An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Ce, atomic number 58, and atomic weight 140.12. Cerium is a malleable metal used in industrial applications.
Unstable isotopes of cerium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ce atoms with atomic weights 132-135, 137, 139, and 141-148 are radioactive cerium isotopes.
Stable cerium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cerium, but differ in atomic weight. Ce-136, 138, and 142 are stable cerium isotopes.
Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.
A group of elements that include SCANDIUM; YTTRIUM; and the LANTHANOID SERIES ELEMENTS. Historically, the rare earth metals got their name from the fact that they were never found in their pure elemental form, but as an oxide. In addition they were very difficult to purify. They are not truly rare and comprise about 25% of the metals in the earth's crust.

Salmonella pathogenicity island 2-dependent evasion of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase. (1/177)

A type III protein secretion system encoded by Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI2) has been found to be required for virulence and survival within macrophages. Here, SPI2 was shown to allow Salmonella typhimurium to avoid NADPH oxidase-dependent killing by macrophages. The ability of SPI2-mutant bacteria to survive in macrophages and to cause lethal infection in mice was restored by abrogation of the NADPH oxidase-dependent respiratory burst. Ultrastructural and immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated efficient localization of the NADPH oxidase in the proximity of vacuoles containing SPI2-mutant but not wild-type bacteria, suggesting that SPI2 interferes with trafficking of oxidase-containing vesicles to the phagosome.  (+info)

Improvement of efficiency of the Ce(IV)-induced DNA scission--relationship between the kinetic parameters (k(cat) and Km) and the DNA structure. (2/177)

The Michaelis constant (Km) for double-stranded DNA, single-stranded DNA, and dinucleotide hydrolysis by Ce(IV) ion are 4.4, 15, and more than 40 mM, respectively. The order of the k(cat), however, is dinucleotide >> oligonucleotides. Not only the improvement of k(cat) but also that of Km is important for the design of an efficient artificial nuclease.  (+info)

Rapid determination of cyanide and azide in beverages by microdiffusion spectrophotometric method. (3/177)

A rapid screening method was developed for the determination of the toxic volatile anions, cyanide and azide, in beverages. This method consisted of a microdiffusion extraction combined with spectrophotometry using the Konig cyanide reaction and ferric azide complex formation in conjugation with cerium azide oxido-reduction. The time required to achieve full recovery in the extraction of hydrogen cyanide and hydrazoic acid from samples was considerably shortened by increasing the diffusion temperature from 25 degrees C to 40 degrees C. The time required to achieve saturated color development in the Konig cyanide reaction was also shortened by increasing incubation temperature to 40 degrees C. The interference in both azide color reactions was examined for volatile compounds. Cyanide interfered only in the case of ferric azide complex formation. Sulfide, sulfate, nitrite, and acetic acid interfered in both the color reactions. The established method gave a detection limit of 6 microM for cyanide and 0.5mM for azide, and it required only 1 h to determine both anions. Cyanide and azide disappeared by evaporation from beverages during 25 degrees C storage under open conditions in a pH-dependent manner as a function of their respective pKa values of 9.2 and 4.6.  (+info)

Anoxic stress leads to hydrogen peroxide formation in plant cells. (4/177)

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was detected cytochemically in plant tissues during anoxia and re-oxygenation by transmission electron microscopy using its reaction with cerium chloride to produce electron dense precipitates of cerium perhydroxides. Anoxia-tolerant yellow flag iris (Iris pseudacorus) and rice (Oryza sativa), and anoxia-intolerant wheat (Triticum aestivum) and garden iris (Iris germanica) were used in the experiments. In all plants tested, anoxia and re-oxygenation increased H2O2 in plasma membranes and the apoplast. In the anoxia-tolerant species the response was delayed in time, and in highly tolerant I. pseudacorus plasma membrane associated H2O2 was detected only after 45 d of oxygen deprivation. Quantification of cerium precipitates showed a statistically significant increase in the amount of H2O2 caused by anoxia in wheat root meristematic tissue, but not in the anoxia-tolerant I. pseudacorus rhizome parenchyma. Formation of H2O2 under anoxia is considered mainly an enzymatic process (confirmed by an enzyme inhibition analysis) and is due to the trace amount of dissolved oxygen (below 10(-5) M) present in the experimental system. The data suggest oxidative stress is an integral part of oxygen deprivation stress, and emphasize the importance of the apoplast and plasma membrane in the development of the anoxic stress response.  (+info)

Feasibility studies in rats fed heavy metals as multiple nutrient markers. (5/177)

The nitrates of five metals (cerium, terbium, ytterbium, lutetium, and iridium) were fed to rats to determine the feasibility of their use as nonabsorbed, multiple markers for recovery, passage, and indirect apparant digestibility studies. Fecal recovery of a single oral dose was completed within 72 hours. When the salts were mixed into the diet, 48-96 hours was required to establish a steady-state concentration of markers in feces. The diurnal variation of cerium in feces was found to be considerable when it was fed twice daily as a single dose prior to each feeding. When incorporated into the diet, negligible diurnal variation in fecal concentration was noted with lutetium, and small variation was seen with other metals. In nutrient apparent digestibility studies, good agreement was generally found between direct and indirect multiple marker methods. Experiments with a daily intake marker suggest that cerium was not satisfactory as a multiple marker in which neutron activation analysis was the method of determination.  (+info)

Induction of early bolting in Arabidopsis thaliana by triacontanol, cerium and lanthanum is correlated with increased endogenous concentration of isopentenyl adenosine (iPAdos). (6/177)

The effects of triacontanol (TRIA), applied singly or in combination with cerium nitrate and lanthanum nitrate, on bolting of Arabidopsis thaliana were studied. Triacontanol (0.1 to 0.6 microM) added to the culture medium induced early bolting. TRIA (0.3 microM) applied with low concentrations of cerium and lanthanum caused a synergistic stimulation of bolting. In medium containing 0.3 microM TRIA, 0.1 microM cerium nitrate and 0.1 mM lanthanum nitrate, 82% of the plants bolted 20 d after seed sowing compared to only 8.6% in basal medium and 47.8% in medium with TRIA only. The changes in the endogenous concentrations of total cytokinins of the isopentenyl adenine (IP) subfamily in the leaf and root tissues were correlated with TRIA-induced early bolting. The combined treatment of TRIA (0.3 microM), cerium nitrate (0.1 microM) and lanthanum nitrate (0.1 mM) resulted in a significant increase in the endogenous concentrations of total cytokinins of the IP subfamily in the root and leaf tissues compared to plants growing in the basal medium and medium with TRIA. The exogenous application of six natural cytokinins to the plants revealed that only isopentenyl adenosine (iPAdos) was as effective as TRIA on floral bud formation. iPAdos was also found to have similar effects as TRIA on root growth and reproductive growth. These results suggest a correlation between the early bolting induced by TRIA, cerium and lanthanum and the production of higher concentrations of endogenous iPAdos.  (+info)

X-ray imaging of shock waves generated by high-pressure fuel sprays. (7/177)

Synchrotron x-radiography and a fast x-ray detector were used to record the time evolution of the transient fuel sprays from a high-pressure injector. A succession of 5.1-microsecond radiographs captured the propagation of the spray-induced shock waves in a gaseous medium and revealed the complex nature of the spray hydrodynamics. The monochromatic x-radiographs also allow quantitative analysis of the shock waves that has been difficult if not impossible with optical imaging. Under injection conditions similar to those found in operating engines, the fuel jets can exceed supersonic speeds and result in gaseous shock waves.  (+info)

Measurement of dissolved oxygen based on enhanced cerium(IV) chemiluminescence. (8/177)

The reaction of Ce(IV) with pyrogallol caused chemiluminescence, which was enhanced by dissolved oxygen. Dissolved oxygen in water was able to help in the determination by enhancing the chemiluminescence intensity. The limit of detection calculated from 3sigma was 43 micromol/dm3, and the relative standard deviation was 1.2% at 613 micromol/dm3 (n = 5). The results obtained for natural and tap water samples were compared with those provided by conventional methods; the agreement between them corroborated the usefulness of the proposed method. The chemiluminescence mechanism was studied by examining the effect of interference with Cl- and measuring the chemiluminescence spectrum. The chemiluminescence emitter, however, could not be identified.  (+info)

