A specific decapeptide obtained from the skin of Hila caerulea, an Australian amphibian. Caerulein is similar in action and composition to CHOLECYSTOKININ. It stimulates gastric, biliary, and pancreatic secretion; and certain smooth muscle. It is used in paralytic ileus and as diagnostic aid in pancreatic malfunction.
Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.
The terminal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, beginning from the ampulla of the RECTUM and ending at the anus.
Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.
A vessel that directly interconnects an artery and a vein, and that acts as a shunt to bypass the capillary bed. Not to be confused with surgical anastomosis, nor with arteriovenous fistula.
The surgical construction of an opening between the colon and the surface of the body.
Breakdown of the connection and subsequent leakage of effluent (fluids, secretions, air) from a SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS of the digestive, respiratory, genitourinary, and cardiovascular systems. Most common leakages are from the breakdown of suture lines in gastrointestinal or bowel anastomosis.
A technique of closing incisions and wounds, or of joining and connecting tissues, in which staples are used as sutures.
A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
A plant genus of the family POLYGONACEAE that is used as an EDIBLE GRAIN. Although the seeds are used as cereal, the plant is not one of the cereal grasses (POACEAE).
The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.
Drugs considered essential to meet the health needs of a population as well as to control drug costs.
A polyanionic compound with an unknown mechanism of action. It is used parenterally in the treatment of African trypanosomiasis and it has been used clinically with diethylcarbamazine to kill the adult Onchocerca. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1643) It has also been shown to have potent antineoplastic properties.
An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.
A GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID derivative that is a specific agonist of GABA-B RECEPTORS. It is used in the treatment of MUSCLE SPASTICITY, especially that due to SPINAL CORD INJURIES. Its therapeutic effects result from actions at spinal and supraspinal sites, generally the reduction of excitatory transmission.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Hormones produced by invertebrates, usually insects, mollusks, annelids, and helminths.
Annelids of the class Hirudinea. Some species, the bloodsuckers, may become temporarily parasitic upon animals, including man. Medicinal leeches (HIRUDO MEDICINALIS) have been used therapeutically for drawing blood since ancient times.
A species of European freshwater LEECHES used for BLOODLETTING in ancient times and also for LEECHING in modern times.
Peptides and proteins found in BODILY SECRETIONS and BODY FLUIDS that are PROTEASE INHIBITORS. They play a role in INFLAMMATION, tissue repair and innate immunity (IMMUNITY, INNATE) by inhibiting endogenous proteinases such as those produced by LEUKOCYTES and exogenous proteases such as those produced by invading microorganisms.
A secretory proteinase inhibitory protein that was initially purified from human SKIN. It is found in a variety mucosal secretions and is present at high levels in SPUTUM. Elafin may play a role in the innate immunity (IMMUNITY, INNATE) response of the LUNG.
A protease of broad specificity, obtained from dried pancreas. Molecular weight is approximately 25,000. The enzyme breaks down elastin, the specific protein of elastic fibers, and digests other proteins such as fibrin, hemoglobin, and albumin. EC 3.4.21.36.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.
A syndrome characterized by DYSARTHRIA, dysphagia, dysphonia, impairment of voluntary movements of tongue and facial muscles, and emotional lability. This condition is caused by diseases that affect the motor fibers that travel from the cerebral cortex to the lower BRAIN STEM (i.e., corticobulbar tracts); including MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS; MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; and CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p489)
An involuntary expression of merriment and pleasure; it includes the patterned motor responses as well as the inarticulate vocalization.
A cationic cytochemical stain specific for cell nuclei, especially DNA. It is used as a supravital stain and in fluorescence cytochemistry. It may cause mutations in microorganisms.
Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), found in Australia and New Guinea. It causes a fulminating viremia resembling Japanese encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, JAPANESE).
A syndrome characterized by the acute onset of unilateral FACIAL PARALYSIS which progresses over a 2-5 day period. Weakness of the orbicularis oculi muscle and resulting incomplete eye closure may be associated with corneal injury. Pain behind the ear often precedes the onset of paralysis. This condition may be associated with HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN infection of the facial nerve. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1376)
Infections of the brain caused by arthropod-borne viruses (i.e., arboviruses) primarily from the families TOGAVIRIDAE; FLAVIVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE. Life cycles of these viruses are characterized by ZOONOSES, with birds and lower mammals serving as intermediate hosts. The virus is transmitted to humans by the bite of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) or TICKS. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, alterations of mentation, focal neurologic deficits, and COMA. (From Clin Microbiol Rev 1994 Jan;7(1):89-116; Walton, Brain's Diseases of the Nervous System, 10th ed, p321)
Metastatic lesion of the UMBILICUS associated with intra-abdominal neoplasms especially of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or OVARY.
The pit in the center of the ABDOMINAL WALL marking the point where the UMBILICAL CORD entered in the FETUS.
A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.
A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.
Peptides which stimulate INSULIN release from the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS following oral nutrient ingestion, or postprandially.
Cell surface receptors that bind glucagon with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Activation of glucagon receptors causes a variety of effects; the best understood is the initiation of a complex enzymatic cascade in the liver which ultimately increases the availability of glucose to body organs.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A gastrointestinal peptide hormone of about 43-amino acids. It is found to be a potent stimulator of INSULIN secretion and a relatively poor inhibitor of GASTRIC ACID secretion.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Peptides derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of pancreatic GLUCAGON. Despite expression of proglucagon in multiple tissues, the major production site of glucagon-like peptides (GLPs) is the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLPs include glucagon-like peptide 1, glucagon-like peptide 2, and the various truncated forms.
A storage reservoir for BILE secretion. Gallbladder allows the delivery of bile acids at a high concentration and in a controlled manner, via the CYSTIC DUCT to the DUODENUM, for degradation of dietary lipid.
An octapeptide hormone present in the intestine and brain. When secreted from the gastric mucosa, it stimulates the release of bile from the gallbladder and digestive enzymes from the pancreas.
A peptide, of about 33 amino acids, secreted by the upper INTESTINAL MUCOSA and also found in the central nervous system. It causes gallbladder contraction, release of pancreatic exocrine (or digestive) enzymes, and affects other gastrointestinal functions. Cholecystokinin may be the mediator of satiety.
A process whereby bile is delivered from the gallbladder into the duodenum. The emptying is caused by both contraction of the gallbladder and relaxation of the sphincter mechanism at the choledochal terminus.
Cell surface proteins that bind cholecystokinin (CCK) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholecystokinin receptors are activated by GASTRIN as well as by CCK-4; CCK-8; and CCK-33. Activation of these receptors evokes secretion of AMYLASE by pancreatic acinar cells, acid and PEPSIN by stomach mucosal cells, and contraction of the PYLORUS and GALLBLADDER. The role of the widespread CCK receptors in the central nervous system is not well understood.
A derivative of benzodiazepine that acts on the cholecystokinin A (CCKA) receptor to antagonize CCK-8's (SINCALIDE) physiological and behavioral effects, such as pancreatic stimulation and inhibition of feeding.
Abstaining from all food.

