An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Ce, atomic number 58, and atomic weight 140.12. Cerium is a malleable metal used in industrial applications.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Unstable isotopes of cerium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ce atoms with atomic weights 132-135, 137, 139, and 141-148 are radioactive cerium isotopes.
The sixth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its twelve natural satellites include Phoebe and Titan.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.
Stable cerium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cerium, but differ in atomic weight. Ce-136, 138, and 142 are stable cerium isotopes.
High energy POSITRONS or ELECTRONS ejected from a disintegrating atomic nucleus.
Unstable isotopes of strontium that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. Sr 80-83, 85, and 89-95 are radioactive strontium isotopes.
Stable strontium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element strontium, but differ in the atomic weight. Sr-84, 86, 87, and 88 are the stable strontium isotopes.
Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).
The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.
A subclass of cannabinoid receptor found primarily on central and peripheral NEURONS where it may play a role modulating NEUROTRANSMITTER release.
Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].
Relating to the size of solids.
A class of devices combining electrical and mechanical components that have at least one of the dimensions in the micrometer range (between 1 micron and 1 millimeter). They include sensors, actuators, microducts, and micropumps.
Inorganic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.
The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
A plant genus of the family POLYGONACEAE that is used as an EDIBLE GRAIN. Although the seeds are used as cereal, the plant is not one of the cereal grasses (POACEAE).
The application of scientific knowledge to practical purposes in any field. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Hafnium. A metal element of atomic number 72 and atomic weight 178.49, symbol Hf. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Metals that constitute the group 2 (formerly group IIa) of the periodic table.
Emission of LIGHT when ELECTRONS return to the electronic ground state from an excited state and lose the energy as PHOTONS. It is sometimes called cool light in contrast to INCANDESCENCE. LUMINESCENT MEASUREMENTS take advantage of this type of light emitted from LUMINESCENT AGENTS.
An element of the alkaline earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sr, atomic number 38, and atomic weight 87.62.
Screens which absorb the energy in the x-ray beam that has penetrated the patient and convert this energy into a light pattern which has as nearly as possible the same information as the original x-ray beam. The more light a screen produces for a given input of x-radiation, the less x-ray exposure and thus shorter exposure time are needed to expose the film. In most film-screen systems, the film is sandwiched between two screens in a cassette so that the emulsion on each side is exposed to the light from its contiguous screen.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.

Salmonella pathogenicity island 2-dependent evasion of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase. (1/177)

A type III protein secretion system encoded by Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI2) has been found to be required for virulence and survival within macrophages. Here, SPI2 was shown to allow Salmonella typhimurium to avoid NADPH oxidase-dependent killing by macrophages. The ability of SPI2-mutant bacteria to survive in macrophages and to cause lethal infection in mice was restored by abrogation of the NADPH oxidase-dependent respiratory burst. Ultrastructural and immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated efficient localization of the NADPH oxidase in the proximity of vacuoles containing SPI2-mutant but not wild-type bacteria, suggesting that SPI2 interferes with trafficking of oxidase-containing vesicles to the phagosome.  (+info)

Improvement of efficiency of the Ce(IV)-induced DNA scission--relationship between the kinetic parameters (k(cat) and Km) and the DNA structure. (2/177)

The Michaelis constant (Km) for double-stranded DNA, single-stranded DNA, and dinucleotide hydrolysis by Ce(IV) ion are 4.4, 15, and more than 40 mM, respectively. The order of the k(cat), however, is dinucleotide >> oligonucleotides. Not only the improvement of k(cat) but also that of Km is important for the design of an efficient artificial nuclease.  (+info)

Rapid determination of cyanide and azide in beverages by microdiffusion spectrophotometric method. (3/177)

A rapid screening method was developed for the determination of the toxic volatile anions, cyanide and azide, in beverages. This method consisted of a microdiffusion extraction combined with spectrophotometry using the Konig cyanide reaction and ferric azide complex formation in conjugation with cerium azide oxido-reduction. The time required to achieve full recovery in the extraction of hydrogen cyanide and hydrazoic acid from samples was considerably shortened by increasing the diffusion temperature from 25 degrees C to 40 degrees C. The time required to achieve saturated color development in the Konig cyanide reaction was also shortened by increasing incubation temperature to 40 degrees C. The interference in both azide color reactions was examined for volatile compounds. Cyanide interfered only in the case of ferric azide complex formation. Sulfide, sulfate, nitrite, and acetic acid interfered in both the color reactions. The established method gave a detection limit of 6 microM for cyanide and 0.5mM for azide, and it required only 1 h to determine both anions. Cyanide and azide disappeared by evaporation from beverages during 25 degrees C storage under open conditions in a pH-dependent manner as a function of their respective pKa values of 9.2 and 4.6.  (+info)