The rise of antimicrobial resistance demands the development of more rapid screening methods for the detection of antimicrobial resistance in clinical samples to both give the patient the proper treatment and expedite the treatment of patients. Cerium oxide nanoparticles may serve a useful role in diagnostics due to their ability to exist in a mixed valence state and act as either oxidizing agents or reducing agents. Considering that cerium oxide nanoparticles have been shown to shift in absorbance upon oxidation, a useful method of antimicrobial resistance detection could be based on the oxidation of cerium oxide nanoparticles. Herein, an assay is described whereby cerium oxide nanoparticle oxidation is a function of glucose metabolism of bacterial samples in the presence of an antimicrobial agent. Cerium oxide nanoparticles were shown to have an absorbance in the range of 395nm upon oxidation by hydrogen peroxide whereas mixed valence cerium oxide nanoparticles lacked an absorbance around 395nm. In
SEE PDF Full Length Article Writers: M.H.M.T. Assumpção; A. Moraes; R.F.B. De Souza; M.L. Calegaro; M.R.V. Lanza; E.R. Leite; M.A.L. Cordeiro; P. Hammer; M.C. Santos. Keywords: Oxygen reduction reaction; Electrogeneration of hydrogen peroxide; Cerium oxide nanoparticles. Abstract: This work describes the influence of the preparation method and the carbon support using a low content of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2/C 4%) on H2O2 electrogeneration via the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). For this purpose, the polymeric precursor (PPM) and sol-gel (SGM) methods with Vulcan XC 72R (V) and Printex L6 (P) supports were employed. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The XRD analysis identified two phases comprising CeO2 and CeO2−x. The smallest mean crystallite size was exhibited for the 4% CeO2/C_PPM_P material, which was estimated using the Debye-Scherrer equation to be 6 nm and 4 nm for ...
According to a new market report by Lucintel, the future of the |a href=https://www.lucintel.com/cerium-oxide-nanoparticle-market.aspx>cerium oxide nanoparticle|/a> market looks promising with opportunities in catalyst, biomedical, and energy applications. The cerium oxide nanoparticle market is expected to grow with a CAGR of 19% from 2019 to 2024. The major drivers for this market are increasing use of cerium oxide nanoparticles in various applications, rising focus of governments on nanotec
A simple enzyme-free spectrophotometric detection of hydrogen peroxide is demonstrated based on its colorimetric reaction with oxygen deficient cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs). This colorimetric sensitivity of CNPs towards H2O2 increases significantly with decreasing crystallite size due to an increase in
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Cerium dioxide nanoparticles (CeO2 ENPs) are on the priority list of nanomaterials requiring evaluation. We performed in vitro assays on mature mouse oocytes incubated with CeO2 ENPs to study (1) physicochemical biotransformation of ENPs in culture medium; (2) ultrastructural interactions with follicular cells and oocytes using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM); (3) genotoxicity of CeO2 ENPs on follicular cells and oocytes using a comet assay. DNA damage was quantified as Olive Tail Moment. We show that ENPs aggregated, but their crystal structure remained stable in culture medium. TEM showed endocytosis of CeO2 ENP aggregates in follicular cells. In oocytes, CeO2 ENP aggregates were only observed around the zona pellucida (ZP). The comet assay revealed significant DNA damage in follicular cells. In oocytes, the comet assay showed a dose-related increase in DNA damage and a significant increase only at the highest concentrations. DNA damage decreased significantly both in follicular cells and in
Nanomaterial inhalation represents a potential hazard for respiratory conditions such as asthma. Cerium dioxide nanoparticles (CeO2NPs) have the ability to modify disease outcome but have not been investigated for their effect on models of asthma and inflammatory lung disease. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of CeO2NPs in a house dust mite (HDM) induced murine model of asthma. Repeated intranasal instillation of CeO2NPs in the presence of HDM caused the induction of a type II inflammatory response, characterised by increased bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophils, mast cells, total plasma IgE and goblet cell metaplasia. This was accompanied by increases in IL-4, CCL11 and MCPT1 gene expression together with increases in the mucin and inflammatory regulators CLCA1 and SLC26A4. CLCA1 and SLC26A4 were also induced by CeO2NPs + HDM co-exposure in air liquid interface cultures of human primary bronchial epithelial cells. HDM induced airway hyperresponsiveness and airway remodelling in mice were
The dynamic process of oxygen vacancy migration driven by the external electric field is directly observed at atomic scale in the cerium oxides (CeO{sub 2}) thin film by in-situ transmission electron microscopy method. When a bias voltage of a proper value is applied across the CeO{sub 2} film, the oxygen vacancies are formed near the interface of CeO{sub 2}/anode, followed by their migration along the direction of the external electric field. The structural modulation occurs in the [110] zone axis due to the ordering of oxygen vacancies. The migration of oxygen vacancies results in the reversible structural transformation, i.e., releasing and storing oxygen processes in CeO{sub 2}, which is of great significance for the ionic and electronic applications of the cerium oxides materials, such as oxygen pump, gas sensor, resistive random access memory, etc. ...
Supplementary Materialscells-09-01617-s001. the procedure inhibited nuclear localization of LC3B. Used together, our research demonstrates that CeO2-NPs stand for an eligible applicant to counteract RPE degeneration and, as a result, a robust therapy for AMD. = Rabbit Polyclonal to ITCH (phospho-Tyr420) 4). * 0.05, ** 0.005, *** 0.0001 versus CTRL, # 0.05, ## 0.005, ### 0.0001 versus H2O2. 3.2. Nanoceria Localize within the RPE after Intravitreal Shot Previous evidence demonstrated that cerium oxide nanoparticles can combination the inner restricting membrane and reach the external retina after intravitreal shot. Cerium oxide nanoparticles had been found localized in your community, which include the photoreceptors external segments (Operating-system) as well as the RPE [43]. Furthermore, after a one administration, they continued to be at the same localization as much as 8 weeks [34]. On this basis, we supposed that cerium oxide nanoparticles could target the RPE and prevent its degeneration ...
Cerium (Ce) is becoming a popular metal for use in electrochemical applications. When in the form of cerium oxide (CeO2), Ce can exist in both 3 + and 4 + valence states, acting as an ideal catalyst. Previous in vitro and in vivo evidence have demonstrated that CeO2 has either anti- or pro-oxidant properties, possibly due to the ability of the nanoparticles to transition between valence states. Therefore, we chose to chemically modify the nanoparticles to shift the valence state toward 3+. During the hydrothermal synthesis process, 10 mol% gadolinium (Gd) and 20 mol% Gd, were substituted into the lattice of the CeO2 nanoparticles forming a perfect solid solution with various A-site valence states. These two Gd-doped CeO2 nanoparticles were compared to pure CeO2 nanoparticles. Preliminary characteristics indicated that doping results in minimal size and zeta potential changes but alters valence state. Following characterization, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg ...
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The presented thesis focuses on studying the interaction between rhodium and cerium oxide and its impact on the reactivity. We investigated two different systems, Rh/CeOx and Rh-CeOx, by means of the photoelectron spectroscopy and the temperature programmed reactions. Rh/CeOx stands for rhodium nanoparticles supported by cerium oxide thin film. We show that there is an electronic metal-substrate interaction between rhodium and cerium oxide. The type of the interaction depends on a degree of cerium oxide reduction and it has a tremendous impact on the reactivity of the system. On the other hand, Rh-CeOx represents cerium oxide thin films doped by rhodium. We characterized the properties of the films with various concentration of rhodium. We show that the morphology, chemical composition and reactivity of the samples strongly depend on the concentration of the rhodium dopant. Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org ...
0082]The CMP abrasive slurry according to the present invention may be stored as a single-liquid abrasive slurry containing cerium oxide particles, a dispersant, a water-soluble polymer having amino groups on the side chains and water. Alternatively, it may be stored as a two-liquid abrasive slurry consisting of a cerium oxide slurry (liquid A) containing cerium oxide particles, a dispersant and water and a supplementary solution (liquid B) containing a water-soluble polymer having amino groups on the side chains and water, or as a two-liquid abrasive slurry consisting of a cerium oxide slurry (liquid A) containing cerium oxide particles, a dispersant and water and a supplementary solution (liquid C) containing a water-soluble polymer having amino groups on the side chains, water and a water-soluble nonionic compound. Both the single-liquid abrasive slurry and the two-liquid abrasive slurry give favorable stabilized properties. When the abrasive slurry is stored in a two-liquid abrasive slurry, ...