Transforming growth factor-beta-induced upregulation of transforming growth factor-beta receptor expression in pancreatic regeneration. (1/463)

The transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) signaling pathway is one important player in the regulation of extracellular matrix turnover and cell proliferation in epithelial regeneration. We used cerulein-induced pancreatitis in rats as a model to investigate the regulation of TGFbeta receptor type I and type II expression on protein and messenger RNA level during regeneration. In the regenerating pancreas, mRNA levels of TGFbeta receptor I and II were significantly increased with a maximum after 2 days. On protein level, expression of TGFbeta receptor II was significantly increased after three to 3-5 days. This elevated expression could be inhibited by neutralizing the endogenous biological activity of TGFbeta1 with a specific antibody. In cultured pancreatic epithelial cells, TGFbeta1 reduced cell proliferation as measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation. Furthermore the transcript levels of TGFbeta1 as well as mRNA and protein concentrations of type I and type II receptor increased during TGFbeta stimulation in vitro. These results indicate that epithelial pancreatic cells contribute to the enhanced TGFbeta1 synthesis during pancreatic regeneration by an autocrine mechanism. TGFbeta1, furthermore, upregulates the expression of its own receptors during the regenerative process, thereby contributing to the increase of the TGFbeta-induced cellular responses.  (+info)

Secretagogue-induced digestive enzyme activation and cell injury in rat pancreatic acini. (2/463)

The mechanisms responsible for intrapancreatic digestive enzyme activation as well as the relationship between that activation and cell injury during pancreatitis are not understood. We have employed an in vitro system in which freshly prepared pancreatic acini are exposed to a supramaximally stimulating concentration of the CCK analog caerulein to explore these issues. We find that in vitro trypsinogen activation depends on the continued presence of Ca2+ in the suspending medium and that it is half-maximal in the presence of 0.3 mM Ca2+. Caerulein-induced trypsinogen activation can be halted by removal of Ca2+ from the suspending medium or by chelation of intracellular Ca2+. Increasing intracellular Ca2+ with either ionomycin or thapsigargin does not induce trypsinogen activation. We have monitored cell injury by measuring the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from acini and by quantitating intercalation of propidium iodide (PI) into DNA. Leakage of LDH and intercalation of PI in response to supramaximal stimulation with caerulein can be detected only after caerulein-induced trypsinogen activation has already occurred, and these indications of cell injury can be prevented by addition of a cell-permeant protease inhibitor. Our findings indicate that caerulein-induced intra-acinar cell activation of trypsinogen depends on a rise in intracellular Ca2+, which reflects entry of Ca2+ from the suspending medium. Intra-acinar cell activation of trypsinogen is an early as well as a critical event in pancreatitis. The subsequent cell injury in this model is mediated by activated proteases.  (+info)

Myofibroblast proliferation, fibrosis, and defective pancreatic repair induced by cyclosporin in rats. (3/463)

BACKGROUND: Full recovery is always achieved after caerulein induced pancreatitis. Cyclosporin stimulates transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) and may interfere with pancreatic regeneration. AIM: To investigate the effects of cyclosporin after caerulein induced pancreatitis or after caerulein injury. METHODS: Protocol A: rats received cyclosporin daily (20 mg/kg) and caerulein pancreatitis was induced on days 2 and 8. Protocol B: six courses of caerulein pancreatitis were induced at weekly intervals. Cyclosporin was administered on induction and the day before. Rats recovered for two weeks before being killed. Control groups received saline, cyclosporin, or caerulein alone. RESULTS: Protocol A: plasma TGF-beta1 and tissue collagenase rose after pancreatitis but decreased towards baseline values on day 15, matching a low collagen content. Morphology disclosed minimal inflammatory infiltration and some interstitial cells immunoreactive for smooth muscle alpha-actin (SMA). TGF-beta1 increased, and remained high in cyclosporin treated groups (cyclosporin alone and cyclosporin plus caerulein). Rats treated with cyclosporin and caerulein showed severe pancreatic weight reduction, abundant inflammatory infiltrates, increased SMA immunoreactive interstitial cells, high collagen content, and delayed collagenase response. No SMA immunoreactive cells were detected in normal rats. Cyclosporin alone also increased SMA immunoreactive cells, despite the absence of inflammatory infiltration and fairly conserved pancreatic structure. Protocol B: the combined pulse treatment induced appreciable collagen deposition and resulted in a smaller pancreas than controls. Morphological examination showed atrophy, fibrosis, fibroblast proliferation, and mononuclear infiltrates. CONCLUSION: Cyclosporin greatly distorts pancreatic repair, transforming caerulein induced pancreatitis into a fibrotic chronic-like disease. The mechanism involves TGF-beta, myofibroblasts, and defective collagenase activation.  (+info)

Chemotactic peptide uptake in acute pancreatitis: correlation with tissue accumulation of leukocytes. (4/463)

Chemotactic peptides bind specifically to receptors on leukocyte membranes. This property makes them prospective vehicles to evaluate inflammation and infection. We used two well-established models of acute pancreatitis to quantitate the binding of the chemotactic peptide N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine-lysine (fMLFK) to leukocytes and its correlation to degree of organ inflammation. Uptake of the (99m)Tc-labeled nicotinyl hydrazine-derivatized chemotactic peptide analog fMLFK-HYNIC was measured in blood, pancreas, lung, and muscle specimens in rats with edematous or necrotizing pancreatitis and was compared with neutrophil sequestration assessed by myeloperoxidase activity and histology. Chemotactic peptide uptake in the pancreas was increased in mild and severe pancreatitis compared with controls, with higher levels in severe than in mild disease, and correlated with tissue myeloperoxidase activity (r = 0.7395, P < 0.001). Increased pulmonary uptake only in severe pancreatitis reflected pancreatitis-induced neutrophil sequestration in the lungs. Muscle uptake was unchanged compared with controls. Edema formation did not affect chemotactic peptide uptake. The data suggest that uptake of chemotactic peptides can contribute to quantitative assessment of neutrophils in localized inflammatory processes and is independent of associated edema formation or microcirculatory compromise.  (+info)

Caerulein-induced NF-kappaB/Rel activation requires both Ca2+ and protein kinase C as messengers. (5/463)

The eukaryotic transcription factor NF-kappaB/Rel is activated by a large variety of stimuli. We have recently shown that NF-kappaB/Rel is induced during the course of caerulein pancreatitis. Here, we show that activation of NF-kappaB/Rel by caerulein, a CCK analog, requires increasing intracellular Ca2+ levels and protein kinase C activation. Caerulein induces a dose-dependent increase of nuclear NF-kappaB/Rel binding activity in pancreatic lobules, which is paralleled by degradation of IkappaBalpha. IkappaBbeta was only slightly affected by caerulein treatment. Consistent with an involvement of Ca2+, the endoplasmic reticulum-resident Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin activated NF-kappaB/Rel in pancreatic lobules. The intracellular Ca2+ chelator TMB-8 prevented IkappaBalpha degradation and subsequent nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB/Rel induced by caerulein. BAPTA-AM was less effective. Cyclosporin A, a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase (PP2B) inhibitor, decreased caerulein-induced NF-kappaB/Rel activation and IkappaBalpha degradation. The inhibitory effect of bisindolylmaleimide suggests that protein kinase C activity is also required for caerulein-induced NF-kappaB/Rel activation. These data suggest that Ca2+- as well as protein kinase C-dependent mechanisms are required for caerulein-induced NF-kappaB/Rel activation.  (+info)

Trypsin and activation of circulating trypsinogen contribute to pancreatitis-associated lung injury. (6/463)

Pancreatic proteases are secreted in acute pancreatitis, but their contribution to associated lung injury is unclear. Applying models of mild edematous (intravenous caerulein) and severe necrotizing (intraductal glycodeoxycholic acid) pancreatitis in rats, we showed that both trypsinogen and trypsin concentrations in peripheral blood, as well as lung injury, correlate with the severity of the disease. To isolate the potential contribution of proteases to lung injury, trypsin or trypsinogen was injected into healthy rats or trypsinogen secreted in caerulein pancreatitis was activated by intravenous enterokinase. Pulmonary injury induced by protease infusions was dose dependent and was ameliorated by neutrophil depletion. Trypsinogen activation worsened lung injury in mild pancreatitis. In vitro incubation of leukocytes with trypsinogen showed that stimulated leukocytes can convert trypsinogen to trypsin. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the occurrence and severity of pancreatitis-associated lung injury (PALI) corresponds to the levels of circulating trypsinogen and its activation to trypsin. Neutrophils are involved in both protease activation and development of pulmonary injury.  (+info)