Anoxic stress leads to hydrogen peroxide formation in plant cells. (4/177)

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was detected cytochemically in plant tissues during anoxia and re-oxygenation by transmission electron microscopy using its reaction with cerium chloride to produce electron dense precipitates of cerium perhydroxides. Anoxia-tolerant yellow flag iris (Iris pseudacorus) and rice (Oryza sativa), and anoxia-intolerant wheat (Triticum aestivum) and garden iris (Iris germanica) were used in the experiments. In all plants tested, anoxia and re-oxygenation increased H2O2 in plasma membranes and the apoplast. In the anoxia-tolerant species the response was delayed in time, and in highly tolerant I. pseudacorus plasma membrane associated H2O2 was detected only after 45 d of oxygen deprivation. Quantification of cerium precipitates showed a statistically significant increase in the amount of H2O2 caused by anoxia in wheat root meristematic tissue, but not in the anoxia-tolerant I. pseudacorus rhizome parenchyma. Formation of H2O2 under anoxia is considered mainly an enzymatic process (confirmed by an enzyme inhibition analysis) and is due to the trace amount of dissolved oxygen (below 10(-5) M) present in the experimental system. The data suggest oxidative stress is an integral part of oxygen deprivation stress, and emphasize the importance of the apoplast and plasma membrane in the development of the anoxic stress response.  (+info)

Feasibility studies in rats fed heavy metals as multiple nutrient markers. (5/177)

The nitrates of five metals (cerium, terbium, ytterbium, lutetium, and iridium) were fed to rats to determine the feasibility of their use as nonabsorbed, multiple markers for recovery, passage, and indirect apparant digestibility studies. Fecal recovery of a single oral dose was completed within 72 hours. When the salts were mixed into the diet, 48-96 hours was required to establish a steady-state concentration of markers in feces. The diurnal variation of cerium in feces was found to be considerable when it was fed twice daily as a single dose prior to each feeding. When incorporated into the diet, negligible diurnal variation in fecal concentration was noted with lutetium, and small variation was seen with other metals. In nutrient apparent digestibility studies, good agreement was generally found between direct and indirect multiple marker methods. Experiments with a daily intake marker suggest that cerium was not satisfactory as a multiple marker in which neutron activation analysis was the method of determination.  (+info)

Induction of early bolting in Arabidopsis thaliana by triacontanol, cerium and lanthanum is correlated with increased endogenous concentration of isopentenyl adenosine (iPAdos). (6/177)

The effects of triacontanol (TRIA), applied singly or in combination with cerium nitrate and lanthanum nitrate, on bolting of Arabidopsis thaliana were studied. Triacontanol (0.1 to 0.6 microM) added to the culture medium induced early bolting. TRIA (0.3 microM) applied with low concentrations of cerium and lanthanum caused a synergistic stimulation of bolting. In medium containing 0.3 microM TRIA, 0.1 microM cerium nitrate and 0.1 mM lanthanum nitrate, 82% of the plants bolted 20 d after seed sowing compared to only 8.6% in basal medium and 47.8% in medium with TRIA only. The changes in the endogenous concentrations of total cytokinins of the isopentenyl adenine (IP) subfamily in the leaf and root tissues were correlated with TRIA-induced early bolting. The combined treatment of TRIA (0.3 microM), cerium nitrate (0.1 microM) and lanthanum nitrate (0.1 mM) resulted in a significant increase in the endogenous concentrations of total cytokinins of the IP subfamily in the root and leaf tissues compared to plants growing in the basal medium and medium with TRIA. The exogenous application of six natural cytokinins to the plants revealed that only isopentenyl adenosine (iPAdos) was as effective as TRIA on floral bud formation. iPAdos was also found to have similar effects as TRIA on root growth and reproductive growth. These results suggest a correlation between the early bolting induced by TRIA, cerium and lanthanum and the production of higher concentrations of endogenous iPAdos.  (+info)

