Compliance with a set of standards defined by non-governmental organizations. Certification is applied for by individuals on a voluntary basis and represents a professional status when achieved, e.g., certification for a medical specialty.
Organizations which certify physicians and dentists as specialists in various fields of medical and dental practice.
Assessment of physiological capacities in relation to job requirements. It is usually done by measuring certain physiological (e.g., circulatory and respiratory) variables during a gradually increasing workload until specific limitations occur with respect to those variables.
Official records of individual deaths including the cause of death certified by a physician, and any other required identifying information.
An absence from work permitted because of illness or the number of days per year for which an employer agrees to pay employees who are sick. (Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)
Various branches of nursing practice limited to specialized areas.
Certification as complying with a standard set by non-governmental organizations, applied for by institutions, programs, and facilities on a voluntary basis.
Licensed physicians trained in OSTEOPATHIC MEDICINE. An osteopathic physician, also known as D.O. (Doctor of Osteopathy), is able to perform surgery and prescribe medications.
The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.
The legal authority or formal permission from authorities to carry on certain activities which by law or regulation require such permission. It may be applied to licensure of institutions as well as individuals.
Public Law No: 111-5, enacted February 2009, makes supplemental appropriations for job preservation and creation, infrastructure investment, energy efficiency and science, assistance to the unemployed, and State and local fiscal stabilization, for fiscal year ending September 30, 2009.
The recognition of professional or technical competence through registration, certification, licensure, admission to association membership, the award of a diploma or degree, etc.
A medical discipline that is based on the philosophy that all body systems are interrelated and dependent upon one another for good health. This philosophy, developed in 1874 by Dr. Andrew Taylor Still, recognizes the concept of "wellness" and the importance of treating illness within the context of the whole body. Special attention is placed on the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM.
My apologies, there seems to be a misunderstanding - "Library Associations" is not a medical term; it refers to organizations that promote the interests of libraries and library professionals, often advocating for issues such as funding, intellectual freedom, and professional development, which can include medical or health science librarians.
Physicians appointed to investigate all cases of sudden or violent death.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
The granting of a license to practice medicine.
The art and science of studying, performing research on, preventing, diagnosing, and treating disease, as well as the maintenance of health.
Educational programs for medical graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic medical sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced medical degree.
Physicians who hold degrees from medical schools in countries other than the ones in which they practice.
The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.
The granting of a license to a hospital.
The geographic designation for states bordering on or located in the Pacific Ocean. The states so designated are Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington. (U.S. Geologic Survey telephone communication)
An occupation limited in scope to a subsection of a broader field.
Individuals licensed to practice medicine.
The group in which legal authority is vested for the control of health-related institutions and organizations.
Educational programs designed to inform physicians of recent advances in their field.
Various branches of surgical practice limited to specialized areas.
A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of SLEEP WAKE DISORDERS and their causes.
Programs of training in medicine and medical specialties offered by hospitals for graduates of medicine to meet the requirements established by accrediting authorities.
Skills and strategies, unrelated to the traits a test is intended to measure, that may increase test takers' scores -- may include the effects of coaching or experience in taking tests. (ERIC Thesaurus)
A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.
Health insurance to provide full or partial coverage for long-term home care services or for long-term nursing care provided in a residential facility such as a nursing home.
Educational programs designed to inform individuals of recent advances in their particular field of interest. They do not lead to any formal advanced standing.
Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.
Use for general articles concerning medical education.
Facilities which provide nursing supervision and limited medical care to persons who do not require hospitalization.
The capability to perform the duties of one's profession generally, or to perform a particular professional task, with skill of an acceptable quality.
An acute infectious disease of humans, particularly children, caused by any of three serotypes of human poliovirus (POLIOVIRUS). Usually the infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract and nasopharynx, and is often asymptomatic. The central nervous system, primarily the spinal cord, may be affected, leading to rapidly progressive paralysis, coarse FASCICULATION and hyporeflexia. Motor neurons are primarily affected. Encephalitis may also occur. The virus replicates in the nervous system, and may cause significant neuronal loss, most notably in the spinal cord. A rare related condition, nonpoliovirus poliomyelitis, may result from infections with nonpoliovirus enteroviruses. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp764-5)
An independent state consisting of three islands in the Mediterranean Sea, south of Sicily. Its capital is Valetta. The major island is Malta, the two smaller islands are Comino and Gozo. It was a Phoenician and Carthaginian colony, captured by the Romans in 218 B.C. It was overrun by Saracens in 870, taken by the Normans in 1090, and subsequently held by the French and later the British who allotted them a dominion government in 1921. It became a crown colony in 1933, achieving independence in 1964. The name possibly comes from a pre-Indoeuropean root mel, high, referring to its rocks, but a more picturesque origin derives the name from the Greek melitta or melissa, honey, with reference to its early fame for its honey production. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p719 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p330)
A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The expected function of a member of the medical profession.
Those physicians who have completed the education requirements specified by the American Academy of Family Physicians.
Respirators to protect individuals from breathing air contaminated with harmful dusts, fogs, fumes, mists, gases, smokes, sprays, or vapors.
Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.
Management activities concerned with hospital employees.
Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.
Health care workers specially trained and licensed to assist and support the work of health professionals. Often used synonymously with paramedical personnel, the term generally refers to all health care workers who perform tasks which must otherwise be performed by a physician or other health professional.
Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.
The branch of surgery concerned with restoration, reconstruction, or improvement of defective, damaged, or missing structures.
Accidentally acquired infection in laboratory workers.
A medical specialty concerned with the study of the structures, functions, and diseases of the nervous system.
The application of scientific knowledge or technology to the field of radiology. The applications center mostly around x-ray or radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes but the technological applications of any radiation or radiologic procedure is within the scope of radiologic technology.
Acquisition of knowledge as a result of instruction in a formal course of study.
Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of library science or information.
Educational programs structured in such a manner that the participating professionals, physicians, or students develop an increased awareness of their performance, usually on the basis of self-evaluation questionnaires.
Study of the principles and practices of library administration and services.
Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.
Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
Statement of the position requirements, qualifications for the position, wage range, and any special conditions expected of the employee.
An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.
Postmortem examination of the body.
A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.
Hospital department responsible for the purchasing of supplies and equipment.
The physical space or dimensions of a facility. Size may be indicated by bed capacity.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Sweden" is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. It is a country located in Northern Europe. If you have any questions related to medical topics or definitions, I would be happy to try to help answer them!
Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.
Educational programs designed to inform graduate pharmacists of recent advances in their particular field.

Competency, board certification, credentialing, and specialization: who benefits? (1/559)

Pharmacists are concerned with the rapid changes in the healthcare system and what the requirements will be for a pharmacist in the near future. The emergence of board certification, credentialing, and other certification programs for pharmacists are causing significant concern among pharmacists. Pharmacists must assess certification programs and decide on the value of certification to their careers and to the patients they serve. Employers of pharmacists and those paying for healthcare and pharmacy services must also evaluate the value of pharmacists certification. Perhaps the most direct and significant benefit of pharmacist certification lies in the ability of the pharmacist to provide better and more comprehensive care to patients or selected groups of patients (eg, diabetic patients). Better and more comprehensive care provided by a pharmacist benefits the patient, other healthcare professionals, the healthcare system generally, and payers of healthcare and pharmacy services. Demonstrated competence of the pharmacist to provide pharmaceutical care is essential to achieving this benefit. Board certification of pharmacists in current board-recognized specialty areas of nutrition support pharmacy, pharmacotherapy, psychiatric pharmacy, nuclear pharmacy, and oncology pharmacy totaled 2075 board certified pharmacists in the United States as of January 1997.  (+info)

The importance of surgeon volume and training in outcomes for vascular surgical procedures. (2/559)

PURPOSE: Mortality and morbidity rates after vascular surgical procedures have been related to hospital volume. Hospitals in which greater volumes of vascular surgical procedures are performed tend to have statistically lower mortality rates than those hospitals in which fewer procedures are performed. Only a few studies have directly assessed the impact of the surgeon's volume on outcome. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to review a large state data set to determine the impact of surgeon volume on outcome after carotid endarterectomy (CEA), lower extremity bypass grafting (LEAB), and abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (AAA). METHODS: The Florida Agency for Health Care Administration state admission data from 1992 to 1996 were obtained. The data included all nonfederal hospital admissions. Frequencies were calculated from first-listed International Classification of Diseases-9 codes. Multiple logistic regression was used to test the significance on outcome of surgeon volume, American Board of Surgery certification for added qualifications in general vascular surgery, hospital size, hospital volume, patient age, and gender. RESULTS: During this interval, there were 31,172 LEABs, 45,744 CEAs, and 13,415 AAAs performed. The in-hospital mortality rate increased with age. A doubling of surgeon volume was associated with a 4% reduction in risk for adverse outcome for CEA (P =.006), an 8% reduction for LEAB, and an 11% reduction for AAA ( P =.0002). However, although hospital volume was significant in predicting better outcomes for CEA and AAA procedures, it was not associated with better outcomes for LEAB. Certification for added qualifications in general vascular surgery was a significant predictor of better outcomes for CEA and AAA. Certified vascular surgeons had a 15% lower risk rate of death or complications after CEA (P =.002) and a 24% lower risk rate of a similar outcome after AAA (P =.009). However, for LEAB, certification was not significant. CONCLUSION: Surgeon volume and certification are significantly related to better patient outcomes for patients who undergo CEA and AAA. In addition, surgeons with high volumes demonstrated consistently lower mortality and morbidity rates than did surgeons with low volumes. Hospital volume for a given procedure also is correlated with better outcomes.  (+info)

Characteristics of nurse-midwife patients and visits, 1991. (3/559)

OBJECTIVES: This study describes the patient populations served by and visits made to certified nurse-midwives (CNMs) in the United States. METHODS: Prospective data on 16,729 visits were collected from 369 CNMs randomly selected from a 1991 population survey. Population estimates were derived from a multistage survey design with probability sampling. RESULTS: We estimated that approximately 5.4 million visits were made to nearly 3000 CNMs nationwide in 1991. Most visits involved maternity care, although fully 20% were for care outside the maternity cycle. Patients considered vulnerable to poor access or outcomes made 7 of every 10 visits. CONCLUSIONS: Nurse-midwives substantially contribute to the health care of women nationwide, especially for vulnerable populations.  (+info)

Consistency, inter-rater reliability, and validity of 441 consecutive mock oral examinations in anesthesiology: implications for use as a tool for assessment of residents. (4/559)

BACKGROUND: Oral practice examinations (OPEs) are used extensively in many anesthesiology programs for various reasons, including assessment of clinical judgment. Yet oral examinations have been criticized for their subjectivity. The authors studied the reliability, consistency, and validity of their OPE program to determine if it was a useful assessment tool. METHODS: From 1989 through 1993, we prospectively studied 441 OPEs given to 190 residents. The examination format closely approximated that used by the American Board of Anesthesiology. Pass-fail grade and an overall numerical score were the OPE results of interest. Internal consistency and inter-rater reliability were determined using agreement measures. To assess their validity in describing competence, OPE results were correlated with in-training examination results and faculty evaluations. Furthermore, we analyzed the relationship of OPE with implicit indicators of resident preparation such as length of training. RESULTS: The internal consistency coefficient for the overall numerical score was 0.82, indicating good correlation among component scores. The interexaminer agreement was 0.68, indicating moderate or good agreement beyond that expected by chance. The actual agreement among examiners on pass-fail was 84%. Correlation of overall numerical score with in-training examination scores and faculty evaluations was moderate (r = 0.47 and 0.41, respectively; P < 0.01). OPE results were significantly (P < 0.01) associated with training duration, previous OPE experience, trainee preparedness, and trainee anxiety. CONCLUSION: Our results show the substantial internal consistency and reliability of OPE results at a single institution. The positive correlation of OPE scores with in-training examination scores, faculty evaluations, and other indicators of preparation suggest that OPEs are a reasonably valid tool for assessment of resident performance.  (+info)

