An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Ce, atomic number 58, and atomic weight 140.12. Cerium is a malleable metal used in industrial applications.
Stable cerium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cerium, but differ in atomic weight. Ce-136, 138, and 142 are stable cerium isotopes.
Atomic species differing in mass number but having the same atomic number. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Unstable isotopes of cerium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ce atoms with atomic weights 132-135, 137, 139, and 141-148 are radioactive cerium isotopes.
Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.
Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.
A group of elements that include SCANDIUM; YTTRIUM; and the LANTHANOID SERIES ELEMENTS. Historically, the rare earth metals got their name from the fact that they were never found in their pure elemental form, but as an oxide. In addition they were very difficult to purify. They are not truly rare and comprise about 25% of the metals in the earth's crust.
Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.
Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.

Uterine prostaglandin E secretion and uterine blood flow in the pregnant rabbit. (1/8)

Studies were performed in pregnant rabbits to assess the effect of inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis on uterine blood flow. Cardiac output and uteroplacental blood flow (UPBF) were measured using radiolabeled microspheres. Prostaglandin E (PGE) concentration was measured by radioimmunoassay in the uterine vein and peripheral artery of the pregnant nephrectomized rabbit. Either meclofenamate or indomethacin 2 mg/kg were utilized to inhibit prostaglandin synthesis. Systemic arterial pressure increased from 86 mm Hg to 98 mm Hg (P less than0.0001) after prostaglandin inhibition. Cardiac output was unchanged after the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, 326 ml/min to 7.8 ml/min. Uterine vein PGE concentration was extremely high, 172.4 ng/ml, with concomitant peripheral arterial PGE 2.1 NG/ML. Intravenous administration of either meclofenamate or indomethacin reduced uterine vein PGE to 23 ng/ml (P less than 0.01) and arterial PGE to 1.0 ng/ml (P less than 0.05). Male and nonpregnant female rabbits had lower arterial PGE, 0.37 ng/ml (P less 0.05). Studies in non-nephrectomized pregnant animals demonstrated that uteroplacental secretion of PGE was greater than five times renal secretion. These studies demonstrate that the rabbit uteroplacental unit is a rich source of PGE and suggest that production of the vasoactive lipid may have a key role in regulating UPBF during pregnancy.  (+info)

Myocardial blood flow distribution during ischemia-induced coronary vasodilation in the unanesthetized dog. (2/8)

This study was designed to determine whether coronary vasodilation distal to a flow-limiting coronary artery stenosis could result in redistribution of myocardial blood flow to produce subendocardial underperfusion. Studies were performed in 10 awake dogs chronically prepared with electromagnetic flow-meters and hydraulic occluders on the left circumflex coronary artery. Regional myocardial blood flow was measured using radionuclide-labeled microspheres, 7-10 mum in diameter, injected into the left atrium. A 5(-s) coronary artery occlusion was followed by reactive hyperemia with excess inflow of arterial blood effecting 375+/-20% repayment of the blood flow debt incurred during occlusion. When, after a 5(-s) occlusion, the occluder was only partially released to hold arterial inflow to the preocclusion level for 20 s before complete release, the delayed reactive hyperemia was augmented (mean blood flow repayment = 610+/-45%, P < 0.01). This augmentation of the reactive hyperemia suggested that ischemia was continuing during the interval of coronary vasodilation when coronary inflow was at the preocclusion level. Measurements of regional myocardial blood flow demonstrated that endocardial flow slightly exceeded epicardial flow during control conditions. When arterial inflow was limited to the preocclusion rate during vasodilation after a 5(-s) total coronary artery occlusion, however, flow to the subepicardial myocardium was increased at the expense of underperfusion of the subendocardial myocardium. Thus, in the presence of a flow-limiting proximal coronary artery stenosis, ischemia-induced coronary vasodilation resulted in redistribution of myocardial blood flow with production of subendocardial ischemia in the presence of a net volume of arterial inflow which, if properly distributed, would have been adequate to prevent myocardial ischemia.  (+info)

Uterine blood flow and uterine renin secretion. (3/8)

Experiments were carried out in pregnant nephrectomized rabbits to determine the relationship between uterine blood flow and uterine renin secretion. Uterine blood flow was measured by the percentage distribution of radioactive microspheres injected into the left ventricle which lodged in uterus and placenta, and cardiac output was measured by dye dilution. In 40 animals, 24 hr after nephrectomy, uterine blood flow was 4.7+/-0.4% of cardiac output and absolute flow 32.4+/-3 ml/100 g per min. Plasma renin activity (PRA) in uterine vein, 994+/-182 ng/100 ml per hr, was higher than in carotid artery, 832+/-143 (P < 0.025). With reduction of uterine blood flow from 4.7+/-0.5 to 1.95+/-0.3% of cardiac output and absolute flow from 30.8+/-4.6 to 8.8+/-2 ml/100 g per min, uterine vein PRA rose from 1434+/-234 to 4430+/-300 (P < 0.001), and carotid artery PRA from 1009+/-200 to 2300+/-350 (P < 0.01). Hemorrhagic hypotension caused uterine vein PRA to increase from 913+/-293 to 3638+/-1276 (P < 0.001) and carotid artery PRA from 774+/-252 to 1730+/-433 (P < 0.01). Uterine blood flow expressed as a percentage of cardiac output remained constant after hemorrhage, 5.5+/-0.9 and 6.3+/-0.8%, although absolute flow fell from 37+/-7.7 to 29+/-3.6 ml/100 g per min because of the large fall in cardiac output which occurred.Angiotensin, 10 ng/kg per min, caused no significant change in blood pressure or cardiac output but increased uterine blood flow from 4.1+/-0.6 to 8.4+/-1% (P < 0.005) of cardiac output with absolute flow increasing from 37.4+/-7 to 73.2+/-10 ml/100 g per min (P < 0.001). The increase in uterine blood flow during angiotensin was abolished by the prior administration of propranolol. Isoproterenol, 0.5 mu/min, increased uterine blood flow from 3.5+/-0.6 to 6.4+/-1.2% of cardiac output (P < 0.02) with absolute flow increasing from 25+/-5 to 51+/-12 ml/100 g per min (P < 0.05). Norepinephrine, 500 ng/min, caused no significant change in uterine blood flow. These findings suggest that uterine renin might be involved in regulating uterine blood flow, secretion being increased in response to a reduction in flow with the resultant rise in circulating or local angiotensin, through beta adrenergic stimulation, increasing uterine blood flow.  (+info)

