Cervical Atlas: The first cervical vertebra.Atlases as Topic: Collections of illustrative plates, charts, etc., usually with explanatory captions.AtlasesModels, Anatomic: Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Subtraction Technique: Combination or superimposition of two images for demonstrating differences between them (e.g., radiograph with contrast vs. one without, radionuclide images using different radionuclides, radiograph vs. radionuclide image) and in the preparation of audiovisual materials (e.g., offsetting identical images, coloring of vessels in angiograms).Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Libraries, Digital: Libraries in which a major proportion of the resources are available in machine-readable format, rather than on paper or MICROFORM.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Anatomy: A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.Colposcopy: The examination, therapy or surgery of the cervix and vagina by means of a specially designed endoscope introduced vaginally.Textbooks as Topic: Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.American Cancer Society: A voluntary organization concerned with the prevention and treatment of cancer through education and research.Pathology, Clinical: A subspecialty of pathology applied to the solution of clinical problems, especially the use of laboratory methods in clinical diagnosis. (Dorland, 28th ed.)Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia: A malignancy arising in uterine cervical epithelium and confined thereto, representing a continuum of histological changes ranging from well-differentiated CIN 1 (formerly, mild dysplasia) to severe dysplasia/carcinoma in situ, CIN 3. The lesion arises at the squamocolumnar cell junction at the transformation zone of the endocervical canal, with a variable tendency to develop invasive epidermoid carcinoma, a tendency that is enhanced by concomitant human papillomaviral infection. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Vaginal Smears: Collection of pooled secretions of the posterior vaginal fornix for cytologic examination.Thoracic Vertebrae: A group of twelve VERTEBRAE connected to the ribs that support the upper trunk region.Cervical Vertebrae: The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Spine: The spinal or vertebral column.Age Determination by Skeleton: Establishment of the age of an individual by examination of their skeletal structure.Tracheotomy: Surgical incision of the trachea.Orthotic Devices: Apparatus used to support, align, prevent, or correct deformities or to improve the function of movable parts of the body.Braces: Orthopedic appliances used to support, align, or hold parts of the body in correct position. (Dorland, 28th ed)Immobilization: The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.Laryngoscopes: Endoscopes for examining the interior of the larynx.Chiropractic: An occupational discipline founded by D.D. Palmer in the 1890's based on the relationship of the spine to health and disease.Manipulation, Chiropractic: Procedures used by chiropractors to treat neuromusculoskeletal complaints.WashingtonManipulation, Spinal: Adjustment and manipulation of the vertebral column.Medicare Part B: The voluntary portion of Medicare, known as the Supplementary Medical Insurance (SMI) Program, that includes physician's services, home health care, medical services, outpatient hospital services, and laboratory, pathology, and radiology services. All persons entitled to Medicare Part A may enroll in Medicare Part B on a monthly premium basis.Occipital Bone: Part of the back and base of the CRANIUM that encloses the FORAMEN MAGNUM.Atlanto-Occipital Joint: The point of articulation between the OCCIPITAL BONE and the CERVICAL ATLAS.Atlanto-Axial Joint: The joint involving the CERVICAL ATLAS and axis bones.Platybasia: A developmental deformity of the occipital bone and upper end of the cervical spine, in which the latter appears to have pushed the floor of the occipital bone upward. (Dorland, 27th ed)AxisThoracic Outlet Syndrome: A neurovascular syndrome associated with compression of the BRACHIAL PLEXUS; SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY; and SUBCLAVIAN VEIN at the superior thoracic outlet. This may result from a variety of anomalies such as a CERVICAL RIB, anomalous fascial bands, and abnormalities of the origin or insertion of the anterior or medial scalene muscles. Clinical features may include pain in the shoulder and neck region which radiates into the arm, PARESIS or PARALYSIS of brachial plexus innervated muscles, PARESTHESIA, loss of sensation, reduction of arterial pulses in the affected extremity, ISCHEMIA, and EDEMA. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp214-5).Cervical Rib Syndrome: A condition associated with compression of the BRACHIAL PLEXUS; SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY; and SUBCLAVIAN VEIN at the thoracic outlet and caused by a complete or incomplete anomalous CERVICAL RIB or fascial band connecting the tip of a cervical rib with the first thoracic rib. Clinical manifestations may include pain in the neck and shoulder which radiates into the upper extremity, PARESIS or PARALYSIS of brachial plexus innervated muscles; sensory loss; PARESTHESIAS; ISCHEMIA; and EDEMA. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p214)Cervical Rib: A supernumerary rib developing from an abnormal enlargement of the costal element of the C7 vertebra. This anomaly is found in 1-2% of the population and can put pressure on adjacent structures causing CERVICAL RIB SYNDROME; THORACIC OUTLET SYNDROME; or other conditions.Ribs: A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs.Subclavian Vein: The continuation of the axillary vein which follows the subclavian artery and then joins the internal jugular vein to form the brachiocephalic vein.

