risk of respiratory distress syndrome.

Prevention of premature rupture of fetal membranes includes good prenatal care, avoiding activities that can cause trauma to the abdomen, and avoiding infections such as group B strep. Early detection and management of PROM are crucial to prevent complications for the baby.

Causes of Polyhydramnios:

There are several possible causes of polyhydramnios, including:

1. Chromosomal abnormalities: Genetic disorders such as Down syndrome can cause an excessive amount of amniotic fluid.
2. Maternal diabetes: Diabetes in the mother can cause an imbalance in the placenta and lead to polyhydramnios.
3. Previous stillbirth: Women who have had a previous stillbirth are at higher risk for developing polyhydramnios in subsequent pregnancies.
4. Fetal anomalies: Abnormalities in the fetus, such as heart or spinal cord defects, can cause an accumulation of amniotic fluid.
5. Maternal hypertension: High blood pressure in the mother can lead to polyhydramnios.
6. Preeclampsia: This is a condition that causes high blood pressure and damage to organs such as the liver and kidneys.
7. Urinary tract infections: Infections in the urinary tract can cause an excessive amount of amniotic fluid.
8. Maternal obesity: Obese women are at higher risk for developing polyhydramnios due to their increased body mass index (BMI).

Symptoms of Polyhydramnios:

Polyhydramnios can cause a range of symptoms, including:

1. Enlarged uterus: The uterus may become enlarged due to the excessive amount of amniotic fluid.
2. Abdominal pain: Women with polyhydramnios may experience abdominal pain and discomfort.
3. Increased urination: Drinking more water may be necessary to accommodate the excessive amount of amniotic fluid.
4. Pressure on the bladder: The excessive fluid can put pressure on the bladder, leading to frequent urination and discomfort.
5. Difficulty breathing: In severe cases, the excessive fluid can put pressure on the lungs, making it difficult to breathe.
6. Premature labor: Polyhydramnios can increase the risk of premature labor.
7. Preterm rupture of membranes (PROM): The amniotic sac may rupture before 37 weeks of gestation, leading to preterm labor and delivery.
8. Fetal distress: The excessive fluid can cause fetal distress, which can lead to complications during delivery.

Treatment of Polyhydramnios:

Treatment for polyhydramnios depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. Some possible treatments include:

1. Bed rest or hospitalization: Women with polyhydramnios may be advised to rest in bed or be hospitalized to monitor the condition and prevent complications.
2. Diuretics: Medications that increase urine production can help reduce the amount of amniotic fluid.
3. Amnioreduction: A procedure in which a needle is inserted into the uterus to remove excess amniotic fluid.
4. Induction of labor: In severe cases, labor may be induced to prevent complications.
5. Cesarean section: If the condition is not resolved with other treatments, a cesarean section may be necessary to deliver the baby safely.

In conclusion, polyhydramnios is a condition characterized by an excessive amount of amniotic fluid during pregnancy. It can cause discomfort, difficulty breathing, and increase the risk of complications such as premature labor and preterm rupture of membranes. Treatment options include bed rest, diuretics, amnioreduction, induction of labor, and cesarean section. If you suspect you have polyhydramnios, it is essential to consult with your healthcare provider for proper diagnosis and treatment.

... just over half the length of the entire nose-to-tail measurement of the animal. Unlike the forelimbs, both hind limbs are ... Thin, pointed cervical ribs begin at the third vertebra. The longest are about 50 mm and total eleven in number. Gastralia, or ... The proximal five pairs are 60 mm in length, and increase strongly in size until reaching a maximum length of 120 mm at the ... and another ten or eleven pairs of tail feathers with lengths up to 87 mm, which decrease in length up to the terminal vertebra ...
Tsoi E, Akmal S, Geerts L, Jeffery B, Nicolaides KH (2006). "Sonographic measurement of cervical length and fetal fibronectin ... Tsoi E, Akmal S, Geerts L, Jeffery B, Nicolaides KH (2006). "Sonographic measurement of cervical length and fetal fibronectin ...
Little anatomical information can be gleaned from the two fragmentary cervical vertebrae aside from some measurements. Only the ... Neither tooth is strongly twisted along its length as in the upper teeth of brachiosaurids. A total of four cervical vertebrae ... the two poorly preserved cervical vertebrae were articulated when found and belong to a more anterior part of the cervical ... The cervical ribs are pendant, extending ventrally for a distance subequal to the height of the centrum, as in several other ...
Comparison of a novel test for placental alpha microglobulin-1 with fetal fibronectin and cervical length measurement for the ... In one investigation comparing this test to fetal fibronectin testing and cervical length measurement via transvaginal ... A cervical length of less than 25 mm at or before 24 weeks of gestational age is the most common definition of cervical ... A short cervix is one that is less than 25mm, as detected during a transvaginal cervical length assessment in the midtrimester ...
... and the fourteenth cervical is quite similar overall. 63 cm (25 in) is the total measurement of the 14th cervical's centrum, ... As of the original description, the thirteenth cervical was only prepared on the lateroventral portion. The length of the ... with the first and second dorsals similar in anatomy to the last and second-last cervical. The dorsal vary in length from the ... Apparently cervical 15 was lost during the excavation and removal of the holotype and only specimen of Dinheirosaurus. ...
... including cervical length measurement and fibronectin testing. Reassuringly, our study suggests that progesterone is safe for ... In these women, if the transvaginal ultrasound cervical length shortens to < 24 weeks, cervical cerclage may be offered. In the ... myometrial activity with progesterone in vitro but no effect or increased myometrial activity with OHPC Prevention of cervical ...
"Cervical length and dilatation of the internal cervical os detected by vaginal ultrasonography as markers for preterm delivery ... and number Identification of the embryo and/or yolk sac Measurement of fetal length (known as the crown-rump length) Fetal ... The most accurate measurement for dating is the crown-rump length of the fetus, which can be done between 7 and 13 weeks of ... Cervical measurement on ultrasound also has been helpful to use ultrasonography in patients with preterm contractions, as those ...
... as is the measurement of cervical length, is its high negative predictive value; its prognostic capacity increases in ... cervical length measurement via transvaginal ultrasound] with respect to SP specificity and PPV positive predictive value (P < ... and cervical length measurement via transvaginal ultrasound (CL, n=203) for predicting imminent spontaneous preterm birth ... "Comparison of a novel test for placental alpha microglobulin-1 with fetal fibronectin and cervical length measurement for the ...
... by measurement of cervical length and prevention through the use of vaginal progesterone, (ii) screening for pre-eclampsia ( ... which is one of the main causes of maternal mortality) by measurement of blood flow to the uterus by Doppler and measurement of ... methods of early screening for chromosomal abnormalities through the measurement of nuchal translucency, and spina bifida ...