Background. Cerium oxide nanoparticles present the mimetic activity of superoxide dismutase, being able to inactivate the excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) correlated with a large number of pathologies, such as stents restenosis and the occurrence of genetic mutations that can cause cancer. This study presents the synthesis and biological characterisation of nanoconjugates based on nanoparticles of iron oxide interconnected with cerium oxide conjugates. Methods. The synthesis of magnetite-nanoceria nanoconjugates has been done in several stages, where the key to the process is the coating of nanoparticles with polyethyleneimine and its chemical activation-reticulation with glutaraldehyde. The nanoconjugates are characterised by several techniques, and the antioxidant activity was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Results. Iron oxide nanoparticles interconnected with cerium oxide nanoparticles were obtained, having an average diameter of 8 nm. Nanoconjugates prove to possess superparamagnetic
Title:Nanoceria: Synthesis and Biomedical Applications. VOLUME: 9 ISSUE: 5. Author(s):Tripti Sahu, Satpal Singh Bisht, Kirti Ranjan Das and Savita Kerkar. Affiliation:Department of Biotechnology, Goa University, Goa, India.. Keywords:Antioxidants, biocompatibility, cytotoxicity, drug delivery, nanoceria, nanoparticle, therapeutics.. Abstract:Cerium oxide or ceria is an inorganic compound of Cerium, a rare earth element of lanthanide series. Due to the unique ability of cerium to switch oxidation states between +3 and +4 it has various applications as ultraviolet light absorbers, catalytic converters for automobile exhaust systems, solar cells, optics, oxygen sensors and other commercial and biomedical applications. Cerium oxide nanoparticles popularly known as nanoceria are efficient free radical scavengers and are considered as a potent therapeutic option for the treatment of ROS mediated disorders like neurodegenerative disorders, retinal disorders, cancer and can also act as a potent drug ...
Diabetes mellitus is one of the threatening, non-communicable and chronic ailments worldwide since ancient times to the current stage of human existence. The utilization of nanoparticles as a medicine in the treatment of diabetes is an attractive proposition. In the present study, herbal mediated cerium oxide nanoparticles (HMCeO2 NPs), herbal mediated silver nanoparticles (HMAg NPs) and Lawsonia intermix extract (LIE) was evaluated for them for in-vivo hypoglycemic effect and compared the potency. The resulting HMCeO2 NPs, HMAg NPs and Lawsonia inermis have been characterized by different analytical equipments such as X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Particle size analyzer (PSA), Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and High resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). The synthesized NPs and Lawsonia inermis extract were assessed for toxicity by using acute oral toxicity using female albino mice (s) model by following OECD-425 ...
Nickel-doped cerium dioxide nanoparticles exhibit room temperature ferromagnetism due to high oxygen mobility within the doped CeO2 lattice. CeO2 is an excellent doping matrix as it can lose oxygen whilst retaining its structure. This leads to increased oxygen mobility within the fluorite CeO2 lattice, leading to the formation of Ce3+ and Ce4+ species and hence doped ceria shows a high propensity for numerous catalytic processes. Magnetic ceria are important in several applications from magnetic data storage devices to magnetically recoverable catalysts. We investigate the effect doping nickel into a CeO2 lattice has on the room temperature ferromagnetism in monodisperse cerium dioxide nanoparticles synthesised by the thermal decomposition of cerium(III) and nickel(II) oleate metal organic precursors before and after annealing. The composition of nanoparticles pre- and post-anneal were analysed using: TEM (transmission electron microscopy), XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy), EDS ...
In nature, cerium occurs together with other lanthanoids in so-called cerite earths , such as in allanite (Ca, Ce, La, Y) 2 (Al, Fe) 3 (SiO 4 ) 3 (OH), in monazite (Ce, La , Th, Nd, Y) PO 4 as well as in the bastnäsite (Ce, La, Y) CO 3 F. Cer is the most common element of the lanthanides and is ranked 28th in the element frequency in the earths crust, down to a depth of 16 km calculated, it is represented at 68 g / t and is therefore more common than tin or lead. Important deposits are located in Scandinavia, the USA, the Congo, South Africa and India. The world-wide known cerium reserves are estimated at 40 million tons. Cerium is one of the so-called light rare earths that the BGR assessed in 2014 as uncritical with regard to the supply situation. Elemental (solid) cerium does not occur on earth because of its high reactivity. However, it has been found in microscopic particles in lunar rocks. It is probably caused by impact events on the moon. ...
For the first endothermic step, cerium(IV) oxide is thermally dissociated in an inert gas atmosphere at 2,000 °C (3,630 °F) and 100-200 mbar into cerium(III) oxide and oxygen. In the second exothermic step cerium(III) oxide reacts at 400 °C (752 °F)-600 °C (1,112 °F) in a fixed bed reactor with water and produces hydrogen and cerium(IV) oxide. ...
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Cerium Isotopes: Stable cerium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cerium, but differ in atomic weight. Ce-136, 138, and 142 are stable cerium isotopes.
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Solvays CERIUM OXIDE HSA 8 is used for Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP) for the manufacture of semi-conductors.CMP is a process to planarize the relief on the surface of silicon oxide, polysilicon an metal layers. It is used to planarize these layers in order to prepare them for the lithographic steps .
TABLE-US-00002 TABLE 2 Example No. 1 2 3 4 5 Glass material G1 G1 G2 G2 G2 Plate thickness 1 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85 before lapping (mm) Lapping First Diamond Diamond Diamond Diamond Diamond process stage pellets #1000 pad 4 μm pad 9 μm pad 9 μm pad 9 μm Processing pressure (kPa) 4 6 4 4 4 Revolution speed (rpm) 25 30 30 30 30 Processing rate (μm/min) 14 10 25 25 25 Ra after processing (μm) 0.5 0.08 0.18 0.18 0.18 Plate thickness 0.785 0.785 0.785 0.785 0.785 after lapping (mm) Second Diamond Diamond Diamond Diamond Diamond stage pad 4 μm pad 2 μm pad 4 μm pad 4 μm pad 4 μm Processing pressure (kPa) 4 5 4 4 4 Revolution speed (rpm) 30 30 30 30 30 Processing rate (μm/min) 6 5 7 7 7 Ra after processing (μm) 0.04 0.012 0.05 0.05 0.05 Plate thickness 0.675 0.675 0.675 0.675 0.675 after lapping (mm) Polishing First Hard urethane Hard urethane Hard urethane Hard urethane Hard urethane process stage foam foam foam foam foam Polishing agent; Cerium oxide Cerium oxide Cerium oxide Cerium oxide ...
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Based on these very promising results, our supplemental investigation proposes to conduct studies that will enable the filing of an Investigational New Drug application, to further move CeONP down the drug development pipeline. Prior to a drug being tested for human use, safety, toxicity, and pharmacokinetic studies need to be performed to assure the drug will be relatively safe. We will conduct these studies in our supplemental investigation. Immediate safety and toxicity will be assessed at two doses. Additionally, we will determine how CeONP are distributed in the body and determine what organs they accumulate in. We will examine tissues for histopathology and adverse effects. Further, since nanoparticles may persist in the system after initial delivery, we will also examine histopathology and biodistribution at six months after administration ...
Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) are promising materials for intracellular oxygen free radical scavenging providing a potential therapy for reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated inflammatory processes. In this study rhombohedral-shaped nanoceria were synthesized by flame spray pyrolysis with tuneable particle diameters between 3 and 94 nm by changing the liquid precursor flow rate. Monocytes and macrophages are major players in inflammatory processes as their production of ROS species has important downstream effects on cell signalling. Therefore, this study examined the ability of the nanoceria to be internalised by the human monocytic cell line, U937, and scavenge intracellular ROS. U937 cells activated in the presence of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) were found to be more responsive to the nanoceria than U937 cells, which may not be surprising given the role of monocyte/macrophages in phagocytosing foreign material. The smaller particles were found to contain more crystal ...
Optical grade cerium for use on all quartz, agate and jasper. It also produces a great polish on petrified wood, coral, obsidian and man-made glasses including goldstone. Many people prefer cerium for tumbling feldspar materials such as moonstone, labradorite, sunstone and amazonite. 1.5 microns average particle siz
TY - JOUR. T1 - Synthesis of highly active nano-sized Pt/CeO2 catalyst via a cerium hydroxy carbonate precursor for water gas shift reaction. AU - Potdar, Hari S.. AU - Jeong, Dae Woon. AU - Kim, Ki Sun. AU - Roh, Hyun Seog. N1 - Funding Information: Acknowledgments This work is financially supported by Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE) as Human Resource Development Project for Energy from Waste & Recycling. This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2010-0002521). This work was supported by The Korean Federation of Science and Technology Societies Grant funded by Korea Government (MEST, Basic Research Promotion Fund).. PY - 2011/9. Y1 - 2011/9. N2 - A novel precipitation/digestion route has been developed to synthesize crystalline cerium hydroxy carbonate (CHC: Ce(OH)CO3) by using an equimolar quantity of cerium nitrate (Ce(NO3)3• 6H2O) and mixed ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Kinetics of the methylene blue oxidation by cerium(iv) in sulphuric acid solutions. AU - Katafias, A.. AU - Kita, P.. AU - Wrzeszcz, G.. AU - Mills, A.. PY - 2007/2. Y1 - 2007/2. N2 - The oxidation of methylene blue (MB+) by cerium(IV) was studied in 0.1-5 M H2SO4. The reaction proceeds via MB radical (MB2+•) formed by one electron transfer to the oxidant. The radical is observed spectrophotometrically by a very intense absorbance at λmax = 526 nm and by the e.p.r signal at g = 2.000. The kinetics of the fast radical formation are two orders of magnitude slower than its decomposition, which were examined using a stopped-flow method at 298 K under pseudo-first order conditions. The rate laws for the both steps were determined and a likely mechanism reported.. AB - The oxidation of methylene blue (MB+) by cerium(IV) was studied in 0.1-5 M H2SO4. The reaction proceeds via MB radical (MB2+•) formed by one electron transfer to the oxidant. The radical is observed ...