Effects of vasopressin and isoprenaline infusions on the distribution of blod flow in the intestine; criteria for the validity of microsphere studies. (4/8)

1. The distribution of superior mesenteric arterial flow was investigated by radioactive microspheres. The small intestine received 83% of the flow ((85 ml/min)/100 g intestine) and flow was uniform along the length of the small intestine.2. The intestinal wall was separated into 3 layers-muscle, submucosa and mucosa. The muscle received (8 ml/min)/100 g intestine and the combined submucosa and mucosa (77 ml/min)/100 g intestine.3. The distribution of microspheres between the mucosa and submucosa depended on the size of the microspheres; the smaller the spheres, the more were found in the mucosa. It also depended on the state of the vascular bed; if microspheres were given during an infusion of vasopressin, a subsequent infusion of isoprenaline resulted in movement of some of the spheres from the submucosa into the mucosa.4. Histological studies after India ink injection showed few capillary-sized vessels but many large vessels in the submucosa. Capillary-sized vessels arose close to the junction with the mucosa and passed into the mucosa.5. These and other data suggest that the intestine consists of two parallel-coupled sections, one to the muscle and the other through the submucosa to the mucosa. The vessels in the submucosa are in series with those in the mucosa and submucosal shunts do not exist. Redistributions of flow between mucosa and submucosa cannot therefore occur during stimulation of the sympathetic nerves or infusions of drugs such as noradrenaline or adrenaline.6. When microspheres are used in pharmacological investigations on distribution of blood flow in organs, controls to validate the method for the particular areas being studied are essential. If the vessels in the areas studied are in series rather than in parallel, the method is invalid.  (+info)

Mechanism of the redistribution of renal cortical blood flow during hemorrhagic hypotension in the dog. (5/8)

Studies were performed to define the mechanisms involved in the redistribution of renal cortical blood flow to inner cortical nephrons which occurs during hemorrhagic hypotension in the dog. The radioactive microsphere method was utilized to measure regional blood flow in the renal cortex. Renal nerve stimulation decreased renal blood flow 40% but had no effect on the fractional distribution of cortical blood flow. Pretreatment with phenoxybenzamine, phentolamine, propranolol, or atropine did not alter the redistribution of cortical flow during hemorrhage. A reduction in renal perfusion pressure by aortic constriction caused a qualitatively similar alteration in regional blood flow distribution as occurred during hemorrhage. When perfusion pressure was kept constant in one kidney by aortic constriction followed by hemorrhage, no redistribution occurred in the kidney with a constant perfusion pressure while the contralateral kidney with the normal perfusion pressure before hemorrhage had a marked increase in the fractional distribution of cortical flow to inner cortical nephrons. Additionally, retransfusion had no effect on the fractional distribution of flow in the kidney in which perfusion pressure was maintained at the same level as during hemorrhage while in the contralateral kidney in which pressure increased to normal there was a redistribution of flow to outer cortical nephrons. These studies indicate that the redistribution of renal cortical blood flow which occurs during hemorrhage is not related to changes in adrenergic activity but rather to the intrarenal alterations which attend a diminution in perfusion pressure.  (+info)

Postnatal changes in renal glomerular blood flow distribution in puppies. (6/8)

The intrarenal distribution of radionuclide microspheres injected into the thoracic aorta was used to examine glomerular blood flow distribution (GBFD) in 26 healthy, unanesthetized puppies, ranging in age from 5 h to 42 days, and in 5 adult dogs. For analysis, the cortex was divided into four equally thick zones designated zone I (subcapsular) to zone IV (juxtamedullary). During the first 36 h of life, the highest flow rate was in zone II, which received 35.5+/-2.0%/g, compared with 26.8+/-1.4% to zone I, 23.7+/-1.4% to zone III, and 13.4+/-1.4% to zone IV. At age 6 wk, zone I had the highest rate of perfusion (48.6+/-2.1%, compared with 28.8+/-1.4% in zone II, 15.8+/-0.8%, in zone III, and 6.8+/-0.6% in zone IV). The 6-wk old animals resembled the adult animals, except for relatively greater perfusion per gram of zone I in the former group. Changes in relative GBFD did not correlate with those in arterial pressure or peripheral hematocrit. The distribution of glomeruli among the four zones of the cortex followed its own pattern of development. At birth and at 6 wk, the greatest density of glomeruli was in zone I (50.6+/-5.4 and 42.7+/-3.9%/g respectively, as compared with 24.1+/-2.9% in adults); in adults zone II contained the greatest density (39.1+/-1.6%). At birth the relative perfusion of glomeruli in zone I was only one-fifth that of glomeruli in zone IV, with intermediate values in zones II and III. By 6 wk of age, increased perfusion of the outer cortical glomeruli resulted in rates of flow in the four zones that did not differ significantly from each other. Relative perfusion in zone I continued to increase, so that in the adult animals perfusion in that zone was significantly greater than in the three deeper zones. These data demonstrate the marked hemodynamic changes that take place within the kidney during the first few weeks of life. The relatively greater blood flow of the most deeply situated nephrons in the early postnatal period suggests ascendancy of this population of nephrons and may have important functional implications.  (+info)

The Anrep effect reconsidered. (7/8)