Acinar cell apoptosis and the origin of tubular complexes in caerulein-induced pancreatitis. (7/463)

The interrelationship between acinar cell apoptosis and tubular complex formation was examined in caerulein-induced pancreatitis using histology, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy and DNA gel electrophoresis. Rats were given 8 hourly subcutaneous injections of caerulein, 24 micrograms/kg, for up to 2 days. Morphologically and biochemically typical apoptosis affected 4.6 and 8.9% of acinar cells at 1 and 2 days, respectively, resulting in removal of most acinar cells by 2 days. Consequently, pancreatic ducts, the lining cells expressing bcl-2 and therefore resistant to apoptosis, became much more closely approximated to form the basis of tubular complexes; small numbers of immunohistochemically discrete acinar cells in their lining were either pre-apoptotic resistant to it or newly formed. Proliferation of duct-like lining cells was associated with apoptosis, an increase in islet cells and acinar cell regeneration. There was evidence of duct to acinar cell differentiation but the main increase in acinar cell numbers appeared to derive from proliferation of newly formed acinar cells.  (+info)

HSP27 expression regulates CCK-induced changes of the actin cytoskeleton in CHO-CCK-A cells. (8/463)

We investigated how heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) and its phosphorylation are involved in the action of cholecystokinin (CCK) on the actin cytoskeleton by genetic manipulation of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably transfected with the CCK-A receptor. In these cells, as in rat acini, CCK activated p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and increased the phosphorylation of HSP27. This effect could be blocked with the p38 MAP kinase inhibitor SB-203580. Examination by confocal microscopy of cells stained with rhodamine phalloidin showed that CCK dose-dependently induced changes of the actin cytoskeleton, including cell shape changes, which were coincident with actin cytoskeleton fragmentation and formation of actin filament patches in the cells. To further evaluate the role of HSP27, CHO-CCK-A cells were transfected with expression vectors for either wild-type (wt) or mutant (3A, 3G, and 3D) human HSP27. Overexpression of wt-HSP27 and 3D-HSP27 inhibited the effects on the actin cytoskeleton seen after high-dose CCK stimulation. In contrast, overexpression of nonphosphorylatable mutants, 3A- and 3G-HSP27, or inhibition of phosphorylation of HSP27 by preincubation of wt-HSP27 transfected cells with SB-203580 did not protect the actin cytoskeleton. These results suggest that phosphorylation of HSP27 is required to stabilize the actin cytoskeleton and to protect the cells from the effects of high concentrations of CCK.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Induction of apoptosis reduces the severity of caerulein-induced pancreatitis in mice. AU - Saluja, Ashok. AU - Hofbauer, Bernd. AU - Yamaguchi, Yoshikazu. AU - Yamanaka, Kenji. AU - Steer, Michael. PY - 1996/3/27. Y1 - 1996/3/27. N2 - The recent observation that the severity of pancreatitis is inversely related to the extent of apoptosis in five experimental models of the disease has suggested the possibility that apoptosis might protect against pancreatic injury in pancreatitis. This hypothesis was tested by inducing pancreatitis in mice during a phase of extensive apoptosis. Mice were fed a raw soya diet for five weeks to stimulate pancreatic growth and then switched to a regular chow diet for 27 hrs to permit involution of the hypertrophied gland. That involution is characterized by extensive apoptosis of acinar cells. Pancreatitis was induced, in either control mice or mice undergoing pancreatic involution, by repeated intraperitoneal administration of a supramaximally ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of cerulein hyperstimulation on the paracellular barrier of rat exocrine pancreas. AU - Fallon, Michael B.. AU - Gorelick, Fred S.. AU - Anderson, James M.. AU - Mennone, Albert. AU - Saluja, Ashok. AU - Steer, Michael L.. PY - 1995/6. Y1 - 1995/6. N2 - Background/Aims: Cerulein-induced pancreatitis causes a rapid increase in pancreatic enzyme levels in serum and decreases in pancreatic duct secretion and interstitial edema. One mechanism to explain these early events is disruption of the actin tight junction paracellular seal of acinar and intralobular pancreatic duct cells. Methods: To examine the paracellular barrier of the proximal exocrine pancreas, rats were hyperstimulated with 5.0 μg · kg-1 · h-1 of cerulein. Actin was visualized with rhodamine phalloidin and by electron microscopy and tight junctions were visualized with antibodies to the tight-junction protein ZO-1. Paracellular permeability was measured by movement of horseradish peroxidase from interstitium ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Injury to pancreatic acinar cells is thought to be the initiating point for the progression of acute pancreatitis, and, therefore, they represent an ideal experimental system to study the mechanisms of experimental acute pancreatitis (Bhatia et al., 2005). In experimental acute pancreatitis models, SP has been shown to be up-regulated and plays a proinflammatory role (Lau and Bhatia, 2006). The use of PPT-A gene knockout models and pharmacological antagonism of NK1R reduced the severity of AP and its associated lung injury, showing the importance of SP-NK1R interaction in AP (Bhatia et al., 1998; Lau et al., 2005). SP and NK1R are expressed in the pancreatic acinar cells, and this expression could contribute to the overall outcome of caerulein-induced AP.. Our results showed that treatment of pancreatic acinar cells with caerulein up-regulated gene expression of PPT-A and NK1R and also peptide levels of SP. At a physiological concentration of caerulein (10−10 M), the expression of PPT-A, NK1R, ...
The protective role of hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) in various inflammatory conditions is mediated in part by its products, carbon monoxide (CO) and biliverdin. Here we investigated a therapeutic role for CO and CO-primed cells in acute pancreatitis (AP). In a mouse model of AP, treatment with CO-releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2) decreased mortality, pancreatic damage, and lung injury. CORM-2 decreased systemic inflammatory cytokines, suppressed systemic and pancreatic macrophage TNF-α secretion, and inhibited macrophage TLR4 receptor complex expression. In both human and mouse cells, CORM-2 inhibited endogenous and exogenous ligand-dependent TLR4 activation, which indicates that CORM-2 could be therapeutic for both early and late stages of AP, which involve sterile- and endotoxin-mediated inflammation, respectively. Mice engrafted with TLR4-deficient hematopoietic cells were protected against caerulein-induced AP. In the absence of leukocyte TLR4 expression, CORM-2 did not confer additional protection, ...
Abstract: Melatonin, an antioxidant, protects the pancreas against acute inflammation but, although this indole is released mainly at night, no study has been undertaken to determine circadian changes of plasma melatonin levels and the severity of acute pancreatitis. The aims of this study were: (a) to compare the severity of caerulein-induced pancreatitis (CIP) produced in the rat during the day and at the night, and (b) to assess the changes of plasma melatonin level and the activity of an antioxidative enzyme; superoxide dismutase (SOD), in the pancreas subjected to CIP during the day time and at night without or with administration of exogenous melatonin or its precursor; l-tryptophan. Rats were kept in 12 hr light/dark cycle. CIP was induced by subcutaneous infusion of caerulein (5 μg/kg/hr for 5 hr). Melatonin (5 or 25 mg/kg) or l-tryptophan (50 or 250 mg/kg) was given intraperitoneally 30 min prior to the start of CIP. CIP induced during the day time was confirmed by histological ...