Co3O4 promoted CeO2 nanocubes have been found to exhibit outstanding catalytic activity for the oxidation of diesel soot at low temperatures (50% soot conversion = 606 K). This remarkable performance is attributed to the superior reducible nature of cerium oxide and the preferential exposure of CeO2 (100) an RACI100: Celebrating Australian Chemistry
Purpose: We have previously shown that cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) catalytically scavenge Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and can long-term inhibit retinal degeneration in tubby mice and inhibit/regress neovascularization in vldlr-/- mice. However, the toxicity of nanoceria retention in the retina was unknown. The current study is proposed to address this point.. Methods: Wild type (C57BL/6J) mice at P30 were intravitreally injected with increasing doses of nanoceria (0.1mM, 0.3mM, 1mM, 3mM and 10mM) in 1µl saline. Saline injection and uninjected mice served as controls. Retinal structure, ONL (outer nuclear layer) thickness and cellular infiltration were analyzed using H & E stained slides at post injection (PI) 7h, 3d, 7d, 15d and 30d. Retinal function was evaluated with electroretinography at PI 30d. The fundus abnormality and angiogenesis were assessed with fundoscopy and fluorescence angiography. The expression of inflammatory cytokines and markers of activation of ...
2008/3/17· The best method is using Cerium Oxide with a drill that is converted to use a felt polishing wheel; you mix the cerium oxide with water, then apply to the polishing wheel and then polish the scratch. Keep applying the water and cerium oxide to the glass; as the glass gets very hot and may crack or shatter, so try to keep it cool. ...
Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs) are of significant interest to the scientific community due to their widespread applications in a variety of fields. It i
This mineral comes from the nickel rich bauxite deposits at Nisi, Greece. The series is then complete with bastnasite (having near 100% fluorines) and hydroxylcarbonate (with near 100% hydroxides) as the two end members and hydroxylbastnasite as the intermediate member. The structure of the three minerals is made up of stacks of carbonate ion layers and Ce(OH, F) layers. The Ce(OH, F) layers form flat hexagonal sheets with each cerium bonded to three fluorines and visa-versa. The carbonate layers are more complex with angled carbonate triangular groups. The structure is closely studied because it is one of the few rare earth mineral structures that can accommodate variously sized cations. Hydroxylbastnasite (also spelled hydroxyl-bastnasite) has cerium, lanthanum and neodymium in its generalized formula but officially the mineral is divided into three minerals based on the predominant rare earth element found in specimens. There is Hydroxylbastnasite-(Ce) with a more accurate formula of (Ce, ...
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Facts about Cerium talk about the chemical element in the periodic table which has the atomic number 58. The symbol of the element is Ce. Cerium is very easy to
Increased viability of fibroblasts when pretreated with ceria nanoparticles during serum deprivation Francielli S Genier,1 Maximilian Bizanek,1 Thomas J Webster,1,2 Amit K Roy1,2 1Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA; 2Wenzhou Institute of Biomaterials and Engineering (WIBE), Wenzhou University, Wenzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Conditions of cellular stress are often the cause of cell death or dysfunction. Sustained cell stress can lead to several health complications, such as extensive inflammatory responses, tumor growth, and necrosis. To prevent disease and protect human tissue during these conditions and to avoid medication side effects, nanomaterials with unique characteristics have been applied to biological systems. This paper introduces the pretreatment in human dermal fibroblasts with cerium oxide nanoparticles during nutritional stress. For this purpose, human dermal fibroblast cells received cell culture media with concentrations of
Surface area reduction of a cerium dioxide powder is studied at 900 K in a HCI, H|sub|2|/sub|O, and O|sub|2|/sub| atmosphere. The rate of surface area decrease is determined as a function of the surface chloride content and of the partial pressure of hydrogen chloride. It is shown that particle growth occurs due to the surface diffusion of cerium and hydroxyl ions, which results from hydrogen chloride adsorption. Adsorbed chloride ions react to give gaseous chlorine. The rate-determining step of the process of initial coarsening is hydrogen chloride fixation at the surface of cerium dioxide particles
Organocerium compounds are chemical compounds that contain one or more chemical bond between carbon and cerium. Organocerium chemistry is the corresponding science exploring properties, structure and reactivity of these compounds. In general, organocerium compounds are not isolable, and are rather studied in solution via their reactions with other species. There are notable exceptions, such as the Cp*3Ce(III) complex shown at right, but they are relatively rare. Complexes involving cerium of various oxidation states are known: though lanthanides are most stable in the +3 state, complexes of cerium(IV) have been reported. These latter compounds have found less widespread use due to their oxidizing nature, and the majority of literature regarding organometallic cerium complexes involves the +3 oxidation state. In particular, organocerium compounds have been developed extensively as non-basic carbon nucleophiles in organic synthesis. Because cerium is relatively non-toxic, they serve as an ...
In this study, a new cerium phosphate (CePO4)-doped sulfonated polyether ether ketone (SPEEK) composite membranes were synthesized by using solution casting method with different CePO4 loading. Their performance and durability were investigated for proton exchange membranes fuel cells. Different techniques, namely Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic mechanical tests (DMA), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analyses were used to characterize the synthesized membranes. Water uptake (WU) and swelling properties as well as ion exchange capacities (IEC) of synthesized membranes were also determined. Fuel cell performance, durability, and Fenton tests for oxidative stability of the synthesized membranes were also investigated. Experimental results showed that addition of CePO4 up to 10% by weight improved the membrane properties. 10 wt% CePO4-doped membrane possessed a good proton conductivity of ...
A phosphor comprising an effective amount of cerium to provide luminescence, and the balance substantially an oxide compound of hafnium and an alkaline earth from the group consisting of barium, strontium, calcium, and mixtures thereof, having substantially a perovskite crystal form.
KeithBinns/iStockBy IBTISSEM GUENFOUD and GUY DAVIES, ABC News. (PARIS and LONDON) - An explosion at a warehouse stocked with 2,750 tons of ammonium nitrate in the Beirut port changed the face of a city almost instantly.. The exact cause of the Beirut blast is still under investigation, but the catastrophic effects of ammonium nitrate were there for all to see: A massive explosion causing shock waves throughout the city and a mushroom cloud of smoke billowing high into the sky.. So far, at least 137 are confirmed dead, including one American, and over 5.000 were injured in the blast, according to the Lebanese authorities.. But, according to experts, ammonium nitrate is not itself classified as dangerous, and requires a lot of energy to ignite.. [Ammonium nitrate] is a great fertilizer for growing plants, but its also wonderful as an explosive, Jimmy Oxley, a chemistry professor at the University of Rhode Island, told ABC News. 200 factories make ammonium nitrate around the world… They are ...
Meliorum Technologies designs custom nanomaterials for industry and research, including gold nanoparticles, zinc oxide, cerium oxide and silicon nanoparticles
Lithium-sulfur batteries have attracted attention due to their six-fold specific energy compared with conventional lithium-ion batteries. Dissolution of lithium polysulfides, volume expansion of sulfur and uncontrollable deposition of lithium sulfide are three of the main challenges for this technology. State-of-the-art sulfur cathodes based on metal-oxide nanostructures can suppress the shuttle-effect and enable controlled lithium sulfide deposition. However, a clear mechanistic understanding and corresponding selection criteria for the oxides are still lacking. Herein, various nonconductive metal-oxide nanoparticle-decorated carbon flakes are synthesized via a facile biotemplating method. The cathodes based on magnesium oxide, cerium oxide and lanthanum oxide show enhanced cycling performance. Adsorption experiments and theoretical calculations reveal that polysulfide capture by the oxides is via monolayered chemisorption. Moreover, we show that better surface diffusion leads to higher ...
Indium Zinc Oxide (IZO), is by far the best UV blocking material in existence, superior to other UV blocks including titanium dioxide, cerium oxide, and zinc oxide.
We recommend Pumice Powder for hobby tumbling. Our special grade works fast with excellent results. Its cleaner, lighter and more cost effective. Tin Oxide can also be used for that extra shine, and Zinc Oxide can be used as a lower grade polish. Cerium Oxide is used for the best results and greatest shine, and…
