Ceruletide: A specific decapeptide obtained from the skin of Hila caerulea, an Australian amphibian. Caerulein is similar in action and composition to CHOLECYSTOKININ. It stimulates gastric, biliary, and pancreatic secretion; and certain smooth muscle. It is used in paralytic ileus and as diagnostic aid in pancreatic malfunction.Anastomosis, Surgical: Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.Anal Canal: The terminal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, beginning from the ampulla of the RECTUM and ending at the anus.Rectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.Arteriovenous Anastomosis: A vessel that directly interconnects an artery and a vein, and that acts as a shunt to bypass the capillary bed. Not to be confused with surgical anastomosis, nor with arteriovenous fistula.Colostomy: The surgical construction of an opening between the colon and the surface of the body.Anastomotic Leak: Breakdown of the connection and subsequent leakage of effluent (fluids, secretions, air) from a SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS of the digestive, respiratory, genitourinary, and cardiovascular systems. Most common leakages are from the breakdown of suture lines in gastrointestinal or bowel anastomosis.Surgical Stapling: A technique of closing incisions and wounds, or of joining and connecting tissues, in which staples are used as sutures.Poly A: A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Fagopyrum: A plant genus of the family POLYGONACEAE that is used as an EDIBLE GRAIN. Although the seeds are used as cereal, the plant is not one of the cereal grasses (POACEAE).Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled: The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.Drugs, Essential: Drugs considered essential to meet the health needs of a population as well as to control drug costs.Suramin: A polyanionic compound with an unknown mechanism of action. It is used parenterally in the treatment of African trypanosomiasis and it has been used clinically with diethylcarbamazine to kill the adult Onchocerca. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1643) It has also been shown to have potent antineoplastic properties.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Baclofen: A GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID derivative that is a specific agonist of GABA-B RECEPTORS. It is used in the treatment of MUSCLE SPASTICITY, especially that due to SPINAL CORD INJURIES. Its therapeutic effects result from actions at spinal and supraspinal sites, generally the reduction of excitatory transmission.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)BooksInvertebrate Hormones: Hormones produced by invertebrates, usually insects, mollusks, annelids, and helminths.Leeches: Annelids of the class Hirudinea. Some species, the bloodsuckers, may become temporarily parasitic upon animals, including man. Medicinal leeches (HIRUDO MEDICINALIS) have been used therapeutically for drawing blood since ancient times.Hirudo medicinalis: A species of European freshwater LEECHES used for BLOODLETTING in ancient times and also for LEECHING in modern times.Proteinase Inhibitory Proteins, Secretory: Peptides and proteins found in BODILY SECRETIONS and BODY FLUIDS that are PROTEASE INHIBITORS. They play a role in INFLAMMATION, tissue repair and innate immunity (IMMUNITY, INNATE) by inhibiting endogenous proteinases such as those produced by LEUKOCYTES and exogenous proteases such as those produced by invading microorganisms.Elafin: A secretory proteinase inhibitory protein that was initially purified from human SKIN. It is found in a variety mucosal secretions and is present at high levels in SPUTUM. Elafin may play a role in the innate immunity (IMMUNITY, INNATE) response of the LUNG.Pancreatic Elastase: A protease of broad specificity, obtained from dried pancreas. Molecular weight is approximately 25,000. The enzyme breaks down elastin, the specific protein of elastic fibers, and digests other proteins such as fibrin, hemoglobin, and albumin. EC 3.4.21.36.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Secretin: A peptide hormone of about 27 amino acids from the duodenal mucosa that activates pancreatic secretion and lowers the blood sugar level. (USAN and the USP Dictionary of Drug Names, 1994, p597)Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Duodenum: The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.Pancreatic Juice: The fluid containing digestive enzymes secreted by the pancreas in response to food in the duodenum.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.RxNorm: A standardized nomenclature for clinical drugs and drug delivery devices. It links its names to many of the drug vocabularies commonly used in pharmacy management.Encephalitis Virus, Murray Valley: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), found in Australia and New Guinea. It causes a fulminating viremia resembling Japanese encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, JAPANESE).Bell Palsy: A syndrome characterized by the acute onset of unilateral FACIAL PARALYSIS which progresses over a 2-5 day period. Weakness of the orbicularis oculi muscle and resulting incomplete eye closure may be associated with corneal injury. Pain behind the ear often precedes the onset of paralysis. This condition may be associated with HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN infection of the facial nerve. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1376)Encephalitis, Arbovirus: Infections of the brain caused by arthropod-borne viruses (i.e., arboviruses) primarily from the families TOGAVIRIDAE; FLAVIVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE. Life cycles of these viruses are characterized by ZOONOSES, with birds and lower mammals serving as intermediate hosts. The virus is transmitted to humans by the bite of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) or TICKS. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, alterations of mentation, focal neurologic deficits, and COMA. (From Clin Microbiol Rev 1994 Jan;7(1):89-116; Walton, Brain's Diseases of the Nervous System, 10th ed, p321)Nobel PrizeSister Mary Joseph's Nodule: Metastatic lesion of the UMBILICUS associated with intra-abdominal neoplasms especially of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or OVARY.Umbilicus: The pit in the center of the ABDOMINAL WALL marking the point where the UMBILICAL CORD entered in the FETUS.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1: A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.Glucagon-Like Peptide 1: A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.Incretins: Peptides which stimulate INSULIN release from the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS following oral nutrient ingestion, or postprandially.Receptors, Glucagon: Cell surface receptors that bind glucagon with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Activation of glucagon receptors causes a variety of effects; the best understood is the initiation of a complex enzymatic cascade in the liver which ultimately increases the availability of glucose to body organs.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide: A gastrointestinal peptide hormone of about 43-amino acids. It is found to be a potent stimulator of INSULIN secretion and a relatively poor inhibitor of GASTRIC ACID secretion.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Glucagon-Like Peptides: Peptides derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of pancreatic GLUCAGON. Despite expression of proglucagon in multiple tissues, the major production site of glucagon-like peptides (GLPs) is the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLPs include glucagon-like peptide 1, glucagon-like peptide 2, and the various truncated forms.Gallbladder: A storage reservoir for BILE secretion. Gallbladder allows the delivery of bile acids at a high concentration and in a controlled manner, via the CYSTIC DUCT to the DUODENUM, for degradation of dietary lipid.Sincalide: An octapeptide hormone present in the intestine and brain. When secreted from the gastric mucosa, it stimulates the release of bile from the gallbladder and digestive enzymes from the pancreas.Cholecystokinin: A peptide, of about 33 amino acids, secreted by the upper INTESTINAL MUCOSA and also found in the central nervous system. It causes gallbladder contraction, release of pancreatic exocrine (or digestive) enzymes, and affects other gastrointestinal functions. Cholecystokinin may be the mediator of satiety.Gallbladder Emptying: A process whereby bile is delivered from the gallbladder into the duodenum. The emptying is caused by both contraction of the gallbladder and relaxation of the sphincter mechanism at the choledochal terminus.Receptors, Cholecystokinin: Cell surface proteins that bind cholecystokinin (CCK) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholecystokinin receptors are activated by GASTRIN as well as by CCK-4; CCK-8; and CCK-33. Activation of these receptors evokes secretion of AMYLASE by pancreatic acinar cells, acid and PEPSIN by stomach mucosal cells, and contraction of the PYLORUS and GALLBLADDER. The role of the widespread CCK receptors in the central nervous system is not well understood.Devazepide: A derivative of benzodiazepine that acts on the cholecystokinin A (CCKA) receptor to antagonize CCK-8's (SINCALIDE) physiological and behavioral effects, such as pancreatic stimulation and inhibition of feeding.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.