The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene initiative to stimulate educational programs to enhance medical expertise in tropical diseases. (5/559)

More than a decade ago, at a time when current and emerging tropical diseases posed growing threats to the United States, expert panels convened by the Institute of Medicine of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences concluded that medical expertise within the United States competent to address diseases of the tropics had declined. Recognizing a national need to encourage and enhance such, The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene developed a program to stimulate new postgraduate medical education in diseases of the tropics. The Society formally requested academic institutions within the United States and Canada to propose new postgraduate programs. To assure the quality of these new curricular offerings, the Society developed an outline of key areas of competency and agreed to offer an examination that would grant physicians a Certificate of Knowledge in Clinical Tropical Medicine and Travelers Health. The certifying examination was to be an integral component of a program to stimulate academic institutions to provide instructional programs in tropical diseases and to encourage physicians to become trained, evaluated, and recognized for their knowledge of clinical tropical diseases and travelers' health. The Society's initiative to stimulate educational programs in tropical medicine is reviewed.  (+info)

Experiences of ethnic minority primary care physicians with managed care: a national survey. (6/559)

OBJECTIVES: To determine if ethnic minority physicians experience more barriers in acquiring and maintaining managed care contracts than white physicians, and to determine if the physician's perceptions of his or her ability to provide appropriate care to patients varies with physician ethnicity. STUDY DESIGN: Using a national sample, we identified 4 research areas germane to this topic and analyzed them by physician ethnic group. METHODS: Analysis involved a pre-existing data set from a national survey that employed a random sampling approach to achieve reasonably accurate national population estimates with acceptable margins of error (95% CI = +/- 2). RESULTS: A total of 1032 primary care physicians completed the survey (response rate of 48%). After controlling for confounding variables, we found that Asian physicians have the most difficulty keeping managed care contracts. Type of practice varies with physician ethnicity, and solo practitioners have more problems securing contracts than physicians in other types of practices. Board-certified physicians are more likely to have managed care contracts than those who are not. Latino physicians have significantly fewer managed care patients than primary care physicians who are white, African American, or Asian. The perceptions of the physicians of their ability to deliver appropriate care overall did not vary by ethnicity, but 2 major subcategories of this item did vary by physician ethnicity: quality of care, and limitations to providing care. CONCLUSIONS: Although we did not find overwhelming evidence of discrimination against ethnic minority physicians, differences in rates of termination, type of practice, board certification rates, and managed care affiliation were related to physician ethnicity.  (+info)

Differences between generalists and specialists in characteristics of patients receiving gastrointestinal procedures. (7/559)

BACKGROUND: As a result of market forces and maturing technology, generalists are currently providing services, such as colonoscopy, that in the past were deemed the realm of specialists. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there were differences in patient characteristics, procedure complexity, and clinical indications when gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures were provided by generalists versus specialists. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. PATIENTS: A random 5% sample of aged Medicare beneficiaries who underwent rigid and flexible sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, and esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) performed by specialists (gastroenterologists, general surgeons, and colorectal surgeons) or generalists (general practitioners, family practitioners, and general internists). MEASUREMENTS: Characteristics of patients, indications for the procedure, procedural complexity, and place of service were compared between generalists and specialists using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. MAIN RESULTS: Our sample population had 167,347 gastrointestinal endoscopies. Generalists performed 7.7% of the 57, 221 colonoscopies, 8.7% of the 62,469 EGDs, 42.7% of the 38,261 flexible sigmoidoscopies, and 35.2% of the 9,396 rigid sigmoidoscopies. Age and gender of patients were similar between generalists and specialists, but white patients were more likely to receive complex endoscopy from specialists. After adjusting for patient differences in age, race, and gender, generalists were more likely to have provided a simple diagnostic procedure (odds ratio [OR] 4.2; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 4.0, 4.4), perform the procedure for examination and screening purposes (OR 4.9; 95% CI, 4. 3 to 5.6), and provide these procedures in rural areas (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.4 to 1.6). CONCLUSIONS: Although generalists perform the full spectrum of gastrointestinal endoscopies, their procedures are often of lower complexity and less likely to have been performed for investigating severe morbidities.  (+info)

Physician-nutrition-specialist track: if we build it, will they come? Intersociety Professional Nutrition Education Consortium. (8/559)

The Intersociety Professional Nutrition Education Consortium (IPNEC) has made substantial progress in its first 2 y. With support from 9 participating nutrition societies and certification organizations and with funding from the National Institutes of Health and several nutrition industry partners, a sustained, functioning consortium has been established. The consortium's 2 principal aims are to establish educational standards for fellowship training of physician nutrition specialists (PNSs) and to create a unified mechanism for certifying physicians who are so trained. Its long-term goals are to increase the pool of PNSs to enable every US medical school to have at least one PNS on its faculty and to surmount obstacles that currently impede the incorporation of nutrition education into the curricula of medical schools and residency programs. The consortium formulated and refined a paradigm for PNSs, conducted a national role delineation survey to define the scope of the discipline of clinical nutrition, and developed a preliminary curriculum template for training PNSs that can be completed in a minimum of 6 mo. IPNEC and its sponsoring societies are strategically positioned to play an important long-term role in nutrition education for physicians. We intend to continue soliciting broad input, especially from directors of fellowship training programs in nutrition and closely related subspecialties; to develop the core content for fellowships in nutrition and related subspecialties; and to initiate a unified PNS certification examination.  (+info)

Certification is the act of granting a formal warranty or guarantee (a certificate) that a product, process, or service conforms to specified requirements. In the medical field, certification often refers to the process by which a regulatory body or professional organization grants recognition to a healthcare professional, institution, or program that meets certain predetermined standards.

For example, in the United States, physicians can become certified in a particular medical specialty through the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) after completing residency training and passing a rigorous examination. Similarly, hospitals and other healthcare facilities may be certified by organizations such as The Joint Commission to demonstrate that they meet established quality and safety standards.

Medical certification serves several purposes, including:

1. Ensuring competence: Certification helps establish that the certified individual or organization possesses the necessary knowledge, skills, and abilities to provide safe and effective care in their area of expertise.
2. Protecting patients: By setting and enforcing standards, certification organizations aim to protect patients from harm and ensure they receive high-quality care.
3. Promoting continuous improvement: Certification programs often require ongoing professional development and continuing education, encouraging healthcare professionals and institutions to stay current with best practices and advancements in their field.
4. Enhancing public trust: Certification can help build public confidence in the competence and expertise of healthcare providers and organizations, making it easier for patients to make informed decisions about their care.

Specialty boards, also known as medical specialty boards or certifying boards, are organizations that grant certification to physicians who have completed specialized training and passed an examination in a particular area of medical practice. In the United States, these boards are responsible for establishing the standards and requirements for specialty training and for evaluating the knowledge, skills, and experience of physicians seeking board certification. The American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) recognizes 24 member boards that cover various medical specialties, including internal medicine, surgery, psychiatry, pediatrics, and radiology, among others. Board certification is a voluntary process that demonstrates a physician's expertise and commitment to maintaining high standards of care in their area of practice.

A Work Capacity Evaluation (WCE) is a set of systematic and objective procedures used to assess an individual's physical and cognitive abilities in relation to their ability to perform specific job tasks. It is typically conducted by a team of healthcare professionals, including occupational therapists, physiatrists, and kinesiologists, who evaluate the person's strength, endurance, flexibility, range of motion, sensation, balance, coordination, and cognitive abilities.

The goal of a WCE is to determine an individual's functional limitations and capabilities, and to provide recommendations regarding their ability to return to work or perform specific job tasks. The evaluation may include a variety of tests and measurements, such as lifting and carrying capacities, fine motor skills, visual tracking, and problem-solving abilities.

The results of the WCE can be used to develop a treatment plan, modify job duties, or determine eligibility for disability benefits. It is an important tool in helping individuals with injuries or disabilities return to work safely and effectively, while also ensuring that employers have the information they need to accommodate their employees' needs.

A death certificate is a formal legal document that records the date, location, and cause of a person's death. It is typically issued by a medical professional, such as a physician or medical examiner, and is used to establish the fact of death for legal purposes. The information on a death certificate may be used for a variety of purposes, including settling the deceased person's estate, assisting with insurance claims, and supporting public health surveillance and research.

In order to complete a death certificate, the medical professional must determine the cause of death and any significant contributing conditions. This may involve reviewing the deceased person's medical history, conducting a physical examination, and ordering laboratory tests or autopsy. The cause of death is typically described using standardized codes from the International Classification of Diseases (ICD).

It is important to note that the information on a death certificate is considered confidential and is protected by law. Only authorized individuals, such as the deceased person's next of kin or legal representative, are permitted to access the document.

"Sick leave" is not a medical term, but rather a term used in the context of employment and human resources. It refers to the time off from work that an employee is allowed to take due to illness or injury, for which they may still receive payment. The specific policies regarding sick leave, such as how much time is granted and whether it is paid or unpaid, can vary based on the employer's policies, labor laws, and collective bargaining agreements.

Nursing specialties refer to specific areas of practice within the nursing profession that require additional education, training, and expertise beyond the basic nursing degree. These specialties allow nurses to focus their career on a particular population, disease, or type of care, and may include areas such as:

1. Pediatrics: Nursing care for infants, children, and adolescents.
2. Gerontology: Nursing care for older adults.
3. Oncology: Nursing care for patients with cancer.
4. Critical Care: Nursing care for critically ill patients in intensive care units.
5. Perioperative Nursing: Nursing care for patients undergoing surgery.
6. Neonatal Nursing: Nursing care for newborns who require specialized medical care.
7. Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing: Nursing care for patients with mental health disorders.
8. Rehabilitation Nursing: Nursing care for patients recovering from illness or injury.
9. Occupational Health Nursing: Nursing care focused on promoting and maintaining the health and well-being of workers.
10. Public Health Nursing: Nursing care focused on improving the health of communities and populations.

Nurses who specialize in these areas may hold additional certifications, such as Certified Pediatric Nurse (CPN) or Critical Care Registered Nurse (CCRN), which demonstrate their expertise and commitment to providing high-quality care in their chosen specialty.

Accreditation is a process in which a healthcare organization, facility, or program is evaluated and certified as meeting certain standards and criteria established by a recognized accrediting body. The purpose of accreditation is to ensure that the organization, facility, or program provides safe, high-quality care and services to its patients or clients.

Accreditation typically involves a thorough review of an organization's policies, procedures, practices, and outcomes, as well as an on-site survey by a team of experts from the accrediting body. The evaluation focuses on various aspects of the organization's operations, such as leadership and management, patient safety, infection control, clinical services, quality improvement, and staff competence.

Accreditation is voluntary, but many healthcare organizations seek it as a way to demonstrate their commitment to excellence and continuous improvement. Accreditation can also be a requirement for licensure, reimbursement, or participation in certain programs or initiatives.

Examples of accrediting bodies in the healthcare field include The Joint Commission, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME), the Commission on Accreditation of Rehabilitation Facilities (CARF), and the National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA).

Osteopathic physicians, also known as osteopaths or DOs (Doctors of Osteopathic Medicine), are licensed healthcare professionals who practice a form of medicine that combines the principles of traditional medicine with manual therapy and a focus on the whole-body approach to health and wellness. They are trained to diagnose, treat, and manage a wide range of medical conditions and diseases, using all the conventional medical tools available to other physicians (such as prescription medications, surgery, and lifestyle modifications), but with additional training in osteopathic manipulative medicine (OMM).

OMM is a hands-on approach that utilizes various techniques, including stretching, gentle pressure, and resistance, to diagnose and treat illnesses and injuries. Osteopathic physicians use OMM to help restore the normal function and balance of the body's interconnected systems, such as the musculoskeletal, nervous, and circulatory systems. This holistic approach allows osteopathic physicians to address the root causes of medical issues, rather than just treating symptoms, and often results in improved overall health and well-being for their patients.