Cervical length is also significant in pregnancy and shorter or shortening length can increase chances of preterm labour and ... including sheer wave speed measurement, can be used as a method of distinguishing between normal and abnormal softening. ... "Cervical length: Why does it matter during pregnancy? - Mayo Clinic". www.mayoclinic.org. Retrieved 2018-11-07. Badir S, Mazza ... Abnormal softening of the cervix can also occur in pregnancy, so testing for abnormalities of uterine cervical softening, ...
... tarsus I 0.14 mm in length, tarsus IV 0.14 mm in length Nymphs are very active and attach to another host on average 5-6 days ( ... Cervical grooves well defined but short. Emargination moderate. Scapulae blunt. Genital aperture: On a level with coxa IV, but ... Diagnosis: Body measurements less than 3.0 × 2.5 mm; lateral grooves completely encircling conscutum, no lateral carinae; ... Capitulum: Length 1.00-1.035 mm. Basis dorsally 0.60-0.68 mm in width, the lateral submarginal fields swollen and frequently ...
... and the length and depth of the cervical vertebrae. Most of these features are typical for Pterodactylus or are known to vary ... Pterosaur expert Christopher Bennett noted that some allegedly diagnostic kochi anatomy actually reflected measurement errors ...
These ligaments connect the laminae of adjacent vertebra along the length of the spine from the level of the second cervical ... Physiological Measurement. 35 (12): 2415-2428. Bibcode:2014PhyM...35.2415G. doi:10.1088/0967-3334/35/12/2415. PMID 25391037. ... All mammals except manatees and sloths have seven cervical vertebrae, whatever the length of the neck. This includes seemingly ... There are seven cervical vertebrae (but eight cervical spinal nerves), designated C1 through C7. These bones are, in general, ...
Drumm JE, Clinch J, Mackenzie G (1976). "The ultrasonic measurement of fetal crown-rump length as a method assessing ... Further analysis by this same group involved the CNS up to the medulla at 2nd cervical vertebral level. The process of ... For decades, the topic of question pertaining to crown-rump length (CR), crown-heel length (CH), head circumference (HC) with ... "Anthropometric measurements". Thl.fi. Retrieved 2016-11-23. Bruce Cogill (March 2003). "Anthropometric Indicators Measurement ...
... it is suggested that Postosuchus may have reached lengths of 5-7 m (16-23 ft) long and even more based on a complete cervical ... The extreme shortness of the forelimbs relative to the hind limbs, the very small hands, and measurements of the vertebrae ... Adults reached around 1.2 m (3.9 ft) in height, 5 m (16 ft) in length from snout to tail tip and their mass might have ranged ... It was 55 cm in length and 21 cm broad and deep. There are many fenestrae (openings) present in the bones that lighten the ...
For example: jeans label stating inner leg length of the jeans in centimetres or inches (not inner leg measurement of the ... girth girth of the neck measured with the tape measure passed 2 cm below the Adam's apple and at the level of the 7th cervical ... length of the body measured in a straight line from the crown of the head to the soles of the feet) inside leg length distance ... There are three approaches for size-labelling of clothes: Body dimensions The label states the range of body measurements for ...
... measurements of morphological parameters (e.g., limb length). Virtual palpation alone is useful to quantify individual ... It is used, for example, in the staging of cervical cancer. Physical examination Inspection (medicine) Percussion (medicine) ... Quantitative palpation of anatomical landmarks for measurements must occur according to strict protocols if one wishes to ... achieve reproducible measurements. Palpation protocols are usually based on well-described definitions for the location of ...
Multiview videofluoroscopy is a radiographic technique to view the length and movement of the velum (soft palate) and the ... Nasometry is useful in the evaluation of hypernasality because it provides objective measurements of the function of the ... Causes include a history of cleft palate, adenoidectomy, irregular adenoids, cervical spine anomalies, or oral/pharyngeal tumor ...
Kim, K. S.; Lim, Y. J.; Kim, M. J.; Kwon, H. B.; Yang, J. H.; Lee, J. B.; Yim, S. H. (2011). "Variation in the total lengths of ... Nher, H; Lamminger, C; Zimmermann, J; Petzoldt, D (1991). "The value of symptoms and clinical findings in cervical Chlamydia ... "Comparison of torque measurements and clinical handling of various surgical motors". The International Journal of Oral & ... Because steam sterilization processes like an autoclave are applied to the dental torque wrenches and the length of time in use ...
One study of 147 fetuses (49 normal, 98 with abnormalities) found that a simple measurement, the ratio of chest length to trunk ... Yoshimura S, Masuzaki H, Miura K, Hayashi H, Gotoh H, Ishimaru T (July 1997). "The effects of oligohydramnios and cervical cord ... measurement of the chest/trunk-length ratio in fetuses". Pediatric Surgery International. 19 (3): 172-5. doi:10.1007/s00383-002 ... Large masses of the neck (such as cervical teratoma) also can cause pulmonary hypoplasia, presumably by interfering with the ...
The length of time the scans take can also be an issue, with CT being far quicker. It is also ruled out in patients for whom ... Blatter, D D; Bahr, A L; Parker, D L; Robison, R O; Kimball, J A; Perry, D M; Horn, S (December 1993). "Cervical carotid MR ... PC-MRA has fewer difficulties with slow flow than TOF-MRA and also allows quantitative measurements of flow. PC-MRA shows low ... Bryant, D. J. (August 1984). "Measurement of Flow with NMR Imaging Using a Gradient Pulse and Phase Difference Technique" (PDF ...
At only 15.4 to 18.8 cm long, the tibia was barely half the length of the femur. This is typical for mylodonts and a clear ... The joints for articulation with the cervical spine were prominent and clearly separated. At the base of the skull, the wing ... depending on the measurement methodology. Finds of the genus include several skulls and additional postcranial skeletal ... The third metacarpal reached up to 7.2 cm in length and in some cases was fused to the capitate bone. The second and first ...
These measurements were performed in supine position, thus minimizing peripheral feedback. Subsequent studies showed that these ... Goslow GE Jr.; Reinking RM; Stuart DG (1973). "The cat step cycle: hind limb joint angles and muscle lengths during ... The subject was a 37-year-old male who suffered an injury to the cervical spinal cord 17 years prior. After initial total ... The activated muscles resist stretch through their own intrinsic biomechanical properties, providing a rapid form of length and ...