Transforming growth factor-beta-induced upregulation of transforming growth factor-beta receptor expression in pancreatic regeneration. (1/463)

The transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) signaling pathway is one important player in the regulation of extracellular matrix turnover and cell proliferation in epithelial regeneration. We used cerulein-induced pancreatitis in rats as a model to investigate the regulation of TGFbeta receptor type I and type II expression on protein and messenger RNA level during regeneration. In the regenerating pancreas, mRNA levels of TGFbeta receptor I and II were significantly increased with a maximum after 2 days. On protein level, expression of TGFbeta receptor II was significantly increased after three to 3-5 days. This elevated expression could be inhibited by neutralizing the endogenous biological activity of TGFbeta1 with a specific antibody. In cultured pancreatic epithelial cells, TGFbeta1 reduced cell proliferation as measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation. Furthermore the transcript levels of TGFbeta1 as well as mRNA and protein concentrations of type I and type II receptor increased during TGFbeta stimulation in vitro. These results indicate that epithelial pancreatic cells contribute to the enhanced TGFbeta1 synthesis during pancreatic regeneration by an autocrine mechanism. TGFbeta1, furthermore, upregulates the expression of its own receptors during the regenerative process, thereby contributing to the increase of the TGFbeta-induced cellular responses.  (+info)

Secretagogue-induced digestive enzyme activation and cell injury in rat pancreatic acini. (2/463)

The mechanisms responsible for intrapancreatic digestive enzyme activation as well as the relationship between that activation and cell injury during pancreatitis are not understood. We have employed an in vitro system in which freshly prepared pancreatic acini are exposed to a supramaximally stimulating concentration of the CCK analog caerulein to explore these issues. We find that in vitro trypsinogen activation depends on the continued presence of Ca2+ in the suspending medium and that it is half-maximal in the presence of 0.3 mM Ca2+. Caerulein-induced trypsinogen activation can be halted by removal of Ca2+ from the suspending medium or by chelation of intracellular Ca2+. Increasing intracellular Ca2+ with either ionomycin or thapsigargin does not induce trypsinogen activation. We have monitored cell injury by measuring the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from acini and by quantitating intercalation of propidium iodide (PI) into DNA. Leakage of LDH and intercalation of PI in response to supramaximal stimulation with caerulein can be detected only after caerulein-induced trypsinogen activation has already occurred, and these indications of cell injury can be prevented by addition of a cell-permeant protease inhibitor. Our findings indicate that caerulein-induced intra-acinar cell activation of trypsinogen depends on a rise in intracellular Ca2+, which reflects entry of Ca2+ from the suspending medium. Intra-acinar cell activation of trypsinogen is an early as well as a critical event in pancreatitis. The subsequent cell injury in this model is mediated by activated proteases.  (+info)

Myofibroblast proliferation, fibrosis, and defective pancreatic repair induced by cyclosporin in rats. (3/463)

BACKGROUND: Full recovery is always achieved after caerulein induced pancreatitis. Cyclosporin stimulates transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) and may interfere with pancreatic regeneration. AIM: To investigate the effects of cyclosporin after caerulein induced pancreatitis or after caerulein injury. METHODS: Protocol A: rats received cyclosporin daily (20 mg/kg) and caerulein pancreatitis was induced on days 2 and 8. Protocol B: six courses of caerulein pancreatitis were induced at weekly intervals. Cyclosporin was administered on induction and the day before. Rats recovered for two weeks before being killed. Control groups received saline, cyclosporin, or caerulein alone. RESULTS: Protocol A: plasma TGF-beta1 and tissue collagenase rose after pancreatitis but decreased towards baseline values on day 15, matching a low collagen content. Morphology disclosed minimal inflammatory infiltration and some interstitial cells immunoreactive for smooth muscle alpha-actin (SMA). TGF-beta1 increased, and remained high in cyclosporin treated groups (cyclosporin alone and cyclosporin plus caerulein). Rats treated with cyclosporin and caerulein showed severe pancreatic weight reduction, abundant inflammatory infiltrates, increased SMA immunoreactive interstitial cells, high collagen content, and delayed collagenase response. No SMA immunoreactive cells were detected in normal rats. Cyclosporin alone also increased SMA immunoreactive cells, despite the absence of inflammatory infiltration and fairly conserved pancreatic structure. Protocol B: the combined pulse treatment induced appreciable collagen deposition and resulted in a smaller pancreas than controls. Morphological examination showed atrophy, fibrosis, fibroblast proliferation, and mononuclear infiltrates. CONCLUSION: Cyclosporin greatly distorts pancreatic repair, transforming caerulein induced pancreatitis into a fibrotic chronic-like disease. The mechanism involves TGF-beta, myofibroblasts, and defective collagenase activation.  (+info)

Chemotactic peptide uptake in acute pancreatitis: correlation with tissue accumulation of leukocytes. (4/463)

Chemotactic peptides bind specifically to receptors on leukocyte membranes. This property makes them prospective vehicles to evaluate inflammation and infection. We used two well-established models of acute pancreatitis to quantitate the binding of the chemotactic peptide N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine-lysine (fMLFK) to leukocytes and its correlation to degree of organ inflammation. Uptake of the (99m)Tc-labeled nicotinyl hydrazine-derivatized chemotactic peptide analog fMLFK-HYNIC was measured in blood, pancreas, lung, and muscle specimens in rats with edematous or necrotizing pancreatitis and was compared with neutrophil sequestration assessed by myeloperoxidase activity and histology. Chemotactic peptide uptake in the pancreas was increased in mild and severe pancreatitis compared with controls, with higher levels in severe than in mild disease, and correlated with tissue myeloperoxidase activity (r = 0.7395, P < 0.001). Increased pulmonary uptake only in severe pancreatitis reflected pancreatitis-induced neutrophil sequestration in the lungs. Muscle uptake was unchanged compared with controls. Edema formation did not affect chemotactic peptide uptake. The data suggest that uptake of chemotactic peptides can contribute to quantitative assessment of neutrophils in localized inflammatory processes and is independent of associated edema formation or microcirculatory compromise.  (+info)

Caerulein-induced NF-kappaB/Rel activation requires both Ca2+ and protein kinase C as messengers. (5/463)

The eukaryotic transcription factor NF-kappaB/Rel is activated by a large variety of stimuli. We have recently shown that NF-kappaB/Rel is induced during the course of caerulein pancreatitis. Here, we show that activation of NF-kappaB/Rel by caerulein, a CCK analog, requires increasing intracellular Ca2+ levels and protein kinase C activation. Caerulein induces a dose-dependent increase of nuclear NF-kappaB/Rel binding activity in pancreatic lobules, which is paralleled by degradation of IkappaBalpha. IkappaBbeta was only slightly affected by caerulein treatment. Consistent with an involvement of Ca2+, the endoplasmic reticulum-resident Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin activated NF-kappaB/Rel in pancreatic lobules. The intracellular Ca2+ chelator TMB-8 prevented IkappaBalpha degradation and subsequent nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB/Rel induced by caerulein. BAPTA-AM was less effective. Cyclosporin A, a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase (PP2B) inhibitor, decreased caerulein-induced NF-kappaB/Rel activation and IkappaBalpha degradation. The inhibitory effect of bisindolylmaleimide suggests that protein kinase C activity is also required for caerulein-induced NF-kappaB/Rel activation. These data suggest that Ca2+- as well as protein kinase C-dependent mechanisms are required for caerulein-induced NF-kappaB/Rel activation.  (+info)

Trypsin and activation of circulating trypsinogen contribute to pancreatitis-associated lung injury. (6/463)

Pancreatic proteases are secreted in acute pancreatitis, but their contribution to associated lung injury is unclear. Applying models of mild edematous (intravenous caerulein) and severe necrotizing (intraductal glycodeoxycholic acid) pancreatitis in rats, we showed that both trypsinogen and trypsin concentrations in peripheral blood, as well as lung injury, correlate with the severity of the disease. To isolate the potential contribution of proteases to lung injury, trypsin or trypsinogen was injected into healthy rats or trypsinogen secreted in caerulein pancreatitis was activated by intravenous enterokinase. Pulmonary injury induced by protease infusions was dose dependent and was ameliorated by neutrophil depletion. Trypsinogen activation worsened lung injury in mild pancreatitis. In vitro incubation of leukocytes with trypsinogen showed that stimulated leukocytes can convert trypsinogen to trypsin. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the occurrence and severity of pancreatitis-associated lung injury (PALI) corresponds to the levels of circulating trypsinogen and its activation to trypsin. Neutrophils are involved in both protease activation and development of pulmonary injury.  (+info)

Acinar cell apoptosis and the origin of tubular complexes in caerulein-induced pancreatitis. (7/463)

The interrelationship between acinar cell apoptosis and tubular complex formation was examined in caerulein-induced pancreatitis using histology, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy and DNA gel electrophoresis. Rats were given 8 hourly subcutaneous injections of caerulein, 24 micrograms/kg, for up to 2 days. Morphologically and biochemically typical apoptosis affected 4.6 and 8.9% of acinar cells at 1 and 2 days, respectively, resulting in removal of most acinar cells by 2 days. Consequently, pancreatic ducts, the lining cells expressing bcl-2 and therefore resistant to apoptosis, became much more closely approximated to form the basis of tubular complexes; small numbers of immunohistochemically discrete acinar cells in their lining were either pre-apoptotic resistant to it or newly formed. Proliferation of duct-like lining cells was associated with apoptosis, an increase in islet cells and acinar cell regeneration. There was evidence of duct to acinar cell differentiation but the main increase in acinar cell numbers appeared to derive from proliferation of newly formed acinar cells.  (+info)