Evidence is presented supporting the hypothesis that the positive inotropic effect after an abrupt increase in systolic pressure (Anrep effect) is the recovery from subendocardial ischemia induced by the increase and subsequently corrected by vascular autoregulation of the coronary bed. Major evidence consists of data obtained from an isolated heart preparation showing that the Anrep effect can be abolished with coronary vasodilation, and that with an abrupt increase in systolic pressure there is a significant reduction in the distribution of coronary flow to subendocardial layers of the ventricle. Furthermore, the intracardiac electrocardiogram shows S-T segment and T wave changes after an abrupt increase in ventricular pressure similar to that noted after coronary constriction. Major implications are that normally there may be ischemia of the subendocardial layers tending to reduce myocardial contractility which may account, in part, for the positive inotropic effect of various coronary vasodilators; that with an abrupt increase in ventricular pressure the subendocardium is rendered temporarily ischemic, placing the heart in jeopardy from arrhythmias until this is corrected; and that end-diastolic pressure and the intracardiac electrocardiogram may provide a means of evaluating the adequacy of circulation to subendocardial layers in diseased ventricles when systolic pressure is abruptly increased.  (+info)

Effect of renal vasodilatation on the distribution of cortical blood flow in the kidney of the dog. (8/8)

Studies were performed to evaluate the validity of using the radioactive microsphere technique to measure regional blood flow in the renal cortex. A technique was developed in which the renal cortex was divided into four equal zones, and the fractional and absolute distribution of blood flow in these zones was determined. It was consistently found that approximately 70% of the renal blood flow was distributed to the two outer cortical zones with the remaining 30% going to the two inner cortical zones. In addition, there was a reproducible pattern of distribution of blood flow in different areas of the same kidney after a single injection of microspheres and in the same area of the kidney after multiple injections of microspheres. Using this method, the distribution of renal blood flow was determined before and during the intrarenal administration of either acetylcholine (40 mug/min) or bradykinin (5 mug/min). Both agents decreased the per cent of blood flow to outer cortical zone 1, caused no change in zone 2, and increased the fractional blood flow in inner cortical zones 3 and 4. When this data was evaluated in terms of total blood flow, there was no change in zone 1, an increase in zone 2 commensurate with the change in total blood flow, and a marked increase in inner cortical zones 3 and 4 which accounted for 60 and 65% of the increase in total blood flow during acetylcholine and bradykinin administration, respectively.Therefore, the natriuresis of renal vasodilatation is associated with a redistribution to inner cortical nephrons.  (+info)