Partial aplasia of the posterior arch of the atlas with an isolated posterior arch remnant: findings in three cases. (1/126)

We report the imaging findings in three symptomatic cases of partial aplasia of the posterior arch of the atlas with an isolated posterior remnant of the arch. These cases are instructive in illustrating the mechanism of cord impingement produced by the posterior arch remnant during extension of the cervical spine. Additionally, focal increased T2 signal was observed within the cord at the level of the anomaly in two of the patients.  (+info)

Quantitative anatomy of the lateral masses of the atlas and axis vertebrae. (2/126)

The study was carried out to determine the safe site of entry and the appropriate trajectory of the screw implantation in the lateral masses of atlas (Cl) and axis (C2) during their fixation using the plate and screw technique. Fifty dried specimens of atlas and axis vertebrae were studied. Various dimensions of the lateral masses were quantitatively measured, laying stress on their relationship with the vertebral artery foramen. As the vertebral artery foramen was present entirely in the transverse process in all specimens, screw implantation in the facet of atlas was relatively safe. Best direction of screw implantation in the facet of atlas was observed to be 15 degrees medial to sagittal plane and 15 degrees superior to axial plane. It should be implanted from the middle of the posterior surface of facet. Vertebral artery foramen formed a deep groove in the undersurface of a majority of superior facets of axis. In 15% facets, vertebral artery foramen occupied the entire undersurface of the superior facet. Safe angle for screw implantation in the facet of axis through its pedicle was seen to be 40 degrees medial to sagittal plane and 20 degrees superior to axial plane. Safe site of screw entry in the axis was superior and medial third of the posterior surface of the pedicle. Quality of cancellous bone in the lateral masses in the proposed trajectory of screw in Cl and C2 was good, providing an excellent purchase of the screw.  (+info)

Atlas hypoplasia manifesting as myelopathy in a child--case report. (3/126)

A 14-year-old Japanese boy presented with myelopathy due to atlas hypoplasia with complete posterior arch. Decompressive laminectomy of the atlas produced good neurological recovery, and follow-up T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging showed disappearance of spinal cord edema. Congenital atlas stenosis may be symptomatic even in children, with no accompanying cervical spondylotic change. Such cases have previously occurred only in Asian adults. A radiological study of the patient's brother showed median cleft formation of the posterior arch of atlas, indicative of a wide spectrum of atlas anomalies and a possible genetic relationship between these anomalies.  (+info)

Finite element model of the Jefferson fracture: comparison with a cadaver model. (4/126)