HSP27 expression regulates CCK-induced changes of the actin cytoskeleton in CHO-CCK-A cells. (8/463)

We investigated how heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) and its phosphorylation are involved in the action of cholecystokinin (CCK) on the actin cytoskeleton by genetic manipulation of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably transfected with the CCK-A receptor. In these cells, as in rat acini, CCK activated p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and increased the phosphorylation of HSP27. This effect could be blocked with the p38 MAP kinase inhibitor SB-203580. Examination by confocal microscopy of cells stained with rhodamine phalloidin showed that CCK dose-dependently induced changes of the actin cytoskeleton, including cell shape changes, which were coincident with actin cytoskeleton fragmentation and formation of actin filament patches in the cells. To further evaluate the role of HSP27, CHO-CCK-A cells were transfected with expression vectors for either wild-type (wt) or mutant (3A, 3G, and 3D) human HSP27. Overexpression of wt-HSP27 and 3D-HSP27 inhibited the effects on the actin cytoskeleton seen after high-dose CCK stimulation. In contrast, overexpression of nonphosphorylatable mutants, 3A- and 3G-HSP27, or inhibition of phosphorylation of HSP27 by preincubation of wt-HSP27 transfected cells with SB-203580 did not protect the actin cytoskeleton. These results suggest that phosphorylation of HSP27 is required to stabilize the actin cytoskeleton and to protect the cells from the effects of high concentrations of CCK.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of cerulein hyperstimulation on the paracellular barrier of rat exocrine pancreas. AU - Fallon, Michael B.. AU - Gorelick, Fred S.. AU - Anderson, James M.. AU - Mennone, Albert. AU - Saluja, Ashok. AU - Steer, Michael L.. PY - 1995/6. Y1 - 1995/6. N2 - Background/Aims: Cerulein-induced pancreatitis causes a rapid increase in pancreatic enzyme levels in serum and decreases in pancreatic duct secretion and interstitial edema. One mechanism to explain these early events is disruption of the actin tight junction paracellular seal of acinar and intralobular pancreatic duct cells. Methods: To examine the paracellular barrier of the proximal exocrine pancreas, rats were hyperstimulated with 5.0 μg · kg-1 · h-1 of cerulein. Actin was visualized with rhodamine phalloidin and by electron microscopy and tight junctions were visualized with antibodies to the tight-junction protein ZO-1. Paracellular permeability was measured by movement of horseradish peroxidase from interstitium ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Injury to pancreatic acinar cells is thought to be the initiating point for the progression of acute pancreatitis, and, therefore, they represent an ideal experimental system to study the mechanisms of experimental acute pancreatitis (Bhatia et al., 2005). In experimental acute pancreatitis models, SP has been shown to be up-regulated and plays a proinflammatory role (Lau and Bhatia, 2006). The use of PPT-A gene knockout models and pharmacological antagonism of NK1R reduced the severity of AP and its associated lung injury, showing the importance of SP-NK1R interaction in AP (Bhatia et al., 1998; Lau et al., 2005). SP and NK1R are expressed in the pancreatic acinar cells, and this expression could contribute to the overall outcome of caerulein-induced AP.. Our results showed that treatment of pancreatic acinar cells with caerulein up-regulated gene expression of PPT-A and NK1R and also peptide levels of SP. At a physiological concentration of caerulein (10−10 M), the expression of PPT-A, NK1R, ...
The protective role of hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) in various inflammatory conditions is mediated in part by its products, carbon monoxide (CO) and biliverdin. Here we investigated a therapeutic role for CO and CO-primed cells in acute pancreatitis (AP). In a mouse model of AP, treatment with CO-releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2) decreased mortality, pancreatic damage, and lung injury. CORM-2 decreased systemic inflammatory cytokines, suppressed systemic and pancreatic macrophage TNF-α secretion, and inhibited macrophage TLR4 receptor complex expression. In both human and mouse cells, CORM-2 inhibited endogenous and exogenous ligand-dependent TLR4 activation, which indicates that CORM-2 could be therapeutic for both early and late stages of AP, which involve sterile- and endotoxin-mediated inflammation, respectively. Mice engrafted with TLR4-deficient hematopoietic cells were protected against caerulein-induced AP. In the absence of leukocyte TLR4 expression, CORM-2 did not confer additional protection, ...
Abstract: Melatonin, an antioxidant, protects the pancreas against acute inflammation but, although this indole is released mainly at night, no study has been undertaken to determine circadian changes of plasma melatonin levels and the severity of acute pancreatitis. The aims of this study were: (a) to compare the severity of caerulein-induced pancreatitis (CIP) produced in the rat during the day and at the night, and (b) to assess the changes of plasma melatonin level and the activity of an antioxidative enzyme; superoxide dismutase (SOD), in the pancreas subjected to CIP during the day time and at night without or with administration of exogenous melatonin or its precursor; l-tryptophan. Rats were kept in 12 hr light/dark cycle. CIP was induced by subcutaneous infusion of caerulein (5 μg/kg/hr for 5 hr). Melatonin (5 or 25 mg/kg) or l-tryptophan (50 or 250 mg/kg) was given intraperitoneally 30 min prior to the start of CIP. CIP induced during the day time was confirmed by histological ...
Background and Aims: Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease involving acinar cell injury, and the rapid production and release of inflammatory cytokines, which play a dominant role in local pancreatic inflammation and systemic complications. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) initiates a complex signalling pathway when it interacts with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which ultimately results in a proinflammatory response. We hypothesised that TLR4 is important in the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis, independently of LPS. Using two different models of acute pancreatitis, we investigated how genetic deletion of TLR4 or its co-receptor CD14 effects its progression and severity.. Methods: We induced acute pancreatitis by administering either caerulein or l-arginine to wild-type, TLR4−/−, and CD14−/− mice. Control mice received normal saline injections. The severity of acute pancreatitis was determined by measuring serum amylase activity, quantifying myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the ...
Caerulein caused a marked decrease in levels of guanosine 3,5-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) in the cerebellum in rats. This effect was observed to be dose-dependent after the intraperitoneal administration of caerulein for doses over 20 micrograms/kg and lasted for about 4 hr in doses of 100 micrograms/kg. However, in vagotomized rats, caerulein failed to alter the level of cGMP in the cerebellum. Caerulein suppressed harmaline-induced increases in cGMP in the cerebellum for more than 30 hr. In contrast, the increases in levels of cGMP in the cerebellum, induced by treatment with methamphetamine, apomorphine and picrotoxin, were not inhibited by pretreatment with caerulein. These results suggest that the peripheral administration of caerulein can inhibit the activity of climbing fibers for a long period of time in the cerebellum of the rat through the stimulation of the abdominal vagus nerves.
Effect of endothelin-1 receptor antagonists on histological and ultrastructural changes in the pancreas and trypsinogen activation in the early course of caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in rats
Context Oxidative stress is understood to have a critical role in the development of acinar injury in experimental acute pancreatitis. We have previ..
Cytosolic free calcium concentrations ([Ca2+]i) and amylase secretion were measured in isolated rat pancreatic acini loaded with the intracellularly trapped fluorescent indicator quin2. Both caerulein and carbamoylcholine caused a rapid increase in [Ca2+]i, with a maximal 3-fold increase at 10(-9) M-caerulein and 10(-4) M-carbamoylcholine. However, caerulein (10(-12) M and 10(-11) M) as well as carbamoylcholine (10(-7) M) caused a significant stimulation of amylase release, while not inducing any detectable rise in [Ca2+]i. Changes in [Ca2+]i after addition of either secretagogue were transient and did not last more than 2-3 min. By contrast, when amylase secretion was monitored as a function of time, two distinct secretory phases could be observed upon addition of either carbamoylcholine (10(-5) M) or caerulein (10(-10) M). An initial, rapid phase (0-5 min) which caused a 6-7-fold increase above basal, followed by a sustained (5-30 min), but less marked, secretory rate (2-3-fold above basal). ...
Using immunohistochemistry, Northern blotting and a semi-quantitative PCR technique, epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression were studied in the pancreas of N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)-amine (BOP)-treated hamsters. After initiation pancreatic carcinogenesis was modulated by a high fat diet or by injections with the cholecystokinin analogue caerulein. Autopsies were performed 6 and 12 months after the last injection with BOP. Immunohistochemistry revealed a weak expression of TGF-α innormal acinar cells and a stronger expression in ductular and centro-acinar cells. Over-expression of TGFα was observed in advanced putative preneoplastic lesions (classified as borderline lesions) and in ductular adenocarcinomas. EGFR immunoreactivity was present only in ductular adenocarcinomas. EGF peptide expression was observed both in acinar and ductular normal and tumorous cells and the level of expression did not change ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Gitta M Seleznik, Theresia Reding, Lukas Peter, Anurag Gupta, Sabrina G Steiner, Sabrina Sonda, Caroline S Verbeke, Emmanuel Dejardin, Igor Khatkov, Stephan Segerer, Mathias Heikenwalder, Rolf Graf ...
