Ceroid: A naturally occurring lipid pigment with histochemical characteristics similar to lipofuscin. It accumulates in various tissues in certain experimental and pathological conditions.Neuronal Ceroid-Lipofuscinoses: A group of severe neurodegenerative diseases characterized by intracellular accumulation of autofluorescent wax-like lipid materials (CEROID; LIPOFUSCIN) in neurons. There are several subtypes based on mutations of the various genes, time of disease onset, and severity of the neurological defects such as progressive DEMENTIA; SEIZURES; and visual failure.Serine Proteases: Peptide hydrolases that contain at the active site a SERINE residue involved in catalysis.Thiolester HydrolasesDipeptidyl-Peptidases and Tripeptidyl-Peptidases: A subclass of exopeptidases that includes enzymes which cleave either two or three AMINO ACIDS from the end of a peptide chain.Aminopeptidases: A subclass of EXOPEPTIDASES that act on the free N terminus end of a polypeptide liberating a single amino acid residue. EC 3.4.11.Lipofuscin: A naturally occurring lipid pigment with histochemical characteristics similar to ceroid. It accumulates in various normal tissues and apparently increases in quantity with age.Lipidoses: Conditions characterized by abnormal lipid deposition due to disturbance in lipid metabolism, such as hereditary diseases involving lysosomal enzymes required for lipid breakdown. They are classified either by the enzyme defect or by the type of lipid involved.Lysosomal Storage Diseases, Nervous System: A group of enzymatic disorders affecting the nervous system and to a variable degree the skeletal system, lymphoreticular system, and other organs. The conditions are marked by an abnormal accumulation of catabolic material within lysosomes.Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Pigments, Biological: Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.Molecular Chaperones: A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.Cathepsin F: A lysosomal papain-related cysteine proteinase that is expressed in a broad variety of cell types.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Dolichol: Eicosamethyl octacontanonadecasen-1-o1. Polyprenol found in animal tissues that contains about 20 isoprene residues, the one carrying the alcohol group being saturated.Cystaphos: Proposed as an adjuvant to cancer chemotherapy; may have radiation protective properties.Cathepsin D: An intracellular proteinase found in a variety of tissue. It has specificity similar to but narrower than that of pepsin A. The enzyme is involved in catabolism of cartilage and connective tissue. EC 3.4.23.5. (Formerly EC 3.4.4.23).Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Hermanski-Pudlak Syndrome: Syndrome characterized by the triad of oculocutaneous albinism (ALBINISM, OCULOCUTANEOUS); PLATELET STORAGE POOL DEFICIENCY; and lysosomal accumulation of ceroid lipofuscin.Sheep Diseases: Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.Subdural Space: Potential cavity which separates the ARACHNOID MATER from the DURA MATER.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Triazines: Heterocyclic rings containing three nitrogen atoms, commonly in 1,2,4 or 1,3,5 or 2,4,6 formats. Some are used as HERBICIDES.Congresses as Topic: Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Vitamin U: A vitamin found in green vegetables. It is used in the treatment of peptic ulcers, colitis, and gastritis and has an effect on secretory, acid-forming, and enzymatic functions of the intestinal tract.

Morphological study on pigmented cells in the horse testis. (1/32)

One of the most attractive characteristics of a horse testis is the change of the weight during development. As the testicular weight changes and the number of Leydig cells decreases, pigments appear in interstitial tissues. In the present study, the characteristics of the pigments found in the interstitial tissues were examined histochemically and ultrastructurally. Specific stainings indicated that the pigmented granules showed almost all of the histological and histochemical characteristics of ceroid or ceroid-like pigment. The cells showed positive reaction for acid phosphatase while the pigmented cells contained a lot of lysosomes ultrastructurally. These results suggest that macrophages might phagocytize Leydig cells, and store their digested materials as ceroid-like pigment.  (+info)

Inducible nitric oxide synthase colocalizes with signs of lipid oxidation/peroxidation in human atherosclerotic plaques. (2/32)