Background and Aims: Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease involving acinar cell injury, and the rapid production and release of inflammatory cytokines, which play a dominant role in local pancreatic inflammation and systemic complications. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) initiates a complex signalling pathway when it interacts with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which ultimately results in a proinflammatory response. We hypothesised that TLR4 is important in the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis, independently of LPS. Using two different models of acute pancreatitis, we investigated how genetic deletion of TLR4 or its co-receptor CD14 effects its progression and severity.. Methods: We induced acute pancreatitis by administering either caerulein or l-arginine to wild-type, TLR4−/−, and CD14−/− mice. Control mice received normal saline injections. The severity of acute pancreatitis was determined by measuring serum amylase activity, quantifying myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the ...
Caerulein caused a marked decrease in levels of guanosine 3,5-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) in the cerebellum in rats. This effect was observed to be dose-dependent after the intraperitoneal administration of caerulein for doses over 20 micrograms/kg and lasted for about 4 hr in doses of 100 micrograms/kg. However, in vagotomized rats, caerulein failed to alter the level of cGMP in the cerebellum. Caerulein suppressed harmaline-induced increases in cGMP in the cerebellum for more than 30 hr. In contrast, the increases in levels of cGMP in the cerebellum, induced by treatment with methamphetamine, apomorphine and picrotoxin, were not inhibited by pretreatment with caerulein. These results suggest that the peripheral administration of caerulein can inhibit the activity of climbing fibers for a long period of time in the cerebellum of the rat through the stimulation of the abdominal vagus nerves.
Effect of endothelin-1 receptor antagonists on histological and ultrastructural changes in the pancreas and trypsinogen activation in the early course of caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in rats
2014 Eisses et al. The change in exocrine mass is an important parameter to follow in experimental models of pancreatic injury and regeneration. However, at present, the quantitative assessment of exocrine content by histology is tedious and operatordependent, requiring manual assessment of acinar area on serial pancreatic sections. In this study, we utilized a novel computer-generated learning algorithm to construct an accurate and rapid method of quantifying acinar content. The algorithm works by learning differences in pixel characteristics from input examples provided by human experts. HE-stained pancreatic sections were obtained in mice recovering from a 2-day, hourly caerulein hyperstimulation model of experimental pancreatitis. For training data, a pathologist carefully outlined discrete regions of acinar and non-acinar tissue in 21 sections at various stages of pancreatic injury and recovery (termed the ground truth). After the expert defined the ground truth, the computer was able ...
Context Oxidative stress is understood to have a critical role in the development of acinar injury in experimental acute pancreatitis. We have previ..
Cytosolic free calcium concentrations ([Ca2+]i) and amylase secretion were measured in isolated rat pancreatic acini loaded with the intracellularly trapped fluorescent indicator quin2. Both caerulein and carbamoylcholine caused a rapid increase in [Ca2+]i, with a maximal 3-fold increase at 10(-9) M-caerulein and 10(-4) M-carbamoylcholine. However, caerulein (10(-12) M and 10(-11) M) as well as carbamoylcholine (10(-7) M) caused a significant stimulation of amylase release, while not inducing any detectable rise in [Ca2+]i. Changes in [Ca2+]i after addition of either secretagogue were transient and did not last more than 2-3 min. By contrast, when amylase secretion was monitored as a function of time, two distinct secretory phases could be observed upon addition of either carbamoylcholine (10(-5) M) or caerulein (10(-10) M). An initial, rapid phase (0-5 min) which caused a 6-7-fold increase above basal, followed by a sustained (5-30 min), but less marked, secretory rate (2-3-fold above basal). ...
Using immunohistochemistry, Northern blotting and a semi-quantitative PCR technique, epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression were studied in the pancreas of N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)-amine (BOP)-treated hamsters. After initiation pancreatic carcinogenesis was modulated by a high fat diet or by injections with the cholecystokinin analogue caerulein. Autopsies were performed 6 and 12 months after the last injection with BOP. Immunohistochemistry revealed a weak expression of TGF-α innormal acinar cells and a stronger expression in ductular and centro-acinar cells. Over-expression of TGFα was observed in advanced putative preneoplastic lesions (classified as borderline lesions) and in ductular adenocarcinomas. EGFR immunoreactivity was present only in ductular adenocarcinomas. EGF peptide expression was observed both in acinar and ductular normal and tumorous cells and the level of expression did not change ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Gitta M Seleznik, Theresia Reding, Lukas Peter, Anurag Gupta, Sabrina G Steiner, Sabrina Sonda, Caroline S Verbeke, Emmanuel Dejardin, Igor Khatkov, Stephan Segerer, Mathias Heikenwalder, Rolf Graf ...
Abstract:. Pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease that starts in pancreatic acinar cells and results in significant morbidity and mortality. Currently there is no therapy for pancreatitis because of lack of complete understanding of the disease mechanism. Premature trypsinogen activation is considered to be the key event in the disease development. However recent research in the field has pointed out that besides trypsinogen activation there are many other important factors that play important role in the disease. Our recent study in Trypsinogen-7 knock out (T7-/-) mice has supported this and for the first time shown that intra-acinar trypsinogen activation contributes only partially to acinar injury and local and systemic inflammation progress independently of trypsin activation during pancreatitis. NF-κB activation that happens parallel and independent to trypsinogen activation can still drive the development of the acute or chronic pancreatitis even in absence of trypsin.. 1. ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Physiology of Experimental Pancreatitis. AU - Saluja, Ashok K.. AU - Singh, Vijay P.. AU - Phillips, Phoebe. PY - 2009/2/4. Y1 - 2009/2/4. KW - Cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules. KW - Digestive enzyme activation in pancreatitis. KW - Experimental pancreatitis physiology. KW - Intrapancreatic digestive enzyme activation and mechanism of injury. KW - Pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP). KW - Pathogenesis of pancreatic injury. KW - Premature digestive enzyme activation mechanisms. KW - Vesicular trafficking abnormalities. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84889835782&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84889835782&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1002/9781444300123.ch8. DO - 10.1002/9781444300123.ch8. M3 - Chapter. AN - SCOPUS:84889835782. SN - 9781405146647. SP - 91. EP - 106. BT - The Pancreas. PB - Blackwell Publishing Ltd. ER - ...
Background Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand activated transcription factors belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily. PPARs activation has a profound impact on the local immune response with consequences affecting the progression of chronic inflammatory diseases. Relatively little is known on the role of PPAR-β/δ in the regulation of inflammatory responses. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of PPAR-β/δ receptor in a model of edematous pancreatitis induced in mice by administration of cerulein at supramaximal doses, as well as in necrohemorrhagic model induced by intraductal administration of sodium taurocholate (STC). Measurements Mice were treated with cerulein (50 μg/kg) or STC (5%). GW0742 (0.3 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally administered 1 and 6 hours after cerulein injection or was injected 2 hours before STC infusion. The pancreas and exopancreatic organs were carefully removed for microscopic examination. Pancreatic weight, ...
Foods good for pancreas : What is Pancreatic Inflammation? Diet suitable for inflammation of the pancreas.Worldwide, more than 10,000..