... since legs are often of unequal length, and measurements in the prone position are not entirely valid estimates of standing X- ... Eriksen K. Upper Cervical Subluxation Complex. A review of the chiropractic and medical literature. LWW, 2004; p. vii Fuhr, ... If the leg lengths are not the same, that is taken as a sign that the problem is located at that vertebra. The chiropractor ... Measurements in the standing position are far more reliable. Another confounding factor is that simply moving the two legs held ...
Each cervical centrum has a strong keel along the midline of its underside. Most of the cervical ribs bear two heads that are ... With a total length of 3.5-4 metres (11-13 ft), Peloneustes is not a large pliosaurid. It had a large, triangular skull, which ... Crushing makes accurate measurement of these proportions difficult. In 1948, palaeontologist Nestor Novozhilov named a new ... The cervical vertebrae bear tall neural spines that are compressed from side to side.: 50 The cervical centra are about half as ...
2012), with estimated skull lengths of 1.6-2 m (5.2-6.6 ft) and a forelimb length of 3 m (9.8 ft) for the holotype (PMO 214.135 ... one nearly complete cervical centrum and two partial cervical centra, three pectoral centra with neural arches, fifteen dorsal ... Although the measurements of the neotype agree with these of the lost holotype, they are also similar to these of referred ... Several other cervical centra from the same strata at Weymouth, Dorsetshire, that had been named Plesiosaurus giganteus by ...
... skull length is 59.30 mm (2.335 in) and length of the right humerus is 57.65 mm (2.27 in). According to records in the ... He does not provide measurements of the tail of AMZ 6698 and notes that at least one vertebra is missing, but Sarmiento counted ... The false potto allegedly has shorter spines on its cervical (neck) and first and second thoracic (chest) vertebrae, but Leon ... spine on the second cervical vertebra, but Sarmiento found this feature in 3 out of 11 potto specimens he examined. The ulnar ...
In at least one reported case, the artery was only 4 cm in length and divided at the root of the neck. Very rarely, the common ... The cervical portions of the common carotids resemble each other so closely that one description will apply to both. Each ... Physiological Measurement. 32 (12): 1885-97. doi:10.1088/0967-3334/32/12/001. PMC 3494738. PMID 22031538. J. Krejza; M. ... The left common carotid artery can be thought of as having two parts: a thoracic (chest) part and a cervical (neck) part. The ...
In addition, BMD measurements were similar to the expected values for women in the same age group as the participants. The ... A short length of monofilament plastic/nylon string hangs down from the cervix into the vagina. The string allows physicians ... Less inflammation occurs within the uterus of LNG-IUS users, but the potent progestin effect thickens cervical mucus to impede ... A grasping instrument is used to steady the cervix, the length of the uterus is measured for proper insertion with a uterine ...
The cervical (neck) vertebrae were relatively large in length and diameter compared to the dorsal (back) vertebrae, and the ... based on von Huene's measurements). The paleontologist Gregory S. Paul estimated it to have weighed 1 kg (2 lb) in 2016 (based ... The cervical vertebrae were relatively large in length and diameter compared to the dorsals, and had styliform (resembling a ... The caudals were very similar in length and did not decrease in length until the last few in the succession. Just in front of ...
Cervical effacement, which is the thinning and stretching of the cervix, and cervical dilation occur during the closing weeks ... Looking at length of stay (in 2016) for an uncomplicated delivery around the world shows an average of less that 1 day in Egypt ... "Mortality and Burden of Disease Estimates for WHO Member States in 2004" (xls). Department of Measurement and Health ... Health care providers may assess the mother's progress in labour by performing a cervical exam to evaluate the cervical ...
Their shell covers range in colour from olive brown to light green with a blue cervical groove ranging in shade from light blue ... Adult Guyandotte river crayfish are typically 75.7 millimetres (2.98 in) to 101.6 millimetres (4.00 in) in length. ... Atmospheric Measurement Techniques. doi:10.5194/amt-2017-299-rc2. Sadecky, Nicole Marie (2020). The Life History, Ecology, and ...
Tanja Wintrich; Martin Scaal; P. Martin Sander (2017). "Foramina in plesiosaur cervical centra indicate a specialized vascular ... A method of inferring habitats of extinct turtles based on measurements of the shell is proposed by Lichtig & Lucas (2017). ... of Montana demonstrates multiple evolutionary reductions of neck length within Elasmosauridae". Journal of Vertebrate ...
... a posterior cervical vertebra; cervical ribs; multiple dorsal vertebrae and dorsal ribs; the sacrum; 32 caudal vertebrae and 18 ... Estimates based on measurements of the known parts of the skeleton suggest that the only known individual of Dreadnoughtus ... Its ilium, the top bone of the pelvis, is also larger than any other, measuring 1.31 m in length. The forearm is longer than ... Dreadnoughtus also has an unusually long neck for its body size, making up almost half of the animal's length. ...
The length of the crest was no less than 2/3 the length of the whole bone element. The lower end of the humerus was very ... Scott A. Lee and Zachary Richards in 2018 based on bending resistance measurements of several dinosaur humeri, found the humeri ... long neck based on comparisons with the cervical vertebrae series of Nanshiungosaurus. The most distinctive feature of ... The total length of this metacarpal was larger than 2/3 the length of metacarpal III, which may have been a unique trait of ...
Each cervical vertebra is over 28 cm (11 in) long.: 71 They comprise 52-54 per cent of the length of the giraffe's vertebral ... as well as morphological measurements. Seven other extinct species of Giraffa are known from the fossil record. The giraffe's ... as the length and structure of its cervical vertebrae were between those of a modern giraffe and an okapi, and its neck posture ... A giraffe's front and back legs are about the same length. The radius and ulna of the front legs are articulated by the carpus ...
The cervical vertebrae are almost the same size as the longest dorsal vertebrae and get to a length of about 7.2 cm and a ... length of the supratemporal fenestra and the total length of the skull has previously been used as an improvised measurement ... and the length proportions of the vertebrae (cervical vertebrae being almost equal in size to the longest vertebrae of the ... in length. In 2022, Gregory S. Paul proposed that P. overtoni reached 8 metres (26 ft) in length and 1 metric ton (1.1 short ...
... thus allowing measurement of distance between placenta and cervical os. This has rendered traditional classification of ... A couple of factors contribute to this rate, including length of time fetus was in the womb and mother's age. Infants that did ... Placenta praevia is when the placenta attaches inside the uterus but in a position near or over the cervical opening. Symptoms ... "Transvaginal ultrasonography for all placentas that appear to be low-lying or over the internal cervical os". Ultrasound in ...
Wulff, C. H.; Gilliatt, R. W. (1979). "F waves in patients with hand wasting caused by a cervical rib and band". Muscle & Nerve ... Traversal of F-waves along the entire length of peripheral nerves between the spinal cord and muscle, allows for assessment of ... period between initial stimulation and F wave elicitation Several measurements can be done on the F responses, including: ... F waves can be analyzed by several properties including: amplitude (μV) - height or voltage of F wave duration (ms) - length of ...