Osteopathic physicians can be found in various medical specialties, including primary care, family medicine, internal medicine, emergency medicine, surgery, psychiatry, and pediatrics, among others. They are trained through a rigorous four-year doctoral program that includes classroom instruction, clinical rotations, and hands-on training in OMM. Upon completion of their education, osteopathic physicians must pass licensing exams and meet state-specific requirements to practice medicine.

Clinical competence is the ability of a healthcare professional to provide safe and effective patient care, demonstrating the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required for the job. It involves the integration of theoretical knowledge with practical skills, judgment, and decision-making abilities in real-world clinical situations. Clinical competence is typically evaluated through various methods such as direct observation, case studies, simulations, and feedback from peers and supervisors.

A clinically competent healthcare professional should be able to:

1. Demonstrate a solid understanding of the relevant medical knowledge and its application in clinical practice.
2. Perform essential clinical skills proficiently and safely.
3. Communicate effectively with patients, families, and other healthcare professionals.
4. Make informed decisions based on critical thinking and problem-solving abilities.
5. Exhibit professionalism, ethical behavior, and cultural sensitivity in patient care.
6. Continuously evaluate and improve their performance through self-reflection and ongoing learning.

Maintaining clinical competence is essential for healthcare professionals to ensure the best possible outcomes for their patients and stay current with advances in medical science and technology.

Licensure is the process by which a government regulatory agency grants a license to a physician (or other healthcare professional) to practice medicine (or provide healthcare services) in a given jurisdiction. The licensing process typically requires the completion of specific educational and training requirements, passing written and/or practical exams, and meeting other state-specific criteria.

The purpose of licensure is to ensure that healthcare professionals meet minimum standards of competence and safety in order to protect the public. Licensure laws vary by state, so a physician who is licensed to practice medicine in one state may not be able to practice in another state without obtaining additional licensure.

The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 is a legislative economic stimulus package enacted in response to the Great Recession. The act includes measures to preserve and create jobs, provide temporary relief for those most affected by the recession, and invest in infrastructure, education, health, and energy to promote long-term economic growth and competitiveness.

In medical terms, the ARRA provided significant funding for healthcare initiatives, including:

1. Medicaid: The ARRA included a temporary increase in federal matching funds for state Medicaid programs, which helped states maintain their Medicaid rolls during the recession and prevented further reductions in access to care for low-income individuals.
2. Health Information Technology (HIT): The act provided funding to promote the adoption of electronic health records (EHRs) and other health information technologies to improve healthcare quality, safety, and efficiency.
3. Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER): ARRA established the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI), which supports comparative effectiveness research aimed at providing patients and clinicians with evidence-based information on the relative benefits and harms of different medical treatments.
4. Prevention and Public Health Fund: The act created a new Prevention and Public Health Fund to support programs that prevent chronic diseases, promote wellness, and improve public health infrastructure.
5. Healthcare Workforce Development: ARRA provided funding for healthcare workforce development programs, including training for primary care providers, nurses, and allied health professionals, as well as initiatives to address healthcare disparities in underserved communities.
6. Medical Research: The act included funding for various medical research initiatives, such as the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA), to support research on diseases, vaccines, and medical countermeasures.

Credentialing is a process used in the healthcare industry to verify and assess the qualifications, training, licensure, and background of healthcare practitioners, such as doctors, nurses, and allied health professionals. The purpose of credentialing is to ensure that healthcare providers meet the necessary standards and requirements to provide safe and competent patient care within a specific healthcare organization or facility.

The credentialing process typically includes primary source verification of the following:

1. Education: Verification of the healthcare provider's completion of an accredited educational program leading to their degree or diploma.
2. Training: Confirmation of any required internships, residencies, fellowships, or other clinical training experiences.
3. Licensure: Validation of current, active, and unrestricted licensure or registration to practice in the healthcare provider's state or jurisdiction.
4. Certification: Verification of any relevant board certifications or specialty credentials held by the healthcare provider.
5. Work history: A review of the healthcare provider's professional work experience, including any gaps in employment or practice.
6. Malpractice and disciplinary history: Investigation of any malpractice claims, lawsuits, or disciplinary actions taken against the healthcare provider by a licensing board, professional organization, or court.
7. References: Solicitation and evaluation of professional references from colleagues and supervisors who can attest to the healthcare provider's clinical skills, character, and ability to provide quality patient care.
8. Clinical privileges: Granting specific clinical privileges based on the healthcare provider's qualifications, training, and experience, allowing them to perform certain procedures or treatments within the organization.
9. Background check: A criminal background check to ensure the healthcare provider has no disqualifying convictions or pending legal issues.
10. Immunization status: Verification of the healthcare provider's immunization status to protect patients and staff from infectious diseases.

Credentialing is usually performed by a dedicated committee within a healthcare organization, often called the Medical Staff Office or Credentials Committee. The process must be repeated periodically (usually every three years) to maintain the healthcare provider's privileges and ensure their continued compliance with the organization's standards and requirements.

Osteopathic medicine is a system of medical care that focuses on the unity of the mind, body, and spirit in the diagnosis and treatment of illness. It was founded in the United States in 1874 by Andrew Taylor Still, MD, who developed a philosophy of medicine based on principles of preventive medicine, holistic patient care, and the interrelationship of all body systems.

Osteopathic physicians (DOs), also known as osteopaths, are trained to diagnose and treat medical conditions using a variety of treatment modalities, including manual manipulation of the musculoskeletal system. They receive the same basic medical education as MDs, but also complete additional training in osteopathic principles and practices.

Osteopathic medicine emphasizes the importance of preventive care, lifestyle modifications, and patient education in maintaining health and preventing illness. DOs are trained to use their hands to diagnose and treat structural and functional problems in the body, with a focus on the musculoskeletal system. They believe that the body has an inherent ability to heal itself, and that manipulation of the bones, muscles, and other tissues can help promote this natural healing process.

DOs are licensed to practice medicine and surgery in all 50 states and are recognized as fully qualified physicians. They may choose to specialize in any area of medicine, including family practice, internal medicine, pediatrics, surgery, psychiatry, and neurology, among others.

I believe there may be a misunderstanding in your question. "Library Associations" is not a medical term, but rather a general term that refers to organizations that bring together individuals who work in or have an interest in libraries and library services. These associations often aim to promote the development, promotion, and improvement of library and information services, as well as to provide a platform for networking, professional development, and advocacy.

If you meant to ask about a medical term, could you please clarify? I'd be happy to help you with that!

A coroner and medical examiner are officials in the legal system who are responsible for investigating and determining the cause of death in certain cases. While their roles can overlap, there are some differences between them.

A coroner is a public official who is typically appointed or elected to serve in a particular jurisdiction, such as a county or district. The coroner's primary responsibility is to investigate any sudden, unexpected, or suspicious deaths that occur within their jurisdiction. This may include deaths that occur due to violence, accidents, suicide, or unknown causes.

In order to determine the cause of death, the coroner may conduct an autopsy, order toxicology tests, and review medical records and other evidence. The coroner may also hold an inquest, which is a formal hearing in which witnesses are called to testify about the circumstances surrounding the death. Based on the evidence gathered during the investigation, the coroner will make a determination as to the cause and manner of death.

A medical examiner, on the other hand, is a physician who has completed specialized training in forensic pathology. Medical examiners are typically appointed or hired by a government agency, such as a state or county, to perform autopsies and investigate deaths.

Medical examiners are responsible for determining the cause of death in cases where there is a suspicion of foul play, as well as in other circumstances where the cause of death may not be immediately apparent. They may also testify in court as expert witnesses based on their findings.

In some jurisdictions, the roles of coroner and medical examiner are combined, with the official serving as both a public administrator and a trained physician. In other cases, the two roles are separate, with the coroner responsible for administrative functions and the medical examiner responsible for determining the cause of death.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

Medical licensure is a legal process by which a government agency grants permission to a physician or other healthcare professional to practice medicine within a certain geographical area. In order to obtain a medical license, an individual must typically meet certain educational and training requirements, pass examinations that test their knowledge and skills, and demonstrate good moral character. The specific requirements for licensure vary from one jurisdiction to another, but the overall goal is to ensure that healthcare professionals have the necessary competencies to provide safe and effective care to patients. It's important to note that maintaining a medical license typically requires ongoing professional development and adherence to ethical standards.

Medicine is a branch of healthcare that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and illness. It encompasses a variety of health profession practices, including but not limited to, the services provided by physicians, nurses, pharmacists, dentists, and allied health professionals.

Medicine can also refer to the substances or compounds used in the treatment and prevention of disease, often referred to as medications or drugs. These substances can be administered in various forms, such as oral (pills, liquids), topical (creams, ointments), injectable (shots, IVs), or inhaled (aerosols, nebulizers).

Overall, medicine is a multidisciplinary field that combines scientific research, clinical expertise, and patient values to promote health, prevent disease, and provide treatment for individuals and communities.

Medical education, graduate refers to the post-baccalaureate programs of study leading to a doctoral degree in medicine (MD) or osteopathic medicine (DO). These programs typically include rigorous coursework in the basic medical sciences, clinical training, and research experiences. The goal of medical education at this level is to prepare students to become competent, caring physicians who are able to provide high-quality medical care to patients, conduct research to advance medical knowledge, and contribute to the improvement of health care systems.

Graduate medical education (GME) typically includes residency programs, which are postgraduate training programs that provide specialized clinical training in a particular field of medicine. Residency programs typically last three to seven years, depending on the specialty, and provide hands-on experience in diagnosing and treating patients under the supervision of experienced physicians.

Medical education at the graduate level is designed to build upon the foundational knowledge and skills acquired during undergraduate medical education (UME) and to prepare students for licensure and certification as practicing physicians. Graduates of GME programs are eligible to take licensing exams and apply for certification in their chosen specialty through professional organizations such as the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS).

"Foreign Medical Graduates" (FMGs) are physicians who have graduated from a medical school outside of the country where they are seeking to practice medicine. These doctors may be required to pass certain examinations and complete additional training in order to meet the licensing requirements of the new country. The specific requirements for FMGs can vary depending on the country and jurisdiction.

Educational measurement is a field of study concerned with the development, administration, and interpretation of tests, questionnaires, and other assessments for the purpose of measuring learning outcomes, abilities, knowledge, skills, and attitudes in an educational context. The goal of educational measurement is to provide valid, reliable, and fair measures of student achievement and growth that can inform instructional decisions, guide curriculum development, and support accountability efforts.

Educational measurement involves a variety of statistical and psychometric methods for analyzing assessment data, including classical test theory, item response theory, and generalizability theory. These methods are used to establish the reliability and validity of assessments, as well as to score and interpret student performance. Additionally, educational measurement is concerned with issues related to test fairness, accessibility, and bias, and seeks to ensure that assessments are equitable and inclusive for all students.

Overall, educational measurement plays a critical role in ensuring the quality and effectiveness of educational programs and policies, and helps to promote student learning and achievement.

Hospital licensure is a process and system of regulatory oversight by which a hospital is granted a license to operate based on its compliance with established standards and regulations. These standards are designed to ensure that hospitals provide safe and effective care to their patients. The licensing authority, typically a state health department or agency, conducts regular inspections and surveys to assess the hospital's ongoing compliance with these standards.

The licensure process includes an initial application, submission of required documentation, and an on-site survey by the licensing authority. During the survey, the hospital's facilities, equipment, policies, procedures, and patient care practices are evaluated against established criteria. If the hospital is found to be in compliance with these standards, a license is granted.