X-ray imaging of shock waves generated by high-pressure fuel sprays. (7/177)

Synchrotron x-radiography and a fast x-ray detector were used to record the time evolution of the transient fuel sprays from a high-pressure injector. A succession of 5.1-microsecond radiographs captured the propagation of the spray-induced shock waves in a gaseous medium and revealed the complex nature of the spray hydrodynamics. The monochromatic x-radiographs also allow quantitative analysis of the shock waves that has been difficult if not impossible with optical imaging. Under injection conditions similar to those found in operating engines, the fuel jets can exceed supersonic speeds and result in gaseous shock waves.  (+info)

Measurement of dissolved oxygen based on enhanced cerium(IV) chemiluminescence. (8/177)

The reaction of Ce(IV) with pyrogallol caused chemiluminescence, which was enhanced by dissolved oxygen. Dissolved oxygen in water was able to help in the determination by enhancing the chemiluminescence intensity. The limit of detection calculated from 3sigma was 43 micromol/dm3, and the relative standard deviation was 1.2% at 613 micromol/dm3 (n = 5). The results obtained for natural and tap water samples were compared with those provided by conventional methods; the agreement between them corroborated the usefulness of the proposed method. The chemiluminescence mechanism was studied by examining the effect of interference with Cl- and measuring the chemiluminescence spectrum. The chemiluminescence emitter, however, could not be identified.  (+info)