Using graphene and molybdenum disulfide, Chinese scientists create a transistor gate with a length of 0.34 nm, equivalent to ... "The WID-BC-index identifies women with primary poor prognostic breast cancer based on DNA methylation in cervical samples". ... A platform for single-molecule measurement of binding kinetics and enzyme activity". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... "The DNA methylome of cervical cells can predict the presence of ovarian cancer". Nature Communications. 13 (1): 448. Bibcode: ...
... scientists found that there were statistically significant differences in the measurements of body length, body weight, snout ... Additionally, the salamander possesses one cervical vertebra, about sixteen trunk vertebrae, one sacral vertebra, three ... l basoglui's snout-vent-length and the head with were significant predictors of both mean prey length and mean prey volume. ... One study has also shown that females tended to have a larger snout to vent length on average than males, but males had a ...
A normal horse with have a cranial phase and a caudal phase of equal length: the horse will bring the leg as far forward as it ... Van Heel, M. C. V.; Barneveld, A.; Van Weeren, P. R.; Back, W. (2004). "Dynamic pressure measurements for the detailed study of ... Neurologic causes of lameness include: Cervical vertebral stenotic myopathy (Wobbler disease): compression of the spinal cord ... The toe acts as a lever arm, and its increased length makes it harder for the heels to rotate off the ground. This increases ...
This measurement of blood flow to the male genitals is known as penile plethysmography. This is commonly measured using a ... leads to vasodilation and the increased blood flow engorges the three spongy areas that run along the length of the penis (the ... though this can occur without arousal due to infection or cervical mucus production around ovulation), swelling and engorgement ... The measure has been found by some to be a reliable and valid measurement of male arousal. More recently, thermography has been ...
If the crew had not burned the engine, or the burn had not lasted the planned length of time, the crew would have appeared ... Collins was replaced by Jim Lovell in July 1968, after suffering a cervical disc herniation that required surgery to repair. ... He accidentally erased some of the computer's memory, which caused the inertial measurement unit (IMU) to contain data ...
The torque is the force indicated by the scales multiplied by the length of the torque arm measured from the center of the ... They are also used to measure grip strength in patients where compromise of the cervical nerve roots or peripheral nerves is ... A typical size ratio for common emission test cycles and most engine development is approximately 3:1. Torque measurement is ... Motor vehicle emissions development and homologation dynamometer test systems often integrate emissions sampling, measurement, ...
One ring was 6.7 m × 4.5 m (22 ft × 15 ft) with stalagmite pieces averaging 34.4 cm (13.5 in) in length, and the other 2.2 m × ... Gómez-Olivencia, A.; Been, E.; Arsuaga, J. L.; Stock, J. T. (2013). "The Neandertal vertebral column 1: the cervical spine". ... consistent with external measurements obtained with fossil skulls. Their brains also have larger temporal lobe poles, wider ... Raichlen, D.; Armstrong, H.; Lieberman, D. E. (2011). "Calcaneus length determines running economy: Implications for endurance ...
The goal is to assess the shape of the forehead, the skull length, the width of the skull, position of the ears and the ... Other parts of the physical examination include the measurement of the head circumference, the assessment of the skull ... as well as on the cervical spine, which shows a curvature. In addition, from a point of view standing behind the child, a ...
For research purposes, and for more detailed pain measurement in clinical practice, VAS or NRS for each type of typical pain ... Moreover, dosages, treatment length, appropriate add-back therapies and mode of administration is still being investigated. ... or cervical area (neck) during a menstrual period. Pulmonary endometriosis can be associated with a thoracic endometriosis ... were the best adapted pain scales for pain measurement in endometriosis. ...
The secondary's length is defined by the two pairs of dark-colored diagnostic hot spot pipes attached to the middle and left ... Measurements taken after Patapsco had returned to Pearl Harbor suggested an exposure range of 0.18 to 0.62 R/hr. Total exposure ... The female population of the Marshall Islands have a sixty times greater mortality rate from cervical cancer than a comparable ... Second, as the primary could not illuminate the whole surface of the hohlraum, in part due to the large axial length of the ...
Their length/depth ratio was between three and five, the optimal number to minimise water resistance or drag. Their smooth skin ... The neck is short, and derived species show a reduction in the number of cervical vertebrae. The short neck positions the skull ... Discovered in Australia, and analyzed by Benjamin Kear et alii in 2011, measurements of the wounds reveal that the bite marks ... Often, the rear flipper is only half the length of the front flipper. The thighbone is short and broad, often with a narrow ...
Brown, Chris (April 2010). "Vietnamese Immigrant and Refugee Women's Mental Health: An Examination of Age of Arrival, Length of ... where there is a low number of women screened for cervical and breast cancer compared to the large women with reproductive ... Educational and Psychological Measurement. 59 (2): 351-367. doi:10.1177/00131649921969794. ISSN 0013-1644. PMC 3057082. PMID ...
The health effects of particulate matters with different diameters are related to the length of those particles staying in the ... Another study found that the hazardous air pollutant (HAP) can cause cervical cancer and the upper aero-digestive tract cancer ... A synthesis of measurements from 1960 to 2010". Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres. 118 (11): 5893-5911. Bibcode: ...
... length can be estimated from the length of their skull which he claimed was typically one-seventh of the former measurement, ... In 1869, Harry Govier Seeley had applied the name Pliosaurus pachydeirus to a series of cervical (neck) vertebrae representing ... in condylobasal length (1.54 m (5.1 ft) in overall length). In 2022, Gregory S. Paul suggested that a 6.6 m (22 ft) long L. ... The largest species, L. ferox, is estimated to have grown up to 6.6 metres (22 ft) in length, but could have been larger. The ...
Is routine transvaginal cervical length measurement cost-effective in a population where the risk of spontaneous preterm birth ... A recent meta-analysis has suggested that routine measurement of the cervical length should be performed in conjunction with ... Given the implications associated with preterm delivery, routine measurement of cervical length at the time of the anomaly scan ... would be expected to have a cervical length 15 mm. If we gave vaginal progesterone to all women with a sonographically short ...
The parameters assessed include the cervical length and the appearance of the internal os. ... High-resolution ultrasonography allows the most important imaging signs of cervical incompetence to be determined. ... cervical length declined from the 16th to the 22nd weeks of gestation. Cervical length measurements were performed ... Cervical length. The length of the cervix is the distance between the internal os and the external os. First-trimester cervical ...