Hospital licensure is an important aspect of healthcare quality regulation, as it helps ensure that hospitals meet minimum standards for patient safety, infection control, medical staff qualifications, and other critical aspects of care. It also provides transparency and accountability for hospitals, allowing the public to make informed decisions about their care.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but there seems to be a mistake in your question. "Pacific States" is not a recognized medical term or concept. The term "Pacific" usually refers to the Pacific Ocean or regions near it, and "states" typically refers to political divisions like countries or states within a country. If you're referring to a specific medical term that includes these words, could you please provide more context or clarify your question? I'm here to help!

In the context of medicine, specialization refers to the process or state of a physician, surgeon, or other healthcare professional acquiring and demonstrating expertise in a particular field or area of practice beyond their initial general training. This is usually achieved through additional years of education, training, and clinical experience in a specific medical discipline or subspecialty.

For instance, a doctor who has completed medical school and a general residency program may choose to specialize in cardiology, dermatology, neurology, orthopedics, psychiatry, or any other branch of medicine. After completing a specialized fellowship program and passing the relevant certification exams, they become certified as a specialist in that field, recognized by professional medical organizations such as the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) or the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (RCPSC).

Specialization allows healthcare professionals to provide more focused, expert care for patients with specific conditions or needs. It also contributes to the development and advancement of medical knowledge and practice, as specialists often conduct research and contribute to the evidence base in their respective fields.

A physician is a healthcare professional who practices medicine, providing medical care and treatment to patients. Physicians may specialize in various fields of medicine, such as internal medicine, surgery, pediatrics, psychiatry, or radiology, among others. They are responsible for diagnosing and treating illnesses, injuries, and disorders; prescribing medications; ordering and interpreting diagnostic tests; providing counseling and education to patients; and collaborating with other healthcare professionals to provide comprehensive care. Physicians may work in a variety of settings, including hospitals, clinics, private practices, and academic medical centers. To become a physician, one must complete a Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) or Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.) degree program and pass licensing exams to practice medicine in their state.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Governing Board" is not a medical concept or entity. It is a term generally used to describe the group of individuals who make up the board of directors or trustees for an organization, and who are responsible for overseeing its management and decision-making. This could include hospitals, healthcare systems, medical societies, or other health-related organizations. The specific roles and responsibilities of a governing board can vary depending on the organization and its governance structure.

Continuing medical education (CME) refers to the process of ongoing learning and professional development that healthcare professionals engage in throughout their careers. The goal of CME is to enhance knowledge, skills, and performance in order to provide better patient care and improve health outcomes.

CME activities may include a variety of formats such as conferences, seminars, workshops, online courses, journal clubs, and self-study programs. These activities are designed to address specific learning needs and objectives related to clinical practice, research, or healthcare management.

Healthcare professionals are required to complete a certain number of CME credits on a regular basis in order to maintain their licensure, certification, or membership in professional organizations. The content and quality of CME activities are typically overseen by accreditation bodies such as the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) in the United States.

Overall, continuing medical education is an essential component of maintaining competence and staying up-to-date with the latest developments in healthcare.

Surgical specialties are branches of medical practice in which surgeons perform surgical procedures to treat various diseases, injuries, or deformities. These specialties require advanced training, knowledge, and skills beyond general surgery. Here are some examples of surgical specialties:

1. Cardiothoracic Surgery: This specialty focuses on the surgical treatment of conditions related to the heart, lungs, and other structures in the chest.
2. Neurosurgery: Neurosurgeons specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the nervous system, including the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves.
3. Orthopedic Surgery: Orthopedic surgeons treat conditions related to the musculoskeletal system, including bones, joints, ligaments, tendons, and muscles.
4. Ophthalmology: Ophthalmologists specialize in medical and surgical treatment of eye disorders and diseases.
5. Otolaryngology (ENT): Otolaryngologists treat conditions related to the ear, nose, throat, head, and neck.
6. Plastic Surgery: Plastic surgeons perform cosmetic and reconstructive procedures to improve the appearance or function of various parts of the body.
7. Urology: Urologists specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of conditions related to the urinary system and male reproductive organs.
8. Vascular Surgery: Vascular surgeons treat disorders of the circulatory system, including arteries and veins.
9. Pediatric Surgery: Pediatric surgeons specialize in the surgical care of children, from infants to adolescents.
10. Surgical Oncology: Surgical oncologists focus on the surgical removal of tumors and other cancerous growths.

Surgical specialists must complete a residency program in their chosen specialty after completing medical school. Some may also pursue fellowship training to gain further expertise in a subspecialty area.

Sleep medicine is a medical specialty or subspecialty devoted to the diagnosis and therapy of sleep disturbances and disorders. Sleep-related problems such as snoring, sleep apnea, insomnia, narcolepsy, restless legs syndrome, parasomnias, circadian rhythm disorders, and unusual behaviors during sleep are among the conditions that sleep medicine physicians diagnose and treat.

Sleep medicine specialists often work in multidisciplinary teams that include other healthcare professionals such as neurologists, psychiatrists, psychologists, pulmonologists, otolaryngologists, and dentists to provide comprehensive care for patients with sleep disorders. They use various diagnostic tools, including polysomnography (sleep studies), actigraphy, and multiple sleep latency tests, to evaluate patients' sleep patterns and diagnose their conditions accurately. Based on the diagnosis, they develop individualized treatment plans that may include lifestyle modifications, pharmacological interventions, medical devices, or surgery.

To become a sleep medicine specialist, physicians typically complete a residency in a related field such as neurology, pulmonology, psychiatry, or internal medicine and then pursue additional training and certification in sleep medicine. The American Board of Medical Specialties recognizes sleep medicine as a subspecialty, and the American Board of Sleep Medicine offers certification to qualified physicians who pass a rigorous examination.

Internship: In medical terms, an internship is a supervised program of hospital-based training for physicians and surgeons who have recently graduated from medical school. The duration of an internship typically ranges from one to three years, during which the intern engages in a variety of clinical rotations in different departments such as internal medicine, surgery, pediatrics, obstetrics and gynecology, psychiatry, and neurology. The primary aim of an internship is to provide newly graduated doctors with hands-on experience in patient care, diagnosis, treatment planning, and communication skills under the close supervision of experienced physicians.

Residency: A residency is a structured and intensive postgraduate medical training program that typically lasts between three and seven years, depending on the specialty. Residents are licensed physicians who have completed their internship and are now receiving advanced training in a specific area of medicine or surgery. During this period, residents work closely with experienced attending physicians to gain comprehensive knowledge and skills in their chosen field. They are responsible for managing patient care, performing surgical procedures, interpreting diagnostic tests, conducting research, teaching medical students, and participating in continuing education activities. Residency programs aim to prepare physicians for independent practice and board certification in their specialty.

"Test-taking skills" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, in an educational or psychological context, test-taking skills refer to the abilities and strategies that a person uses to demonstrate their knowledge and understanding during assessments or exams. These skills can include time management, reading comprehension, note-taking, outlining, summarizing, and answering questions effectively.

Test-taking skills are not only important for academic success but also for professional licensing exams, certifications, and other standardized tests. Developing good test-taking skills can help reduce test anxiety, improve performance, and increase confidence.

While "test-taking skills" may not have a medical definition per se, it is worth noting that some psychological and educational interventions aim to improve these skills in students or test-takers, which can have positive impacts on their mental health and well-being.

Family practice, also known as family medicine, is a medical specialty that provides comprehensive and continuous care to patients of all ages, genders, and stages of life. Family physicians are trained to provide a wide range of services, including preventive care, diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic illnesses, management of complex medical conditions, and providing health education and counseling.

Family practice emphasizes the importance of building long-term relationships with patients and their families, and takes into account the physical, emotional, social, and psychological factors that influence a person's health. Family physicians often serve as the primary point of contact for patients within the healthcare system, coordinating care with other specialists and healthcare providers as needed.

Family practice is a broad and diverse field, encompassing various areas such as pediatrics, internal medicine, obstetrics and gynecology, geriatrics, and behavioral health. The goal of family practice is to provide high-quality, patient-centered care that meets the unique needs and preferences of each individual patient and their family.

Long-term care insurance is a type of insurance policy that helps cover the costs of chronic or prolonged illness, disability, or cognitive impairment such as Alzheimer's disease. These policies help pay for services and supports in your home, adult day care centers, respite care, hospice care, assisted living facilities, memory care facilities, and nursing homes.

Long-term care insurance typically covers the following types of services:

1. Personal care services: This includes assistance with activities of daily living (ADLs) such as bathing, dressing, grooming, using the toilet, eating, and moving around.
2. Home health care services: This includes skilled nursing care, physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, and hospice care provided in your home.
3. Assisted living facilities: This includes room and board, personal care services, and supportive services such as medication management, transportation, and social activities.
4. Nursing homes: This includes skilled nursing care, rehabilitation services, and custodial care in a licensed nursing facility.

Long-term care insurance policies typically have a waiting period (also known as an elimination period) before benefits begin, which can range from 30 to 100 days. The policyholder is responsible for paying for long-term care services during this waiting period. Additionally, premiums for long-term care insurance may increase over time, and policies may have limits on the amount of coverage provided.

It's important to note that long-term care insurance can be expensive, and not everyone will qualify for coverage due to age or health conditions. Therefore, it's essential to carefully consider your options and consult with a licensed insurance professional before purchasing a policy.

Continuing education (CE) in the medical field refers to the ongoing process of learning and professional development that healthcare professionals engage in throughout their careers. The goal of CE is to maintain, develop, and increase knowledge, skills, and competence in order to provide safe, effective, and high-quality care to patients.

Continuing education activities can take many forms, including conferences, seminars, workshops, online courses, and self-study programs. These activities may cover a wide range of topics, such as new research findings, advances in clinical practice, changes in regulations or guidelines, and ethical issues.

Healthcare professionals are often required to complete a certain number of CE credits each year in order to maintain their licensure or certification. This helps ensure that they stay up-to-date with the latest developments in their field and are able to provide the best possible care to their patients.

Medical societies are professional organizations composed of physicians, surgeons, and other healthcare professionals who share a common purpose of promoting medical research, education, and patient care. These societies can focus on specific medical specialties, such as the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) for cancer specialists or the American College of Surgeons (ACS) for surgeons. They may also address broader issues related to healthcare policy, advocacy, and ethics. Medical societies often provide resources for continuing medical education, publish scientific journals, establish clinical practice guidelines, and offer networking opportunities for members.

Medical education is a systematic process of acquiring knowledge, skills, and values necessary for becoming a healthcare professional, such as a doctor, nurse, or allied health professional. It involves a combination of theoretical instruction, practical training, and experiential learning in clinical settings. The goal of medical education is to produce competent, compassionate, and ethical practitioners who can provide high-quality care to patients and contribute to the advancement of medicine. Medical education typically includes undergraduate (pre-medical) studies, graduate (medical) school, residency training, and continuing medical education throughout a healthcare professional's career.

A nursing home, also known as a skilled nursing facility, is a type of residential healthcare facility that provides round-the-clock care and assistance to individuals who require a high level of medical care and support with activities of daily living. Nursing homes are designed for people who cannot be cared for at home or in an assisted living facility due to their complex medical needs, mobility limitations, or cognitive impairments.

Nursing homes provide a range of services, including:

1. Skilled nursing care: Registered nurses and licensed practical nurses provide 24-hour medical care and monitoring for residents with chronic illnesses, disabilities, or those recovering from surgery or illness.
2. Rehabilitation services: Physical, occupational, and speech therapists help residents regain strength, mobility, and communication skills after an injury, illness, or surgery.
3. Personal care: Certified nursing assistants (CNAs) help residents with activities of daily living, such as bathing, dressing, grooming, and using the bathroom.
4. Meals and nutrition: Nursing homes provide three meals a day, plus snacks, and accommodate special dietary needs.
5. Social activities: Recreational programs and social events are organized to help residents stay active and engaged with their peers.
6. Hospice care: Some nursing homes offer end-of-life care for residents who require palliative or comfort measures.
7. Secure environments: For residents with memory impairments, specialized units called memory care or Alzheimer's units provide a secure and structured environment to help maintain their safety and well-being.