The substitution of a methyl to an octyl group in the ancillary triazolylidene ligand-an apparently simple variation-induces a more than 10-fold increase of activity of the corresponding iridium complex in water oxidation catalysis when using cerium(IV) as sacrificial oxidant. Detailed NMR studies suggest that various different molecular species form, all bearing the intact triazolylidene ligand. The octyl substituent is essential for inducing the association of the iridium species, thus generating extraordinarily active multimetallic catalytic sites. Their accessibility and steady-state concentration is critically dependent on the type of sacrificial oxidant and specifically on the cerium ammonium nitrate versus catayst ratio.. ...
Materials with inherent oxygen excess are of great interest for high-temperature electrochemical applications, such as solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and oxygen permeation membranes due to their rapid ion conductivity. Cerium niobate has received a lot of attention recently due to its rapid oxide ion conductivity in the intermediate temperature range (500-650 °C). Cerium niobate has several interesting characteristics, such as the range of excess oxygen structures that stabilise in the monoclinic crystal system and the phase transition from monoclinic to tetragonal crystal structures associated with a change in ionic conductivity. During this work the first single crystal study of CeNbO4 has been performed and as a result of the higher quality of data available with single crystal diffraction a correction to the space group reported in literature has been suggested. Furthermore, single crystals have been thermally treated in order to synthesis the excess oxygen modulated structures. CeNbO4.25 ...
YTTRIUM [symbol, Y; atomic weight, 89.0 (O = 16)], a metallic chemical clement. In its character yttrium is closely allied to, and in nature is always associated with, cerium, lanthanum, didymium and erbium (see Rare Earths). For the preparation of yttrium compounds the best raw material is gadolinite, which, according to König, consists of 22.61% of silica, 34.64 of yttria, Y2O3, and 42.75 of the oxides of erbium, cerium, didymium, lanthanum, iron, beryllium, calcium, magnesium and sodium. The extraction (as is the case with all the rare earths) is a matter of great difficulty. Metallic yttrium is obtainable as a dark grey powder by reducing the chloride with potassium, or by electrolysing the double chloride of yttrium and sodium. It decomposes water slowly in the cold, and more rapidly on heating. Yttria, Y2O3, is a yellowish white powder, which at high temperatures radiates out a most brilliant while light. It is soluble, slowly but completely, in mineral acids. It is recognized by its very ...
The International Journal of Analytical Chemistry is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles reporting new experimental results and methods, especially in relation to important analytes, difficult matrices, and topical samples. Focussed review articles are also welcomed.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reactions of ceria supported rhodium with hydrogen and nitric oxide studied with TPR/TPO and XPS techniques. AU - Padeste, Celestino. AU - Cant, Noel W.. AU - Trimm, David L.. PY - 1994/6. Y1 - 1994/6. N2 - The reactions of ceria supported rhodium with H2 and NO have been investigated by temperature programmed reduction (TPR), temperature programmed oxidation (TPO) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In precious metal/ceria systems, both the support and the precious metal may be subject to reduction and reoxidation processes. Since partly reduced ceria is an ion-conducting material, the electrical charging of the whole sample during the XPS measurements depends on the oxidation state of the supporting ceria. Thus, the charging can be used as a sensitive indicator of the oxidation state of the support material which allows distinction between reactions of the support and of the precious metal. Rhodium oxide precursors are reduced to Rh0 at temperatures below 200°C, but a ...
worldnow id=8848977 width=420 height=278 type=video]. WEST (CBS 11 NEWS) - Investigators have now ruled what many have suspected: the ammonium nitrate stored at the West Fertilizer Companys plant exploded.. But the 29 state and federal agencies involved in the probe still dont know what triggered the blast, and the fire that began at the facility before that.. On Monday, the state announced the fire began in the fertilizer and seed building, but that investigators ruled out that the blaze began in the bin holding the ammonium nitrate.. ...
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Abstract Electrospun nanofibers with designed or controlled structures have drawn much attention. In this study, we report an interesting new closed-loop structure in individual cerium nitrate/polyvinyl alcohol (Ce(NO3)3/PVA) and NaCl/PVA fibers, which are fabricated by electrospinning with a nail collector. The electrospinning parameters such as voltage and Ce(NO3)3 (or NaCl) concentration are examined for the formation of the closed-loop structure. The results suggest that the increase of the spinning voltage or addition of Ce(NO3)3 (or NaCl) is favorable for the formation of the closed-loop structure, and the increase of loop numbers and the decrease of loop size. Further analyses indicate that the formation mechanism of the closed-loop fibers can be predominantly attributed to the Coulomb repulsion in the charged jets ...
AMS 4439F results from a Five Year Review and update of this specification. The title has been changed to from 1.2 Ce to 1.2 Rare Earths. The chemistry table has been changed from Cerium [total rare earths] to Total Rare Earths.. ...
Abstract In this work, we present our attempts on the the processing of nano ceramic electrolyte and electrodes (anode and cathode) materials for low temperature grade solid oxide fuel cells (LT-SOFC). The studies on the processing parameters and heat treament were discussed. The phase identification, morphology and electrical properties were also studied. Part I: Combustion synthesis of nanocrystalline ceria and nano grained dense ceria electrolyte by convencional solid-state route and its sintering characteristics studies were attempted. Accordingly, Gd3+ doped nanocrystalline ceria (GDC - Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95) was prepared by nitrate-fuel combustión technique followed by calcination at 700°C for 2h. The nanopowders were uni-axially pressed into cylindrical discs followed by sintering at 1200°C for 2h. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron micrsoscopy analyses resulted in the gadolinium oxide was completely disolved into ceria solid solution with single phase fluorite structure and
New York - Oliver Wyman and RapidRatings today announced the launch of Oliver Wyman CommForecaster, a secure, online-based loss forecasting and stress testing platform built to help financial institutions-primarily banks-manage their commercial and industrial (C&I) loan portfolios of public and private obligors, while adhering to CECL standards and informing other exercises.. CommForecaster, an Oliver Wyman solution powered by RapidRatings, equips a wide range of bank executives with the ability to conduct their commercial and industrial loan portfolio risk measurement and management responsibilities with a greater degree of confidence. Not only does the platform forecast C&I loan losses accurately, CommForecaster also delivers robust, quantitative, fundamentals-based scenario analysis to authoritatively challenge incumbent models and better inform CECL, CCAR, DFAST and internal stress-testing exercises. In addition, CommForecaster allows effective reserve planning management, while ensuring ...
Another electron arrangement unique to the lanthanides series is that the 5s and 5p orbitals penetrate into the 4f-subshell. This has the effect that 4f-subshell electrons are not shielded from the increasing positive nuclear charge and that means that the attractive force makes the radii of their orbitals contract so they nudge closer to the nucleus. This means that the radii (physical size) of the lanthanide atoms actually decreases as atomic number increases. For example, the atomic radius of cerium (second lightest lanthanide, Z=58) is 2.70 angstroms across and the atomic radius of lutetium (heaviest lanthanide, Z=71) is just 2.25 angstroms. As proton number increases and radius decreases, the ionization energy (the energy you need to pull an electron into a higher energy shell or the energy released as it returns to ground state) increases, as you might expect. Increasing ionization energy means that outermost electrons are held more and more tightly to the atom. Density, hardness and ...
Sulfite is a well-known reductant. Oxidation of aqueous sulfur dioxide by acidified permanganate, cerium(IV) or hydrogen peroxide is feebly chemiluminescent;[1] exploitation of the weak chemiluminescence improved the detectivity of atmospheric sulfur dioxide by a factor of 50. A proposed mechanism comprised an initial oxidation of HSO3― to S2O62― , which then disproportionates to SO42― and excited SO2, which emits visible light. Sulfites undergo an addition reaction with carbonyl compounds and addition of cyclohexanone to protect sulfite solutions against atmospheric oxidation led to the observation that this, at appropriate concentrations, enhanced the oxidative chemiluminescence. Light emission is also sensitized by other cyclohexyl compounds. Paulls and Townshend have suggested that the enhancement depends on β-sultine formation and have shown that the phenomenon occurs generally with higher cycloalkyl compounds, the optimum ring size being nine.. Fused cycloalkane rings also enhance ...
An alcohol steam reforming catalyst for generating hydrogen contains palladium, yttrium, and at least one of cerium and a metal oxide. The catalyst displays both an improved alcohol conversion rate and improved carbon dioxide selectivity. Methods of making and using the alcohol steam reforming catalyst are described.