All of them had undergone cervical length measurement and cervical volume estimation at 19¿22 weeks. Results: Patients¿ median ... Objective: To determine whether the transvaginal ultrasonographic measurement of the cervical volume at 19¿22 weeks could ... we did not find differences in the median cervical length (39.0 mm vs 37.0 mm) (p= 0.610). Conclusion: It seems that there is ... The following measurements were performed: indentation depth, indentation angle, uterine fundal wall thickness, external fundal ...
HN - 2008 MH - Cervical Length Measurement UI - D054791 MN - E01.370.350.850.865.249 MN - E01.370.378.630.865.249 MS - A ... Cervical length or its shortening is used to identify and prevent early cervical opening and PRETERM BIRTH. HN - 2008 MH - Cell ... The nomenclature indicates the number of atoms in each path around the rings, such as [2.2.2] for three equal length paths. ... This introductory text can be of varying length and substance. AN - this heading is used as a Publication Type; CATALOG: Do not ...
Cervical length items 55757 and 55758. Items 55757 (R) and 55758 (NR) are to assess the cervical length of the patient to ... The nuchal translucency measurement ultrasound service should not be performed on the same patient within 24 hours of a service ... Except for items 55700 (R) and 55703 (NR) all singleton items restrict the claiming of cervical length items 55757 and 55758 ... the multiple pregnancy items cannot be co-claimed within 24 hours of cervical length items 55757 (R) or 55758 (NR). Items 55740 ...
... cervical length for the prevention of preterm birth at less than 35 weeks, Vincenzo Berghella, MD, and colleagues found that ... In this study, a subset of patients with prior preterm birth at less than 35 weeks had sonographic measurements of their ... were found to have a cervical length of less than 2.5 cm, and 302 were randomized to either the no-cerclage (n=153) or cerclage ... but no benefit was observed in the 1.5 cm to 2.4 cm cervical length stratum. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis also demonstrated a ...
Her pregnancy was dated by a 6-week crown rump length measurement. ... After admission to the hospital, the patient experienced rapid cervical change and subsequently delivered a malformed fetus ( ...
Cervical Length Measurement - Preferred Concept UI. M0507662. Scope note. A parameter usually used in PRENATAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY ... A parameter usually used in PRENATAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY to measure the length of the uterine neck (CERVIX UTERI). Cervical length ... Cervical length or its shortening is used to identify and prevent early cervical opening and PRETERM BIRTH. ... La determinación de la longitud cervical o del acortamiento del cuello del útero se utiliza para identificar y prevenir la ...
Some cervical ribs are discernable in the left side and their lengths increase posteriorly. The 21th vertebra is considered as ... Table 1 Measurements (in mm) of the holotype (IVPP V30380) of Honghesaurus longicaudalis gen. et sp. nov.. Full size table. ... The length of the retracted external naris is 47.7% of the orbital length, being about a quarter of the snout length. The ... The reduction of the CP ratio is clearly associated with the increase of the trunk length relative to the neck length, and the ...
Antenatal cervical length measurement as a predictor of successful vaginal birth. Crossref DOI link: https://doi.org/10.1186/ ...
Cervical length test: This is an ultrasound measurement to predict chances of preterm delivery. The shorter the cervix, the ...
To assess the association between sonography-derived cervical length measurement and preterm birth. To describe the various ... 401: sonographic cervical length in Singleton Pregnancies: techniques and clinical applications Lim, K. I; Butt, K; Nevo, O; ... techniques to measure cervical length using sonography. To review the natural history of the short cervix. To review the ... Cuello del Útero/cirugía, Ultrasonografía Prenatal/métodos, Cerclaje Cervical/métodos, Nacimiento Prematuro/prevención & ...
The working length (WL) was determined by subtracting 1 mm from this measurement. ... Initially, the cervical and middle thirds of the roots were prepared using S1, SX and S2 instruments. Later, S1, S2, F1, F2, ... The most common method for removing Ca(OH)2 is the use of a master apical file (MAF) at working length combined with copious ... Measurement and visualization of filetowall contact during ultrasonically activated irrigation in simulated canals. Int Endod ...
Learn about Cervical Length Measurement to as a tool to assess increased risk of preterm birth ...
Product Measurements:. Switch to CM IN Style. Length. Width. Height. one size. 10.5. 7.5. 11. ...
Cervical Cytology. Providers should provide cervical cancer screening to clients receiving related preventive health services. ... In cases in which access to health care might be limited, the blood pressure measurement can be obtained by the woman in a ... length and amount of bleeding, and other patterns of uterine/vaginal bleeding), gynecologic and obstetrical history, ... Cervical cytology no longer is recommended on an annual basis. Further, it is not recommended (Grade D) for women aged ,21 ...
The cervical ribs in the Yale mount are not long enough by half, and the thoracic ribs may be somewhat heavy and their length a ... Measurements and proportions of cervical vertebrae from adults and juveniles of each genus are given in Table 4. The vertebrae ... For a juvenile cervical of these proportions to develop into an elongate cervical comparable to those of Sauroposeidon, the ... A-C. Cervical vertebrae. A. Pleurocoelus nanus (USNM 5678, redrawn fromLull1911b: pl. 15). B. Apatosaurus sp. (OMNH 1251, ...
... separate flecks of plaque at the cervical margin of the tooth; 2 = a thin continuous band of plaque (≤ 1 mm) at the cervical ... Following the measurement of the pre-brushing plaque scores at each visit, children were randomly allocated either a new ... The toothbrush specifications were as follows: length, 128 mm; 9 rows of bristles; 27 tufts; mean 24 [standard deviation (SD) 1 ... Toothbrush wear was assessed by measurement of the brushing surface area. Standardized digital photographs of each toothbrush ...
C, Node length (distance between 2 paranodal Caspr clusters) in optic nerves at 60 weeks old. WT, Sptbn1f/f; cHet, Cnp-Cre; ... However, grip strength measurement revealed reduced muscle power in cKO mice compared with WT or cHet at 3 and 4 weeks after ... Following 2 weeks of postfixation in the same fixative, sciatic nerves, optic nerves, and cervical spinal cords were harvested ... Two mice at 2 years of age in each group were available for motor nerve conduction measurements. WT, Sptbn1f/f mice; cHet, Cnp- ...
... of patient-specific risk of early preterm delivery using maternal history and sonographic measurement of cervical length: a ... Findings on an ultrasound suggestive of a higher risk for preterm labor include short cervical length, especially if smaller ... Cerclage is beneficial in women with cervical length ,25 mm when placed between 16 and 24 weeks of gestation.[17] ... Altered markers such as: cervical fibronectin, HCG, or phIGFBP-1, presence of fetal fibronectin fFN/PAMG1/IGF-BP 1 in cervical- ...