... , Cerium, Lists of isotopes by element). ... The isotopes of cerium range in atomic weight from 119 u (119Ce ... Naturally occurring cerium (58Ce) is composed of 4 stable isotopes: 136Ce, 138Ce, 140Ce, and 142Ce, with 140Ce being the most ... Table of the Isotopes". In Lide, David R. (ed.). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (85th ed.). Boca Raton, Florida: CRC ... All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives that are less than 4 days and the majority of these have half-lives ...
1966). "Determination of cerium, gadolinium, dysprosium, erbium, and ytterbium". Bunseki Kagaku. 15 (6): 589-594. doi:10.2116/ ... In addition to the use of stable isotopes, radioactive isotopes can be employed in isotope dilution which is often encountered ... All isotopes of a given element have the same number of protons in each atom. The term isotope is formed from the Greek roots ... Consider a natural analyte rich in isotope iA (denoted as A), and the same analyte, enriched in isotope jA (denoted as B). Then ...
Isotopes lighter than the stable lutetium-175 decay via electron capture (to produce isotopes of ytterbium), with some alpha ... The oxides are dissolved in nitric acid that excludes one of the main components, cerium, whose oxide is insoluble in HNO3. ... All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives that are less than 9 days, and the majority of these have half-lives ... Lutetium occurs on the Earth in form of two isotopes: lutetium-175 and lutetium-176. Out of these two, only the former is ...
These give off bursts of light when stimulated by an isotope, which can easily be measured. Ligands are radiolabeled using ... It works through crystal lattice beads, which are coated with ligand coupling molecules and filled with cerium ions. ...
Some isotopes of neodymium can alpha decay or are predicted to decay to isotopes of cerium. The rarity of the proton-rich 136Ce ... Water should not be used to stop cerium fires, as cerium reacts with water to produce hydrogen gas. Workers exposed to cerium ... Cooling below approximately −160 °C will start formation of α-cerium but this is only from remaining γ-cerium. β-cerium does ... Greenwood and Earnshaw, p. 1228 Klaus Reinhardt and Herwig Winkler in "Cerium Mischmetal, Cerium Alloys, and Cerium Compounds" ...
All known thorium isotopes are unstable. The most stable isotope, 232Th, has a half-life of 14.05 billion years, or about the ... In the periodic table, it lies to the right of actinium, to the left of protactinium, and below cerium. Pure thorium is very ... An even number of either protons or neutrons generally increases nuclear stability of isotopes, compared to isotopes with odd ... Elements with odd atomic numbers have no more than two stable isotopes; even-numbered elements have multiple stable isotopes, ...
All thorium compounds, including the dioxide, are radioactive because there are no stable isotopes of thorium. Thoria exists as ... Other binary oxides with fluorite structure include cerium dioxide, uranium dioxide and plutonium dioxide.)[clarification ... cerium(IV) oxide. Even as late as the 1980s it was estimated that about half of all ThO2 produced (several hundred tonnes per ... it must be used as a nuclear reactor fuel in conjunction with fissile isotopes of either uranium or plutonium. This can be ...
The primary decay products before 141Pr are element 58 (cerium) isotopes and the primary products after are element 60 ( ... Table of the Isotopes". In Lide, David R. (ed.). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (85th ed.). Boca Raton, Florida: CRC ... All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives that are less than 5.985 hours and the majority of these have half- ... Isotope masses from: Audi, Georges; Bersillon, Olivier; Blachot, Jean; Wapstra, Aaldert Hendrik (2003), "The NUBASE evaluation ...
Among the 41 even-Z elements that have a stable nuclide, only two elements (argon and cerium) have no even-odd stable nuclides ... eight have six stable isotopes, ten have five stable isotopes, nine have four stable isotopes, five have three stable isotopes ... For the 80 elements that have one or more stable isotopes, the average number of stable isotopes is 251/80 ≈ 3.14 isotopes per ... Halbwertszeiten aller Isotope Exploring the Table of the Isotopes at the LBNL Current isotope research and information isotope. ...
... "heavy isotopes" (of a given element) and "heavy nuclei" mean what could be understood in the common language-isotopes of high ... The main oxidation state is predicted to be +4, similar to cerium and thorium. A first ionization energy of 5.651 eV and second ... Additionally, the isotopes 308-310Ubb are predicted to have half-lives under 1 microsecond, too short for detection as a result ... A quantum tunneling model predicts the alpha-decay half-lives of unbibium isotopes 284-322Ubb to be on the order of ...
Cerium-144 and Zirconium-95 (both relatively short lived isotopes with a half life of 285 and 64 days respectively) made up 91 ...
... isotopes. Four of the five stable isotopes have been predicted to decay to isotopes of cerium or samarium and are only ... some observationally stable isotopes of samarium are predicted to decay to isotopes of neodymium. Neodymium isotopes are used ... Several neodymium isotopes have been used for the production of other promethium isotopes. The decay from 147Sm (t1/2 = 1.06 × ... the most stable artificial isotope is 147Nd with a half-life of 10.98 days. Neodymium also has 13 known metastable isotopes, ...
In those days, the first separation was into two main groups, the cerium earths (scandium, lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, ... The longest-lived isotope of promethium has a half-life of 17.7 years, so the element exists in nature in only negligible ... All isotopes of promethium are radioactive, and it does not occur naturally in the earth's crust, except for a trace amount ... Parts per million in earth's crust, e.g. Pb=13 ppm No stable isotopes occurring in nature. A mnemonic for the names of the ...
Half of these even-numbered elements have six or more stable isotopes. The lightest stable even-even isotope is 4 2He and the ... Among the 41 even-Z elements that have a stable nuclide, only two elements (argon and cerium) have no even-odd stable nuclides ... By definition, they are all isotopes of even-Z elements, where they are a minority in comparison to the even-even isotopes ... have two odd-even stable isotopes each. This makes a total of 30×1 + 9×2 = 48 stable odd-even isotopes. The lightest example of ...
Many of the fission products decay through very short-lived isotopes to form stable isotopes, but a considerable number of the ... After two to three years, cerium-144/praseodymium-144, ruthenium-106/rhodium-106, and promethium-147 are responsible for the ... The Chernobyl accident released a large amount of caesium isotopes which were dispersed over a wide area. 137Cs is an isotope ... At least three isotopes of iodine are important. 129I, 131I (radioiodine) and 132I. Open air nuclear testing and the Chernobyl ...