Abstract:. Pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease that starts in pancreatic acinar cells and results in significant morbidity and mortality. Currently there is no therapy for pancreatitis because of lack of complete understanding of the disease mechanism. Premature trypsinogen activation is considered to be the key event in the disease development. However recent research in the field has pointed out that besides trypsinogen activation there are many other important factors that play important role in the disease. Our recent study in Trypsinogen-7 knock out (T7-/-) mice has supported this and for the first time shown that intra-acinar trypsinogen activation contributes only partially to acinar injury and local and systemic inflammation progress independently of trypsin activation during pancreatitis. NF-κB activation that happens parallel and independent to trypsinogen activation can still drive the development of the acute or chronic pancreatitis even in absence of trypsin.. 1. ...
Background Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand activated transcription factors belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily. PPARs activation has a profound impact on the local immune response with consequences affecting the progression of chronic inflammatory diseases. Relatively little is known on the role of PPAR-β/δ in the regulation of inflammatory responses. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of PPAR-β/δ receptor in a model of edematous pancreatitis induced in mice by administration of cerulein at supramaximal doses, as well as in necrohemorrhagic model induced by intraductal administration of sodium taurocholate (STC). Measurements Mice were treated with cerulein (50 μg/kg) or STC (5%). GW0742 (0.3 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally administered 1 and 6 hours after cerulein injection or was injected 2 hours before STC infusion. The pancreas and exopancreatic organs were carefully removed for microscopic examination. Pancreatic weight, ...
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Caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis accelerates the progression of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) lesions in a pancreas-specific KrasG12D mouse model. The purpose of this study was to explore whether serum microRNAs (miRNAs) can serve as sensitive biomarkers to detect occult PanIN in the setting of acute pancreatitis. Serum miRNA profiles were quantified by an array-based method and normalized by both Variance Stabilization Normalization (VSN) and invariant methods. Individual miRNAs were validated by TaqMan real-time PCR with synthetic spike-in C. elegans miRNAs as external controls. Serum miRNA profiles distinguished KrasG12D mice with pancreatitis from wild-type mice without pancreatitis, but failed to differentiate KrasG12D mice with pancreatitis from wild-type mice with pancreatitis. Most individual miRNAs that increased in KrasG12D mice with pancreatitis were not significantly different between KrasG12D mice without pancreatitis and wild-type mice without pancreatitis. ...
Resveratrol Protects against Methylglyoxal-Induced Hyperglycemia and Pancreatic Damage In Vivo. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Sreelatha S, Vedavathy Nayak*, Gayathri C , Renuka Ramaiah. ABSTRACT. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess whether hyoscine butyl bromide is effective in improving cervical effacement and dilatation, thus reducing the duration of first stage of labour without causing any maternal and neonatal complications. Materials and Methods: It was a prospective, comparative, observational study. 80 women with term pregnancies in active labour were recruited for the study. They were allocated into 2 groups, study and control group each with 40 patients. The duration of active labour was taken from 3 cm dilatation to full dilatation of the cervix. The study group received 40 mg HBB as slow I V injection (over 1 - 2 min) given at hourly intervals up to a maximum of 3 doses starting at 3 cm dilatation. Results: The mean duration of active phase of labour was 109.28 ± 58. 42 minutes in the study group and 317.48 ± 108.9 in the control group. The difference between the 2 groups was statistically ...
n. the most common congenital disease; the childs lungs and intestines and pancreas become clogged with thick mucus; caused by defect in a single gene; no cure is ...
References. 1. Day HL, Taylor RM. The liver. Part 5: acute liver failure. Nurs Times 2006; 102: 26-27. [ Links ] 2. Kawasaki T, Ishihara K, Ago Y, Nakamura S, Itoh S, Baba A, et al. Protective effect of the radical scavenger edaravone against methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in mouse striatum. Eur J Pharmacol 2006; 542: 92-99, doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2006.05.012. [ Links ] 3. Yang T, Mao YF, Liu SQ, Hou J, Cai ZY, Hu JY, et al. Protective effects of the free radical scavenger edaravone on acute pancreatitis-associated lung injury. Eur J Pharmacol 2010; 630: 152-157, doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2009.12.025. [ Links ] 4. Okatani Y, Wakatsuki A, Enzan H, Miyahara Y. Edaravone protects against ischemia/reperfusion-induced oxidative damage to mitochondria in rat liver. Eur J Pharmacol 2003; 465: 163-170, doi: 10.1016/S0014-2999(03)01463-8. [ Links ] 5. Ito K, Ozasa H, Noda Y, Arii S, Horikawa S. Effects of free radical scavenger on acute liver injury induced by d-galactosamine and ...
In Diabetic ketoacidosis when pain abdomen is one of the major clinical finding, serum amylase levels are obtained, to rule out the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis (since the latter too can present with acute pain abdomen). If the serum amylase levels are found high in patients with Diabetic ketoacidosis, it may not be due…
Endocytic vacuoles can be up to 10 μm in diameter and appear specifically in pathological conditions as a result of aberrant retrieval of structures formed by compound endocytosis [7]. The co-localization hypothesis of trypsinogen activation suggests intracellular/intra-organellar activation of trypsinogen and the formation of active (and potentially damaging) trypsin as a result of fusion of trypsinogen containing organelles with organelles containing lysosomal proteases (reviewed in [31]). In our previous study, we have indeed detected trypsin activity in the endocytic vacuoles and observed that some of the vacuoles have lysosomal markers [7]. In the present study, we specifically addressed the question about the role of SOCE in the formation of these vacuoles. The results of our experiments revealed that the SOCE-mediated Ca2+ plateaus produced by CCK or TLC-S (two commonly used inducers of experimental pancreatitis) are effectively suppressed by the Orai1 inhibitor GSK-7975A and that this ...
Inhibition of Jak/STAT Signaling Reduces the Activation of Pancreatic Stellate Cells In Vitro and Limits Cerulein-Induced Chronic Pancreatitis In Vivo Investigators utilized primary and immortalized pancreatic stellate cells obtained from mice and patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) or pancreatic cancer to examine the effect of Jak/STAT and MAPK pathway inhibition in vitro. The well-characterized cerulein model of CP was used to assess the therapeutic efficacy of Jak1/2 inhibition in vivo. [Sci Rep] Full Article The Neuronal K+Cl− Co-Transporter 2 (Slc12a5) Modulates Insulin Secretion Using molecular cloning, RT-PCR, Western blotting, immunolocalization and in vitro functional assays, researchers established that the "neuron-specific" K+Cl− co-transporter 2 (Slc12a5) is expressed in several endocrine cells of the pancreatic islet, including glucagon secreting α-cells, but particularly in insulin-secreting β-cells, where they provide evidence for its role in the insulin secretory ...
ABSTRACT The pancreatic islets are more richly vascularized than the exocrine pancreas, and possess a 5‐ to 10‐fold higher basal and stimulated blood flow, which is separately regulated
... is a sudden inflammation of the pancreas. The most common symptoms and signs include severe, dull epigastric pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia and fever. Alcohol consumption and biliary stone disease cause most cases of acute pancreatitis.… Acute Pancreatitis: Read more about Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Complications, Causes and Prognosis.
Taking as the starting point a recently suggested reaction scheme for zymogen activation involving intra- and intermolecular routes and the enzyme-zymogen complex, we carry out a complete analysis of the relative contribution of both routes in the process. This analysis suggests the definition of new dimensionless parameters allowing the elaboration, from the values of the rate constants and initial conditions, of the time course of the contribution of the two routes. The procedure mentioned above related to a concrete reaction scheme is extrapolated to any other model of autocatalytic zymogen activation involving intra- and intermolecular routes. Finally, we discuss the contribution of both of the activating routes in pepsinogen activation into pepsin using the values of the kinetic parameters given in the literature ...