to name a couple. Mixite is probably the best known of these, but is still a rare mineral by most considerations. It forms in the oxidation zone of metal ores that probably contained primary bismuth sulfides such as emplectite. As a mineral collection specimen, mixite is truly a wonderful addition. It forms nice radial clusters called spherules, made up of fine acicular crystals. The color is typically a brilliant green of one shade or another coupled with an attractive silky luster. Mixite lends its name to a small group of rather obscure minerals called the Mixite Group. The Mixite Group is a group of hexagonal, hydrated copper arsenate and phosphate hydroxides with a general formula of ACu6(XO4)3(OH)6 - 3H2O The A in the formula can be either bismuth, aluminum, calcium, cerium, lanthanum, yttrium, neodymium or thorium. The X can be either arsenic or phosphorous. These are the members of the Mixite Group: ...
Frit is a mixture of inorganic chemical substances produced by rapidly quenching a molten, complex combination of materials, confining the chemical substances thus manufactured as nonmigratory components of glassy solid flakes or granules. This category includes all of the chemical substances specified below when they are intentionally manufactured in the production of frit. The primary members of this category are oxides of some or all of the elements listed below. Fluorides of these elements may also be included in combination with these primary [email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected] ...
Frit is a mixture of inorganic chemical substances produced by rapidly quenching a molten, complex combination of materials, confining the chemical substances thus manufactured as nonmigratory components of glassy solid flakes or granules. This category includes all of the chemical substances specified below when they are intentionally manufactured in the production of frit. The primary members of this category are oxides of some or all of the elements listed below. Fluorides of these elements may also be included in combination with these primary [email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected] ...
A nickel-base superalloy article substrate has more nickel than any other element and a nominal bulk composition of carbon. A protective layer is deposited overlying the surface of the article substrate. The protective layer includes aluminum and one or more of the reactive elements hafnium, zirconium, yttrium, lanthanum, and cerium. The depositing of the protective layer includes steps of decarburizing locations where the carbon may serve as a barrier to the mobility of the reactive elements within the protective layer, and depositing an aluminum-containing protective layer overlying the substrate. The decreasing of the carbon concentration may be accomplished. by decarburizing the substrate, depositing a platinum-containing layer and then decarburizing, depositing an aluminum-containing layer in a reducing atmosphere, and/or decarburizing the deposited protective layer. A ceramic thermal barrier coating may be deposited overlying the protective layer.
Commonly used oxidants in redox polymerization include peroxides, cerium(IV) salts, sodium hypochloride, persulfates, peroxydiphophate, and permanganate. Reducing agents are, for example, the salts of metals like Fe, Cr, Ce, Tf Co, Cu, oxoacids of sulfur, hydroxyacids, [Pg.54] ...
Catalyst shaped bodies containing as active composition a multielement oxide i of the general stoichiometry i bi1wbox a mo12z1 cz2 dfeez3 fz4 gz5 hoy 1 i, where z1 ni or co, z2 alkali metal or alkaline earth metal, z3 zinc, phosphorus, arsenic , boron, antimony, tin, cerium, vanadium, chromium or bismuth, z4 silicon, aluminum, titanium, tungsten or zirconium, z5 copper, silver.
Solid inorganic polymers are derivatives of phosphorous or phosphonic acids which contain cyclic organo groups selected from the group consisting of alicyclics, aromatics and heterocyclics. They are characterized by the structural linkage of three oxygens bonded to phosphorus to one or more tetravalent metals selected from the group consisting of titanium, zirconium, cerium, hafnium, lead, thorium and uranium. The molar ratio of phosphorus to tetravalent metal is about 2 to 1. One use for the polymers is as stationary phases or supports in chromatography.
In vitro experimentation Construction of replication-defective adenoviral vectors. The OPGΔ cDNA was transferred from the mOPGΔ pCEP4 construct into the shuttle vector pTrackCMV using the pAdEasy-1 system ( 27). Recombinant adenoviral plasmids recovered by homologous recombination in Escherichia coli were transfected into 911 cells. Appropriate recombinant plaques containing mOPG were isolated, propagated and titrated. Adenovirus containing GFP was used as a control (Ad-EGFP).. In vivo experimentations Rat osteosarcoma model. The osteosarcoma was initially induced by a local injection of colloidal radioactive 144cerium in rats ( 28). The evolution of the tumor is comparable at the temporal (ratio 1:100 between rats and humans) and physiologic levels to the development of human osteosarcoma. The tumor can be regrafted as described above and maintained in vivo for many months, or fragments can be frozen until reuse. Lung metastases are observed in 75% to 90% of rats bearing advanced malignant ...
Thin carbonaceous laminations preserved in shallow-water facies of the 3416 Ma Buck Reef Chert, South Africa, have been interpreted to represent some of the oldest-known mats constructed by photosynthetic microbes. Preservation of these mats within a unit containing facies deposited at water depths ranging from 0 m to ,200 m provides an opportunity to explore the electron donors employed in early microbial photosynthesis. The presence of siderite (FeCO3) as a primary sediment, lack of hematite (Fe2O3), and lack of cerium anomalies throughout the Buck Reef Chert imply that the entire water column was anoxic despite the presence of photosynthetic organisms. Authigenic uranium (Ua = U-Th/3) correlates inversely with siderite abundance, suggesting that variations in carbonate rather than oxygen activity controlled uranium mobility. The inferred lack of oxygen and ferric minerals and the presence of dissolved Fe2+ in the water column imply that H2O, Fe2+, and H2S could not have served as primary ...
The BZ reaction is an example of a chemical oscillator, a system which instead of arriving at a steady state transitions between two different chemical states (which two states have two different colors, whence the waves above). Boris Belousov discovered it in the 1950s when he happened to mix together potassium bromate, cerium(IV) sulfate, propanedioic acid and citric acid in dilute sulfuric acid (hell, why not?); he made two attempts to publish his findings, but was rejected from peer-reviewed journals because he couldnt explain why the oscillations occurred ...
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CAS 7757-79-1 6484-52-2 PETERS PROFESSIONAL SOLUBLE FERTILIZER potassium nitrateammonium nitrate (solution) (sara iii) msds toxicity property
In 2019, Export of Double Salts and Mixtures of Calcium Nitrate and Ammonium Nitrate from Egypt was 924549 US Dollars. Discover more data with NationMaster!
One typically determines the heat capacity of the aqueous solution (Csoln) from the mass of the solution (msoln) and the specific heat capacity of the solution (ssoln). The mass of the solution is the sum of the masses of the water and ammonium nitrate originally placed in the calorimeter. The specific heat capacity of the aqueous solution is usually close to that of pure water (4.184 J oC-1 g-1).. The objective of this experiment is to determine the heat of reaction (in this case a heat of solution). The above equations can be combined and rearranged to yield a working equation:. qrxn = - qcal - qsoln = - ( Ccal + msoln ssoln ) ( Tf - Ti ) Just as the heat capacity of a substance is an extensive property, so the heat of solution is an extensive property. It is generally more convenient to report intensive properties, thus the heat capacity of a substance is usually reported as a specific heat capacity, that is, the heat capacity per gram of substance. Similarly one can report a specific heat of ...
The 2013 World Market Forecasts for Imported Fertilizers, Double Salts, and Mixtures of Ammonium Sulfate and Ammonium Nitrate This report was created for strategic planners, - Market research report and industry analysis - 7467803
Ammonium nitrate was about one-tenth the price of tetrazole, according to Upham, who also reviewed industry patents. But ammonium nitrate had a critical flaw that he says led other air bag makers to give up on it: Ammonium nitrate has five phases of varying density that make it hard to keep stable over time. A propellant made with ammonium nitrate would swell and shrink with temperature changes, and eventually the tablet would break down into powder. Water and humidity would speed the process. Powder burns more quickly than a tablet, so an air bag whose propellant had crumbled would be likely to deploy too aggressively. The controlled explosion would be just an explosion. Everybody went down a certain road, and only Takata went down another road, says Jochen Siebert, whos followed the air bag industry since the 1990s and is now managing director of JSC Automotive Consulting. If you read the conference papers from back then, you can actually see that people said, No, you shouldnt. Its ...
Source: Al-Mayadeen, Lebanese TV channel pro-Hezbollah, August 5th, 2020 Translation: resistancenews.org Video: https://www.dailymotion.com/video/x7vf2l2 Transcript: Greetings. Anyone who sees these photos will find it hard to believe that they show the Beirut port just 24 hours ago, full of life, before being (completely) destroyed by (the explosion) of (hundreds of) tons of ammonium nitrate, stored in…
"Cerium". price.metal.com. Shanghai Metals Market. 3 February 2020. Archived from the original on 2020-02-03. "Promethium". ... 25 USD/kg cerium - 30 USD/kg praseodymium - 70 USD/kg neodymium - 30 USD/kg samarium - 80 USD/kg europium - 1600 USD/kg ...
The chemical element cerium was first discovered in Bastnäs in 1803 by Jöns Jakob Berzelius and Wilhelm Hisinger in the form of ... Iron, copper and rare-earth elements were extracted from the mines and 4,500 tons of cerium was produced between 1875 and 1888 ... "cerium". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-02. "Bastnäsite-(Ce)". Mindat.org. Retrieved 2009-07-02. ...