The rise of antimicrobial resistance demands the development of more rapid screening methods for the detection of antimicrobial resistance in clinical samples to both give the patient the proper treatment and expedite the treatment of patients. Cerium oxide nanoparticles may serve a useful role in diagnostics due to their ability to exist in a mixed valence state and act as either oxidizing agents or reducing agents. Considering that cerium oxide nanoparticles have been shown to shift in absorbance upon oxidation, a useful method of antimicrobial resistance detection could be based on the oxidation of cerium oxide nanoparticles. Herein, an assay is described whereby cerium oxide nanoparticle oxidation is a function of glucose metabolism of bacterial samples in the presence of an antimicrobial agent. Cerium oxide nanoparticles were shown to have an absorbance in the range of 395nm upon oxidation by hydrogen peroxide whereas mixed valence cerium oxide nanoparticles lacked an absorbance around 395nm. In
SEE PDF Full Length Article Writers: M.H.M.T. Assumpção; A. Moraes; R.F.B. De Souza; M.L. Calegaro; M.R.V. Lanza; E.R. Leite; M.A.L. Cordeiro; P. Hammer; M.C. Santos. Keywords: Oxygen reduction reaction; Electrogeneration of hydrogen peroxide; Cerium oxide nanoparticles. Abstract: This work describes the influence of the preparation method and the carbon support using a low content of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2/C 4%) on H2O2 electrogeneration via the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). For this purpose, the polymeric precursor (PPM) and sol-gel (SGM) methods with Vulcan XC 72R (V) and Printex L6 (P) supports were employed. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The XRD analysis identified two phases comprising CeO2 and CeO2−x. The smallest mean crystallite size was exhibited for the 4% CeO2/C_PPM_P material, which was estimated using the Debye-Scherrer equation to be 6 nm and 4 nm for ...
According to a new market report by Lucintel, the future of the |a href=https://www.lucintel.com/cerium-oxide-nanoparticle-market.aspx>cerium oxide nanoparticle|/a> market looks promising with opportunities in catalyst, biomedical, and energy applications. The cerium oxide nanoparticle market is expected to grow with a CAGR of 19% from 2019 to 2024. The major drivers for this market are increasing use of cerium oxide nanoparticles in various applications, rising focus of governments on nanotec
A simple enzyme-free spectrophotometric detection of hydrogen peroxide is demonstrated based on its colorimetric reaction with oxygen deficient cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs). This colorimetric sensitivity of CNPs towards H2O2 increases significantly with decreasing crystallite size due to an increase in
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Cerium dioxide nanoparticles (CeO2 ENPs) are on the priority list of nanomaterials requiring evaluation. We performed in vitro assays on mature mouse oocytes incubated with CeO2 ENPs to study (1) physicochemical biotransformation of ENPs in culture medium; (2) ultrastructural interactions with follicular cells and oocytes using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM); (3) genotoxicity of CeO2 ENPs on follicular cells and oocytes using a comet assay. DNA damage was quantified as Olive Tail Moment. We show that ENPs aggregated, but their crystal structure remained stable in culture medium. TEM showed endocytosis of CeO2 ENP aggregates in follicular cells. In oocytes, CeO2 ENP aggregates were only observed around the zona pellucida (ZP). The comet assay revealed significant DNA damage in follicular cells. In oocytes, the comet assay showed a dose-related increase in DNA damage and a significant increase only at the highest concentrations. DNA damage decreased significantly both in follicular cells and in
Nanomaterial inhalation represents a potential hazard for respiratory conditions such as asthma. Cerium dioxide nanoparticles (CeO2NPs) have the ability to modify disease outcome but have not been investigated for their effect on models of asthma and inflammatory lung disease. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of CeO2NPs in a house dust mite (HDM) induced murine model of asthma. Repeated intranasal instillation of CeO2NPs in the presence of HDM caused the induction of a type II inflammatory response, characterised by increased bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophils, mast cells, total plasma IgE and goblet cell metaplasia. This was accompanied by increases in IL-4, CCL11 and MCPT1 gene expression together with increases in the mucin and inflammatory regulators CLCA1 and SLC26A4. CLCA1 and SLC26A4 were also induced by CeO2NPs + HDM co-exposure in air liquid interface cultures of human primary bronchial epithelial cells. HDM induced airway hyperresponsiveness and airway remodelling in mice were
The dynamic process of oxygen vacancy migration driven by the external electric field is directly observed at atomic scale in the cerium oxides (CeO{sub 2}) thin film by in-situ transmission electron microscopy method. When a bias voltage of a proper value is applied across the CeO{sub 2} film, the oxygen vacancies are formed near the interface of CeO{sub 2}/anode, followed by their migration along the direction of the external electric field. The structural modulation occurs in the [110] zone axis due to the ordering of oxygen vacancies. The migration of oxygen vacancies results in the reversible structural transformation, i.e., releasing and storing oxygen processes in CeO{sub 2}, which is of great significance for the ionic and electronic applications of the cerium oxides materials, such as oxygen pump, gas sensor, resistive random access memory, etc. ...