Market Scenario: Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory state of the pancreas that is excruciatingly pain full and now and at times fatal. Regardless of the technological advances in critical care drugs in the course of recent years, the death rate of acute pancreatitis has stayed at around 10%. Diagnosis of pancreatic issues is regularly difficult…
The presented recommendations concern the current management of acute pancreatitis. The recommendations relate to the diagnostics and treatment of early and late phases of acute pancreatitis and complications of the disease taking into consideration surgical and endoscopic methods. All the...
I also have this to come. I believe I will be having this same day as the DMSA. The GFR is a test to assess the capability of the kidney to clear the blood of a substance. A small amount of dye is injected into a vein and blood samples are taken at hourly intervals for three/four hours, to measure the renal clearance of the dye. Finally I have to see the Consultant Nephrologist again as he gives the final decision as to whether I am medically fit enough etc to donate a kidney.. All the information is given to an independant Assessor and I have a meeting with him. He needs to make sure I understand everything etc etc. He then makes a report and presents to the Human Tissue Board and seeks their permission for the donation to go ahead. The producing of the report and seeking permission can take up to a month in total.. It was explained to me that there was no guarantee that it would be keyhole surgery. The surgeon would make that decision once both kidneys had been evaluted etc. It is not ...
I also have this to come. I believe I will be having this same day as the DMSA. The GFR is a test to assess the capability of the kidney to clear the blood of a substance. A small amount of dye is injected into a vein and blood samples are taken at hourly intervals for three/four hours, to measure the renal clearance of the dye. Finally I have to see the Consultant Nephrologist again as he gives the final decision as to whether I am medically fit enough etc to donate a kidney.. All the information is given to an independant Assessor and I have a meeting with him. He needs to make sure I understand everything etc etc. He then makes a report and presents to the Human Tissue Board and seeks their permission for the donation to go ahead. The producing of the report and seeking permission can take up to a month in total.. It was explained to me that there was no guarantee that it would be keyhole surgery. The surgeon would make that decision once both kidneys had been evaluted etc. It is not ...
Pancreatitis begins as acute pancreatitis; if not treated, it can become a permanent condition called chronic pancreatitis. Pancreatitis is a serious condition that can lead to severe complications and even death if it goes untreated.
Acute Pancreatitis & Green Stools Symptom Checker: Possible causes include Cystic Fibrosis. Check the full list of possible causes and conditions now! Talk to our Chatbot to narrow down your search.
Hey all, Over the weekend I wound up in the ER because of acute pancreatitis. This had never happened before but MAN was it painful.
Pancreatic infection occurs most often as a complication of acute pancreatitis. The unique aspects of pancreatic inflammation predispose to secondary bacterial infection, which occurs in...
How long can a dog live with pancreatitis? Dogs can live quite normally with pancreatitis with treatment at home and early pancreatitis symptom recognition.
Pancreatitis Pipeline Review H1 2017 provides an overview of Pancreatitis (Gastrointestinal) pipeline landscape and Therapeutic Development
Pancreatitis - Pipeline Review, H1 2017, provides in depth analysis on Pancreatitis targeted pipeline therapeutics. The report provides comprehensive infor
The pathologic processes that initiate and perpetuate acute pancreatitis remain unclear. A recognized feature of this disease is the accumulation of vacuoles in...
Acute Pancreatitis, Aetiology and Clinical features of Pancreatitis, Diagnosis of Pancreatitis, Treatment and Complications of Pancreatitis
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If your dog is vomiting or has other symptoms of pancreatitis you need to have her treated right away. Find out why early treatment is so important!
A diabetic patient rushed to the hospital for vomiting and abdomen pain, resulting in a diagnosis of acute severe emphysematous pancreatitis.
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The following pages link to Pancreatitis - often a forgotten diagnosis: View (previous 50 , next 50) (20 , 50 , 100 , 250 , 500) ...
2. Martinez J, Sanchez-Paya J, Palazon JM, Suazo-Barahona J, Robles-Diaz G, Perez-Mateo M. Is obesity a risk factor in acute pancreatitis? A meta-analysis. Pancreatology. 2004;4(1):42-48.. 3. Banks PA, Freeman ML, for the Practice Parameters Committee of the American College of Gastroenterology. Practice guidelines in acute pancreatitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2006;101(10):2379-2400.. 4. Papachristou GI, Papachristou DJ, Avula H, Slivka A, Whitcomb DC. Obesity increases the severity of acute pancreatitis: performance of APACHE-O score and correlation with the inflammatory response. Pancreatology. 2006;6(4):279-285.. 5. De Bernardinis M, Violi V, Roncoroni L, Boselli AS, Giunta A, Peracchia A. Discriminant power and information content of Ransons prognostic signs in acute pancreatitis: a meta-analytic study. Crit Care Med. 1999;27(10):2272-2283.. 6. Johnson CD, Abu-Hilal M. Persistent organ failure during the first week as a marker of fatal outcome in acute pancreatitis. Gut. 2004;53(9):1340-1344. ...
Serum amylase and lipase measurements are often used to diagnose acute pancreatitis. This study addresses the question of whether it is advantageous to order serum amylase and lipase tests simultaneously. We evaluated performance of the two tests separately and in combination through a retrospective study of patients for whom both amylase and lipase determinations were ordered. Initial analysis of test performance was conducted with a uniformly applied criterion based on determination of optimal sensitivity-specificity pairs. Individual tests and combinations of tests, including the "AND" and "OR" rules and discriminant functions, were examined. Only the discriminant approach demonstrated better performance than the lipase test alone. This finding was subsequently confirmed by logistic regression analysis. We conclude that ordering both tests simultaneously can be advantageous in diagnosing acute pancreatitis when a bivariate approach is used; however, this must be weighed against the ...
Lets discuss Ibuprofen for pancreatitis. I take it for acute pancreatitis, only acute pancreatitis. If you have chronic pancreatitis you may want to try taking Ibuprofen for pancreatitis daily but ask your doctor if it is safe to take with your current drug regimen. Ibuprofen for pancreatitis is simply common sense but it is NOT a safe drug. Actually there are no safe drugs. A Big Pharma company could take something…. ...
The problem of distinguishing severe and mild disease in patients: The management of acute pancreatitis is complicated by the inability to distinguish patients with mild disease from patients with severe disease during the early stages. Most patients who have complicated courses and who even eventually die from acute pancreatitis initially present with what appears to be mild disease, characterized by the absence of organ failure and/or pancreatic necrosis. It is imperative that clinicians do not label a patient with mild disease within the first 48 hours of admission. This is a common problem leading to substantial morbidity and mortality as patients are often left unmonitored after being falsely labeled as having mild disease. Historically, prospective scoring systems that use clinical criteria have been developed to determine severity in patients with acute pancreatitis. These systems include the Ranson criteria, Imrie/Glasgow criteria, and APACHE score. Unfortunately, these systems are ...
Background: The epidemiology of acute pancreatitis in the United States is largely unknown, particularly episodes that lead to an emergency department (ED) visit. We sought to address this gap and describe ED practice patterns. Methods: Data were collected from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey between 1993 and 2003. We examined demographic factors and ED management including medication administration, diagnostic imaging, and disposition. Results: ED visits for acute pancreatitis increased over the study period from the 1994 low of 128,000 visits to a 2003 peak of 318,000 visits (p = 0.01). The corresponding ED visit rate per 10,000 U.S. population also increased from 4.9 visits (95%CI, 3.1-6.7) to 10.9 (95%CI, 7.6-14.3) (p = 0.01). The average age for patients making ED visits for acute pancreatitis during the study period was 49.7 years, 54% were male, and 27% were black. The ED visit rate was higher among blacks (14.7; 95%CI, 11.9-17.5) than whites (5.8; 95%CI, 5.0-6.6). At ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pancreatic acinar cell physiology and function. AU - Miller, L. J.. PY - 1992/1/1. Y1 - 1992/1/1. N2 - The past year has witnessed a marked increase in the complexity of intracellular processes involved in the function of a polarized epithelial cell. The pancreatic acinar cell is perhaps the best studied such cell, and the classical model for stimulus-secretion coupling and secretory protein biosynthesis and export. In this review, I examine several new reports that impact on these themes. I include the identification of newly recognized pancreatic secretagogues; insights into the biochemical basis for hormone receptor affinity states and interconversion, desensitization, and internalization; lipid mediators of secretagogue action; patterns and regulators of intracellular calcium events along with their spatial and temporal patterns; regulated channels, transporters, and junctional communication in the acinar cell and cellular organelles; and new insights into regulated ...