7. Front waist length. 8. Back length from your cervical vertebrae to your waist ... measurement chart and sewing instructions. You will find all sizes in this PDF. Each pattern is available in English and German ... Best to print out the first page by itself, check the length of the line to be sure that the pattern has not been wrongly ...
Body Measurements Body Measurements were made on all examinees and included standing height or recumbent length, depending on ... X-Rays of the Cervical and Lumbar Spine X-rays of the cervical and lumbar spine were taken to provide evidence of ... I strive to advance 1034 and would be dissatisfied if not promoted in that length of time 8 Blank but applicable 829 Blank 429 ... and axis measurements and permitting interpretations of heart disease according to the Minnesota classification code. ...
Combining cervical length with the biomarker test was found to improve the diagnostic accuracy further. ... In the study, published in Obstetrics and Gynecology, researchers compared measurements of this new fetal fibronectin test in ... Two further factors which clinicians normally consider are the length of cervix and levels of a biomarker found in vaginal ... 21 weeks pregnancy appears to offer a similar predictive value to measurements at 22-27 weeks. For both the early and standard ...
The average length of the œsophagus in the adult is 10 in. (25 cm.); the listance from the incisor teeth to its commencement is ... These measurements, which are of great importance in diagnosing the seat of oesophageal obstructions, should be marked off from ... Posteriorly, the oesophagus extends from the level of the sixth cervical spine to that of the tenth thoracic, a little to the ... measurements obstructions, bougies and sixth cervica is the situati inced by the pas ...
It is more effective if combined with cervical mucus tracking.. What are the drawbacks?. Clinical studies show that 70% of ... The devices help establish the pattern of temperature over time, and because of the volume of measurements, they are possibly a ... even if your cycles are always the same length [1]. A recent study into several fertility apps concluded as a result of the ... Again, even with an app, some users find the charting cumbersome and have difficulty taking a valid measurement each day. ...
Ideal and maximum length for a web survey; 2017; Revilla, M.; Ochoa, C.. ... Comparability of web and telephone surveys for the measurement of subjective well-being; 2017; Sarracino, F.; Riillo, C. F. A ... Lessons from recruitment to an internet based survey for Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy: merits of...; 2017; Davies, B.; ... Necessary but Insufficient: Why Measurement Invariance Tests Need Online Probing as a Complementary...; 2017; Meitinger, K.. ...
Sleeve length from shoulder (arm straight). The distance from the most protruding point of the shoulder to the wrist (on the ... The measurement taken horizontally around the hips, at the most protruding part of the buttocks (the peak when viewed from the ... The circumference measured at 2 cm below the Adams apple in the front, and at the 7th cervical vertebra in the back (i.e. NOT ... The measurement of the chest in its maximum extension during normal breathing, measured with the person standing, passing the ...
C,D) The average step length of the forepaws and hindpaws relative to the baseline. (E,F) The average swing duration for the ... Use the MouseMultiEvaluate.m script to congregate the measurements from all the runs into a new file for analysis. *To begin ... These connections culminate in the central pattern generators (CPGs), which are situated at a cervical and lumbar level for the ... Take advantage of the tools on the right-side panel to take measurements of the brightness or size (using the brightness and ...
  • Sonography shows an incidental finding of a short cervical canal measuring 6 mm. (medscape.com)
  • Many factors contribute to the risk of delivering preterm, including short cervical length measured by sonography. (nih.gov)
  • To assess the association between sonography-derived cervical length measurement and preterm birth. (bvsalud.org)
  • To describe the various techniques to measure cervical length using sonography. (bvsalud.org)
  • 10. Transvaginal sonographic evaluation of cervical length in the second trimester of asymptomatic singleton pregnancies, and the risk of preterm delivery. (nih.gov)
  • Cervical incompetence (cervical insufficiency) is the inability of the uterine cervix to retain a pregnancy in the absence of uterine contractions. (medscape.com)
  • 16. Is there a role for cervical assessment and uterine artery Doppler in the first trimester of pregnancy as a screening test for spontaneous preterm delivery? (nih.gov)
  • A parameter usually used in PRENATAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY to measure the length of the uterine neck ( CERVIX UTERI ). (nih.gov)
  • The following measurements were performed: indentation depth, indentation angle, uterine fundal wall thickness, external fundal indentation, and indentation-to-wall-thickness (I:WT) ratio. (unav.edu)
  • C128706 GAIA Antenatal Bleeding Level of Diagnostic Certainty Terminology C113492 Dysfunctional Labor Uterine contractions (less than 3 in 10 minutes or inadequate strength) that do not result in progressive cervical dilation. (nih.gov)
  • Diagnosis of a delay in labor is dependent upon careful monitoring of uterine contraction intensity, duration, and frequency, cervical dilation, and the descent of the fetus through the pelvis. (nih.gov)
  • cervical dilation of at least 2cm and/or cervical effacement , which happens with regular uterine contractions . (wikidoc.org)
  • Preterm labor may be caused by infection , uterine ovedistension , decidual senescence , vascular disorders , stress , cervical disease , decline in progesterone action, or breakdown in maternal - fetal tolerance. (wikidoc.org)
  • In some cases, a doctor may recommend a transvaginal ultrasound to measure cervical thickness and length, as this method is likely more accurate. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • 18. Transvaginal ultrasonographic measurement of cervical length in asymptomatic high-risk women with a short cervical length in the previous pregnancy. (nih.gov)
  • Objective: To determine whether the transvaginal ultrasonographic measurement of the cervical volume at 19¿22 weeks could predict a post-term pregnancy. (unav.edu)
  • The inclusion criteria were sonographic reference ranges that could be used at any confirmation of gestational age, absence of risk gestational period for prompt identification of factors for PTB (Table 1)24, and uncomplicated women with changes in cervical length. (who.int)
  • 11. Sonographic cervical length in singleton pregnancies with intact membranes presenting with threatened preterm labor. (nih.gov)
  • 12. Prediction of patient-specific risk of early preterm delivery using maternal history and sonographic measurement of cervical length: a population-based prospective study. (nih.gov)
  • But what about the value of cerclage in high-risk women with prior early preterm births found to have sonographic evidence of significant cervical shortening around 20 weeks? (contemporaryobgyn.net)
  • In this study, a subset of patients with prior preterm birth at less than 35 weeks had sonographic measurements of their cervices and were randomized to cerclage or no cerclage. (contemporaryobgyn.net)
  • 6 Of the 831 eligible women who underwent initial sonographic assessment of cervical length, 318 (31%) were found to have a cervical length of less than 2.5 cm, and 302 were randomized to either the no-cerclage (n=153) or cerclage (n=148) group. (contemporaryobgyn.net)