When selecting a nursing home, it is essential to consider factors such as the quality of care, staff-to-resident ratio, cleanliness, and overall atmosphere to ensure the best possible experience for the resident.

Professional competence, in the context of medicine, refers to the possession of the necessary skills, knowledge, and behaviors required for the provision of high-quality healthcare services. It involves the ability to apply medical knowledge and clinical skills effectively in practice, make informed and evidence-based decisions, communicate clearly and effectively with patients and colleagues, demonstrate professionalism and ethical behavior, and engage in continuous learning and improvement.

Professional competence is evaluated through various means, including assessments of clinical skills, knowledge tests, patient feedback, and peer reviews. It is an ongoing process that requires healthcare professionals to continually update their knowledge and skills, adapt to changes in medical practice, and strive for excellence in patient care. Maintaining professional competence is essential for ensuring the safety and quality of healthcare services and is a key component of medical regulation and licensure.

Poliomyelitis, also known as polio, is a highly infectious disease caused by a virus that invades the body through the mouth, usually from contaminated water or food. The virus multiplies in the intestine and can invade the nervous system, causing paralysis.

The medical definition of Poliomyelitis includes:

1. An acute viral infection caused by the poliovirus.
2. Characterized by inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord (poliomyelitis), leading to muscle weakness, and in some cases, paralysis.
3. The disease primarily affects children under 5 years of age.
4. Transmission occurs through the fecal-oral route or, less frequently, by respiratory droplets.
5. The virus enters the body via the mouth, multiplies in the intestines, and can invade the nervous system.
6. There are three types of poliovirus (types 1, 2, and 3), each capable of causing paralytic polio.
7. Infection with one type does not provide immunity to the other two types.
8. The disease has no cure, but vaccination can prevent it.
9. Two types of vaccines are available: inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) and oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV).
10. Rare complications of OPV include vaccine-associated paralytic polio (VAPP) and circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs).

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Malta" is not a medical term. It is a country located in Southern Europe, consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

"Quality control" is a term that is used in many industries, including healthcare and medicine, to describe the systematic process of ensuring that products or services meet certain standards and regulations. In the context of healthcare, quality control often refers to the measures taken to ensure that the care provided to patients is safe, effective, and consistent. This can include processes such as:

1. Implementing standardized protocols and guidelines for care
2. Training and educating staff to follow these protocols
3. Regularly monitoring and evaluating the outcomes of care
4. Making improvements to processes and systems based on data and feedback
5. Ensuring that equipment and supplies are maintained and functioning properly
6. Implementing systems for reporting and addressing safety concerns or errors.

The goal of quality control in healthcare is to provide high-quality, patient-centered care that meets the needs and expectations of patients, while also protecting their safety and well-being.

A physician's role is defined as a licensed healthcare professional who practices medicine, diagnoses and treats injuries or illnesses, and promotes health and wellness. Physicians may specialize in various fields such as cardiology, dermatology, psychiatry, surgery, etc., requiring additional training and certification beyond medical school. They are responsible for providing comprehensive medical care to patients, including:

1. Obtaining a patient's medical history and performing physical examinations
2. Ordering and interpreting diagnostic tests
3. Developing treatment plans based on their diagnosis
4. Prescribing medications or performing procedures as necessary
5. Coordinating with other healthcare professionals for multidisciplinary care
6. Providing counseling and education to patients about their health, disease prevention, and wellness promotion
7. Advocating for their patients' rights and ensuring quality of care
8. Maintaining accurate medical records and staying updated on the latest medical research and advancements in their field.

"Family Physicians" are medical doctors who provide comprehensive primary care to individuals and families of all ages. They are trained to diagnose and treat a wide range of medical conditions, from minor illnesses to complex diseases. In addition to providing acute care, family physicians also focus on preventive medicine, helping their patients maintain their overall health and well-being through regular checkups, screenings, and immunizations. They often serve as the patient's main point of contact within the healthcare system, coordinating care with specialists and other healthcare professionals as needed. Family physicians may work in private practices, community health centers, hospitals, or other healthcare settings.

Respiratory Protective Devices (RPDs) are personal protective equipment items designed to protect the user from inhalation of hazardous substances or harmful levels of airborne contaminants in the environment. These devices create a physical barrier between the user's respiratory system and the surrounding air, filtering out or purifying the air before it is breathed in.

RPDs can be categorized into two main types:

1. **Air-purifying Respirators (APRs):** These devices use filters, cartridges, or canisters to remove contaminants from the surrounding air. They are further divided into several subcategories, including filtering facepiece respirators, half-mask elastomeric respirators, full-facepiece elastomeric respirators, and powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs).
2. **Supplied-Air Respirators (SARs):** These devices deliver clean breathing air from an external source, either through a compressor or compressed air cylinder. They are further divided into two subcategories: self-contained breathing apparatuses (SCBAs) and supplied-air respirators with escape provisions.

The choice of RPD depends on the nature and concentration of the airborne contaminants, the user's physiological and psychological capabilities, and the work environment. Proper selection, fitting, use, maintenance, and training are crucial to ensure the effectiveness and safety of Respiratory Protective Devices.

The "cause of death" is a medical determination of the disease, injury, or event that directly results in a person's death. This information is typically documented on a death certificate and may be used for public health surveillance, research, and legal purposes. The cause of death is usually determined by a physician based on their clinical judgment and any available medical evidence, such as laboratory test results, autopsy findings, or eyewitness accounts. In some cases, the cause of death may be uncertain or unknown, and the death may be classified as "natural," "accidental," "homicide," or "suicide" based on the available information.

'Personnel Administration in a hospital setting' refers to the management and oversight of the hospital's workforce, including hiring, training, evaluating, promoting, and compensating employees. It also involves ensuring compliance with labor laws and regulations, managing employee benefits and relations, and creating policies and procedures that promote a positive and productive work environment. The ultimate goal of personnel administration in a hospital is to recruit, retain, and develop a highly qualified and motivated staff that can provide high-quality patient care and contribute to the hospital's mission and goals.

Quality Assurance in the context of healthcare refers to a systematic approach and set of activities designed to ensure that health care services and products consistently meet predetermined standards of quality and safety. It includes all the policies, procedures, and processes that are put in place to monitor, assess, and improve the quality of healthcare delivery.

The goal of quality assurance is to minimize variability in clinical practice, reduce medical errors, and ensure that patients receive evidence-based care that is safe, effective, timely, patient-centered, and equitable. Quality assurance activities may include:

1. Establishing standards of care based on best practices and clinical guidelines.
2. Developing and implementing policies and procedures to ensure compliance with these standards.
3. Providing education and training to healthcare professionals to improve their knowledge and skills.
4. Conducting audits, reviews, and evaluations of healthcare services and processes to identify areas for improvement.
5. Implementing corrective actions to address identified issues and prevent their recurrence.
6. Monitoring and measuring outcomes to evaluate the effectiveness of quality improvement initiatives.

Quality assurance is an ongoing process that requires continuous evaluation and improvement to ensure that healthcare delivery remains safe, effective, and patient-centered.

Allied health personnel refers to a group of healthcare professionals who are licensed or regulated to provide specific services within the healthcare system. They work in collaboration with physicians and other healthcare providers to deliver comprehensive medical care. Allied health personnel include various disciplines such as:

1. Occupational therapists
2. Physical therapists
3. Speech-language pathologists
4. Audiologists
5. Respiratory therapists
6. Dietitians and nutritionists
7. Social workers
8. Diagnostic medical sonographers
9. Radiologic technologists
10. Clinical laboratory scientists
11. Genetic counselors
12. Rehabilitation counselors
13. Therapeutic recreation specialists

These professionals play a crucial role in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of various medical conditions and are essential members of the healthcare team.

The "attitude of health personnel" refers to the overall disposition, behavior, and approach that healthcare professionals exhibit towards their patients or clients. This encompasses various aspects such as:

1. Interpersonal skills: The ability to communicate effectively, listen actively, and build rapport with patients.
2. Professionalism: Adherence to ethical principles, confidentiality, and maintaining a non-judgmental attitude.
3. Compassion and empathy: Showing genuine concern for the patient's well-being and understanding their feelings and experiences.
4. Cultural sensitivity: Respecting and acknowledging the cultural backgrounds, beliefs, and values of patients.
5. Competence: Demonstrating knowledge, skills, and expertise in providing healthcare services.
6. Collaboration: Working together with other healthcare professionals to ensure comprehensive care for the patient.
7. Patient-centeredness: Focusing on the individual needs, preferences, and goals of the patient in the decision-making process.
8. Commitment to continuous learning and improvement: Staying updated with the latest developments in the field and seeking opportunities to enhance one's skills and knowledge.

A positive attitude of health personnel contributes significantly to patient satisfaction, adherence to treatment plans, and overall healthcare outcomes.

Plastic surgery is a medical specialty that involves the restoration, reconstruction, or alteration of the human body. It can be divided into two main categories: reconstructive surgery and cosmetic surgery.

Reconstructive surgery is performed to correct functional impairments caused by burns, trauma, birth defects, or disease. The goal is to improve function, but may also involve improving appearance.

Cosmetic (or aesthetic) surgery is performed to reshape normal structures of the body in order to improve the patient's appearance and self-esteem. This includes procedures such as breast augmentation, rhinoplasty, facelifts, and tummy tucks.

Plastic surgeons use a variety of techniques, including skin grafts, tissue expansion, flap surgery, and fat grafting, to achieve their goals. They must have a thorough understanding of anatomy, as well as excellent surgical skills and aesthetic judgment.

A Laboratory Infection, also known as a laboratory-acquired infection (LAI), is an infection that occurs in individuals who are exposed to pathogens or other harmful microorganisms while working in a laboratory setting. These infections can occur through various routes of exposure, including inhalation, skin contact, or ingestion of contaminated materials.

Laboratory infections pose significant risks to laboratory workers, researchers, and even visitors who may come into contact with infectious agents during their work or visit. To minimize these risks, laboratories follow strict biosafety protocols, including the use of personal protective equipment (PPE), proper handling and disposal of contaminated materials, and adherence to established safety guidelines.

Examples of laboratory infections include tuberculosis, salmonella, hepatitis B and C, and various other bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic infections. Prompt diagnosis, treatment, and implementation of appropriate infection control measures are crucial to prevent the spread of these infections within the laboratory setting and beyond.

Neurology is a branch of medicine that deals with the study and treatment of diseases and disorders of the nervous system, which includes the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, muscles, and autonomic nervous system. Neurologists are medical doctors who specialize in this field, diagnosing and treating conditions such as stroke, Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and various types of headaches and pain disorders. They use a variety of diagnostic tests, including imaging studies like MRI and CT scans, electrophysiological tests like EEG and EMG, and laboratory tests to evaluate nerve function and identify any underlying conditions or abnormalities. Treatment options may include medication, surgery, rehabilitation, or lifestyle modifications.

Radiologic technology is a medical term that refers to the use of imaging technologies to diagnose and treat diseases. It involves the application of various forms of radiation, such as X-rays, magnetic fields, sound waves, and radioactive substances, to create detailed images of the internal structures of the body.

Radiologic technologists are healthcare professionals who operate the imaging equipment and work closely with radiologists, who are medical doctors specializing in interpreting medical images. Radiologic technology includes various imaging modalities such as:

1. X-ray radiography: produces images of internal structures by passing X-rays through the body onto a detector.
2. Computed tomography (CT): uses X-rays to create detailed cross-sectional images of the body.
3. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce detailed images of internal structures without using radiation.
4. Ultrasound: uses high-frequency sound waves to create images of internal structures, such as fetuses during pregnancy or organs like the heart and liver.
5. Nuclear medicine: uses small amounts of radioactive substances to diagnose and treat diseases by creating detailed images of the body's internal structures and functions.