This study tries to explain the reason why the Jefferson fracture is a burst fracture, using two different biomechanical models: a finite element model (FEM) and a cadaver model used to determine strain distribution in C1 during axial static compressive loading. For the FEM model, a three-dimensional model of C1 was obtained from a 29-year-old healthy human, using axial CT scans with intervals of 1.0 mm. The mesh model was composed of 8200 four-noded isoparametric tetrahedrons and 37,400 solid elements. The material properties of the cortical bone of the vertebra were assessed according to the previous literature and were assumed to be linear isotropic and homogeneous for all elements. Axial static compressive loads were applied at between 200 and 1200 N. The strain and stress (maximum shear and von Mises) analyses were determined on the clinically relevant fracture lines of anterior and posterior arches. The results of the FEM were compared with a cadaver model. The latter comprised the C1 bone of a cadaver placed in a methylmethacrylate foam. Axial static compressive loads between 200 and 1200 N were applied by an electrohydraulic testing machine. Strain values were measured using strain gauges, which were cemented to the bone where the clinically relevant fracture lines of the anterior and posterior arches were located. As a result, compressive strain was observed on the outer surface of the anterior arch and inferior surface of the posterior arch. In addition, there was tensile strain on the inner surface of the anterior arch and superior surface of the posterior arch. The strain values obtained from the two experimental models showed similar trends. The FEM analysis revealed that maximum strain changes occurred where the maximum shear and von Mises stresses were concentrated. The changes in the C1 strain and stress values during static axial loading biomechanically prove that the Jefferson fracture is a burst fracture.  (+info)

Posterolateral tunnels and ponticuli in human atlas vertebrae. (5/126)

The posterolateral tunnel on the superior surface of the first cervical (atlas) vertebra is of normal occurrence in monkeys and other lower animals, but its presence in the form of a tunnel-like canal, for the passage of the third part of the vertebral artery over the posterior arch of the human atlas vertebra is not reported. The aim of the present study was to detect the presence of such a canal, in addition to other types of ponticuli (little bridges) reported by earlier investigators, in macerated atlas vertebrae and routine cadaveric dissections. The posterolateral tunnel was detected in 1.14%, and the posterior and lateral ponticuli in 6.57 and 2% of vertebrae. Probably the bony roof of the posterolateral tunnel serves the purpose of additional lateral extension for the attachment of the posterior atlanto-occipital membrane in quadrupeds, where the load of the head is supported by the extensor muscles of the neck, ligaments and posterior atlanto-occipital membrane. In man, where the weight of the head is borne by the vertical loading of the superior articular process of the atlas, the roof of the tunnel has disappeared.  (+info)

Agenesis of the posterior arch of the atlas. (6/126)

PURPOSE: To illustrate the radiological findings and review the current literature concerning a rare congenital abnormality of the posterior arch of the atlas. CASE REPORT: An adult female without neurological symptoms presented with an absent posterior arch of the atlas, examined with plain films and helical computerized tomography. Complete agenesis of the posterior arch of the atlas is a rare entity that can be easily identified by means of plain films. Although it is generally asymptomatic, atlantoaxial instability and neurological deficits may occur because of structural instability. Computerized tomography provides a means of assessing the extent of this abnormality and can help evaluate the integrity of neural structures. Although considered to be rare entities, defects of the posterior arch of the atlas may be discovered as incidental asymptomatic findings in routine cervical radiographs. Familiarity with this abnormality may aid medical professionals in the correct management of these cases.  (+info)

Cervical myelopathy caused by hypoplasia of the atlas and ossification of the transverse ligament--case report. (7/126)

A 79-year-old Japanese female presented with symptomatic cervical myelopathy caused by a hypoplastic posterior arch of the atlas and ossification of the transverse ligament. Neuroradiological examination demonstrated a hypoplastic posterior arch of the atlas and ossification of the transverse ligament. The cervical spinal cord was compressed at the level of the atlas by both the hypoplastic posterior arch of the atlas and the ossification of the transverse ligament. The patient underwent C-1 laminectomy, which arrested the progressive myelopathy and resulted in a good recovery. Atlas hypoplasia with ossification of the transverse ligament may be associated with Asian ethnicity.  (+info)

Vertebrobasilar artery insufficiency in rheumatoid atlantoaxial subluxation. (8/126)