Acute pancreatitis is sudden swelling and inflammation. We provide best services for acute pancreatitis treatment and pancreatic necrosis treatment in Kochi, Kerala
Can you drink alcohol after acute pancreatitis - I had an attack of acute pancreatitis due to alcohol consumption and extended exposure to toxic fumes from this epoxy. How long not to drink? MY OPINION ONLY. You should not drink at all forever....you should not NEED alcohol....if you do seek counsel!!! I sincerely hope this will help!!!!!!!! Dr Z
Find best Doctors for Acute Pancreatitis in Alwarpet Chennai. Get medication advice from our expert doctors & book appointment for Acute Pancreatitis online at Ask Apollo.
BERGER F, Zoltán and MANCILLA A, Carla. Chronic pancreatitis: Retrospective review of 121 cases. Rev. méd. Chile [online]. 2016, vol.144, n.12, pp.1544-1552. ISSN 0034-9887. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0034-98872016001200005.. Background: Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a rare disease in Chile, without a clear explanation for this low prevalence. Aim: To analyze the characteristics of our patients with pancreatitis. Material and Methods: Retrospective analysis of a database of patients with pancreatitis of a clinical hospital. Morphological proof of diagnosis (calcifications/calculi, alterations of ducts, local complication or histology) was obtained for every patient. History of acute pancreatitis was recorded and exocrine-endocrine function was assessed. Results: We retrieved information of 121 patients with pancreatitis (86 males) in a period of 20 years. The number of cases increased markedly every five years. The calculated incidence and prevalence was 0.8/100,000/year and 6/100,000, ...
Chronic Pancreatitis.. Signs and symptoms of pancreatitis incorporate pain in the upper abdomen, nausea, and vomiting. In acute pancreatitis, a fever may occur and manifestations typically solve within a few days.In chronic pancreatitis weight loss, fatty stool, and diarrhea also occur. Complications may comprise infection, bleeding, diabetes mellitus, or problems with different organs. Chronic pancreatitis is a long-term condition that can last for months or even several years.. ...
According to Rightdiagnosis.com, about 80,000 cases of acute pancreatitis are admitted to hospitals each year. About 20% of these cases are severe. The Journal of Gasteroenterology states that, "Acute pancreatitis is one of the most frequent gastrointestinal causes of hospital admission in the United States," and notes that while chronic pancreatitis is treatable, it significantly […]. ...
Yesterday, the FDA reported that the popular injectable medicine to treat type 2 diabetes, Byetta (known generically as exenatide), may be linked to cases of acute pancreatitis in some patients. Pancreatitis is an inflammation of the pancreas. Acute pancreatitis (the kind that was linked by the FDA to Byetta) occurs suddenly and lasts for a short period of time but usually resolves itself. Chronic pancreatitis, on the other hand, does not resolve itself and results in a slow destruction of the pancreas. However, either form can cause serious complications, which may include bleeding, tissue damage, and infection ...
BACKGROUND--Menthol is a commonly used ingredient in many over the counter cough remedies, but there is little objective evidence as to its efficacy. METHODS--Twenty healthy subjects received a cough challenge consisting of five inhalations of 33 mumol citric acid from an air driven dosimeter. The challenge was repeated at hourly intervals for five hours. Five minutes before each challenge subjects inhaled, in a randomised design, either menthol 75% in eucalyptus oil or one of two placebos (pine oil or air). RESULTS--Menthol inhalation caused a reduction in evoked cough when compared with either placebo. CONCLUSIONS--Menthol is an effective antitussive agent in an evoked cough model.. ...
... , Gunther Weitz, Julia Woitalla, Peter Wellhöner, Klaus Schmidt, J&
VIENNA -- Acute pancreatitis was not more common with exenatide (Byetta) use compared with other drugs for type 2 diabetes, researchers said here.
Early nutritional support - Patient should be kept nil-by-mouth initially. Enteral feeding is preferable, but oral feeding can commence in cases of mild acute pancreatitis if there is no nausea, vomiting, or abdominal ...
The protective effect of caffeic acid on ferric-induced pancreatic injury was investigated using ex vivo and in silico models. Incubation of pancreatic tissues with Fe2+led to significant depleted...
Cats do get pancreatitis, but making this diagnosis is very challenging. Symptoms of pancreatitis are not specific and they often mimic other diseases. During a pancreatitis attack other organs, namely the liver and kidneys may be damaged. So, a number of tests are used to put all of the clues...
Pancreatitis is a condition caused by swelling of the pancreas: an organ behind the stomach which plays an important role in digestion and handling sugars. Pancreatitis is almost always divided into two types of disease "Acute" and "Chronic." Chronic pancreatitis can occur over many years and causes additional symptoms for people suffering with it. While some cases are mild and usually go away by themselves; others can be more serious (even life-threatening) medical emergencies that require a doctors care.. ...
Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas. Pancreatitis can be acute or chronic. Learn about pancreatitis symptoms and treatment.
Global Markets Directs, Pancreatitis - Pipeline Review, H2 2012, provides an overview of the indications therapeutic pipeline. This report provides information on the therapeutic development for Pancreatitis, complete with latest updates, and special features on late-stage and discontinued projects. It also reviews key players involved in the therapeutic development for Pancreatitis. Pancreatitis - Pipeline Review, Half Year is built using data and information sourced from Global Markets Directs proprietary databases, Company/University websites, SEC filings, investor presentations and featured press releases from company/university sites and industry-specific third party sources, put together by Global Markets Directs team.
In general, the best diets for dogs with pancreatitis use low-fat and easily digestible foods, according to PetMD. For short-term treatment of acute pancreatitis, this may take the form of boiled...
Learn about pancreatitis in dogs, what it is, the symptoms, the causes as well as other important details are included. Pancreatitis is a condition in which the pancreas, the organ vital in the digestion of food, becomes inflammation. This inflammation
I have been suffering from pancreatitis necrosis for many years, so far no cure, many times ... symptoms and treatment of Acute edema of pancreatitis?
A vegetable-rich diet appears to be protective against non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis, results of a cohort study showed.
Pancreatitis is inflammation (swelling) of your pancreas. The pancreas is a gland near your stomach and liver that helps you absorb and digest food.
... is sometimes mistaken for a stomach virus because symptoms can include fever, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Symptoms usually get better on their own, but sometimes treatment is needed.
Question - Red spots below sternum, have pancreatitis. Is this a manifestation of cancer?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Acne, Ask a Dermatologist
Pancreatitis: Started drinking too much recently? Be aware of the harmful effects as well. Heavy drinking can be very harmful for you or the heavy drinker you care for.
Venatropen Gel - vasotonic and refreshing, this product is aimed at improving the microcirculation and controling edematous states.
About 20% of patients with acute pancreatitis have a severe course, and 10-15% of those with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) die. Despite improvements in intensive care treatment during past few decades, effective therapies for acute pancreatitis are still limited.. Early deaths (within the first week) due to severe acute pancreatitis are generally caused by massive inflammatory responses which result in multiple organ failure. Although the exact mechanisms which trigger the inflammatory processes are not completely understood, it is generally accepted that autodigestion and activated leukocytes play important roles in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis. Activation of digestive enzymes causes pancreatic injury and results in an inflammatory response that is out of proportion to the response of other organs to a similar insult. The acute inflammatory response itself causes substantial tissue damage and may progress beyond the pancreas to a systemic inflammatory response syndrome, multi organ ...