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TY - GEN. T1 - Role of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-D (VEGF-D) on IL-6 expression in cerulein-stimulated pancreatic acinar cells. AU - Lee, Jangwon. AU - Kyung, Hwan Kim. AU - Kim, Hyeyoung. PY - 2007/1. Y1 - 2007/1. N2 - Cerulein pancreatitis is similar to human edematous pancreatitis with dysregulation of the digestive enzyme production and cytoplasmic vacuolization, the death of acinar cells, edema formation, and an infiltration of inflammatory cells into the pancreas. Our preliminary proteomic analysis showed increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-D (VEGF-D) in cerulein (10 -8M)-treated pancreatic acinar cells. We hypothesized that VEGF-D may have a role in cerulein-induced cytokine expression in pancreatic acinar cells. This article was designed to elucidate whether cerulein induces VEGF-D expression in pancreatic AR42J cells, and whether VEGF-D expression is related to interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression by transfecting antisense oligonucleotide (AS ODN) for VEGF-D ...
Caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis accelerates the progression of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) lesions in a pancreas-specific KrasG12D mouse model. The purpose of this study was to explore whether serum microRNAs (miRNAs) can serve as sensitive biomarkers to detect occult PanIN in the setting of acute pancreatitis. Serum miRNA profiles were quantified by an array-based method and normalized by both Variance Stabilization Normalization (VSN) and invariant methods. Individual miRNAs were validated by TaqMan real-time PCR with synthetic spike-in C. elegans miRNAs as external controls. Serum miRNA profiles distinguished KrasG12D mice with pancreatitis from wild-type mice without pancreatitis, but failed to differentiate KrasG12D mice with pancreatitis from wild-type mice with pancreatitis. Most individual miRNAs that increased in KrasG12D mice with pancreatitis were not significantly different between KrasG12D mice without pancreatitis and wild-type mice without pancreatitis. ...
Severe pancreatitis (AP) is characterised by swelling of the exocrine pancreas and is associated with acinar cell injury and both a local and systemic inflammatory response. highest mortality, which is as high as 60% in some series.3 Gallstone pancreatitis is more common in women over the age of 60, among people that have microlithiasis especially, while alcoholic pancreatitis is more regular in adult males.4 Aetiology Several aetiological elements have been defined for AP although in up to 30% of situations an aetiological aspect cannot be discovered (termed idiopathic pancreatitis).5 The current presence of microlithiasis makes up about 80% of idiopathic pancreatitis.6 In the united kingdom, gallstones accompanied by alcoholic beverages intake are in charge of 75% of situations of AP.5 The most frequent trigger worldwide is alcohol consumption. Desk 1 demonstrates various other aetiologies. Desk 1 Aetiology and pathogenesis of severe pancreatitis thead Pathogenesis of severe ...
Acute pancreatitis is a common clinical inflammatory disease with variable severity from mild, self-limiting attacks to a severe lethal attack with a high mortality. In most of the cases, acute pancreatitis is either caused by gallstone obstruction or excessive alcohol consumption. Clinical symptoms include elevated levels (minimum 3 times than normal) of pancreatic enzymes such as amylase or lipase in serum. It is generally believed that earliest event in acute pancreatitis occur in acinar cells which includes premature protease activation and cytoplasmic vacuole formation. Premature trypsinogen activation has been considered as chief culprit as it can activate other proteases in a cascade like manner in acinar cells. Trypsin activity takes place in a biphasic curve with elevated levels at 1 h and 8 h in the initial stages up to 24 h in caerulein induced pancreatitis in mice. It has been shown that cytoplasmic vacuoles observed in pancreatitis are of autophagic nature. The role of autophagy for ...
Resveratrol Protects against Methylglyoxal-Induced Hyperglycemia and Pancreatic Damage In Vivo. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Die akute Pankreatitis ist eine Entzündung der Bauchspeicheldrüse, die in der Mehrzahl der Fälle einen milden, selbst-limitierenden Verlauf, in selteneren Fällen jedoch eine schwere Verlaufsform mit hoher Mortalität nehmen kann. Die häufigsten Ursachen der akuten Pankreatitis sind Gallensteine, die zur Obstruktion der Gallenwege führen, sowie ein exzessiver Alkoholkonsum. Klinische und laborchemische Charakteristika dieser Erkrankung sind Oberbauchschmerzen sowie eine Erhöhung der pankreatischen Serumenzyme Lipase bzw. Amylase (auf das über dreifache der oberen Norm). Mittlerweile ist gut belegt, dass die frühesten pathophysiologischen Veränderungen der Pankreatitis in der Azinuszelle beginnen, wobei die vorzeitige Aktivierung von Trypsinogen eine Schlüsselrolle einnimmt. Die Trypsin-Aktivierung wiederum bewirkt eine kaskadenartige Aktivierung weiterer Proteasen, die schließlich zum zellulären Schaden und Untergang des Gewebes führen. Ein weiteres Charakteristikum ist die intrazelluläre
Sreelatha S, Vedavathy Nayak*, Gayathri C , Renuka Ramaiah. ABSTRACT. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess whether hyoscine butyl bromide is effective in improving cervical effacement and dilatation, thus reducing the duration of first stage of labour without causing any maternal and neonatal complications. Materials and Methods: It was a prospective, comparative, observational study. 80 women with term pregnancies in active labour were recruited for the study. They were allocated into 2 groups, study and control group each with 40 patients. The duration of active labour was taken from 3 cm dilatation to full dilatation of the cervix. The study group received 40 mg HBB as slow I V injection (over 1 - 2 min) given at hourly intervals up to a maximum of 3 doses starting at 3 cm dilatation. Results: The mean duration of active phase of labour was 109.28 ± 58. 42 minutes in the study group and 317.48 ± 108.9 in the control group. The difference between the 2 groups was statistically ...
n. the most common congenital disease; the childs lungs and intestines and pancreas become clogged with thick mucus; caused by defect in a single gene; no cure is ...
Background During pancreatitis, autophagy is activated, but lysosomal degradation of dysfunctional organelles including mitochondria is impaired, resulting in acinar cell death. Retrospective cohort analyses demonstrated an association between simvastatin use and decreased acute pancreatitis incidence. Methods We examined whether simvastatin can protect cell death induced by cerulein and the mechanisms involved during acute pancreatitis. Mice were pretreated with DMSO or simvastatin (20 mg/kg) for 24 h followed by 7 hourly cerulein injections and sacrificed 1 h after last injection to harvest blood and tissue for analysis. Results Pancreatic histopathology revealed that simvastatin reduced necrotic cell death, inflammatory cell infiltration and edema. We found that cerulein triggered mitophagy with autophagosome formation in acinar cells. However, autophagosome-lysosome fusion was impaired due to altered levels of LAMP-1, AMPK and ULK-1, resulting in autophagosome accumulation (incomplete ...
Exposure of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to unsaturated fatty acids at concentrations lower than those in the serum during SAP, results in their necro-apoptotic cell death (71). In Vivo Models of Obesity Associated Severe Acute Pancreatitis. Role of Intra Pancreatic Fat (IPF) in Pancreatic Necrosis. Histologically, several studies show pancreatic acinar necrosis to border fat necrosis (48, 62, 65, 75, 86). Those studies analyzing intrapancreatic fat in human autopsy samples (4, 48, 62, 68, 85, 86), surgically resected samples (82) and radiological appearance of pancreas (58, 85) show intrapancreatic fat to be increased with BMI. Intrapancreatic fat amounts in obese individuals are on an average, two fold higher than non-obese individuals (85). Analysis of pancreatic adipocyte triglyceride composition in humans showed increasing amounts of unsaturated triglycerides with higher amounts of fat. (79) Pancreatic necrosis fluid collected from obese patients with necrotizing pancreatitis had ...