Cervical myelopathy has become commonly recognized as a complication of rheumatoid atlantoaxial subluxation. A small group of patients with atlantoaxial subluxation may have intermittent symptoms associated with change of head position and which are due to vertebral artery compression. Two such cases are reported, one with necropsy findings of infarction in the area supplied by the vertebrobasilar system. The pathogenesis of the symptomatology and infarction is discussed.  (+info)

  • The atlas is located at the top of the neck, just inferior to the condyles of the occipital bone of the skull and superior to the C2 vertebra. (innerbody.com)
  • december 2017 uk researchers find significant correlations using flexedneck position mri scans of cavaliers and other brachycephalic dogs with and without chiarilike malformation.occipital condyles wikipedia the occipital condyles are ursurface protuberances of the occipital bone in vertebrates which function in articulation with the superior facets of the atlas vertebra.normal thickness and appearance of the prevertebral soft materials and methods. (blogspot.com)
  • La primera vértebra cervical establece una articulación sinovial con los cóndilos del occipital, sin que haya de por medio disco fibrocartilaginoso. (bvsalud.org)
  • The first cervical vertebra establishes a synovial joint with the occipital condyles , without having a fibrocartilaginous disc. (bvsalud.org)
  • The C1 vertebra, or atlas, is ring-shaped, has large lateral masses, and attaches to the occipital condyles of the skull, providing support. (medscape.com)
  • Ishikawa Y, Kanemura T, Yoshida G, Ito Z, Muramoto A, Ohno S (2010) Clinical accuracy of three-dimensional fluoroscopy-based computer-assisted cervical pedicle screw placement: a retrospective comparative study of conventional versus computer-assisted cervical pedicle screw placement. (springer.com)
  • This product is considered the standard of colposcopy and has the reputation of being the bestselling educational teaching module for the physician, resident, or advanced practice clinician who wishes to bridge the gap between the obvious need for increased early detection of cervical, vaginal, and vulvar disease and the intensive education required for colposcopy. (lww.co.uk)
  • This chapter discusses four significant items: (1) incidences of abnormal colposcopy in healthy women, (2) comparison of its abnormality with histology and (3) cytology, and (4) colposcopic findings focused on the lesions in cervical canal to prevent misdiagnosis. (intechopen.com)
  • Neck pain associated with whiplash-associated disorders resulting from an automobile accident are reportedly the most prevalent cause for discomfort along the cervical spine. (elpasochiropractorblog.com)
  • Those with hypertension and absence of neck pain will have misalignment of their Atlas vertebra where upon correction will lead to significant lowering of their blood pressure. (ucmonograph.org)
  • Cervical spine manipulation has been found to be effective in patients with mechanical neck pain. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The aim of this study will be to investigate the effects of cervical spine manipulation on pain, disability and cervicokinethesia in patients with mechanical neck pain. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The aims of this study were to examine autonomic nervous system responses by using heart rate variability analysis (HRV), hemodynamic parameters and numeric pain scale (NPS) when either upper (C1 and C2) or lower (C6 and C7) cervical segments were manipulated in volunteers, and whether such response would be altered in acute mechanical neck pain patients after spinal manipulative therapy (SMT). (chiro.org)
  • However, dominance of parasympathetic activity was found in patients with neck pain that received both upper and lower cervical SMT. (chiro.org)
  • We have used cDNA expression arrays to identify global alterations in gene expression induced by E6 and E7 in differentiating cultures of human cervical keratinocytes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Studies were included if they described the annual direct cost of invasive cervical cancer and detailed the costing method. (scirp.org)
  • Middle-income countries (MIC) spent median 72.52% of its GDP per capita on the treatment of invasive cervical cancer, while high-income countries (HIC) spent median 30.12% (p = 0.032). (scirp.org)
  • The correction theoretically removes the cord distortion, created by an atlas misalignment or atlas subluxation complex (ASC), as specifically defined by NUCCA. (hindawi.com)