Radiologic technology plays a crucial role in modern medicine, enabling healthcare providers to make accurate diagnoses, plan treatments, and monitor patient progress.

I am not a medical professional, but I can provide you with some general information about the concept of "education" in the context of health and medicine.

In this context, education generally refers to the process of acquiring knowledge, skills, values, and attitudes related to maintaining and improving one's health and well-being, as well as preventing and managing diseases and injuries. Health education can take place in various settings, such as schools, healthcare facilities, workplaces, and communities.

Health education aims to empower individuals and populations to make informed decisions about their health and promote healthy behaviors and lifestyle choices. It covers a wide range of topics, including:

1. Anatomy and physiology
2. Nutrition and diet
3. Exercise and physical activity
4. Mental health and well-being
5. Substance use and abuse
6. Sexual and reproductive health
7. Personal hygiene and infection control
8. Chronic disease management
9. Injury prevention and safety
10. Environmental health

Health education is often delivered by healthcare professionals, educators, and community leaders, using various methods such as lectures, workshops, demonstrations, simulations, and digital media. The ultimate goal of health education is to improve overall health outcomes and reduce health disparities in populations.

I believe there may be a misunderstanding in your question. "Library schools" are not a medical term or concept. Instead, they refer to institutions that offer degree programs and courses related to library science, information studies, or related fields. These programs typically train students to become librarians, archivists, or information specialists who work in various types of libraries, museums, archives, and other information-intensive organizations.

If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help!

I couldn't find a specific medical definition for "Self-Evaluation Programs." However, in the context of healthcare and medical education, self-evaluation programs generally refer to activities or interventions designed to help healthcare professionals assess their own knowledge, skills, and performance. These programs often include tools such as:

1. Knowledge-based tests and quizzes
2. Reflective practice exercises
3. Case discussions and simulations
4. Feedback from peers or supervisors
5. Performance metrics and benchmarking

The primary goal of self-evaluation programs is to promote continuous professional development, identify areas for improvement, and enhance the quality of care provided to patients. They may be used as part of continuing medical education (CME), maintenance of certification (MOC) processes, or quality improvement initiatives.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Library Science" is not a term that has a medical definition. Library Science is a field of study that deals with the acquisition, organization, preservation, and dissemination of information resources. It includes the design of library spaces, the development of information policies, the use of technology in libraries, and the practice of cataloging and classification. If you have any questions about a specific medical term or concept, I'd be happy to help with that!

Physician's practice patterns refer to the individual habits and preferences of healthcare providers when it comes to making clinical decisions and managing patient care. These patterns can encompass various aspects, such as:

1. Diagnostic testing: The types and frequency of diagnostic tests ordered for patients with similar conditions.
2. Treatment modalities: The choice of treatment options, including medications, procedures, or referrals to specialists.
3. Patient communication: The way physicians communicate with their patients, including the amount and type of information shared, as well as the level of patient involvement in decision-making.
4. Follow-up care: The frequency and duration of follow-up appointments, as well as the monitoring of treatment effectiveness and potential side effects.
5. Resource utilization: The use of healthcare resources, such as hospitalizations, imaging studies, or specialist consultations, and the associated costs.

Physician practice patterns can be influenced by various factors, including medical training, clinical experience, personal beliefs, guidelines, and local availability of resources. Understanding these patterns is essential for evaluating the quality of care, identifying potential variations in care, and implementing strategies to improve patient outcomes and reduce healthcare costs.

A laboratory (often abbreviated as lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research, experiments, and measurements may be performed. In the medical field, laboratories are specialized spaces for conducting diagnostic tests and analyzing samples of bodily fluids, tissues, or other substances to gain insights into patients' health status.

There are various types of medical laboratories, including:

1. Clinical Laboratories: These labs perform tests on patient specimens to assist in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases. They analyze blood, urine, stool, CSF (cerebrospinal fluid), and other samples for chemical components, cell counts, microorganisms, and genetic material.
2. Pathology Laboratories: These labs focus on the study of disease processes, causes, and effects. Histopathology involves examining tissue samples under a microscope to identify abnormalities or signs of diseases, while cytopathology deals with individual cells.
3. Microbiology Laboratories: In these labs, microorganisms like bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites are cultured, identified, and studied to help diagnose infections and determine appropriate treatments.
4. Molecular Biology Laboratories: These labs deal with the study of biological molecules, such as DNA, RNA, and proteins, to understand their structure, function, and interactions. They often use techniques like PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and gene sequencing for diagnostic purposes.
5. Immunology Laboratories: These labs specialize in the study of the immune system and its responses to various stimuli, including infectious agents and allergens. They perform tests to diagnose immunological disorders, monitor immune function, and assess vaccine effectiveness.
6. Toxicology Laboratories: These labs analyze biological samples for the presence and concentration of chemicals, drugs, or toxins that may be harmful to human health. They help identify potential causes of poisoning, drug interactions, and substance abuse.
7. Blood Banks: Although not traditionally considered laboratories, blood banks are specialized facilities that collect, test, store, and distribute blood and its components for transfusion purposes.

Medical laboratories play a crucial role in diagnosing diseases, monitoring disease progression, guiding treatment decisions, and assessing patient outcomes. They must adhere to strict quality control measures and regulatory guidelines to ensure accurate and reliable results.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Job Description" is not a medical term. It is a general human resources and employment concept. A job description is a document that provides details about the duties, responsibilities, necessary skills, working conditions, and other relevant information related to a specific job position. It serves as a guide for both employers and employees to understand the expectations and requirements of the role.

An autopsy, also known as a post-mortem examination or obduction, is a medical procedure in which a qualified professional (usually a pathologist) examines a deceased person's body to determine the cause and manner of death. This process may involve various investigative techniques, such as incisions to study internal organs, tissue sampling, microscopic examination, toxicology testing, and other laboratory analyses. The primary purpose of an autopsy is to gather objective evidence about the medical conditions and factors contributing to the individual's demise, which can be essential for legal, insurance, or public health purposes. Additionally, autopsies can provide valuable insights into disease processes and aid in advancing medical knowledge.

Reference standards in a medical context refer to the established and widely accepted norms or benchmarks used to compare, evaluate, or measure the performance, accuracy, or effectiveness of diagnostic tests, treatments, or procedures. These standards are often based on extensive research, clinical trials, and expert consensus, and they help ensure that healthcare practices meet certain quality and safety thresholds.

For example, in laboratory medicine, reference standards may consist of well-characterized samples with known concentrations of analytes (such as chemicals or biological markers) that are used to calibrate instruments and validate testing methods. In clinical practice, reference standards may take the form of evidence-based guidelines or best practices that define appropriate care for specific conditions or patient populations.

By adhering to these reference standards, healthcare professionals can help minimize variability in test results, reduce errors, improve diagnostic accuracy, and ensure that patients receive consistent, high-quality care.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Purchasing, Hospital" is not a recognized medical term or concept. It seems that "purchasing" in this context might be referring to the process or department within a hospital responsible for acquiring goods, services, and equipment. This function is essential for the efficient and cost-effective operation of a hospital. However, without more specific context, it's challenging to provide a precise definition. If you have a particular aspect of hospital purchasing that you'd like to understand better, I'd be happy to help clarify if I can.

There is no specific medical definition for "Health Facility Size" as it can refer to various aspects of a healthcare institution's physical infrastructure. Generally, it refers to the square footage or floor area of a health facility, which can impact the range and volume of services provided, the number of patients served, and the efficiency of care delivery.

The size of a health facility may vary based on factors such as:

1. Specialty: Hospitals specializing in complex procedures like organ transplants or cancer treatments typically require more space for specialized equipment, operating rooms, and support services.
2. Capacity: The number of beds available in a hospital directly affects its size. A larger hospital may have hundreds of beds, while smaller facilities might only have a few dozen.
3. Services offered: Ambulatory surgery centers, urgent care clinics, and primary care offices typically require less space than full-service hospitals due to the nature of their services.
4. Geographic location: Rural areas may have smaller health facilities due to lower population density and fewer resources, while urban areas might have larger facilities with more comprehensive services.
5. Ownership: Publicly owned or nonprofit healthcare institutions may have different space requirements and funding sources compared to for-profit organizations, which can impact facility size.

In summary, "Health Facility Size" is a broad term that encompasses various aspects of a healthcare institution's physical infrastructure, including square footage, number of beds, and services offered.

Data collection in the medical context refers to the systematic gathering of information relevant to a specific research question or clinical situation. This process involves identifying and recording data elements, such as demographic characteristics, medical history, physical examination findings, laboratory results, and imaging studies, from various sources including patient interviews, medical records, and diagnostic tests. The data collected is used to support clinical decision-making, inform research hypotheses, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. It is essential that data collection is performed in a standardized and unbiased manner to ensure the validity and reliability of the results.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Sweden" is not a medical term. It is a country located in northern Europe. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help answer those!

In the context of medical law and ethics, fraud refers to a deliberate and intentional deception or misrepresentation of facts, motivated by personal gain, which is made by a person or entity in a position of trust, such as a healthcare professional or organization. This deception can occur through various means, including the provision of false information, the concealment of important facts, or the manipulation of data.

Medical fraud can take many forms, including:

1. Billing fraud: This occurs when healthcare providers submit false claims to insurance companies or government programs like Medicare and Medicaid for services that were not provided, were unnecessary, or were more expensive than the services actually rendered.
2. Prescription fraud: Healthcare professionals may engage in prescription fraud by writing unnecessary prescriptions for controlled substances, such as opioids, for their own use or to sell on the black market. They may also alter prescriptions or use stolen identities to obtain these drugs.
3. Research fraud: Scientists and researchers can commit fraud by manipulating or falsifying data in clinical trials, experiments, or studies to support predetermined outcomes or to secure funding and recognition.
4. Credentialing fraud: Healthcare professionals may misrepresent their qualifications, licenses, or certifications to gain employment or admitting privileges at healthcare facilities.
5. Identity theft: Stealing someone's personal information to obtain medical services, prescription medications, or insurance benefits is another form of medical fraud.

Medical fraud not only has severe legal consequences for those found guilty but also undermines the trust between patients and healthcare providers, jeopardizes patient safety, and contributes to rising healthcare costs.

Continuing pharmacy education (CPE) refers to the ongoing professional development activities that pharmacists engage in to maintain, develop, and enhance their knowledge, skills, and abilities required for delivering high-quality care to patients. CPE is a mandatory requirement for maintaining licensure and certification in many jurisdictions around the world.

The aim of CPE is to ensure that pharmacists remain up-to-date with the latest advances in pharmaceutical care, including new drugs, therapies, and technologies, as well as changes in regulations, guidelines, and standards of practice. CPE activities may include live or online courses, conferences, seminars, workshops, self-study programs, and other educational experiences that are relevant to the practice of pharmacy.

CPE programs are typically designed to address specific learning needs and objectives, and may be accredited by recognized organizations such as the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) in the United States or the Royal Pharmaceutical Society (RPS) in the United Kingdom. Participants who complete CPE activities successfully are awarded continuing education units (CEUs) or continuing professional development (CPD) credits, which are used to document their participation and maintain their professional credentials.