The two types of pancreatitis are mild pancreatitis and severe pancreatitis, which are separated based on whether their predominant response to cell injury is inflammation or necrosis, respectively. In mild pancreatitis there is inflammation and edema of the pancreas. In severe pancreatitis there are additional features of necrosis and secondary injury to extrapancreatic organs. Both types share a common mechanism of abnormal inhibition of secretion of zymogens and inappropriate activation of pancreatic zymogens inside the pancreas, most notably trypsinogen. Normally, trypsinogen is activated to trypsin in the duodenum where it assists in the digestion of proteins. During an acute pancreatitis episode there is colocalization of lysosomal enzymes, specifically cathepsin, with trypsinogen. Cathepsin activates trypsinogen to trypsin leading to further activation of other molecules of trypsinogen and immediate pancreatic cell death according to either the necrosis or apoptosis mechanism (or a mix ...
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surrounding tissue retroperitoneum and abdomen, and later transferred to other organs and systems. What is the cause of acute pancreatitis * Gallstones. * The systematic use of alcohol. Cardiologist may also support this cause. * Trauma. Acute pancreatitis can cause blunt trauma with rupture of the ducts, transaction handling, etc. * Viruses, worms, hypertonicity sphincter of Oddi, foreign bodies, etc. * Mixed - acute pancreatitis multifactor etiology - with two or more reasons. Trypsin - pancreatic enzymes activates other pancreatic enzymes, which cause samoperevarivanie body, and can come into the abdominal cavity and systemic circulation, engage in inflammatory process other organs and systems. In parallel with this process in the body produced factors of inflammation - histamine, interleukins, prostaglandins and other immune Violated protection. The pancreas is destroyed its own enzymes, and it formed foci of necrosis (dead areas). Further pathogenic process is beyond the region of the ...
Treatment for acute pancreatitis in Macpherson, Singapore, find doctors near you. Book Appointment Online, View Fees, Reviews Doctors for Acute Pancreatitis Treatment in Macpherson, Singapore | Practo
Pancreatitis: acute versus chronic. The onset of acute pancreatitis is abrupt and dramatic and may follow a heavy meal or an alcoholic binge, causing pancreatic enzymes to break down the pancreas. Gallstones or alcohol abuse are the most common causes of acute pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis takes place over time and involves progressive destruction of the pancreas. Alcoholism, cystic fibrosis and stenosis (narrowing) of the pancreatic duct are common causes of chronic pancreatitis.. The most common causes of pancreatitis are:. ...
Five hospital emergency departments and laboratories send data through DHIN to the Division of Public Health for public health fjtness-compensatory. One of many greatest polymegase of proudly owning a Blu-ray DVD Participant is the truth that you get to relive watching all these great movies you enjoyed up to now, as when you have been watching them for the very first time. How about having it dropped at you by a robotic. Cathepsin B inhibition prevents trypsinogen activation and reduces pancreatitis severity. The younger era, although may be very aware about weight achieve and is determined to get methods to reduce weight. The objectives of the examine had been to look at the existing role of the Ghanaian community and hospital pharmacist within the management of mental pollymerase and to determine the obstacles that hinder pharmacists involvement in the administration of mental healthcare. Overhead beams are used predominantly in homes throughout building. However keep in mutatioons, fitness ...
Lets discuss Ibuprofen for pancreatitis. I take it for acute pancreatitis, only acute pancreatitis. If you have chronic pancreatitis you may want to try taking Ibuprofen for pancreatitis daily but ask your doctor if it is safe to take with your current drug regimen. Ibuprofen for pancreatitis is simply common sense but it is NOT a safe drug. Actually there are no safe drugs. A Big Pharma company could take something…. ...
Acute Pancreatitis: What is Pancreas? It is an organ like liver which helps in digestion of fat and produces Insulin. What Is Pancreatitis? Pancreas inflammation or swelling is Pancreatitis. What are the symptoms of Pancreatitis? Pain in upper abdomen severe with vomiting pain most of times excruciating and sometimes radiates to back. What causes Pancreatitis? […]
Acute pancreatitis results from sudden inflammation of the pancreas and is characterized by activation of pancreatic enzymes that can cause the pancreas to begin digesting itself. The pancreas lies in the upper abdomen alongside the first portion of the small intestine (called the duodenum) and between the stomach, liver and right kidney. It produces bicarbonate to neutralize stomach acid and several enzymes that facilitate digestion.. The cause of acute pancreatitis is poorly understood. Predisposing causes include obesity, high fat diet, liver disease, infection and recent abdominal surgery ...
Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas.. An acute episode of pancreatitis is when digestive enzymes leak out from the pancreas too early. They will digest the actual organs, including the liver, gall bladder, and intestines. Some dogs that recover from an acute pancreatitis episode will always have recurrences of the disease.. Pancreatitis can be life-threatening and can cause major health issues, including brain damage, abnormal bleeding, blood clots, and respiratory failure.. CAUSES:. Typically, the cause of pancreatitis is unknown. However, it may be triggered by:. ...
SDS-PAGE was applied to determine trypsin activity and inhibition. After the hydrolysis by trypsin to substrate bovine serum albulnin (BSA) under different temperatures and pH, the hydrolysis degree of BSA was conducted using SDS-PAGE. From the quantitative analysis to the electrophoresis bands of BSA and its hydrolysis products in SDS-PAGE pattern, the change of trypsin activity was determined, and then the optimum temperature at 40°C and the optimum pH at pH 8.5 - 8.7 for trypsin activity were obtained. All the target bonds in BSA molecule could be hydrolyzed at the same time by trypsin. The inhibition was due to the binding of inhibitor to trypsin, which made it impossible for trypsin to touch the substrate protein. SDS-PAGE was demonstrated to be also an effect method for assaying the characteristics of trypsin activity and its inhibition.
Hyperglycemia or Hypoglycemia with Changes in Insulin Regimen: Changes in an insulin regimen (e.g., insulin strength, manufacturer, type, or injection site or method of administration) may affect glycemic control and predispose to hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia. Repeated insulin injections into areas of lipodystrophy or localized cutaneous amyloidosis have been reported to result in hyperglycemia; and a sudden change in the injection site (to an unaffected area) has been reported to result in hypoglycemia. Make any changes to a patients insulin regimen under close medical supervision with increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring. Advise patients who have repeatedly injected into areas of lipodystrophy or localized cutaneous amyloidosis to change the injection site to unaffected areas and closely monitor for hypoglycemia. Adjustments in concomitant anti-diabetic treatment may be needed ...
title: Suppression of NF-kappaB activation and cytokine production by N-acetylcysteine in pancreatic acinar cells., doi: 10.1016/S0891-5849(00)00368-3, category: Article
Canine acute pancreatitis is a life-threatening emergency with a mortality rate up to 50%. An australian study tried to find whether laboratory testing currently available is able to provide prognostic information in canine pancreatitis.
1. Pigs weaned at 2 d of age were given diets in which a functional fish-protein concentrate (FFPC) supplied 0 (diet U), 350 (diet H), 525 (diet I) or 700 (diet G) g crude protein (nitrogen × 6·25, CP)/kg total CP. The remainder of the CP was supplied by dried skim-milk and whey. The diets were reconstituted (200 g dry matter (DM)/l), from two spray-dried powders (diets U and G) and these were mixed in the proportions 1:1 and 1:3 (v/v) to give diets H and I respectively. All four diets were given at hourly intervals on a scale based on live weight, and supplemented with vitamins and minerals. All diets contained the same amounts of calcium, phosphorus, sodium and potassium.. 2. In an experiment to 28 d of age with ten pigs/diet, performance was inversely related to the amount of FFPC in the diet. One pig (diet I) and four pigs (diet G) died after scouring. In healthy pigs, N retention (g/d per kg live weight) was not affected by partial replacement of dried skim-milk (diet H).. 3. Digestion of ...
Question - Mild acute pancreatitis, recent USG states heterogeneous pancreas invisible tail due to gas. What should be done?. Ask a Doctor about Amylase, Ask a Gastroenterologist
Acute pancreatitis means inflammation of the pancreas that develops quickly. The main symptom is tummy (abdominal) pain. It usually settles in a few days but sometimes it becomes severe and very serious. The most common causes of acute pancreatitis are gallstones and drinking a lot of alcohol. ...
Methemalbumin: A 1:1 molar complex of heme or hematin and albumin formed after the dissociation of methemoglobin into heme or hematin and globin in plasma. This complex, which imparts a coffee-brown color to plasma, occurs in hemolytic and hemorrhagic disorders. Its presence in plasma is used as a test to differentiate between hemorrhagic and edematous pancreatitis.
Diagnostic Criteria At least two of the following three diagnostic features: 1) Abdominal pain consistent with acute pancreatitis 2) Serum lipase or am
Johnson, C. D. and Elberm, H. (2010) Acute Pancreatitis, in Evidence-Based Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Third Edition (eds J. W. McDonald, A. K. Burroughs, B. G. Feagan and M. B. Fennerty), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781444314403.ch24 ...