References. 1. Day HL, Taylor RM. The liver. Part 5: acute liver failure. Nurs Times 2006; 102: 26-27. [ Links ] 2. Kawasaki T, Ishihara K, Ago Y, Nakamura S, Itoh S, Baba A, et al. Protective effect of the radical scavenger edaravone against methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in mouse striatum. Eur J Pharmacol 2006; 542: 92-99, doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2006.05.012. [ Links ] 3. Yang T, Mao YF, Liu SQ, Hou J, Cai ZY, Hu JY, et al. Protective effects of the free radical scavenger edaravone on acute pancreatitis-associated lung injury. Eur J Pharmacol 2010; 630: 152-157, doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2009.12.025. [ Links ] 4. Okatani Y, Wakatsuki A, Enzan H, Miyahara Y. Edaravone protects against ischemia/reperfusion-induced oxidative damage to mitochondria in rat liver. Eur J Pharmacol 2003; 465: 163-170, doi: 10.1016/S0014-2999(03)01463-8. [ Links ] 5. Ito K, Ozasa H, Noda Y, Arii S, Horikawa S. Effects of free radical scavenger on acute liver injury induced by d-galactosamine and ...
In Diabetic ketoacidosis when pain abdomen is one of the major clinical finding, serum amylase levels are obtained, to rule out the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis (since the latter too can present with acute pain abdomen). If the serum amylase levels are found high in patients with Diabetic ketoacidosis, it may not be due…
Endocytic vacuoles can be up to 10 μm in diameter and appear specifically in pathological conditions as a result of aberrant retrieval of structures formed by compound endocytosis [7]. The co-localization hypothesis of trypsinogen activation suggests intracellular/intra-organellar activation of trypsinogen and the formation of active (and potentially damaging) trypsin as a result of fusion of trypsinogen containing organelles with organelles containing lysosomal proteases (reviewed in [31]). In our previous study, we have indeed detected trypsin activity in the endocytic vacuoles and observed that some of the vacuoles have lysosomal markers [7]. In the present study, we specifically addressed the question about the role of SOCE in the formation of these vacuoles. The results of our experiments revealed that the SOCE-mediated Ca2+ plateaus produced by CCK or TLC-S (two commonly used inducers of experimental pancreatitis) are effectively suppressed by the Orai1 inhibitor GSK-7975A and that this ...
Inhibition of Jak/STAT Signaling Reduces the Activation of Pancreatic Stellate Cells In Vitro and Limits Cerulein-Induced Chronic Pancreatitis In Vivo Investigators utilized primary and immortalized pancreatic stellate cells obtained from mice and patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) or pancreatic cancer to examine the effect of Jak/STAT and MAPK pathway inhibition in vitro. The well-characterized cerulein model of CP was used to assess the therapeutic efficacy of Jak1/2 inhibition in vivo. [Sci Rep] Full Article The Neuronal K+Cl− Co-Transporter 2 (Slc12a5) Modulates Insulin Secretion Using molecular cloning, RT-PCR, Western blotting, immunolocalization and in vitro functional assays, researchers established that the neuron-specific K+Cl− co-transporter 2 (Slc12a5) is expressed in several endocrine cells of the pancreatic islet, including glucagon secreting α-cells, but particularly in insulin-secreting β-cells, where they provide evidence for its role in the insulin secretory ...
The inability to visualize the initiation and progression of type-1 diabetes (T1D) noninvasively in humans is a major research and clinical stumbling block. We describe an advanced, exportable method for imaging the pancreatic inflammation underlying T1D, based on MRI of the clinically approved magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) ferumoxytol. The MNP-MRI approach, which reflects nanoparticle uptake by macrophages in the inflamed pancreatic lesion, has been validated extensively in mouse models of T1D and in a pilot human study. The methodological advances reported here were enabled by extensive optimization of image acquisition at 3T, as well as by the development of improved MRI registration and visualization technologies. A proof-of-principle study on patients recently diagnosed with T1D versus healthy controls yielded two major findings: First, there was a clear difference in whole-pancreas nanoparticle accumulation in patients and controls; second, the patients with T1D exhibited pronounced inter- ...
ABSTRACT The pancreatic islets are more richly vascularized than the exocrine pancreas, and possess a 5‐ to 10‐fold higher basal and stimulated blood flow, which is separately regulated
Acute pancreatitis is a sudden inflammation of the pancreas. The most common symptoms and signs include severe, dull epigastric pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia and fever. Alcohol consumption and biliary stone disease cause most cases of acute pancreatitis.… Acute Pancreatitis: Read more about Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Complications, Causes and Prognosis.
Taking as the starting point a recently suggested reaction scheme for zymogen activation involving intra- and intermolecular routes and the enzyme-zymogen complex, we carry out a complete analysis of the relative contribution of both routes in the process. This analysis suggests the definition of new dimensionless parameters allowing the elaboration, from the values of the rate constants and initial conditions, of the time course of the contribution of the two routes. The procedure mentioned above related to a concrete reaction scheme is extrapolated to any other model of autocatalytic zymogen activation involving intra- and intermolecular routes. Finally, we discuss the contribution of both of the activating routes in pepsinogen activation into pepsin using the values of the kinetic parameters given in the literature ...
Market Scenario: Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory state of the pancreas that is excruciatingly pain full and now and at times fatal. Regardless of the technological advances in critical care drugs in the course of recent years, the death rate of acute pancreatitis has stayed at around 10%. Diagnosis of pancreatic issues is regularly difficult…
Acute pancreatitis is the swelling of the pancreas due to diverse causes. This disease can be fatal if it is not taken care of properly.
The presented recommendations concern the current management of acute pancreatitis. The recommendations relate to the diagnostics and treatment of early and late phases of acute pancreatitis and complications of the disease taking into consideration surgical and endoscopic methods. All the...
Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is characterized by an unregulated systemic proinflammatory response secondary to activation of trypsin within the …
I also have this to come. I believe I will be having this same day as the DMSA. The GFR is a test to assess the capability of the kidney to clear the blood of a substance. A small amount of dye is injected into a vein and blood samples are taken at hourly intervals for three/four hours, to measure the renal clearance of the dye. Finally I have to see the Consultant Nephrologist again as he gives the final decision as to whether I am medically fit enough etc to donate a kidney.. All the information is given to an independant Assessor and I have a meeting with him. He needs to make sure I understand everything etc etc. He then makes a report and presents to the Human Tissue Board and seeks their permission for the donation to go ahead. The producing of the report and seeking permission can take up to a month in total.. It was explained to me that there was no guarantee that it would be keyhole surgery. The surgeon would make that decision once both kidneys had been evaluted etc. It is not ...
I also have this to come. I believe I will be having this same day as the DMSA. The GFR is a test to assess the capability of the kidney to clear the blood of a substance. A small amount of dye is injected into a vein and blood samples are taken at hourly intervals for three/four hours, to measure the renal clearance of the dye. Finally I have to see the Consultant Nephrologist again as he gives the final decision as to whether I am medically fit enough etc to donate a kidney.. All the information is given to an independant Assessor and I have a meeting with him. He needs to make sure I understand everything etc etc. He then makes a report and presents to the Human Tissue Board and seeks their permission for the donation to go ahead. The producing of the report and seeking permission can take up to a month in total.. It was explained to me that there was no guarantee that it would be keyhole surgery. The surgeon would make that decision once both kidneys had been evaluted etc. It is not ...