He also worked on iodine speciation in seawater and porewaters, the separation of cerium from other rare earth elements in a ... He became one of the first low-temperature geochemists to appreciate how radiogenic isotopes might be used to solve the ... He made his name in ocean chemistry and palaeochemistry, using trace metals and isotopes in biogenic carbonate as ... "Sr isotope composition of sea water over the past 75 Myr". Nature. 314 (6011): 526-528. Bibcode:1985Natur.314..526P. doi: ...
The primary decay mode of isotopes lighter than 141Pr is positron emission or electron capture to isotopes of cerium, while ... This isotope has 82 neutrons, which is a magic number that confers additional stability. This isotope is produced in stars ... All of these isotopes have half-lives under a day (and most under a minute), with the single exception of 143Pr with a half- ... Cette raison a engagé M. Mosander à donner au nouveau métal le nom de Lantane." (The oxide of cerium, extracted from cerite by ...
Periodic Table with isotope decay chain displays. Click on element, and then isotope mass number to see the decay chain (link ... A great deal of the lighter lanthanides (lanthanum, cerium, neodymium, and samarium) are formed as fission products. In Africa ... Some other rhodium isotopes exist as "transitory states" of ruthenium decaying before further decaying towards stable isotopes ... Given the stability of its next lighter and heavier isotopes and the high cross section those isotopes exhibit for various ...
Strontium in its non-nuclear isotope is stable and harmless, however, when the radioactive isotope, Sr90, is released into the ... Cerium and Lanthanum can cause irreversible damage to marine life by deteriorating cell membranes, affecting reproductive ... The shortest half-life for the previous elements is Zr95, an isotope of zirconium which takes 1.4 hours to decay. The longest ... and attached to these particles were Cerium, Zirconium, Lanthanum, and Strontium. All of these elements have low volatility, ...
Isotopes of unbinilium are predicted to have alpha decay half-lives of the order of microseconds. Initial analysis revealed ... This activity was also proposed to be caused by nuclear transmutations in natural cerium, raising further ambiguity upon this ... Therefore, the isotopes of most interest are 310126, 322126, and 354126, for these might be considerably longer-lived than ... From April to September 2012, an attempt to synthesize the isotopes 295119 and 296119 was made by bombarding a target of ...
Elements have been named for celestial bodies (helium, selenium, tellurium, for the Sun, Moon, and Earth; cerium and palladium ... neither of the two has any isotope sufficiently stable to occur in nature on Earth in significant quantities. The connection to ...
Barium-134 Barium-135 Barium-136 Barium-137 Barium-138 Lanthanum-139 Cerium-136 (2E)* Cerium-138 (2E)* Cerium-140 Cerium-142 (A ... Stable isotopes: 1 element (tin) has 10 stable isotopes 5 elements have 7 stable isotopes apiece 7 elements have 6 stable ... The rest have more than one stable isotope. Tin has ten stable isotopes, the largest number of stable isotopes known for an ... Stable Isotope fractionation calculator National Isotope Development Center Reference information on isotopes, and coordination ...
No odd-neutron-number isotope is the most naturally abundant isotope in its element, except for beryllium-9 (which is the only ... cerium-140, praseodymium-141, neodymium-142, and samarium-144, as well as the radioactive primordial nuclide xenon-136, which ... This word was formed by replacing the p in isotope with n for neutron. Nuclides that have the same mass number are called ... Except 20, 50 and 82 (all these three numbers are magic numbers), all other neutron numbers have at most 4 stable isotopes (in ...
Aston's work on isotopes won him the 1922 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the discovery of isotopes in a large number of non- ... cerium and light platinoids. Meitner and her nephew Otto Frisch immediately and correctly interpreted these observations as ... Soddy called these chemically identical elements isotopes.: 3-5 For his study of radioactivity and the discovery of isotopes, ... By 1920 chemical isotopes had been discovered, the atomic masses had been determined to be (approximately) integer multiples of ...
The element occurs naturally, but all isotopes have a relatively short half-life in geological terms. He also dealt with ... The mineral perrierite ( perrierite (Ce) ) is named in his honor, a black to dark brown monoclinic group silicate with cerium, ...
1] Busby, J.T. "Challenges for Reactor Materials." Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Fuel Cycle and Isotopes Division. U.S. ... cerium, and lanthanum. Other additions such as reactive or refractory metals, can improve the mechanical properties of the ...
These isotopes had deposited in organs, flesh and bone marrow. Villagers complained of various illnesses and symptoms-chronic ... It may point to Mayak's aborted attempt to manufacture a capsule of highly radioactive component cerium-144, for the SOX ... Simultaneously, traces of radioactive manmade isotope Ruthenium-106 spread across Europe in September and October. Such a ... after the Ru-106 had been separated from other isotopes). City 40 List of civilian nuclear accidents List of military nuclear ...
CERIUM) Centre d'études ethniques des universités montréalaises (CEETUM) Centre d'étude des religions de l'Université de ... Studies in Chemical Physics ERW Environmental Research Western ISW Interface Science Western Laboratory for Stable Isotope ... Structural Sciences Centre Subatomic Physics Institute Toxicology Centre Plasma Physics Laboratory Saskatchewan Isotope ...
It was first thought to be a radioactive isotope until samples of natural helium were found (which is mostly helium-4). Helium ... The scintillating glass fibers operate by combining 6Li and Cerium ions into the glass composition. Since 6Li has a high cross- ... The ionization produced is transferred to the cerium ions which results in an emission of photons with wavelength 390 to 600 nm ... These instruments include a specific ANSI library which contains a list of standard isotopes. In addition, most RIIDs have a ...
The isotope 248Bk was first obtained in 1956 by bombarding a mixture of curium isotopes with 25 MeV α-particles. Although its ... but contains cerium). Berkelium and cerium are then separated with another round of ion-exchange treatment. In order to ... About twenty isotopes and six nuclear isomers (excited states of an isotope) of berkelium have been characterized with the mass ... It is the only berkelium isotope available in bulk quantities, and thus the only berkelium isotope whose properties can be ...