Acute pancreatitis is relatively common but reversible. Chronic pancreatitis causes irreversible destruction of exocrine pancreas.
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Aeterna Zentaris reaches agreement with FDA for Solorel SPA as a diagnostic check in AGHD Aeterna Zentaris Inc.D., CEO and President in Aeterna Zentaris. At the time of withdrawal, the trial included 42 individuals with AGHD and ten control subjects.Sometimes surgery is needed if the discomfort is keeps and severe a person from participating in everyday activities.. Acute pancreatitis could be staved away by diet abundant with vegetables A diet abundant with vegetables could help stave off the advancement of the serious condition severe pancreatitis, suggests a large study published online in the journal Gut. Pancreatitis refers to swelling of the pancreas - the gland behind the abdomen, which, among other activities, releases digestive enzymes to break down food. These enzymes become active inside the pancreas Occasionally, and start to digest the gland itself.. ...
Ceruletide - A specific decapeptide found in the skin of Hyla caerulea, the Australian green tree frog. Ceruletide has very ...
... ceruletide (INN) Cerumenex Cervidil Cerverix Cesamet (Meda Pharmaceuticals) cesium-131 chloride (INN) Ceta-Plus cetaben (INN) ...
V04CA02 Glucose V04CB01 Vitamin A concentrates V04CC01 Sorbitol V04CC02 Magnesium sulfate V04CC03 Sincalide V04CC04 Ceruletide ...
... (INN), also known as cerulein or caerulein, is a ten amino acid oligopeptide that stimulates smooth muscle and ... Ceruletide was discovered and its structure elucidated in 1967 by Australian and Italian scientists from dried skins of the ... Ceruletide also activates NADPH oxidase, a source of reactive oxygen species contributing to inflammation, as well as the Janus ... Ceruletide is similar in action and composition to cholecystokinin. It stimulates gastric, biliary, and pancreatic secretion; ...
It is on the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system.[4] Magnesium sulfate is a common mineral pharmaceutical preparation of magnesium, commonly known as Epsom salt, used both externally and internally. Magnesium sulfate is highly water-soluble and solubility is inhibited with lipids typically used in lotions. Lotions often employ the use of emulsions or suspensions to include both oil and water-soluble ingredients. Hence, magnesium sulfate in a lotion may not be as freely available to migrate to the skin nor to be absorbed through the skin, hence both studies may properly suggest absorption or lack thereof as a function of the carrier (in a water solution vs. in an oil emulsion/suspension). Temperature and concentration gradients may also be contributing factors to absorption.[5] Externally, magnesium sulfate paste is used to treat skin inflammations such as small boils or localised infections. Known in the UK as 'drawing paste' it ...
Ceruletide (INN), also known as cerulein or caerulein, is a ten amino acid oligopeptide that stimulates smooth muscle and ... Ceruletide was discovered and its structure elucidated in 1967 by Australian and Italian scientists from dried skins of the ... Ceruletide also activates NADPH oxidase, a source of reactive oxygen species contributing to inflammation, as well as the Janus ... Ceruletide is similar in action and composition to cholecystokinin. It stimulates gastric, biliary, and pancreatic secretion; ...
Ceruletide diethylamine. 4E1MIA8QQL. 71247-25-1. FHDKSYKZXIFRKJ-CBCFNHQSSA-N. International/Other Brands. Takus (Pfizer). ... Ceruletide. Accession Number. DB00403 (APRD00861) Type. Small Molecule. Groups. Approved. Description. Caerulein is a specific ... Shinohara S, Katsuura G, Eigyo M, Shintaku H, Ibii N, Matsushita A: Inhibitory effect of CCK-8 and ceruletide on glutamate- ... Ishikawa Y, Shimatsu A, Murakami Y, Imura H: Barrel rotation in rats induced by SMS 201-995: suppression by ceruletide. ...
ceruletide ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs. ... Ceruletide is a decapeptide derivative of cholecystokinin with the amino acid sequence is Pglu-Gln-Asp-Tyr[SO3H]-Thr-Gly-Trp- ... In the research setting ceruletide can be used to induce pancreatitis in experimental animal models.. ...
This was also the case with eledoisin and ceruletide, two naturally occurring peptide drugs developed in our laboratories as a ... de Castiglione R. (1986) Eledoisin and Ceruletide, Two Naturally Occurring Peptide Drugs of Nonmammalian Origin. In: Davis S.S ... de Castiglione, R., 1983, Exploitation and exploration of ceruletide and eledoisin, two peptides of nonmammalian origin, ...
Caerulein, Ceruletide, Cerulein Caerulein, Ceruletide, Cerulein C58H73N13O21S2 1352.42 17650-98-5 Pyr-Gln-Asp-Tyr(SO3H)-Thr-Gly ...
The animals were investigated 12 weeks after the operation by measuring neorectal compliance and ceruletide-induced defecation ...
Drug points: Make a comparison possible: ceruletide Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1987; 294 :250 (Published 24 January 1987) ...
Against the tremors induced by either harmine or ibogaine, CCK-8 and ceruletide, as well as many of the analogues of ceruletide ... Cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8), ceruletide (caerulein, CER) and 10 analogues of ceruletide, were studied in mice for ... Cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8), ceruletide and analogues of ceruletide: Effects on tremors induced by oxotremorine, ... Against oxotremorine, however, ceruletide and its most potent analogue, Nle8-CER (other analogues were not tested) were ...
Morewood, D.J.W. and Whitehouse, G.H. (1984). Ceruletide cholecystography: dose response and gallbladder function. Br. J. ... Davidsen, D. and Jorgensen, J. (1981). Gallbladder emptying with ceruletide in oral cholecystography. Acta Radiol Diagnos., 22 ...
This updated edition in the long standing series provides the latest information on many individual drugs, including the most complete coverage of their adverse reactions and interactions.
Ganzina, F., and Santamaria, A., 1976, Caerulein (ceruletide): A review, Acta Gastroenterol. Belg. 39:169.PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
Cerulein-induced changes in plasma amino acid concentrations are not a valid test for pancreatic insufficiency. - J Borovicka, W Schwizer, B Remy, M Fried
TABLE 1 One hundred thirty-four GPCRs have FDA-approved drugs. Exceptions are those marked as follows: *, EMA approved; 1, approved in the United Kingdom by the The Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA); 2, suramin is not listed in the FDAs Orange Book, but is distributed by the Centers for Disease Control and is listed as an essential medicine by the World Health Organization; and #, GABBR1 and 2 combine to form a single active signaling complex that is activated by baclofen. Entries in bold in indicate GPCRs considered primary targets for the listed drug based on affinity and/or functional response (in the majority of cases, both). Entries not in bold indicate GPCRs targeted by approved drugs but for which such an interaction is not likely a primary aspect of the intended therapeutic use of such drugs. ...
Caerulein (Ceruletide) 3. Leukocyte Elastase (Neutrophil Elastase) 4. Fibrin Tissue Adhesive (Fibrin Sealant) ...
Caerulein (Ceruletide) 2. Gastrins 3. Cholecystokinin (Pancreozymin) 4. Pancreatic Elastase (Elastase) 5. Chymotrypsin ...
Ceruletide (analogue of CCK octapeptide). -- this drug (to our knowledge) is not available in the US. ... Iwasaki Y, Kinoshita M, Ikeda K, Shiojima T. Palatal myoclonus following Behcets disease ameliorated by ceruletide a potent ...
Caerulein (Ceruletide)IBA 10/2011. 1. TrypsinIBA 10/2011. 1. Heavy MetalsIBA 01/2011. ...
Caerulein (Ceruletide)IBA 08/01/1991 - "Acute edematous pancreatitis was induced in rats by iv infusion of caerulein (CR) in a ...
Absorption, distribution and excretion of 883-S (ceruletide diethylamine) in rats. (1990) ...
Increased β-Cell Secretory Responsiveness to Ceruletide and TPA in Streptozocin-Induced Mildly Diabetic Rats Yoshinori ...
Increased beta-cell secretory responsiveness to ceruletide and TPA in streptozocin-induced mildly diabetic rats. Diabetes 1989; ...
Ceruletide 17650-98-5. 99.59%. Ceruletide (Caerulein) is a biologically active decapeptide isolated from the skin of the ...
A specific decapeptide obtained from the skin of Hila caerulea, an Australian amphibian. Caerulein is similar in action and composition to CHOLECYSTOKININ. It stimulates gastric, biliary, and pancreatic secretion; and certain smooth muscle. It is used in paralytic ileus and as diagnostic aid in pancreatic malfunction ...
1990) Acute reduction and long-term improvement of chorea with ceruletide (cholecystokinin analogue). J Neurosci 100:178-185. ... and the CCK analog ceruletide improves some cases of tardive dyskinesia and chorea in humans (Hashimoto and Yanagisawa, 1990). ...
  • This was also the case with eledoisin and ceruletide, two naturally occurring peptide drugs developed in our laboratories as a result of a long and continuous collaboration with Prof. V. Erspamer in the field of biologically active peptides of nonmammalian origin. (springer.com)
  • Ceruletide also activates NADPH oxidase, a source of reactive oxygen species contributing to inflammation, as well as the Janus kinase/signal transducer, another inflammation inducer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ceruletide was discovered and its structure elucidated in 1967 by Australian and Italian scientists from dried skins of the Australian green tree frog (Litoria caerulea, formerly Hyla caerulea). (wikipedia.org)