  • In this article, we look at cervical effacement, including how it relates to dilation and how to measure it. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The process of dilation and effacement is called cervical ripening. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Cervical changes, including dilation and effacement, cause movement or loss of the mucus plug. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Contractions involve the tightening and relaxing of the uterus to help cervical dilation and effacement. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Although they may occur at different speeds, cervical effacement and dilation can go hand in hand. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In patients with a history of pregnancy loss, it is prudent to establish a baseline cervical-length measurement at 12-14 weeks of gestation. (medscape.com)
  • In patients at risk for pregnancy loss, placement of cervical cerclages in response to ultrasound-detected shortening of the endocervical canal is an acceptable alternative to elective cerclage. (medscape.com)
  • ABSTRACT: This study was aimed to establish reference values of cervical length in normal pregnancy. (who.int)
  • The purpose of our study was to assess changes equal to the distance from the anterior lip to in cervical length during physiologic pregnancy, the cervical canal. (who.int)
  • 13. Fertility and pregnancy outcome following large loop excision of the cervical transformation zone. (nih.gov)
  • Conclusion: It seems that there is no relationship between the cervical volume measured in the ultrasound of 20-week gestation and the prolongation of pregnancy beyond week 41. (unav.edu)
  • Her pregnancy was dated by a 6-week crown rump length measurement. (medscape.com)
  • The authors conclude that measuring fetal fibronectin at 18 -21 weeks pregnancy appears to offer a similar predictive value to measurements at 22-27 weeks. (ogpnews.com)
  • We hope to carry out further trials to establish whether biomarker testing at an earlier stage of pregnancy could help us to intervene where necessary before cervical shortening is normally detected, and thus improve the prospects of giving birth safely for more women. (ogpnews.com)
  • This is your 7th cervical (or C7) vertebra - and the top of your torso length. (ridetsg.com)
  • Modeling) that may use this information to initialize searches for the boundaries of individual vertebrae of the spine, and present initial results of testing this algorithm on cervical spine images. (nih.gov)
  • A-C. Cervical vertebrae. (svpow.com)
  • The short answer is, yeah, in most sauropods, and maybe all, the cervical vertebrae did lengthen over ontogeny. (svpow.com)
  • The cervical vertebrae of Pleurocoelus are uniformly short, with a maximum EI of only 2.4 in all of the Arundel material (Table 4). (svpow.com)
  • Carpenter & McIntosh (1994) described cervical vertebrae from juvenile individuals of Apatosaurus and Camarasaurus . (svpow.com)
  • Measurements and proportions of cervical vertebrae from adults and juveniles of each genus are given in Table 4. (svpow.com)
  • In AMNH 5761, referred to C. supremus , the average EI of the cervical vertebrae is 2.4, with a maximum of 3.5. (svpow.com)
  • Cervical effacement refers to the shortening and thinning of the cervix. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • What is cervical effacement? (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Cervical effacement is the shortening and thinning of the cervix. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Measurement of effacement is usually in percentages. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Certain signs and symptoms may indicate that cervical effacement has begun. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Cervical effacement often occurs after the head of the fetus drops lower into the pelvis. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • According to March of Dimes , Braxton-Hicks contractions may play a role in cervical effacement. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A healthcare professional often performs a pelvic exam to measure cervical effacement. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The amount of time it takes for complete cervical effacement during labor varies greatly. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • For others, cervical effacement may occur slowly over several weeks. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The results indicated that by 8 cm dilated, 95% of the women had complete cervical effacement. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Changes in the extracellular matrix proteins leads to cervical effacement and is the result of an increase in glycosaminoglycans and loss in collagen cross-linking results in a decrease in the tensile strength of the cervix . (wikidoc.org)
  • To evaluate the cost - effectiveness of combining cervical-length (CL) measurement and fetal fibronectin (fFN) testing in women with symptoms of preterm labor between 24 and 34 weeks' gestation . (bvsalud.org)
  • Two further factors which clinicians normally consider are the length of cervix and levels of a biomarker found in vaginal fluid known as fetal fibronectin. (ogpnews.com)
  • In the study, published in Obstetrics and Gynecology , researchers compared measurements of this new fetal fibronectin test in the vaginal fluid of women at 18 to 21 weeks of gestation with measurements made at 22-27 weeks of gestation, to see which time period offered the best prediction of spontaneous preterm birth. (ogpnews.com)
  • The manual birth (PTB) rates, which of course, vary widely assessment of the cervical length is subjective among different populations studied because of and has a poor intra observer variability17. (who.int)
  • 5. Cervical length and obstetric history predict spontaneous preterm birth: development and validation of a model to provide individualized risk assessment. (nih.gov)
  • La determinación de la longitud cervical o del acortamiento del cuello del útero se utiliza para identificar y prevenir la dilatación cervical precoz y el PARTO PREMATURO. (bvsalud.org)
  • Strategies using fFN testing and CL measurement separately to predict preterm delivery are associated with higher costs and incidence of adverse neonatal outcomes compared with strategies that combine both tests. (bvsalud.org)
  • 1. Large loop excision of transformation zone and cervical length in the prediction of spontaneous preterm delivery. (nih.gov)
  • 4. Predictive value of volume of cervical tissue removed during LLETZ on subsequent preterm delivery: a cohort study. (nih.gov)
  • 15. First-trimester screening for spontaneous preterm delivery with maternal characteristics and cervical length. (nih.gov)
  • 17. Cervical length at 18-22 weeks of gestation for prediction of spontaneous preterm delivery in Hong Kong Chinese women. (nih.gov)
  • The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC) recommends offering serial ultrasound to assess cervical length to pregnant women whose history suggests a risk for cervical insufficiency (1 or 2 prior mid-trimester losses or extreme premature deliveries), but for whom cerclage is not considered or justified. (medscape.com)
  • Biometric analysis involved measurements that include centrum height (CH), centrum width (CW), centrum length (CL), width of zygapophyses, and others. (palaeo-electronica.org)
  • For a juvenile cervical of these proportions to develop into an elongate cervical comparable to those of Sauroposeidon , the length of the centrum would have to increase by more than 100% relative to its diameter. (svpow.com)
  • C6 of Apatosaurus CM 555 - despite having an unfused neural arch and cervical ribs, the centrum proportions are about the same as in an adult. (svpow.com)