Mojzsis, Stephen J.; Harrison, T. Mark; Pidgeon, Robert T. (2001). "Oxygen-isotope evidence from ancient zircons for liquid ... Cool Early Earth Earliest known life forms Hadean zircon Heavy mineral sands ore deposits History of Earth Ilmenite Cerium ... to image the zonation pattern and identify regions of interest for isotope analysis. This is done using an integrated ...
Soddy later proposed to call these elements with complete chemical identity "isotopes". The problem of placing isotopes in the ... Mendeleev noticed that there was a significant difference in atomic mass between cerium and tantalum with no element between ... isotopes), also determining that the existence of different isotopes was mostly irrelevant in determining chemical properties. ... They became known as isotopes, from the Greek isos topos ("same place"). Austrian chemist Friedrich Paneth cited a difference ...
doi:10.1016/0307-4412(79)90078-5. Blanc, Aurélien; Bochet, Christian G. (2007). "Isotope Effects in Photochemistry: Application ... Removed by ammonium cerium(IV) nitrate (CAN) Tosyl (Ts) group - Removed by concentrated acid (HBr, H2SO4) & strong reducing ... deprotection is demonstrated in a photochemical transesterification by trimethylsilyldiazomethane utilizing the kinetic isotope ...
... oxide Irving Langmuir isocyanate Isomer isoprene isotope Isotope table (complete) Isotope table (divided) Israel Shahak IUPAC J ... CAS registry number Cassiterite catalyst Cationic caustic soda Celadonite Celestine Celsius central nervous system Cerium ... Solvent solvation solvent species Specific heat capacity Spectroscopy Speed of sound Sperrylite Spinel Spodumene stable isotope ...
"Cerium: historical information". Adaptive Optics. Archived from the original on 9 April 2010. Retrieved 27 April 2007. "Cerium ... and contains enough long-lived radioactive isotopes, to preserve liquid water in its subsurface for extended periods. The ... The adjectival forms of Ceres are Cererian and Cererean, both pronounced /sɪˈrɪəriən/. Cerium, a rare-earth element discovered ...
Because cerium is so reactive, the remelting was done in a vacuum, using a calcium oxide or magnesium oxide crucible. The first ... who had considerable experience with isotopes and radioactive elements. McCoy recommended Frank Spedding from Iowa State ... In mid-1944, the Ames Project was asked to produce cerium. This was being used by the laboratories at Berkeley and Los Alamos ... Again, the bomb method was used, this time to reduce anhydrous cerium chloride with calcium using an iodine booster. A special ...
The kinetic isotope effect consists of a different reaction rate for the same molecule if it has different isotopes, usually ... Li, Xiaoliang; Feng, Jiangjiang; Xu, Zhigang; Wang, Junqiang; Wang, Yujie; Zhao, Wei (2019-10-01). "Cerium modification for ... isotopes, surface area, stirring, and diffusion limit. Some reactions are naturally faster than others. The number of reacting ... hydrogen isotopes, because of the relative mass difference between hydrogen and deuterium. In reactions on surfaces, which take ...
The interesting part is that both strong oxidants such as cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate and weak oxidants like nitric oxide, NO ... It also provides the ability for isotope labeling because the neutrons interact with the nuclei instead of the electrons. By ...
... "heavy isotopes" (of a given element) and "heavy nuclei" mean what could be understood in the common language-isotopes of high ... This activity was also proposed to be caused by nuclear transmutations in natural cerium, raising further ambiguity upon this ... These results, as well as those from a quantum-tunneling model, predict no half-lives over a millisecond for isotopes lighter ... They thus preferred to link new isotopes to the already known ones by successive alpha decays. For instance, element 102 was ...
Isotope fractionation occurs during a phase transition, the ratio of light to heavy isotopes in the involved molecules changes ... The transition between differently ordered, commensurate or incommensurate, magnetic structures, such as in cerium antimonide. ... When water vapor condenses (an equilibrium fractionation), the heavier water isotopes (18O and 2H) become enriched in the ... "Fundamentals of Stable Isotope Geochemistry". USGS. Retrieved 10 April 2014. Jaeger, Gregg (1 May 1998). "The Ehrenfest ...
In 1803, cerium was the first of the lanthanide metals to be discovered, in Bastnäs, Sweden by Jöns Jakob Berzelius and Wilhelm ... neutron deficient isotopes. The ejection of matter when two neutron stars collide is attributed to the interaction of their ... Isotope Geochemistry: From the Treatise on Geochemistry, Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 467-492, ISBN 978-0-08-096710-3. Raymond R. ...
The half-life of La-140 is 40.224 hours; it undergoes beta decay to stable cerium-140. It was prepared from barium-140, a ... Semiautomatic equipment for "lanthanum milking" (the barium-140 isotope was nicknamed a "cow") was built in a sufficiently ... After a test, dispersed La-140 rapidly decays into stable cerium-140, reducing the radiation hazard for the operators after ...
Fu, X.-X.; Tang, R.-L.; Lu, Y.-Z.; Ning, C.-G. (2020). "Accurate electron affinity of atomic cerium and excited states of its ... Carette, T.; Drag, C.; Scharf, O.; Blondel, C.; Delsart, C.; Fischer, C. (2000). "F. & Godefroid M. (2010). Isotope shift in ... Bresteau, D.; Drag, C.; Blondel, C. (2016). "Isotope shift of the electron affinity of carbon measured by photodetachment ... Berzinsh, U.; Gustafsson, M.; Hanstorp, D.; Klinkmüller, A.; Ljungblad, U.; Martensson-Pendrill, A.M. (1995). "Isotope shift in ...
The isotope decays by emitting α-particles, which then generate heat (see radioisotope thermoelectric generator). There have ... Jeffrey A. Katalenich Michael R. Hartman Robert C. O'Brien Steven D. Howe (Feb 2013). "Fabrication of Cerium Oxide and Uranium ...
"15N isotope fractionation in an aquatic food chain: Bellamya aeruginosa (Reeve) as an algal control agent". Journal of ... gadolinium and yttrium in Sinotaia aeruginosa and there was found no bioaccumulation of cerium in this snail. The species' ...
ENMs were neutron activated, forming gamma emitting isotopes 141Ce and 65Zn, respectively. Calu-3 lung epithelial cells ... Toxicology; Nanotechnology; Cerium-compounds; Zinc-compounds; Silicon-compounds; Dioxides; Oxides; Lung-function; Lung-cells; ... Metal-oxides; Metal-compounds; Neutron-activation-spectrometry; In-vitro-study; Isotope-effect; Gamma-rays; Dispersion; ...
Cerium [D01.268.558.362.249] * Cerium Isotopes [D01.268.558.362.249.500] * Cerium Radioisotopes [D01.268.558.362.249.500.300] ... Cerium [D01.552.550.399.249] * Cerium Isotopes [D01.552.550.399.249.500] * Cerium Radioisotopes [D01.552.550.399.249.500.300] ... Ce-136, 138, and 142 are stable cerium isotopes.. Terms. Cerium Isotopes Preferred Term Term UI T007473. Date01/01/1999. ... Cerium Isotopes Preferred Concept UI. M0003918. Registry Number. 0. Scope Note. Stable cerium atoms that have the same atomic ...