OBJECTIVE: Advanced human atherosclerotic plaques are characterized by the abundant presence of the autofluorescent non-soluble lipid pigment ceroid, consisting of oxidized lipoproteins. The aim of the present study was to examine the topographical and cellular distribution of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS or NOS II) within different stages of atherosclerosis and its colocalization with ceroid deposits and nitrotyrosine. METHODS AND RESULTS: Different stages of atherosclerosis were studied by immunohistochemistry on whole-mount longitudinal sections of carotid endarterectomy specimens. In the adaptive intimal thickening the predominant cell type were smooth muscle cells. The fatty streaks contained both smooth muscle cells and macrophages with an extremely low NOS II immunoreactivity. The advanced atherosclerotic plaques however, showed a very dense infiltration by macrophages, of which a subpopulation expressed NOS II as a vesicular immunoreactivity in their cytoplasm. These were mainly present around the necrotic core, in association with ceroid accumulation and nitrotyrosine. Fluorescence quenching microscopy showed the presence of NOS II on autofluorescent ceroid vesicles in the macrophages. Large extracellular ceroid granules were not NOS II immunoreactive. NOS II mRNA was detected by RT-PCR and the protein by Western blot in the plaque tissue but not in mammary arteries used as controls. CONCLUSION: Ceroid, nitrotyrosine and NOS II colocalized in late stages of atherosclerosis and were found around the necrotic core in the plaque. This could suggest that NOS II expression in macrophages is involved in oxidation and peroxidation of lipids, leading to ceroid formation.  (+info)

Proteasome inhibition by lipofuscin/ceroid during postmitotic aging of fibroblasts. (3/32)

We have studied the effects of hyperoxia and of cell loading with artificial lipofuscin or ceroid pigment on the postmitotic aging of human lung fibroblast cell cultures. Normobaric hyperoxia (40% oxygen) caused an irreversible senescence-like growth arrest after about 4 wk and shortened postmitotic life span from 1-1/2 years down to 3 months. During the first 8 wk of hyperoxia-induced 'aging', overall protein degradation (breakdown of [(35)S]methionine metabolically radiolabeled cell proteins) increased somewhat, but by 12 wk and thereafter overall proteolysis was significantly depressed. In contrast, protein synthesis rates were unaffected by 12 wk of hyperoxia. Lysosomal cathepsin-specific activity (using the fluorogenic substrate z-FR-MCA) and cytoplasmic proteasome-specific activity (measured with suc-LLVY-MCA) both declined by 80% or more over 12 wk. Hyperoxia also caused a remarkable increase in lipofuscin/ceroid formation and accumulation over 12 wk, as judged by both fluorescence measurements and FACscan methods. To test whether the association between lipofuscin/ceroid accumulation and decreased proteolysis might be causal, we next exposed cells to lipofuscin/ceroid loading under normoxic conditions. Lipofuscin/ceroid-loaded cells indeed exhibited a gradual decrease in overall protein degradation over 4 wk of treatment, whereas protein synthesis was unaffected. Proteasome specific activity decreased by 25% over this period, which is important since proteasome is normally responsible for degrading oxidized cell proteins. In contrast, an apparent increase in lysosomal cathepsin activity was actually caused by a large increase in the number of lysosomes per cell. To test whether lipofuscin/ceroid could in fact directly inhibit proteasome activity, thus causing oxidized proteins to accumulate, we incubated purified proteasome with lipofuscin/ceroid preparations in vitro. We found that proteasome is directly inhibited by lipofuscin/ceroid. Our results indicate that an accumulation of oxidized proteins (and lipids) such as lipofuscin/ceroid may actually cause further increases in damage accumulation during aging by inhibiting the proteasome.  (+info)

Phagocytosis and macrophage activation associated with hemorrhagic microvessels in human atherosclerosis. (4/32)

OBJECTIVE: Previously, we demonstrated that activated inducible NO synthase (iNOS)-expressing foam cells in human carotid plaques often produce autofluorescent (per)oxidized lipids (ceroid). Here, we investigate whether intraplaque microvessels can provide foam cells with lipids and trigger macrophage activation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Microvessels (von Willebrand factor [vWf] immunoreactivity), activated macrophages (iNOS immunoreactivity), and ceroid were systematically mapped in longitudinal sections of 15 human carotid endarterectomy specimens. An unbiased hierarchical cluster analysis classified vascular regions into 2 categories. One type with normal vWf expression and without inflammatory cells was seen, and another type with cuboidal endothelial cells, perivascular vWf deposits, and iNOS and ceroid-containing foam cells was seen in 4 (27%) of 15 plaques. The perivascular foam cells frequently contained platelets (glycoprotein Ibalpha) and erythrocytes (hemoglobin, iron), pointing to microhemorrhage/thrombosis and subsequent phagocytosis. Similar lipid-containing cells, expressing both ceroid and iNOS, were generated in atherosclerosis-free settings by incubating murine J774 macrophages with platelets or oxidized erythrocytes and also in vivo in organizing thrombi in normocholesterolemic rabbits. CONCLUSIONS: Focal intraplaque microhemorrhages initiate platelet and erythrocyte phagocytosis, leading to iron deposition, macrophage activation, ceroid production, and foam cell formation. Neovascularization, besides supplying plaques with leukocytes and lipoproteins, can thus promote focal plaque expansion when microvessels become thrombotic or rupture prone.  (+info)