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... (Wikipedia articles in need of updating from August 2020, All Wikipedia articles in need of ... The National Certification Corporation (NCC) was established for the development, administration, and evaluation of a program ... Incorporated in 1975 and governed by a board of directors, NCC's certification program is accredited by the National Commission ... By 2009, NCC had awarded over 95,000 certifications and certificates of added qualification. Registered Nurse Certified in ...
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The Regional Certification Committees (RCC) meet annually until regional certification to evaluate the reports from the NCCs. ... are charged with certification of their WHO region. The chairs of the six regional committees comprise the Global Certification ... The Global Certification Commission is the top-level decision-making body of a three-tier process. Each WHO member state's ... "Global Certification Commission". World Health Organization. Retrieved 29 November 2021. "Report of the 1st Meeting of the ...
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The XBRL Software Certification programme has gained a new and valuable feature, with its expansion to provide certification of ... New certification for report creation software. By Editor We are very happy to announce that the Financial Reporter Compliance ... Added value for XBRL software certification: taxonomy and report package capabilities now being tested. By Editor ... We are delighted to announce that in 2021 two products from Semansys were recognised by our official certification programme as ...
  • Build trust and improve quality, safety, performance, efficiency and sustainability with third-party certification, validation and consulting from NSF. (
  • Certification has had a huge impact in bringing sustainability to the forefront of business thinking, but it must continue to evolve to provide more value to farmers and companies and ensure that people and nature can thrive in harmony. (
  • The certification program is part of the Rainforest Alliance's strategy to drive sustainability at scale in the sectors in which we operate through interconnected interventions supporting certification, tailored supply chain services, landscapes and communities, and advocacy. (
  • The new certification scheme will quickly become the gold standard as it will be the only scheme that tourists can trust as rewarding real achievements in sustainability, rather than just aspirations or progress. (
  • If you want to learn more about environmental certification or have other questions concerning environmental and sustainability work at the University, please contact our environmental manager Claes Nilén, or environmental coordinator Maria Nilsson. (
  • This of course apples only to exam-based certifications. (
  • ACP: Adobe ColdFusion programme's certification assessment is an open book exam. (
  • You can pay for a certification exam with a credit card or through your PayPal account or request an invoice by contacting [email protected] . (
  • All exam takers are required to adhere to all Prometric testing rules and the requirements detailed in the SHRM Certification Handbook . (
  • As part of the Google Cloud Certification Program, you will take a certification exam to demonstrate your knowledge and skills in the content area assessed by the exam. (
  • Circumventing this retake policy by registering under a different name or any other means is a violation of the exam terms and conditions and will result in a denied or revoked certification. (
  • After you decide to pursue HR certification with SHRM, the logical next question is 'Which exam should I take? (
  • Based on your responses to all of the questions, the tool will recommend the best exam for you: the SHRM-CP or the SHRM-SCP (or, for those who are not yet eligible for SHRM certification, a SHRM Specialty Credential ). (
  • From videos to practice software, these resources will help you prepare for the certification exam. (
  • CompTIA offers a wealth of certification training that is designed for exam success. (
  • Most of these organizations require that NPs complete an approved master's or doctorate-level NP program before taking the certification exam. (
  • One of the most common types of certification in modern society is professional certification, where a person is certified as being able to competently complete a job or task, usually by the passing of an examination and/or the completion of a program of study. (
  • Individuals who complete an educator education program or an alternative certification route approved by the West Virginia Board of Education and leading to West Virginia certification must meet the testing requirements of that program unless exempted by current State Board policy. (
  • For online ACP: Adobe ColdFusion program Online Certification, we accept credit card payments from across the world, as long as they can pay in US dollars currency. (
  • The Google Cloud Certification Program assesses individuals to determine whether they meet Google Cloud's proficiency standards in technical skills related to Google Cloud. (
  • The Lean Certification Program offered by the Lean Certification Alliance represents all the best practices of certification. (
  • The certification program helps ensure that you conceptually understand and can effectively apply lean to real world problems. (
  • What makes a good certification program? (
  • A good certification program ensures that you not only have the technical knowledge but also demonstrated skills in lean. (
  • A good certification program encourages continuous self-improvement and requires recertification to keep the credential active. (
  • You're wondering if a good Lean Certification program would be worth the investment. (
  • Accelerated program to earn Missouri teacher certification in as little as three (3) semesters and a summer of online courses, field experiences, and practicum. (
  • This program is designed for people who want to teach full-time while taking the required coursework to earn their initial teaching certification. (
  • This program is designed for non-certified teachers of record to earn Missouri certification online in six (6) semesters while teaching. (
  • A bachelor's degree, passed Missouri Content Assessment and ability to secure a teaching position in the certification area are required to enter the program. (
  • What is the function of the Vitamin D Standardization-Certification program? (
  • CDC's Vitamin D Standardization-Certification Program (VDSCP) evaluates the accuracy and reliability of vitamin D tests using well-established procedures, and certifies those that have a certain accuracy and precision. (
  • Last month, Rebecca Powell successfully completed the Americans with Disabilities Act Coordinator Training Certification Program (ACTCP)! (
  • This white paper presents the general concepts, components, and issues related to establishing and administering a conformance testing and certification program. (
  • UL Solutions' USB-IF certification testing program evaluates product compliance associated with the USB Type-C® connector. (
  • The OPIc Certification Program is a four-week course and includes an estimated 20-25 hours of material. (
  • That's why the Rainforest Alliance launched its new Certification Program , which entered into force in July 2021. (
  • After teaming up for an early implementation pilot of our strengthened certification program, both Finca Esmeralda and the Rainforest Alliance took away learnings that will contribute to a more sustainable banana sector. (
  • With our specially designed program, your school's educators and administrators can learn to teach Connecticut AED certification classes, then deliver training to students and faculty. (
  • AHRI's globally recognized and industry respected certification program helps equipment and component manufacturers sell more products, win bids, differentiate themselves from competitors, and comply with government requirements. (
  • The AHRI Product Performance Certification Program is a voluntary program, administered and governed by AHRI, which ensures that various types of HVACR and water heating products perform according to manufacturers' published claims. (
  • Keep your certification up to date with CompTIA's Continuing Education (CE) program. (
  • Kitchen managers can get certified through an accredited certification program. (
  • Learn how SHRM Certification can accelerate your career growth by earning a SHRM-CP or SHRM-SCP. (
  • Usually, licensure is administered by a governmental entity for public protection purposes and a professional association administers certification. (
  • Licensure and certification are similar in that they both require the demonstration of a certain level of knowledge or ability. (
  • Graduates of ABET-accredited programs who work in applied and natural science, computing, engineering and engineering technology can seek professional recognition by enhancing their credentials through licensure, registration and certification programs where appropriate. (
  • ABET does not provide licensure, registration or certification services for individuals. (
  • Graduates of programs accredited by an agency that is a signatory to these MRAs may be recognized for the purposes of licensure, registration or certification. (
  • Why Seek Professional Licensure, Registration or Certification? (
  • Licensure and certification, however, differ in terms of legal status. (
  • NP Licensure and Certification: Myths and Realities - Medscape - Jun 08, 2015. (
  • West Virginia requires your name, address, date of birth and Social Security number (SSN) to process educator certification paperwork. (
  • Cite this: AHA Joins New Cardiovascular Certification Group ABCVM - Medscape - Nov 07, 2023. (
  • Dimova, S & Kling, J 2023, CEFR profiles for oral English certification of lecturers in higher education . (
  • The Construction Manager Certification Institute (CMCI) provides credentials for professional construction managers (CMs). (
  • Associate and Professional certification exams: you have a maximum of four attempts in a two year period. (
  • Being a student, educator or independent learner means you get academic discounts on SAS certification exams, e-learning and more. (
  • The new board requirements will "de-emphasize timed, high stakes performance exams in the continuous certification process and instead will focus on learning assessments to identify gaps in current knowledge or skills," the statement noted. (
  • Third-party attestations of conformity, also referred to as third party certification, involves an independent and impartial assessment performed by a certification body, also referred to as conformity assessment body, declaring that specified requirements pertaining to a product, person, process, or management system have been met. (
  • Take this short assessment to test your readiness for Lean Certification and help determine where you should start your journey. (
  • In addition to USB-IF product certification testing, UL Solutions' Taiwan laboratory is accredited by International Electrotechnical Commission Quality Assessment System for Electronic Components (IECQ) to offer testing services to the IEC 62680 series of standards for universal serial bus interfaces for data and power. (
  • The mission, initiated and facilitated by WHO, was led by the ICT Chair Dr Joel Breman, and had been convened in responce to an official request by the country last August for assessment towards Guinea Worm certification. (
  • The Certification and recertification of doctors : issues in the assessment of clinical competence / edited by David Newble, Brian Jolly, Richard Wakeford. (
  • Successfully complete the practice and certification rounds of rating OPIc samples. (
  • We equip students with the skills and certifications they need to successfully launch careers in cloud computing and help connect them to local employers. (
  • The purpose of ACSI Certification is to strengthen Christian schools by credentialing educators who meet established professional and biblical requirements. (
  • Some professional certifications also require that one obtain work experience in a related field before the certification can be awarded. (
  • Some professional certifications are valid for a lifetime upon completing all certification requirements. (
  • Lean Certification is a global, industry-recognized and respected professional credential. (
  • Professional certification gives you the opportunity to demonstrate your knowledge and expertise, and provides evidence of your outstanding abilities. (
  • The Global Communication Certification Council (GCCC), a team of communication professionals assembled by IABC's international executive board, has developed two certifications: the Communication Management Professional (CMP) certification and the Strategic Communication Management Professional (SCMP) certification. (
  • The Communication Management Professional certification is aimed at the generalist/specialist level, a mid-level stage in the communication professional's development, for those with 6-8 years of experience in the communication field. (
  • The Strategic Communication Management Professional certification is aimed at the senior level, a higher-level stage in a communication professional's career, for those with 8-11 years of experience. (
  • Certifications earned from professional societies provide important opportunities for recognition of an individual's professional knowledge and experience that are portable and that can provide feedback on the knowledge transfer that occurs within academic programs. (
  • ACSI Certification promotes continued professional learning and increased effectiveness. (
  • Establishing and maintaining the certification of staff and administration is an essential step toward professional credibility and growth. (
  • ACSI certification establishes a framework for professional growth to occur over time, just like continuous school improvement. (
  • As a certification holder you must earn a minimum number of Professional Development Units (PDUs) in each of the skill areas of the PMI Talent Triangle - Ways of Working (formerly Technical), Power Skills (formerly Leadership), Business Acumen (formerly Strategic). (
  • The American Heart Association (AHA) has now formally voted to join several other cardiovascular societies to form a new professional certification board for cardiovascular medicine, to be known as the American Board of Cardiovascular Medicine (ABCVM). (
  • These four other societies issued a joint statement in September saying that they will apply to the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) to request an independent cardiology board that follows a "new competency-based approach to continuous certification - one that harnesses the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required to sustain professional excellence and care for cardiovascular patients effectively. (
  • Professional certification by ABIM is a condition of employment for physicians practicing in large hospitals or health systems. (
  • To increase the capacity of LHDs in healthcare infection prevention and control, NACCHO, in partnership with CDC's Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, is excited to announce the 2024 scholarship opportunity for LHD's current staff to obtain a Certification in Infection Control (CIC) or Associate-Infection Prevention and Control (a-IPC). (
  • Accreditation is a specific organization's process of certification. (
  • CBC also recently achieved ISO DIN/EN 17025:2005 accreditation for the extraction of total RNA from body fluids and the analysis of microRNA and mRNA. (
  • Certifications can differ within a profession by the level or specific area of expertise to which they refer. (
  • AWS Academy provides higher education institutions with a free, ready-to-teach cloud computing curriculum that prepares students to pursue industry-recognized certifications and in-demand cloud jobs. (
  • For information on alternate route programs, visit State-Approved Alternative Teacher Certification Programs or view West Virginia Alternative Certification Frequently Asked Questions (PDF) . (