"If there is a reactor accident, one would expect the release of radioactive isotopes of many different elements," says ... remained a mystery until Steinhauser learned that an Italian nuclear research facility had ordered a consignment of cerium-144 ...
Naturally occurring isotopes (mass numbers): 140 (88.48%); 142 (11.08%), radioactive, T½ ,5 ´ 1016 years; 138 (0.25%); 136 ( ... 0.19%). Known artificial radioactive isotopes: 124-135; 137; 139; 141; 143-152. Estimated abundance in the earths crust: 46-66 ...
Cerium [D01.268.558.362.249] * Cerium Isotopes [D01.268.558.362.249.500] * Cerium Radioisotopes [D01.268.558.362.249.500.300] ... Cerium [D01.552.550.399.249] * Cerium Isotopes [D01.552.550.399.249.500] * Cerium Radioisotopes [D01.552.550.399.249.500.300] ... Ce-136, 138, and 142 are stable cerium isotopes.. Terms. Cerium Isotopes Preferred Term Term UI T007473. Date01/01/1999. ... Cerium Isotopes Preferred Concept UI. M0003918. Registry Number. 0. Scope Note. Stable cerium atoms that have the same atomic ...
Cerium Isotopes MeSH Cerium Radioisotopes MeSH DeCS ID:. 2603 Unique ID:. D002563 ... Cerium - Preferred Concept UI. M0003917. Scope note. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Ce ... Cerium is a malleable metal used in industrial applications.. Allowable Qualifiers:. AD administration & dosage. AE adverse ...
Gary L. Smith (1966) Ground State Quasirotational Bands and Other States in Even Neutron Deficient Cerium Isotopes. ... Erskine Burns (1971) Nuclear Energy Levels in Even Isotopes of Lead from (2,xn) Reactions on Separated Mercury Isotopes. ... Ray A. Warner (1969) Nuclear Energy Levels in Even Isotopes of Tellurium from (alpha xn gamma) Reactions on the Separated Tin ... Ted F. Harvey (1972) Shell Model and Quasi-Particle Calculations of the Neutron Deficient Lead Isotopes. ...
Cerium-139 Mercury-203 Tellurium-132 Cerium-141 Molybdenum-99 Terbium-160 Cerium-144 Thallium-204 Cesium-134 Neodymium-147 ... emitter is needed, that isotope can be chelated. Examples of isotopes that can be used are listed immediately hereinafter. ... With respect to its use in radioactivity, it can be used to tailor the isotope needed, i.e. if a weak or strong .beta. or . ... It is known to produce nucleotides or polynucleotides which are radioactively labeled, such as with isotopes or hydrogen (.sup. ...
Naturally occurring isotopes (mass numbers): 140 (88.48%); 142 (11.08%), radioactive, T½ ,5 ´ 1016 years; 138 (0.25%); 136 ( ... 0.19%). Known artificial radioactive isotopes: 124-135; 137; 139; 141; 143-152. Estimated abundance in the earths crust: 46-66 ...
Doucelance R., Bellot N., Boyet M., Hammouda T., Bosq C. (2014). What coupled cerium and neodymium isotopes tell us about the ...
Cerebrosides N0000169150 Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteins N0000166228 Cerium N0000166109 Cerium Isotopes N0000166110 Cerium ... Inorganic N0000005729 Carbon Dioxide N0000166211 Carbon Disulfide N0000166117 Carbon Isotopes N0000005737 Carbon Monoxide ... Radioactive N0000166158 Gold Compounds N0000166135 Gold Isotopes N0000166136 Gold Radioisotopes N0000006015 Gold Sodium ... Biocompatible N0000168730 Coatomer Protein N0000179300 Cobalamins N0000006610 Cobalt N0000166123 Cobalt Isotopes N0000166124 ...
This WebElements periodic table page contains isotope data for the element darmstadtium ... Naturally occurring isotopes. This table shows information about naturally occuring isotopes, their atomic masses, their ... Isotope abundances of darmstadtium. In the above, the most intense ion is set to 100% since this corresponds best to the output ... Isotope. Mass / Da. Natural abundance (atom %). Nuclear spin (I). Magnetic moment (μ/μN). ...
Continuous-flow IRMS technique for determining the 17O excess of CO2 using complete oxygen isotope exchange with cerium oxide D ... Chlorine isotope composition in chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11, CFC-12 and CFC-113 in firn, stratospheric and tropospheric air S. J ... Sutka, R. L., Ostrom, N. E., Ostrom, P. H., and Phanikumar, M. S.: Stable nitrogen isotope dynamics of dissolved nitrate in a ... Oxygen isotope fractionation during N2O production by soil denitrification Dominika Lewicka-Szczebak, Jens Dyckmans, Jan Kaiser ...
Cerium-144 is only available in sufficient quantities in fresh spent nuclear fuel. Dissolving such fuel in order to extract the ... hmmm, wasnt there an unexplained release of isotopes that can only be made in a nuclear reactor a few months back? Blamed on ... However, it seems that the release did stem from Mayak when the facility tried to produce a cerium-144 source for neutrino ... wanted isotope is fraught with high risks. In my opinion, half the blame goes to the researchers at Gran Sasso who ordered the ...
It also has bulk oxygen isotope values of Δ(17)O = 0.58 ± 0.05 per mil and a heat-released water oxygen isotope average value ... and cerium (Ce). As a result of these modifications, such evidence of Mars life, paleoenvironmental history, potential ... Either proposed sterilization method would modify the abundances, isotopes, or oxidation-reduction (redox) states of the six ... and isotopes of CHNOPS and other volatiles (e.g., noble gases for chronometry), FRTE, and Ce, and cannot be performed on ...
Cerium isotopic composition of the upper mantle University Clermont-Auvergne, France. 20 May 2021 or position open until filled ... Tracing the Archean Earth in modern ocean basalts from multiple sulfur isotopes signatures CNRS-IPGP, France. Position open ... Post-doctoral position in isotope geochemistry University of Bayreuth - Bavarian Geoinstitute, Germany. Position open until ... Black shale Mo isotope record reveals dynamic ocean redox during the Mesoproterozoic Era ...
Miller D.M., Goldstein S.L., Langmuir C.H. Cerium/lead and lead isotope ratios in arc magmas and the enrichment of lead in the ... Faure G. Principles of isotope geology. M.: Mir, 1989. 590 p.]. Фролова Т.И., Бурикова И.А., Гущин А.В. и др. Происхождение ...
of the cryptomelane group from St. Marcel-Praborna, Aosta Valley, Italy. Can. Mineral., 37, 673-678. The most Sr-rich of six listed electron microprobe analyses has MnO 2 58.71, Mn 2 O 3 16.51, Fe 2 O 3 6.27, TiO 2 0.70, SiO 2 0.45, K 2 O 0.83, Na 2 O 0.17, BaO 1.39, SrO 12.77, sum 97.80 wt%, corresponding ...
Ceremonial T007471Ceremonial Behavior T007471Ceremonial Behaviors T007472Cerium T007473Cerium Isotopes T007473Isotopes, Cerium ... Carbon T006446Carbon Isotopes T006446Isotopes, Carbon T006447Carbon Monoxide T006447Monoxide, Carbon T006448Carbon Monoxide ... Calcium T006065Calcium Isotopes T006065Isotopes, Calcium T006066Calcium Metabolism Disorder T006066Calcium Metabolism Disorders ... Postcesarean T007521Cesium T007522Cesium Isotopes T007522Isotopes, Cesium T007523Cesium Radioisotopes T007523Radioisotopes, ...