Supplementary Materialscells-09-01617-s001. the procedure inhibited nuclear localization of LC3B. Used together, our research demonstrates that CeO2-NPs stand for an eligible applicant to counteract RPE degeneration and, as a result, a robust therapy for AMD. = Rabbit Polyclonal to ITCH (phospho-Tyr420) 4). * 0.05, ** 0.005, *** 0.0001 versus CTRL, # 0.05, ## 0.005, ### 0.0001 versus H2O2. 3.2. Nanoceria Localize within the RPE after Intravitreal Shot Previous evidence demonstrated that cerium oxide nanoparticles can combination the inner restricting membrane and reach the external retina after intravitreal shot. Cerium oxide nanoparticles had been found localized in your community, which include the photoreceptors external segments (Operating-system) as well as the RPE [43]. Furthermore, after a one administration, they continued to be at the same localization as much as 8 weeks [34]. On this basis, we supposed that cerium oxide nanoparticles could target the RPE and prevent its degeneration ...
Cerium (Ce) is becoming a popular metal for use in electrochemical applications. When in the form of cerium oxide (CeO2), Ce can exist in both 3 + and 4 + valence states, acting as an ideal catalyst. Previous in vitro and in vivo evidence have demonstrated that CeO2 has either anti- or pro-oxidant properties, possibly due to the ability of the nanoparticles to transition between valence states. Therefore, we chose to chemically modify the nanoparticles to shift the valence state toward 3+. During the hydrothermal synthesis process, 10 mol% gadolinium (Gd) and 20 mol% Gd, were substituted into the lattice of the CeO2 nanoparticles forming a perfect solid solution with various A-site valence states. These two Gd-doped CeO2 nanoparticles were compared to pure CeO2 nanoparticles. Preliminary characteristics indicated that doping results in minimal size and zeta potential changes but alters valence state. Following characterization, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg ...
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The presented thesis focuses on studying the interaction between rhodium and cerium oxide and its impact on the reactivity. We investigated two different systems, Rh/CeOx and Rh-CeOx, by means of the photoelectron spectroscopy and the temperature programmed reactions. Rh/CeOx stands for rhodium nanoparticles supported by cerium oxide thin film. We show that there is an electronic metal-substrate interaction between rhodium and cerium oxide. The type of the interaction depends on a degree of cerium oxide reduction and it has a tremendous impact on the reactivity of the system. On the other hand, Rh-CeOx represents cerium oxide thin films doped by rhodium. We characterized the properties of the films with various concentration of rhodium. We show that the morphology, chemical composition and reactivity of the samples strongly depend on the concentration of the rhodium dopant. Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org ...
0082]The CMP abrasive slurry according to the present invention may be stored as a single-liquid abrasive slurry containing cerium oxide particles, a dispersant, a water-soluble polymer having amino groups on the side chains and water. Alternatively, it may be stored as a two-liquid abrasive slurry consisting of a cerium oxide slurry (liquid A) containing cerium oxide particles, a dispersant and water and a supplementary solution (liquid B) containing a water-soluble polymer having amino groups on the side chains and water, or as a two-liquid abrasive slurry consisting of a cerium oxide slurry (liquid A) containing cerium oxide particles, a dispersant and water and a supplementary solution (liquid C) containing a water-soluble polymer having amino groups on the side chains, water and a water-soluble nonionic compound. Both the single-liquid abrasive slurry and the two-liquid abrasive slurry give favorable stabilized properties. When the abrasive slurry is stored in a two-liquid abrasive slurry, ...
Background. Cerium oxide nanoparticles present the mimetic activity of superoxide dismutase, being able to inactivate the excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) correlated with a large number of pathologies, such as stents restenosis and the occurrence of genetic mutations that can cause cancer. This study presents the synthesis and biological characterisation of nanoconjugates based on nanoparticles of iron oxide interconnected with cerium oxide conjugates. Methods. The synthesis of magnetite-nanoceria nanoconjugates has been done in several stages, where the key to the process is the coating of nanoparticles with polyethyleneimine and its chemical activation-reticulation with glutaraldehyde. The nanoconjugates are characterised by several techniques, and the antioxidant activity was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Results. Iron oxide nanoparticles interconnected with cerium oxide nanoparticles were obtained, having an average diameter of 8 nm. Nanoconjugates prove to possess superparamagnetic