A clinical variant of familial Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome. (5/32)

Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is an autosomal recessive inherited disease consisting of (1) partial oculocutaneous albinism (with nystagmus, strabism, and visual acuity loss), (2) platelet storage pool deficiency (with bleeding diathesis), and (3) disorder of "ceroid" metabolism with a multisystem tissue lysosomal ceroid deposition. HPS is less uncommon in Puerto Rico, where the most important studies have been performed, but is a very rare disease in Europe. HPS basic defect remains unknown, even if an HPS-causing gene was identified in chromosome segment 10q23-q23.3, and several mutations have been reported. The aim of this article is to discuss, on the basis of a review of relevant literature, a new familial HPS clinical variant observed in 2 young sisters (aged 16 and 23 years old, respectively), characterized by the typical symptoms of this syndrome. Our patients also suffered from diffuse interstitial pulmonary disease and an unexpectedly increased platelet aggregation and were prone to bacterial infections. Interestingly, we observed urinary tract abnormality in the younger HPS sister and a porencephalic cyst in the older HPS sister; both of these developmental defects have been reported in the Cross syndrome (or oculocerebral hypopigmentation syndrome). It seems that in our patients, an overlapping of the phenotypic manifestations of different rare syndromes may be present. The presence of ceroid-like autofluorescent material in urinary sediment together with the histologic aspects and the autofluorescence of oral mucosa biopsy are consistent with a ceroid-like lipofuscin storage. HPS should be carefully tested for in suspected cases to prevent the severe visual impairment, rapidly progressive pulmonary fibrosis, and other complications associated with this disorder.  (+info)

Ascorbic acid oxidation: a potential cause of the elevated severity of atherosclerosis in diabetes mellitus? (6/32)

The exposure of mouse peritoneal macrophages to cholesterol linoleate-containing artificial lipoproteins can lead to intracellular ceroid accumulation. This can be used as a model to study the role of oxidation in macrophage uptake of lipoproteins containing unsaturated fatty acids, considered by many as a primary event in atherosclerotic plaque formation. Our studies show that ascorbic acid can both inhibit and promote the formation of ceroid in such a model system. The transition metal copper (Cu(II)) further elevates ceroid accumulation and EDTA, a metal chelator, inhibits it. When trace levels of transition metals are present, low concentrations of ascorbic acid can elevate ceroid formation. This pro- and antioxidant characteristic of ascorbic acid was confirmed by monitoring the generation of oxidants by various concentrations of ascorbic acid, assessed by benzoic acid hydroxylation or the fragmentation of BSA. We discuss these observations in the context of an apparent increase in ascorbic acid oxidation and elevated severity of atherosclerosis in diabetes mellitus.  (+info)

Diagnostic usefulness of bronchoalveolar lavage in Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome: a case with double lung cancers. (7/32)

A 65-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of dyspnea on exertion. He had oculocutaneous albinism innately and his parents were consanguineous. His chest roentgenogram on admission showed reticulo-nodular infiltrates and cystic changes throughout both lung fields, and 7 cm mass in the left middle field. Cytology of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) revealed macrophages containing ceroid. The diagnosis of HPS was made clinically and the tumor was diagnosed as poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the lung. He died of respiratory failure. By autopsy, additional well-differentiated adenocarcinoma was detected. Cytology of BALF was useful to confirm ceroid accumulation in the lung.  (+info)

Retinal pathology in a canine model of late infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. (8/32)

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  • In laboratory experiments, Cystagon has helped remove ceroid from cells of patients with INCL. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • We report the electroencephalographic (EEG) features of 22 patients with neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL) who were referred to the Neurological Institute of Milan between 1984 and 1998. (elsevier.com)
  • NCL safnast upp kve nar sameindir fitu og pr teina ( ceroid og lipufuscin ) og er ekkt a truflun remur hv tum geta valdi sj kd mnum ( PPT1,TPP-1 og CathepsinD/CTSD ). (greining.is)