Isotopes. Natural lanthanum is a mixture of two stable isotopes, 138La and 139La. Twenty three other radioactive isotopes are ... Greek lanthanein, to lie hidden) Mosander in 1839 extracted a new earth lanthana, from impure cerium nitrate and recognized the ...
Calcium Isotopes. *Carbon Isotopes. *Cerium Isotopes. *Cesium Isotopes. *Chromium Isotopes. *Cobalt Isotopes ... "Calcium Isotopes" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Calcium Isotopes" by people in this website by year, and ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Calcium Isotopes" by people in Profiles. ...
... cerium (Ce), titanium (Ti), arsenic (As), and beryllium (Be). Although mineral content can be used to relate a wine to its ... elements or isotopes (Ranaweera, Gilmore, Capone, Bastian, & Jeffery, 2021). This involves sophisticated and expensive ... isotope ratio mass spectrometry; MS, mass spectrometry; NMR, nuclear magnetic resonance. ...
Variable carbon isotope fractionation expressed by aerobic CH4-oxidizing bacteria 2006 * Multiple sulfur isotopes of sulfides ... Oxidative mobilization of cerium and uranium and enhanced release of "immobile" high field strength elements from igneous rocks ... Mass-independent isotope effects in Archean (2.5 to 3.8 Ga) sedimentary sulfides determined by ion microprobe analysis 2003 ... Large carbon isotope variability during methanogenesis under alkaline conditions 2018 * Deconvolving the saturation state and ...
Other elements-cerium, indium, lanthanum and tellurium-were found to be near-critical. Between the short term and the medium ... Other uses are in ceramics, electronics, lasers, lighting, and radioactive isotopes used as a tracing agent in oil refining ...
Isotopes of caesium. Caesium has 39 known isotopes, ranging in mass number (i.e. number of nucleons in the nucleus) from 112 to ... You can also request these additional metals - Gadolinium, Tin, Titanium, Caesium, Cerium, Dysprosium, Erbium, Europium, ... The isotope 135Cs is one of the long-lived fission products of uranium produced in nuclear reactors.[50] However, this fission ... The isotopes with mass numbers of 129, 131, 132 and 136, have half-lives between a day and two weeks, while most of the other ...
Separation of manganese isotopes by resonance ionization mass spectrometry for 53Mn half-life determination 19 Nina Kneip, ... Tuning half metallic ferromagnetic character in Rh and Tc doping Cerium dioxide for spintronic applications 71 Dounia Drissi, ... Advances in Radioactive Isotope Science (ARIS). 4-9 June 2023. Avignon, France ...
Novel core-shell cerium(IV)-immobilized magnetic polymeric microspheres for selective enrichment and rapid separation of ... Phosphoric acid functionalized mesoporous organo-silica (EPO) as the adsorbent for in situ enrichment and isotope labeling of ...
The fuel rods are made of two isotopes of uranium: U-235 and U-238. The source of the power is the fission reaction. To ... His group took the natural ceramic mineral zirconolite (CaZrTi2O7), for example, and created a version including cerium, ... This new isotope decays to harmless ruthenium and has a half-life of only 16 s. ...
  • If there is a reactor accident, one would expect the release of radioactive isotopes of many different elements," says Steinhauser. (newscientist.com)
  • Further data for radioisotopes (radioactive isotopes) of darmstadtium are listed (including any which occur naturally) below. (webelements.com)
  • The radioactive 135 Cs has a very long half-life of about 2.3 million years, the longest of all radioactive isotopes of caesium. (hartgoods.com)
  • Stable cerium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cerium, but differ in atomic weight. (nih.gov)
  • Ce-136, 138, and 142 are stable cerium isotopes. (nih.gov)
  • [46] The only stable caesium isotope is 133 Cs, with 78 neutrons . (hartgoods.com)
  • Practical applications exist only for chemical compounds of promethium-147, which are used in luminous paint, atomic batteries and thickness measurement devices, even though promethium-145 is the most stable promethium isotope. (ipfs.io)
  • The isotope 135 Cs is one of the long-lived fission products of uranium produced in nuclear reactors . (hartgoods.com)
  • There are two possible sources for natural promethium: rare decays of natural europium -151 (producing promethium-147), and uranium (various isotopes). (ipfs.io)
  • Other elements-cerium, indium, lanthanum and tellurium-were found to be near-critical. (lynceans.org)
  • Herein we described an access to biaryl lactones from ortho-aryl benzoic acids via intramolecular O-H/C-H oxidative coupling with the commonly used cerium ammonium nitrate (CAN) as the one-electron oxidant under a thermal condition. (bvsalud.org)
  • It is known to produce nucleotides or polynucleotides which are radioactively labeled, such as with isotopes or hydrogen (.sup.3 H), phosphorus (.sup.32 p), carbon (.sup.14 C) or iodine (.sup.125 I). Such radioactively labeled compounds are useful to detect, monitor, localize and isolate nucleic acids and other molecules of scientific or clinical interest. (justia.com)
  • ENMs were neutron activated, forming gamma emitting isotopes 141Ce and 65Zn, respectively. (cdc.gov)
  • In nuclear industry boron is commonly used as a neutron absorber due to the high neutron cross-section of isotope 10B. (periodic-table.org)
  • Exactly why such a specific element was released remained a mystery until Steinhauser learned that an Italian nuclear research facility had ordered a consignment of cerium-144 from Mayak before the incident. (newscientist.com)
  • This table shows information about naturally occuring isotopes , their atomic masses , their natural abundances , their nuclear spins , and their magnetic moments . (webelements.com)
  • Although it has a large nuclear spin ( 7 / 2 +), nuclear magnetic resonance studies can use this isotope at a resonating frequency of 11.7 MHz . (hartgoods.com)
  • 11. Novel core-shell cerium(IV)-immobilized magnetic polymeric microspheres for selective enrichment and rapid separation of phosphopeptides. (nih.gov)
  • This is not to be confused with the relative percentage isotope abundances which totals 100% for all the naturally occurring isotopes. (webelements.com)
  • Further data for naturally occuring isotopes of darmstadtium are listed above. (webelements.com)
  • iTRAQ techniques based on isotope markers can identify and quantify low abundance proteomics, and may be suitable for identifying differentially expressed proteins in RIF. (bvsalud.org)
  • The isotopes with mass numbers of 129, 131, 132 and 136, have half-lives between a day and two weeks, while most of the other isotopes have half-lives from a few seconds to fractions of a second. (hartgoods.com)
  • Cerium is a malleable metal used in industrial applications. (bvsalud.org)
  • ENMs were neutron activated, forming gamma emitting isotopes 141Ce and 65Zn, respectively. (cdc.gov)
  • Specifically, we examined the use of high-purity germanium gamma spectrometry and isotope dilution alpha spectrometry to quantitate NORM. (nih.gov)