Xavier, K.O; Sreekala, R.; Rashid, K.K.A; Yusuff, K.K.M; Sen, B. (1999). "Doping effects of cerium oxide on Ni/Al2O3 catalysts ...
Graphdiyne-cerium oxide nanozymes were developed for radiotherapy of esophageal cancer. Defect engineering was used to develop ... Singh, Namrata; NaveenKumar, Somanathapura K.; Geethika, Motika; Mugesh, Govindasamy (8 February 2021). "A Cerium Vanadate ... "Multifunctional Graphdiyne-Cerium Oxide Nanozymes Facilitate MicroRNA Delivery and Attenuate Tumor Hypoxia for Highly Efficient ...
The main oxidation state is predicted to be +4, similar to cerium and thorium. A first ionization energy of 5.651 eV and second ... Unbibium is predicted to be similar in chemistry to cerium and thorium, which likewise have four valence electrons above a ... Chemically, unbibium is expected to show some resemblance to cerium and thorium. However, relativistic effects may cause some ...
... and cerium. Students working in Berzelius's laboratory also discovered lithium and vanadium. Berzelius developed the radical ...
They replaced the commonly used YSZ electrolyte with a CGO (cerium gadolinium oxide) electrolyte. The lower operating ...
Cerium oxide: Nanoscale cerium oxide is used in electronics, biomedical supplies, energy, and fuel additives. Many applications ... of engineered cerium oxide nanoparticles naturally disperse themselves into the environment, which increases the risk of ...
Hodgson, Keith O.; Raymond, Kenneth N. (1972-12-01). "Ion pair complex formed between bis(cyclooctatetraenyl)cerium(III) anion ... including thorium and cerium from the Raymond lab). The study of iron transport systems in microbes and the coordination ...
Cerium addition is not as effective as thorium but works well, and cerium is not radioactive. An alloy of lanthanum oxide (or ... Cerium oxide (or ceria) as an alloying element improves arc stability and ease of starting while decreasing burn-off. ... lanthana) has a similar effect as cerium, and is also not radioactive. Electrodes containing zirconium oxide (or zirconia) ...
The oxides are dissolved in nitric acid that excludes the main components, cerium, whose oxide is insoluble in HNO3. Neodymium ... which is the third highest after cerium and lanthanum. Many synthesis varieties exist and one can be simplified as follows: The ...
Cerium oxide nanoparticles have been shown to be very good at catalyzing the decomposition of unburnt hydrocarbons and other ... With cerium oxide nanoparticle additives in fuel, trace amounts of these toxic particles can be emitted within the exhaust. ... Cerium oxide additives in diesel fuel have been shown to cause lung inflammation and increased bronchial alveolar lavage fluid ...
It may point to Mayak's aborted attempt to manufacture a capsule of highly radioactive component cerium-144, for the SOX ...
... cerium, chromium, selenium, cadmium, and mercury. Soils contaminated by fly ash showed an increase in bulk density and water ...
Exotic metals contain rare elements such as cobalt, mercury, titanium, tungsten, arsenic, beryllium, bismuth, cerium, cadmium, ...
... and the cerium content. Warr, L.N. (2021). "IMA-CNMNC approved mineral symbols". Mineralogical Magazine. 85: 291-320. Mitchell ...
... cerium, in ore from the mine. In 1753, Cronstedt was elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Marshall, James ...
... of extremely pure cerium for the cerium sulphide crucibles used by the plutonium metallurgists. Fears that world supplies of ...
... cerium (usually in the form of mischmetal). Tellurium has also been used. Yttrium, often a component of mischmetal, has also ...
Amphiphile - Hydrophilic and lipophilic chemical compound Cerium(IV) oxide Contact angle meter Froth flotation - Process for ...
... and cerium Nils Gabriel Sefström (1787-1845), chemist, discoverer of vanadium Johan August Arfwedson (1792-1841), chemist, ...
... cerium added to these alloys slow the growth of graphite precipitates by bonding to the edges of the graphite planes. Along ...
... because of the cerium dominant cordylite (IMA2000-C). Other curiosities: Niggliite (former 1.AG.60, year: 1938), sorosite ( ...
The fabric of the Welsbach gas mantle was put into a solution that consisted of 99% thorium nitrate and 1% cerium nitrate in ...
Many of these cycles such as the iron oxide cycle, cerium(IV) oxide-cerium(III) oxide cycle, zinc zinc-oxide cycle, sulfur- ...
This is followed by addition of a primary amine, a β-dicarbonyl compound, cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate (CAN) and silver nitrate ...
It also works on the synthesis of microporous and mesoporous materials such as zeolites, HMS, MCM, SBA, mesoporous cerium oxide ...
... while cerium(IV) oxide can be used for glass that absorbs ultraviolet wavelengths. Fluorine lowers the dielectric constant of ...
Cerium(III) oxalate (cerous oxalate) is the inorganic cerium salt of oxalic acid. It is a white crystalline solid with the ... Cerium salts increase the blood coagulation rate, and exposure to cerium salts can cause sensitivity to heat. Oxalates are ... "Cerium(III) Oxalate, Anhydrous". American Elements. Retrieved 2019-03-26. "KEGG DRUG: Cerium oxalate". KEGG DRUG Database. ... Cerium(III) oxalate irritates skin and mucous membranes, and is a strong irritant to eyes. If it gets into the eyes, there is a ...
... can be used as a starting point for the preparation of other cerium salts, such as the Lewis acid cerium( ... Cerium(III) chloride (CeCl3), also known as cerous chloride or cerium trichloride, is a compound of cerium and chlorine. It is ... ISBN 3-13-103021-6. Johnson, C. R.; Tait, B. D. (1987). "A cerium(III) modification of the Peterson reaction: methylenation of ... The anhydrous halide may alternatively be prepared from cerium metal and hydrogen chloride. It is usually purified by high ...
Cerium(III) oxalate (cerous oxalate) is the inorganic cerium salt of oxalic acid. It is a white crystalline solid with the ... Cerium salts increase the blood coagulation rate, and exposure to cerium salts can cause sensitivity to heat. Oxalates are ... "Cerium(III) Oxalate, Anhydrous". American Elements. Retrieved 2019-03-26. "KEGG DRUG: Cerium oxalate". KEGG DRUG Database. ... Cerium(III) oxalate irritates skin and mucous membranes, and is a strong irritant to eyes. If it gets into the eyes, there is a ...
Cerium(III) chloride can be used as a starting point for the preparation of other cerium salts, such as the Lewis acid cerium( ... Cerium(III) chloride (CeCl3), also known as cerous chloride or cerium trichloride, is a compound of cerium and chlorine. It is ... ISBN 3-13-103021-6. Johnson, C. R.; Tait, B. D. (1987). "A cerium(III) modification of the Peterson reaction: methylenation of ... The anhydrous halide may alternatively be prepared from cerium metal and hydrogen chloride. It is usually purified by high ...
Goodfellow has 13 high quality cerium products in stock from a selection of 70,000 specialist materials for R&D. 48 hour ... Cerium. Cerium was discovered in 1803 by J.J. Berzelius and W. Hisinger at Vestmanland, Sweden. However, it was first isolated ... and the addition of cerium to some metal alloys greatly improves their heat resistance. Cerium can also be used in vacuum ... Cerium is a reactive grey metal and is one of the most abundant of the lanthanide group of metals, having an abundance of 68 ...
Cerium Toilet Paper Basket. This item has 0 required items. Please make sure to go back to the. required items tab on this ... Cerium Toilet Paper Basket. Sims 4 / Objects New Meshes / Furnishing / Decor / Clutter ... Cerium Bathroom - Toilet Paper Basket. - Wondymoon,TSR - Creations2019. Short URL: https://www.thesimsresource.com/downloads/ ...
Ceriums certified engineers and support teams are available 24/7 to support any technical requests you may have. Give us a ... Cerium Networks partners with Druva to design and deploy inSync data governance solutions. Our full-stack expertise enables us ... According to Zach Feingold, Senior Systems Engineer for Cerium Networks, "Sorting through data to ensure everything that is ... For other support requests or to access your Cerium 1463° portal click here ...
Ce Cerium - Powder Cerium is especially interesting because of its variable electronic structure. The energy of the inner 4f ...
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Cerium; Crystal Structure and Position in The Periodic Table journal, September 2014 * Johansson, Börje; Luo, Wei; Li, Sa ...
Copyright 2022 Cerium Visual Technologies Limited. All Rights Reserved , Website Design by Dewar Green Limited ...
Cerium metallicum. Cerium metallicum. Hauptname: Cerium metallicum Synonyme: Cerium Cerium metallicum Informationen ...
... cerium oxide, environmental health and safety, EHS, toxicology, toxicity, oxidative stress, lung cells ... Home , Nanotechnology , Nano Cerium Oxide EHS Study. Nano Cerium Oxide EHS Study By Porter Wright on June 19, 2009. Tweet this ... According to the article, the researchers selected cerium oxide for the test because it is heavily used in the semiconductor ... Advanced Ceramics Report (ACR) recently ran an article about a Swiss-based nanotoxicity experiment using cerium oxide ...
Enter: the Cerium LT gilet. A remarkably insulating shell layer for something of its weight, it features a minimal design ... Enter: the Cerium LT gilet. A remarkably insulating shell layer for something of its weight, it features a minimal design ... Arcteryx Mens Dark Elysium Cerium LT Padded Hooded Shell-down Jacket £340.00 ... Arcteryx Mens Dark Elysium Cerium LT Padded Hooded Shell-down Jacket £340.00 ...
The asymmetric unit of the title compound, {[Ce(C3H2O4)Cl-(H2O)(3)]center dot 0.5H(2)O}(n), contains a Ce3+ atom coordinated by a chloride anion, three water molecules and a malonate ligand, and one water molecule of crystallization with a factor of occupancy of 50%. The malonate ligand is bonded to three different symmetry-related metal atoms yielding a one-dimensional coordination polymer running parallel to the a axis. A supramolecular network composed of strong and highly directional O-H center dot center dot center dot O and O-H center dot center dot center dot Cl hydrogen bonds ensures a close and effective packing of adjacent polymeric chains.