  • This paper updates work toward the computer-assisted indexing of a collection of 17,000 digitized x-ray images of the cervical and lumbar spine by content of the images. (nih.gov)
  • Examples of high-level features of interest to researchers in rheumatology include the presence and degree of anterior osteophytes, disc space narrowing, and subluxation in the cervical spine images. (nih.gov)
  • Cervical Syndrome Tests - To help determine the nature of your leg length inequality or further damage which may be present in your spine. (connect33chiropractic.com)
  • We take a three dimensional view of the upper cervical spine (where head rests on body) and take some additional views to help determine if further supportive care is necessary. (connect33chiropractic.com)
  • Determinación de la longitud del CUELLO UTERINO, que suele usarse en la ECOGRAFÍA OBSTÉTRICA. (bvsalud.org)
  • High-resolution ultrasonography allows the most important imaging signs of cervical incompetence to be determined. (medscape.com)
  • See the ultrasound images below regarding cervical incompetence. (medscape.com)
  • Anticipated clinical and technological improvements in 3-dimensional ultrasonography and MRI may hopefully depict those changes in the cervical connective structures that are responsible for incompetence. (medscape.com)
  • A self-check of the cervix is not a substitute for a cervical exam by a healthcare professional, however. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • However, the consistency of the cervix (soft or firm), an important sign of cervical 'change' that is suggestive of impending miscarriage, can be assessed only digitally. (medscape.com)
  • Ultrasound measurement of the cervix should be performed by a standardized method. (medscape.com)
  • This spot on your lumbar is the bottom of your torso measurement. (ridetsg.com)
  • The National Library of Medicine has archived a collection of 17,000 digitized x-rays of the cervical and lumbar spines. (nih.gov)
  • Cervical swabs were collected between 16 and 20 weeks of gestation. (nih.gov)
  • Cervical length was measured per standard clinical care during a clinically indicated ultrasound at approximately 20 weeks of gestation. (nih.gov)
  • 14. Cervical length at 23 weeks' gestation--relation to demographic characteristics and previous obstetric history in South African women. (nih.gov)
  • After admission to the hospital, the patient experienced rapid cervical change and subsequently delivered a malformed fetus (Figures 1 and 2). (medscape.com)
  • All of them had undergone cervical length measurement and cervical volume estimation at 19¿22 weeks. (unav.edu)
  • Cost-effectiveness of diagnostic testing strategies including cervical-length measurement and fibronectin testing in women with symptoms of preterm labor. (bvsalud.org)
  • This was a model-based cost-effectiveness analysis evaluating seven test- treatment strategies based on CL measurement and/or fFN testing in women with symptoms of preterm labor from a societal perspective, in which neonatal outcomes and costs were weighted. (bvsalud.org)
  • The proportion of women at risk of PTB for cervical length measurements, which might is about 7% in France and 8% to 9% in Italy13. (who.int)
  • 8. Follow-up cervical length in asymptomatic high-risk women and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth. (nih.gov)
  • Measurements were similar for women, though smaller, and increased with increasing body mass index for both genders. (nih.gov)
  • We found in males that the anterior depth of the esophagus increases from the cervical to the lower esophagus, 5 to 14 cm, while the posterior depth remains nearly constant, about 10 to 13 cm. (nih.gov)
  • Combining cervical length with the biomarker test was found to improve the diagnostic accuracy further. (ogpnews.com)
  • Quantitative measurements of the human anatomy for groups of patients are rare, making these data a unique resource of anatomical variations. (nih.gov)
  • We are researching algorithms to segment anatomy in these images and to derive from the segmented data measurements useful for indexing this image set for characteristics important to researchers in rheumatology, bone morphometry, and related areas. (nih.gov)
  • HN - 2008 BX - AFLP Analysis FX - Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length MH - Anatomists UI - D054814 MN - M1.526.485.133 MN - N2.360.133 MS - Those persons skilled in anatomy or dissection. (nih.gov)
  • Comparisons to taxa whose ontogenetic development can be estimated suggest much more modest increases in length. (svpow.com)
  • This improved prediction of the timing of delivery compared to cervical length measurement alone could be helpful to optimize care of patients-for example, to help determine place of care or administration of antenatal steroids. (nih.gov)
  • Some factors increase the risk of PPROM such as cervical shortening or intra-amniotic infection . (wikidoc.org)
  • We measured the esophagus length and position on Computed Tomography images of 30 female and 30 male patients. (nih.gov)
  • The parameters assessed include the cervical length and the appearance of the internal os. (medscape.com)
  • From point A down-delayed length of back to waist and from waist to hips, put the point TN. (rukodelkino.com)
  • From the point T to the right lay off 1/4 of the waist measurement and set point O1. (rukodelkino.com)
  • Morphometric ratios [Vertebral Length Index (VLI), Height Index (HI), and Breadth Index (BI)] were plotted along the length of the vertebral column and on bivariate graphs where the analysis is independent of vertebral position and correct sequencing. (palaeo-electronica.org)
  • These ratios represent an increase in length relative to diameter of 30 to 50% over the juvenile Camarasaurus . (svpow.com)
  • Our study shows an increase in cervical length with gestational age. (who.int)
  • 6. Impact of past obstetric history and cervical excision on preterm birth rate. (nih.gov)
  • We did not observe differences in the mean cervical volume between term delivery (37.37 cm3, 95% CI: 34.59¿40.14) and those who had post-term delivery (38.06 cm3, 95% CI: 33.34¿42.77) (p = 0.788). (unav.edu)
  • Cervical length or its shortening is used to identify and prevent early cervical opening and PRETERM BIRTH . (nih.gov)
  • Supine Leg Length Inequality - A non-gravitational spinal balance test which helps determine if there's tension on the spinal cord. (connect33chiropractic.com)
  • Standing Laser Hip Caliper Measurement - A gravitational spinal balance test which also helps determine if there's tension on the spinal cord. (connect33chiropractic.com)
  • Carestream's desktop CARESTREAM Vita CR Systems or DRX-1 combined with Image Suite Software provide a streamlined workflow and equip clinics with automated tools that can enhance the speed and simplicity of performing measurements. (carestream.com)
  • Added to the accuracy of skin temperature measurement, there's no messy urine strips, no confusing charts with multiple parameters, and no need to remember to test. (ovusense.com)
  • The YBT-UQ was executed assessing medial, inferolateral and superolateral reach directions normalized to the upper limb length together with a composite score. (frontiersin.org)
  • 3. Sequential cervical length screening in pregnancies after loop excision of the transformation zone conisation: a retrospective analysis. (nih.gov)
  • use AMANITINS 1980-2007 FX - Mushroom Poisoning MH - Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis UI - D054458 MN - E5.393.290.382 MN - E5.393.620.500.324 MS - The detection of RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISMS by selective PCR amplification of restriction fragments derived from genomic DNA followed by electrophoretic analysis of the amplified restriction fragments. (nih.gov)