Pancreatitis begins as acute pancreatitis; if not treated, it can become a permanent condition called chronic pancreatitis. Pancreatitis is a serious condition that can lead to severe complications and even death if it goes untreated.
Acute Pancreatitis & Green Stools Symptom Checker: Possible causes include Cystic Fibrosis. Check the full list of possible causes and conditions now! Talk to our Chatbot to narrow down your search.
Using PET/CT with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-labeled leukocytes is a noninvasive and reliable method to help diagnose acute pancreatitis.
Hey all, Over the weekend I wound up in the ER because of acute pancreatitis. This had never happened before but MAN was it painful.
Children can recover from pancreatitis but cannot grow out of the predisposition for having another attack of pancreatitis later in life. Pancreatitis
Pancreatic infection occurs most often as a complication of acute pancreatitis. The unique aspects of pancreatic inflammation predispose to secondary bacterial infection, which occurs in...
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How long can a dog live with pancreatitis? Dogs can live quite normally with pancreatitis with treatment at home and early pancreatitis symptom recognition.
Pancreatitis Pipeline Review H1 2017 provides an overview of Pancreatitis (Gastrointestinal) pipeline landscape and Therapeutic Development
Pancreatitis - Pipeline Review, H2 2020 Summary This latest Pharmaceutical and Healthcare disease pipeline guide Pancreatitis - Pipeline Review, H2 2020, provides ...
Pancreatitis - Pipeline Review, H1 2017, provides in depth analysis on Pancreatitis targeted pipeline therapeutics. The report provides comprehensive infor
CRITERIOS BALTHAZAR PANCREATITIS AGUDA PDF - de factores presentes Porcentaje de Pancreatitis Aguda Biliar 0 5 1 4 2 CRITERIOS DE SEVERIDAD DE BALTHAZAR-RANSON PARA TC. Criterios de Atlanta para
The pathologic processes that initiate and perpetuate acute pancreatitis remain unclear. A recognized feature of this disease is the accumulation of vacuoles in...
Acute Pancreatitis, Aetiology and Clinical features of Pancreatitis, Diagnosis of Pancreatitis, Treatment and Complications of Pancreatitis
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If your dog is vomiting or has other symptoms of pancreatitis you need to have her treated right away. Find out why early treatment is so important!
A diabetic patient rushed to the hospital for vomiting and abdomen pain, resulting in a diagnosis of acute severe emphysematous pancreatitis.
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The following pages link to Pancreatitis - often a forgotten diagnosis: View (previous 50 , next 50) (20 , 50 , 100 , 250 , 500) ...
If youve been diagnosed with pancreatitis, its important to know the symptoms and treatments for this condition. Theres helpful information in this article.
Ceruletide - A specific decapeptide found in the skin of Hyla caerulea, the Australian green tree frog. Ceruletide has very ...
... ceruletide (INN) Cerumenex Cervidil Cerverix Cesamet (Meda Pharmaceuticals) cesium-131 chloride (INN) Ceta-Plus cetaben (INN) ...
V04CA02 Glucose V04CB01 Vitamin A concentrates V04CC01 Sorbitol V04CC02 Magnesium sulfate V04CC03 Sincalide V04CC04 Ceruletide ...
... (INN), also known as cerulein or caerulein, is a ten amino acid oligopeptide that stimulates smooth muscle and ... Ceruletide was discovered and its structure elucidated in 1967 by Australian and Italian scientists from dried skins of the ... Ceruletide also activates NADPH oxidase, a source of reactive oxygen species contributing to inflammation, as well as the Janus ... Ceruletide is similar in action and composition to cholecystokinin. It stimulates gastric, biliary, and pancreatic secretion; ...
It is on the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system.[4] Magnesium sulfate is a common mineral pharmaceutical preparation of magnesium, commonly known as Epsom salt, used both externally and internally. Magnesium sulfate is highly water-soluble and solubility is inhibited with lipids typically used in lotions. Lotions often employ the use of emulsions or suspensions to include both oil and water-soluble ingredients. Hence, magnesium sulfate in a lotion may not be as freely available to migrate to the skin nor to be absorbed through the skin, hence both studies may properly suggest absorption or lack thereof as a function of the carrier (in a water solution vs. in an oil emulsion/suspension). Temperature and concentration gradients may also be contributing factors to absorption.[5] Externally, magnesium sulfate paste is used to treat skin inflammations such as small boils or localised infections. Known in the UK as 'drawing paste' it ...
Ceruletide (INN), also known as cerulein or caerulein, is a ten amino acid oligopeptide that stimulates smooth muscle and ... Ceruletide was discovered and its structure elucidated in 1967 by Australian and Italian scientists from dried skins of the ... Ceruletide also activates NADPH oxidase, a source of reactive oxygen species contributing to inflammation, as well as the Janus ... Ceruletide is similar in action and composition to cholecystokinin. It stimulates gastric, biliary, and pancreatic secretion; ...
Ceruletide diethylamine. 4E1MIA8QQL. 71247-25-1. FHDKSYKZXIFRKJ-CBCFNHQSSA-N. International/Other Brands. Takus (Pfizer). ... Ceruletide. Accession Number. DB00403 (APRD00861) Type. Small Molecule. Groups. Approved. Description. Caerulein is a specific ... Shinohara S, Katsuura G, Eigyo M, Shintaku H, Ibii N, Matsushita A: Inhibitory effect of CCK-8 and ceruletide on glutamate- ... Ishikawa Y, Shimatsu A, Murakami Y, Imura H: Barrel rotation in rats induced by SMS 201-995: suppression by ceruletide. ...
ceruletide ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs. ... Ceruletide is a decapeptide derivative of cholecystokinin with the amino acid sequence is Pglu-Gln-Asp-Tyr[SO3H]-Thr-Gly-Trp- ... In the research setting ceruletide can be used to induce pancreatitis in experimental animal models.. ...
This was also the case with eledoisin and ceruletide, two naturally occurring peptide drugs developed in our laboratories as a ... de Castiglione R. (1986) Eledoisin and Ceruletide, Two Naturally Occurring Peptide Drugs of Nonmammalian Origin. In: Davis S.S ... de Castiglione, R., 1983, Exploitation and exploration of ceruletide and eledoisin, two peptides of nonmammalian origin, ...
Caerulein, Ceruletide, Cerulein Caerulein, Ceruletide, Cerulein C58H73N13O21S2 1352.42 17650-98-5 Pyr-Gln-Asp-Tyr(SO3H)-Thr-Gly ...
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA), one of the deadliest human cancers, often involves somatic activation of K-Ras oncogenes. We report that selective expression of an endogenous K-Ras(G12V) oncogene in embryonic cells of acinar/centroacinar lineage results in pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasi …
The animals were investigated 12 weeks after the operation by measuring neorectal compliance and ceruletide-induced defecation ...
Drug points: Make a comparison possible: ceruletide Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1987; 294 :250 (Published 24 January 1987) ...
Ceruletide / pharmacology * Cholecystokinin / antagonists & inhibitors * Devazepide * Ligation * Male * Pancreatic Diseases / ...
Against the tremors induced by either harmine or ibogaine, CCK-8 and ceruletide, as well as many of the analogues of ceruletide ... Cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8), ceruletide (caerulein, CER) and 10 analogues of ceruletide, were studied in mice for ... Cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8), ceruletide and analogues of ceruletide: Effects on tremors induced by oxotremorine, ... Against oxotremorine, however, ceruletide and its most potent analogue, Nle8-CER (other analogues were not tested) were ...
Morewood, D.J.W. and Whitehouse, G.H. (1984). Ceruletide cholecystography: dose response and gallbladder function. Br. J. ... Davidsen, D. and Jorgensen, J. (1981). Gallbladder emptying with ceruletide in oral cholecystography. Acta Radiol Diagnos., 22 ...