Title:Nanoceria: Synthesis and Biomedical Applications. VOLUME: 9 ISSUE: 5. Author(s):Tripti Sahu, Satpal Singh Bisht, Kirti Ranjan Das and Savita Kerkar. Affiliation:Department of Biotechnology, Goa University, Goa, India.. Keywords:Antioxidants, biocompatibility, cytotoxicity, drug delivery, nanoceria, nanoparticle, therapeutics.. Abstract:Cerium oxide or ceria is an inorganic compound of Cerium, a rare earth element of lanthanide series. Due to the unique ability of cerium to switch oxidation states between +3 and +4 it has various applications as ultraviolet light absorbers, catalytic converters for automobile exhaust systems, solar cells, optics, oxygen sensors and other commercial and biomedical applications. Cerium oxide nanoparticles popularly known as nanoceria are efficient free radical scavengers and are considered as a potent therapeutic option for the treatment of ROS mediated disorders like neurodegenerative disorders, retinal disorders, cancer and can also act as a potent drug ...
Diabetes mellitus is one of the threatening, non-communicable and chronic ailments worldwide since ancient times to the current stage of human existence. The utilization of nanoparticles as a medicine in the treatment of diabetes is an attractive proposition. In the present study, herbal mediated cerium oxide nanoparticles (HMCeO2 NPs), herbal mediated silver nanoparticles (HMAg NPs) and Lawsonia intermix extract (LIE) was evaluated for them for in-vivo hypoglycemic effect and compared the potency. The resulting HMCeO2 NPs, HMAg NPs and Lawsonia inermis have been characterized by different analytical equipments such as X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Particle size analyzer (PSA), Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and High resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). The synthesized NPs and Lawsonia inermis extract were assessed for toxicity by using acute oral toxicity using female albino mice (s) model by following OECD-425 ...
Nickel-doped cerium dioxide nanoparticles exhibit room temperature ferromagnetism due to high oxygen mobility within the doped CeO2 lattice. CeO2 is an excellent doping matrix as it can lose oxygen whilst retaining its structure. This leads to increased oxygen mobility within the fluorite CeO2 lattice, leading to the formation of Ce3+ and Ce4+ species and hence doped ceria shows a high propensity for numerous catalytic processes. Magnetic ceria are important in several applications from magnetic data storage devices to magnetically recoverable catalysts. We investigate the effect doping nickel into a CeO2 lattice has on the room temperature ferromagnetism in monodisperse cerium dioxide nanoparticles synthesised by the thermal decomposition of cerium(III) and nickel(II) oleate metal organic precursors before and after annealing. The composition of nanoparticles pre- and post-anneal were analysed using: TEM (transmission electron microscopy), XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy), EDS ...
In nature, cerium occurs together with other lanthanoids in so-called cerite earths , such as in allanite (Ca, Ce, La, Y) 2 (Al, Fe) 3 (SiO 4 ) 3 (OH), in monazite (Ce, La , Th, Nd, Y) PO 4 as well as in the bastnäsite (Ce, La, Y) CO 3 F. Cer is the most common element of the lanthanides and is ranked 28th in the element frequency in the earths crust, down to a depth of 16 km calculated, it is represented at 68 g / t and is therefore more common than tin or lead. Important deposits are located in Scandinavia, the USA, the Congo, South Africa and India. The world-wide known cerium reserves are estimated at 40 million tons. Cerium is one of the so-called light rare earths that the BGR assessed in 2014 as uncritical with regard to the supply situation. Elemental (solid) cerium does not occur on earth because of its high reactivity. However, it has been found in microscopic particles in lunar rocks. It is probably caused by impact events on the moon. ...
For the first endothermic step, cerium(IV) oxide is thermally dissociated in an inert gas atmosphere at 2,000 °C (3,630 °F) and 100-200 mbar into cerium(III) oxide and oxygen. In the second exothermic step cerium(III) oxide reacts at 400 °C (752 °F)-600 °C (1,112 °F) in a fixed bed reactor with water and produces hydrogen and cerium(IV) oxide. ...
Vision Expo East, New York 18th - 20th March Cerium Product USA Inc are proud to be exibiting our wide range of products and services at this years New York Vison Expo East Show, please visit us at our stand LP 1875.. Cerium Optical Products will be attending this years Vision Expo in New york to showcase its range of equipment, products and services for both laboratories and optical retailers, developed at its HQ in Tenterden, KentEngland.. Ceriums range extends from its Alphamatic rimless drill system and extensive lens production consumable range including Shades dyes, now in user-friendly, environment-friendly, space and cost-saving Ecobag presentation: just open the colorful outer and drop the soluble inner bag whole into the dye bath.. Cerium now also offers a Hi-Index Shades dye collection specially formulated to give reliable, high-quality results on substrates up to 1.67 index. Their plastic lens polish choices were recently augmented by their own free-form friendly, all-substrates ...
Cerium Isotopes: Stable cerium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cerium, but differ in atomic weight. Ce-136, 138, and 142 are stable cerium isotopes.