  • Demonstrate your company's competitive advantage with our personnel certification programs. (
  • The caliber of such programs has risen dramatically over the years, said C. Emily Feistritzer, one of the authors of the book, Alternate Routes to Teaching , and the head of the National Center for Alternative Certification, based in Washington. (
  • Whether you are in a classroom now and need certification or are thinking about education as a career field, we have accelerated programs that are flexible, experiential, and will prepare you for the classroom. (
  • Our four Alternative Teacher Certification programs are designed to empower individuals who have completed their undergraduate degree with the necessary aptitudes and understanding to thrive as a teacher in the shortest time possible as compared to traditional programs. (
  • The CMP and SCMP certification programs accept applications on a rolling basis. (
  • Our safety certification programs for various high-speed data connectivity technologies may be done in addition to the USB-IF certification testing service to evaluate if the products in question meet the pertinent industry specifications. (
  • The American Academy of Environmental Engineers and Scientists has several Board Certification Programs to provide a structure for advancing your career as an environmental engineer or an environmental scientist. (
  • NICET offers certification programs for engineering technicians and technologists in the areas of civil engineering technology and electrical and mechanical systems engineering technology. (
  • AHRI's certification programs are voluntary and open to all foreign and domestic Original Equipment Manufacturers and Private Brand Marketers that produce products, which fall within the scope of one or more of the certification programs. (
  • On the authenticated side, manufacturers are provided with tools to upload, manage, and view their AHRI-certified data (including details not accessible by the public), and AHRI staff tools support the administration of certification programs. (
  • The Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Aircraft Certification Service (AIR) is part of the Office of Aviation Safety (AVS) and includes more than 1400 engineers, scientists, inspectors, test pilots and other experts responsible for oversight of design, production, airworthiness certification, and continued airworthiness programs for all U.S. civil aviation products and foreign import products. (
  • States can adopt the provision on kitchen manager certification from the 2017 FDA Food Code. (
  • The team will present its recommendations to the International Commission for the Certification of Dracunculiasis (Guinea Worm) Eradication (ICCDE), which will in turn make a decision on the certification of Kenya's free status when it meets in Geneva next February. (
  • In West Virginia, you must take the appropriate Praxis Subject Assessments for each area of certification you seek. (
  • Our personnel certification helps to empower practitioners with the real-world qualifications needed to perform their work safely and effectively, based on an industry accepted and standardized set of skills that companies and consumers can trust. (
  • As you continue to build knowledge, skills and experience, you can either recertify or obtain certification at another level. (
  • Master these skills to earn a certification. (
  • Delivery and certification of courses, either in person, or virtually to ensure that supplier workforces have the skills and knowledge to service the sector, cementing change and pushing growth. (
  • Although standardized certification of training does not formally exist, the directors agreed that facility-specific, time-limited documentation to recognize specific skills and experiences of trained persons is needed. (
  • Adobe strives to maintain the highest standards to protect the integrity of the certifications you earn. (
  • Non-certified teachers of record earn certification with online courses over two years, with an optional MEd. (
  • Lean Silver Certification is suited for individuals who have responsibilities for improvements to an entire value stream, from order to delivery, that involve more than a single process. (
  • The Certification Application Form (CAF) is a mandatory document to be filled out by Certificate Holders and Certification Bodies along the Certification Process of the Sustainable Agriculture. (
  • Certification can be described as the process of assuring the industry and consumers that the assessed company has met a set of minimum standards. (
  • Central to the CC certification process are the Security Functional Requirements (SFR), rigorous guidelines outlining the security features a product must encompass. (
  • The ABIM's maintenance of certification process has been widely criticized for many years and has been described as "needlessly burdensome and expensive. (
  • However, the information obtained might be more reliable than self-certification, for which operators might put differing amounts of effort into the process. (
  • Scholarship recipients may be asked to provide feedback on the certification process and the impact certification has had on their department's capacity for IPC efforts. (
  • We are delighted to announce that POMDOC PRO from POMELO-PARADIGM is the latest product to be awarded XBRL Certified Software status by our official certification programme. (
  • We are delighted to announce that in 2021 two products from Semansys were recognised by our official certification programme as XBRL Certified Software. (
  • We are very pleased to announce the latest product to be recognised by our official certification programme: review and consumption software EasyQC from EasyESEF. (
  • XBRL Software Certification programme has been expanded. (
  • The XBRL Software Certification programme has gained a new and valuable feature, with its expansion to provide certification of the Taxonomy Package and Report Package formats. (
  • The level of resources needed to carry out this general approach depends on the level of review or audit of the submittals and certifications. (
  • Failure to provide the information requested above could delay processing of your certification application. (
  • SAS partners with CERTMetrics ™ to provide you with the best possible certification experience. (
  • All courses taken in our Alternative Certification offerings provide graduate credit that applies directly toward a Master of Education (M.Ed.) degree. (
  • With our Connecticut AED classes for healthcare providers, we can help you stay abreast of the latest protocols, maintain your certifications and provide life-saving care when every moment counts. (
  • Q: What are the hardware and software requirements of the certification or live training sessions? (
  • To know details of online certification and training workshops, please visit here . (
  • Online certification lets you complete the training at your convenience. (
  • The Interisland Livestock Shipper Certification is an online training that briefly covers best management practices for interisland ocean transport of livestock in the state of Hawaii. (
  • Certification training is free and will be valid for 3 years from date of course completion. (
  • USCIS determines whether the beneficiary met the minimum education, training, and experience requirements of the permanent labor certification at the time the petitioner filed the application for permanent labor certification with DOL. (
  • WorkSafeBC is implementing requirements for anyone performing asbestos abatement work to complete mandatory safety training and certification from an approved training provider. (
  • To access training and examination materials, sign in to the WorkSafeBC Certification Services Extranet . (
  • The purpose of certification has been to achieve voluntary standards which meet or exceed baseline standards or legislation. (
  • Using submittals or certifications from operators could be made voluntary or could be required using regulations. (
  • "Insights Into Alternative Certification: Initial Findings From a National Study" is available from SRI International . (
  • But delving deeper into the data, the sri researchers say, provides further insights: In Newark, N.J., for example, 59 percent of the alternative-certification teachers are African-American or Hispanic, the same percentage as minority teachers in the district as a whole. (
  • If an applicant for BORA certification does not possess a current certificate from the State of Florida Building Code Administrators and Inspectors Board, the applicant must apply for a Provisional certificate as a prerequisite to "temporary certification. (
  • Provisional certificates may be issued by BCAIB to newly employed or promoted personnel, but only to those who possess the standards and eligibility requirement for a standard certification. (
  • [4] DOL approves and issues permanent labor certification applications only after the petitioner has complied with DOL advertising and recruiting requirements and has established that there are no able, qualified, and available U.S. workers for the position and has rejected any U.S. job applicants for valid job-related reasons. (
  • Certification is valid for 3 years. (
  • A design certification is valid for 15 years from the date of issuance but can be renewed for an additional 10 to 15 years. (
  • Both types of courses offer full certification that's valid for two years. (
  • Certification by BORA is valid for the duration of the calendar year and must be renewed each January 1st. (
  • For example, in the IT Industry there are different certifications available for software tester, project manager, and developer. (
  • According to the U.S. National Council on Measurement in Education, a certification test is a credentialing test used to determine whether individuals are knowledgeable enough in a given occupational area to be labeled "competent to practice" in that area. (
  • citation needed] Certification does not refer to the state of legally being able to practice or work in a profession. (
  • Only three states allow NPs to practice without certification: California, Kansas, and New York. (
  • Without certification, moving from state to state and continuing to practice can be difficult or impossible. (
  • Dr. Fitzgerald is an authority on NP certification and NP practice, and has more than 25 years of experience in helping NPs achieve certification. (
  • Lean Bronze Certification is for practitioners who work on tactical projects such as problem solving or improvements to a specific area of the business. (
  • Establish the eligibility of your type-certified products for installation and improve the traceability of your inventory by registering for FAA Advisory Circular (AC) 00-56B management systems certification. (
  • Ecteon's certification as privacy and security experts establishes the company as a qualified vendor to health care providers. (
  • Lean Certification validates your knowledge of and experience with lean principles. (
  • The term "certification", as used by BORA, shall mean compliance with the minimum qualification and experience for Building Officials, Chiefs, Inspectors and Plans Examiners established by Chapter 8 Article II of the Code of Miami-Dade County and approval by the Miami-Dade County Board of Rules and Appeals . (
  • Access UL certification data on products, components and systems, identify alternatives and view guide information with Product iQ. (
  • NSF performs electrical safety certifications for food equipment, municipal water products and systems, on-site wastewater products and pool and spa equipment. (
  • The paper addresses both formal validation and certification of products, as well as self-testing. (
  • UNIX certification is a trusted and open system industry standard, ensuring that products conform to the most exacting criteria for portability, compatibility, and global interoperability. (
  • The certification enables the reagent maker to create optimizing products for use beyond the research market. (
  • Certification is part of testing, inspection and certification and the provision by an independent body of written assurance (a certificate) that the product, service or system in question meets specific requirements. (
  • Due to the restriction of China Geolocation Data, the Policy is developed for Geodata collection and analysis in China to enable Rainforest Alliance Certificate Holders (CHs) and Certification Bodies. (
  • Customers can ask to see proof of kitchen manager certification (for example, a certificate) when going out to eat. (
  • If you are under contract with a Maryland public school system, nonpublic special education facility, or a State-operated school, please contact your employer to discuss your certification needs. (
  • Individuals who perform HR duties or students who wish to verify, validate, enhance and expand their HR capabilities are likely candidates for SHRM-CP or SHRM-SCP certification. (
  • Lean Certification from the Lean Certification Alliance is industry-wide and world-recognized. (
  • Government agencies and the restaurant industry can use kitchen manager certification to improve food safety in restaurants. (
  • Promoting certification in supply chains of private corporations by recognizing scheme owners who adopt private standards. (
  • This is how we can deliver more value to the two million farmers and thousands of businesses that use Rainforest Alliance certification to drive more sustainable agricultural production and responsible supply chains. (
  • Learn how Rainforest Alliance certification can help people, nature, and your business. (
  • To learn more, see FAA Order 8100.5 , Aircraft Certification Service - Organizational Structure and Functions. (
  • ACTFL hosts OPIc Certification Workshops whenever there is an increased need for OPIc raters. (
  • In general, petitioners filing EB-2 and EB-3 petitions must first obtain an approved permanent labor certification application from DOL on behalf of the beneficiary. (
  • In nearly all states, achievement of national certification is the first of several requirements to obtain a license as an NP. (
  • The Application for Permanent Employment Certification ( ETA Form 9089 (PDF) ) replaced the Application for Alien Employment Certification (ETA Form 750) in most cases, effective March 28, 2005. (
  • In the dynamic world of data security, certifications are the cornerstone of trust, assuring a product's resilience against potential threats. (
  • The recent attainment of Common Criteria (CC) certification by Veeam Backup & Replication and Veeam ONE v12 from the National Information Assurance Partnership (NIAP) and listing on the NIAP Product Compliant List (PCL) signifies a significant step towards reinforcing data security and ensuring the confidentiality, integrity and availability of sensitive information. (
  • CompTIA Data+ is an early-career data analytics certification for professionals tasked with developing and promoting data-driven business decision-making. (
  • April 10, 2013 /PRNewswire/ -- Ecteon, Inc. announces that it has achieved privacy and security certification in support of Business Associate requirements under the expanded Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) as mandated by the HITECH provisions of the Affordable Care Act of 2010. (
  • A significant percentage of Immigrant Petitions for Alien Workers ( Forms I-140 ) are based on permanent labor certification applications approved by the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL). (
  • What is environmental certification? (
  • One way that the departments are actively working to reduce their environmental impact is by becoming environmentally certified according to Lund University's environmental certification systems. (
  • Do you want to apply for an environmental certification for your department? (
  • Education-based certifications, require that a person completes a course of study that satisfies certain body of knowledge claims to demonstrate that the person has sufficient knowledge in the subject area. (
  • Q: Is there any education discount for certification? (
  • Certification and approval by the NRC of a standard nuclear power plant design independent of a specific site or an application to construct or operate a plant. (