Compare Dysprosium vs Cerium of the Periodic Table on all their Facts, Electronic Configuration, Chemical, Physical, Atomic ... PromethiumCerium. vs GadoliniumCerium. vs CeriumCerium. vs NeodymiumCerium. vs TerbiumCerium. vs HolmiumCerium. vs ErbiumCerium ... TungstenCerium. vs ThuliumCerium. vs LeadCerium. vs LutetiumCerium. vs TantalumCerium. vs RheniumCerium. vs ThalliumCerium. vs ... RadonCerium. vs MercuryCerium. vs IridiumCerium. vs GadoliniumCerium. vs BismuthCerium. vs PlatinumCerium. vs CesiumCerium. vs ...
Product details of China Inorganic salt Cerium(III) chloride CAS 7790-86-5. ... Inorganic salt Cerium(III) chloride CAS 7790-86-5 manufacturing by SHANDONG ZHISHANG CHEMICAL CO.LTD; ... Cerium(III) chloride used as raw material for producing cerium and other cerium compounds. ... Inorganic salt Cerium(III) chloride CAS 7790-86-5. Leave a Comment / Inorganic Salt / By zhishangchemical ...
Buy cerium doped yttrium aluminum garnet online from China. ... Good quality cerium doped yttrium aluminum garnet from cerium ...
The isostructural α-γ phase transition in cerium is analyzed using density-functional theory with different exchange- ... Density-Functional Theory for f-Electron Systems: The α-γ Phase Transition in Cerium ... The α-γ Phase Transition in Cerium. Physical Review Letters, 109(14): 146402. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.146402. ... functional gives rise to two distinct solutions at zero temperature that can be associated with the α and γ phases of cerium. ...
The inclusion of cerium and bromoperfluoro-n-octane considerably increase the oxygen capacity by 33% for samples Ce-X and F-X ... A Facile Route toward the Increase of Oxygen Content in Nanosized Zeolite by Insertion of Cerium and Fluorinated Compounds 17 ... Enriching oxygen content within nanosized zeolite X (as synthesized Na-X) by insertion of cerium (ion exchanged Ce-X) and ...
Cerium. 1.4×106 S/m. Meitnerium. N/A. Strontium. 7.7×106 S/m. ...
La _ Ce _ Lanthanum _ Cerium. Pr _ Nd _ Praseodymium _ Neodymium. Pm _ Sm _ Promethium _ Samarium. Eu _ Gd _ Europium _ ...
Frontrunner Vaccine Will Affact the Price of Cerium molybdenum oxide (Ce2(MoO4)3)-Powder - Market Trend CEO of Pfizer partner ...
Si), via a neighboring fluorescent cerium ion (Ce 3. +. ), in the dense nuclear-spin bath yttrium orthosilicate ( Y. 2. SiO. 5 ...
20 M Double-Spoke Cerium Grey Wheels w/Performance Non Run-Flat Tires (. 2. ). ...
The catalyst - cerium oxide - is much more resistant to breaking down. Stripping oxygen from CO2 to make CO gas is the first ... Artistic representation of a nickel-based electrode as a broken down fuel pump and of a cerium-based electrode as a new, ... With insights gained, the researchers built two cells for CO2 conversion testing: one with cerium oxide and the other with ...
Cerium cobalt lanthanum oxide. Ce.Co.La.O. 141617-26-7. Bismuth calcium copper lead potassium strontium oxide. Bi.Ca.Cu.K.O.Pb. ...
Cerium (IV) Ammonium Nitrate. *Original Commentary. *First Update. *m-Chloroperbenzoic Acid. *Original Commentary ...
Hirst SM, Karakoti AS, Tyler RD, Sriranganathan N, Seal S, Reilly CM (2009). Anti-inflammatory properties of cerium oxide ... Several experiments have demonstrated bioactive properties of metal nanoparticles viz., application of gold and cerium oxide ...
Cerium Separation from Light Rare Earth Concentrate by Liquid-Liquid Extraction (Articles) ...
  • Advanced Ceramics Report (ACR) recently ran an article about a Swiss-based nanotoxicity experiment using cerium oxide nanoparticles. (technologylawsource.com)
  • One research project includes partners in the United Kingdom who are investigating the effects of cerium oxide nanoparticles added in a diesel fuel additive designed to decrease emissions and increase fuel efficiency. (epa.gov)
  • Neodymium is the most abundant of the rare earths after cerium and lanthanum. (americanelements.com)
  • Cerium(III) chloride used as raw material for producing cerium and other cerium compounds. (zhishangchemical.com)
  • Investigation of chromium, cerium and cobalt as markers in digesta. (edpsciences.org)
  • It could be obtained by the reaction of oxalic acid with cerium(III) chloride. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cerium(III) chloride (CeCl3), also known as cerous chloride or cerium trichloride, is a compound of cerium and chlorine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The anhydrous halide may alternatively be prepared from cerium metal and hydrogen chloride. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cerium(III) chloride can be used as a starting point for the preparation of other cerium salts, such as the Lewis acid cerium(III) trifluoromethanesulfonate, used for Friedel-Crafts acylations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rare earth metals like praseodymium, cerium, and neodymium are vital to digital technology-they are essential to the workings of fiber optic cables and wind turbines, to say nothing of the chip in your smartphone, which can contain up to 60 different elements . (arstechnica.com)
  • Hong Deng, Shihe Yang, Si Xiao, Hongmei Gong, Ququan Wang, Controlled Synthesis and Upconverted Avalanche Luminescence of Cerium(III) and Neodymium(III) Orthovanadate Nanocrystals with High Uniformity of Size and Shape, J. Am. Chem. (scut.edu.cn)
  • Cerium(III) oxalate (cerous oxalate) is the inorganic cerium salt of oxalic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cerium salts increase the blood coagulation rate, and exposure to cerium salts can cause sensitivity to heat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nano-sized cerium vanadium oxide as corrosion inhibitor: A microstructural and release study. (mpie.de)
  • Cerium zirconium beads, fully known as cerium stabilized zirconia beads, contain 80% zirconium oxide and 20% cerium oxide. (wear-resistant.net)
  • Cerium zirconium beads have a large proportion, so they have a large kinetic energy in the grinding process. (wear-resistant.net)
  • Cerium was discovered in 1803 by J.J. Berzelius and W. Hisinger at Vestmanland, Sweden. (goodfellow.com)
  • With insights gained, the researchers built two cells for CO 2 conversion testing: one with cerium oxide and the other with conventional nickel-based catalysts. (stanford.edu)
  • However, due to the difficulty in controlling the uniformity of cerium-tungsten doping and the difficulty in wire drawing. (tungstenchina.com)
  • With the continuous maturity of high and new technologies such as plasma arc and laser, higher requirements are also placed on the properties of cerium tungsten wire. (tungstenchina.com)
  • Yttrium is a lanthanide group metal which is found in most rare earth minerals, particularly yttrotantalite which, whilst containing yttrium and tantalum, also contains niobium, cerium, uranium, iron and calcium in varying amounts. (goodfellow.com)
  • Transmission electron micrographs of cerium chlorideCstained ATPase activity in aorta at sites of (C) healthy and (D) atherosclerotic vascular wall. (cell-signaling-pathways.com)
  • Cerium can be used as an alloying element with iron and other constituents to produce a flint material used in automatic ignition devices, and the addition of cerium to some metal alloys greatly improves their heat resistance. (goodfellow.com)
  • Cerium is a reactive grey metal and is one of the most abundant of the lanthanide group of metals, having an abundance of 68 ppm within the Earth's crust. (goodfellow.com)
  • According to the article, the researchers selected cerium oxide for the test because it is heavily used in the semiconductor industry as an abrasive to etch computer chips. (technologylawsource.com)
  • The researchers are sampling air in areas in England where cerium oxide-based fuel additives are being used in diesel buses. (epa.gov)
  • Preliminary results indicate that there may be significant differences in the size and composition of particles emitted from engines using cerium-oxide fuel additives. (epa.gov)
  • This conference was hosted jointly by the University of Essex and Cerium Visual Technologies and presented some of the latest research findings concerning the physiology of colour, the neurological effects of coloured filters, and the differential diagnosis of the visual stress that coloured filters are designed to relieve. (opticalm.ca)
  • Cerium Visual Technology manufacture products based on the work of Professor Arnold Wilkins. (dewargreen.com)
  • In this study, TiO 2 and cerium-and sulfur-co-doped TiO 2 were prepared by a sol-gel method and calcined at 500°C. The characteristics of samples were performed by XRD, TGA, UV-visible, and XPS. (ncku.edu.tw)
  • Using data collected in the study, scientists will build a computer model to examine how cerium oxide changes the composition of emissions from the buses. (epa.gov)
  • Cerium Networks partners with Druva to design and deploy inSync data governance solutions. (ceriumnetworks.com)
  • The network engineering team at Cerium Networks can help you prepare for the tricky upgrade to Horizon 8. (ceriumnetworks.com)
  • Artistic representation of a nickel-based electrode as a broken down fuel pump and of a cerium-based electrode as a new, productive pump. (stanford.edu)
  • Cerium is especially interesting because of its variable electronic structure. (evo-chem.com)
  • She has a cerium disk that you use water with but I get the same result with. (lampworketc.com)
  • The inclusion of cerium and bromoperfluoro- n -octane considerably increase the oxygen capacity by 33% for samples Ce-X and F-X in comparison to the as-synthesized Na-X zeolite. (ensicaen.fr)
  • What I prefer to polishing with: Glass is not something I cut, recommended polishes, cerium oxide on most common polishing laps. (gemsociety.org)
  • Enriching oxygen content within nanosized zeolite X (as synthesized Na-X) by insertion of cerium (ion exchanged Ce-X) and functionalization with bromoperfluoro- n -octane (fluorinated F-X) is reported. (ensicaen.fr)