Ceruletide - A specific decapeptide found in the skin of Hyla caerulea, the Australian green tree frog. Ceruletide has very ...
This updated edition in the long standing series provides the latest information on many individual drugs, including the most complete coverage of their adverse reactions and interactions.
ceruletide increases expression. EXP. 6480464. Ceruletide results in increased expression of MIR217 mRNA. CTD. PMID:27521901. ... Orthologous to human MIR217 (microRNA 217); INTERACTS WITH aldehydo-D-glucose; atrazine; ceruletide.. ...
Ceruletide(4-10), 8. -norleucine- More... Nle(8)-ceruletide(4. -10) Less... ...
Cerulein-induced changes in plasma amino acid concentrations are not a valid test for pancreatic insufficiency. - J Borovicka, W Schwizer, B Remy, M Fried
TABLE 1 One hundred thirty-four GPCRs have FDA-approved drugs. Exceptions are those marked as follows: *, EMA approved; 1, approved in the United Kingdom by the The Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA); 2, suramin is not listed in the FDAs Orange Book, but is distributed by the Centers for Disease Control and is listed as an essential medicine by the World Health Organization; and #, GABBR1 and 2 combine to form a single active signaling complex that is activated by baclofen. Entries in bold in indicate GPCRs considered primary targets for the listed drug based on affinity and/or functional response (in the majority of cases, both). Entries not in bold indicate GPCRs targeted by approved drugs but for which such an interaction is not likely a primary aspect of the intended therapeutic use of such drugs. ...
Caerulein (Ceruletide) 3. Leukocyte Elastase (Neutrophil Elastase) 4. Fibrin Tissue Adhesive (Fibrin Sealant) ...
Ceruletide (analogue of CCK octapeptide). -- this drug (to our knowledge) is not available in the US. ... Iwasaki Y, Kinoshita M, Ikeda K, Shiojima T. Palatal myoclonus following Behcets disease ameliorated by ceruletide a potent ...
Absorption, distribution and excretion of 883-S (ceruletide diethylamine) in rats. (1990) ...
Caerulein (Ceruletide): 1 outcome in 1 result : IBA. *Baclofen: 1 outcome in 1 result : FDA 31 Generic ...
Increased β-Cell Secretory Responsiveness to Ceruletide and TPA in Streptozocin-Induced Mildly Diabetic Rats Yoshinori ...
Increased beta-cell secretory responsiveness to ceruletide and TPA in streptozocin-induced mildly diabetic rats. Diabetes 1989; ...
Ceruletide 17650-98-5. 99.59%. Ceruletide (Caerulein) is a biologically active decapeptide isolated from the skin of the ...
A specific decapeptide obtained from the skin of Hila caerulea, an Australian amphibian. Caerulein is similar in action and composition to CHOLECYSTOKININ. It stimulates gastric, biliary, and pancreatic secretion; and certain smooth muscle. It is used in paralytic ileus and as diagnostic aid in pancreatic malfunction ...
1990) Acute reduction and long-term improvement of chorea with ceruletide (cholecystokinin analogue). J Neurosci 100:178-185. ... and the CCK analog ceruletide improves some cases of tardive dyskinesia and chorea in humans (Hashimoto and Yanagisawa, 1990). ...
Ceruletide - pharmacology. -. dc.subject.mesh. Digestive System - drug effects. -. dc.subject.mesh. Pancreas - drug effects. - ...
betideceruletidecyclopeptidedaytidedecapeptidedeoxyribonucleotidedidecapeptidedinucleotidedipeptidedipnictidedodecapeptide ...
Bridger N, Glanemann B, Neiger R. Comparison of postprandial and ceruletide serum bile acid stimulation in dogs. Journal of ...
Pontiroli, A. E., Alberetto, M., Restelli, L., & Facchinetti, A. (1980a). Effect of bombesin and ceruletide on prolactin, ...
  • Ceruletide (INN), also known as cerulein or caerulein, is a ten amino acid oligopeptide that stimulates smooth muscle and increases digestive secretions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8), ceruletide (caerulein, CER) and 10 analogues of ceruletide, were studied in mice for antagonism of the tremors induced by harmine (5 mg/kg, s.c.), ibogaine (20 mg/kg, s.c.) and oxotremorine (0.2 mg/kg, s.c. (ibogainealliance.org)
  • Ceruletide (Caerulein) is a biologically active decapeptide isolated from the skin of the Australian frog Hyla caerulea . (medchemexpress.com)
  • In addition to promoting the inflammatory cell reaction to acinar cells, ceruletide induces pancreatitis through dysregulation of digestive enzyme production and cytoplasmic vacuolization, leading to acinar cell death and pancreatic edema. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ceruletide is similar in action and composition to cholecystokinin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ceruletide is a decapeptide derivative of cholecystokinin with the amino acid sequence is Pglu-Gln-Asp-Tyr[SO 3 H]-Thr-Gly-Trp-Met-Asp-Phe-NH 2 and originally isolated from the skin of the Australian green tree frog, Litoria caerulea . (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • Ceruletide has very much in common with regards to action and composition to cholecystokinin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antistereotypic effects of cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8), ceruletide and related peptides on apomorphine-induced gnawing in sensitized mice. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Eight neuroleptic-resistant schizophrenic patients were treated with ceruletide, a cholecystokinin-like peptide, in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study. (elsevier.com)
  • Late onset and long-lasting suppressive effects of ceruletide, an analogue of cholecystokinin, on c-fos mRNA expression in the rat striatum. (courtfield.ml)
  • In the research setting ceruletide can be used to induce pancreatitis in experimental animal models. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • Against the tremors induced by either harmine or ibogaine, CCK-8 and ceruletide, as well as many of the analogues of ceruletide had greater tremorolytic potency than the reference drugs. (ibogainealliance.org)
  • Ceruletide - A specific decapeptide found in the skin of Hyla caerulea, the Australian green tree frog. (wikipedia.org)
  • Absorption, distribution and excretion of 883-S (ceruletide diethylamine) in rats. (nii.ac.jp)
  • This was also the case with eledoisin and ceruletide, two naturally occurring peptide drugs developed in our laboratories as a result of a long and continuous collaboration with Prof. V. Erspamer in the field of biologically active peptides of nonmammalian origin. (springer.com)
  • Ceruletide or placebo was administered intramuscularly twice a day for 4 consecutive days while patients were maintained on a constant dose of fluphenazine. (elsevier.com)
  • Volunteers were administered ceruletide (0.3 μg/kg or 0.6 μg/kg) or saline placebo intramuscularly. (elsevier.com)
  • On one of the days, 0.3 mcg/kg of Ceruletide was intramuscularly administered to each dog 30 to 45 minutes prior to the iodipamide infusion. (resscuebadly75.host)
  • Ceruletide upregulates pancreatic acinar cell intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) proteins through intracellular upregulation of NF-κB. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibitory effect of CCK-8 and ceruletide on glutamate-induced rises in intracellular free calcium concentrations in rat neuron cultures. (idrblab.net)
  • Ceruletide also activates NADPH oxidase, a source of reactive oxygen species contributing to inflammation, as well as the Janus kinase/signal transducer, another inflammation inducer. (wikipedia.org)
  • To further characterize ceruletide actions we also administered it to seven normal volunteers and evaluated its effects on cognition and mood. (elsevier.com)
  • Ceruletide had no effects on recent or remote memory or attention, but the higher dose did cause a significant increase in fatigue. (elsevier.com)
  • The animals were investigated 12 weeks after the operation by measuring neorectal compliance and ceruletide-induced defecation. (springer.com)
  • Ceruletide was discovered and its structure elucidated in 1967 by Australian and Italian scientists from dried skins of the Australian green tree frog (Litoria caerulea, formerly Hyla caerulea). (wikipedia.org)
  • These data indicate that the combination of ceruletide and flushing is a safe and inexpensive method for treatment of residual stones. (faintpower.cf)