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National Digital Library of India (NDLI) is a virtual repository of learning resources which is not just a repository with search/browse facilities but provides a host of services for the learner community. It is sponsored and mentored by Ministry of Education, Government of India, through its National Mission on Education through Information and Communication Technology (NMEICT). Filtered and federated searching is employed to facilitate focused searching so that learners can find the right resource with least effort and in minimum time. NDLI provides user group-specific services such as Examination Preparatory for School and College students and job aspirants. Services for Researchers and general learners are also provided. NDLI is designed to hold content of any language and provides interface support for 10 most widely used Indian languages. It is built to provide support for all academic levels including researchers and life-long learners, all disciplines, all popular forms of access ...
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Solvays CERIUM OXIDE HSA 8 is used for Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP) for the manufacture of semi-conductors.CMP is a process to planarize the relief on the surface of silicon oxide, polysilicon an metal layers. It is used to planarize these layers in order to prepare them for the lithographic steps .
TABLE-US-00002 TABLE 2 Example No. 1 2 3 4 5 Glass material G1 G1 G2 G2 G2 Plate thickness 1 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85 before lapping (mm) Lapping First Diamond Diamond Diamond Diamond Diamond process stage pellets #1000 pad 4 μm pad 9 μm pad 9 μm pad 9 μm Processing pressure (kPa) 4 6 4 4 4 Revolution speed (rpm) 25 30 30 30 30 Processing rate (μm/min) 14 10 25 25 25 Ra after processing (μm) 0.5 0.08 0.18 0.18 0.18 Plate thickness 0.785 0.785 0.785 0.785 0.785 after lapping (mm) Second Diamond Diamond Diamond Diamond Diamond stage pad 4 μm pad 2 μm pad 4 μm pad 4 μm pad 4 μm Processing pressure (kPa) 4 5 4 4 4 Revolution speed (rpm) 30 30 30 30 30 Processing rate (μm/min) 6 5 7 7 7 Ra after processing (μm) 0.04 0.012 0.05 0.05 0.05 Plate thickness 0.675 0.675 0.675 0.675 0.675 after lapping (mm) Polishing First Hard urethane Hard urethane Hard urethane Hard urethane Hard urethane process stage foam foam foam foam foam Polishing agent; Cerium oxide Cerium oxide Cerium oxide Cerium oxide ...
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Based on these very promising results, our supplemental investigation proposes to conduct studies that will enable the filing of an Investigational New Drug application, to further move CeONP down the drug development pipeline. Prior to a drug being tested for human use, safety, toxicity, and pharmacokinetic studies need to be performed to assure the drug will be relatively safe. We will conduct these studies in our supplemental investigation. Immediate safety and toxicity will be assessed at two doses. Additionally, we will determine how CeONP are distributed in the body and determine what organs they accumulate in. We will examine tissues for histopathology and adverse effects. Further, since nanoparticles may persist in the system after initial delivery, we will also examine histopathology and biodistribution at six months after administration ...
Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) are promising materials for intracellular oxygen free radical scavenging providing a potential therapy for reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated inflammatory processes. In this study rhombohedral-shaped nanoceria were synthesized by flame spray pyrolysis with tuneable particle diameters between 3 and 94 nm by changing the liquid precursor flow rate. Monocytes and macrophages are major players in inflammatory processes as their production of ROS species has important downstream effects on cell signalling. Therefore, this study examined the ability of the nanoceria to be internalised by the human monocytic cell line, U937, and scavenge intracellular ROS. U937 cells activated in the presence of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) were found to be more responsive to the nanoceria than U937 cells, which may not be surprising given the role of monocyte/macrophages in phagocytosing foreign material. The smaller particles were found to contain more crystal ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Kinetics of the methylene blue oxidation by cerium(iv) in sulphuric acid solutions. AU - Katafias, A.. AU - Kita, P.. AU - Wrzeszcz, G.. AU - Mills, A.. PY - 2007/2. Y1 - 2007/2. N2 - The oxidation of methylene blue (MB+) by cerium(IV) was studied in 0.1-5 M H2SO4. The reaction proceeds via MB radical (MB2+•) formed by one electron transfer to the oxidant. The radical is observed spectrophotometrically by a very intense absorbance at λmax = 526 nm and by the e.p.r signal at g = 2.000. The kinetics of the fast radical formation are two orders of magnitude slower than its decomposition, which were examined using a stopped-flow method at 298 K under pseudo-first order conditions. The rate laws for the both steps were determined and a likely mechanism reported.. AB - The oxidation of methylene blue (MB+) by cerium(IV) was studied in 0.1-5 M H2SO4. The reaction proceeds via MB radical (MB2+•) formed by one electron transfer to the oxidant. The radical is observed ...
Co3O4 promoted CeO2 nanocubes have been found to exhibit outstanding catalytic activity for the oxidation of diesel soot at low temperatures (50% soot conversion = 606 K). This remarkable performance is attributed to the superior reducible nature of cerium oxide and the preferential exposure of CeO2 (100) an RACI100: Celebrating Australian Chemistry
Purpose: We have previously shown that cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) catalytically scavenge Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and can long-term inhibit retinal degeneration in tubby mice and inhibit/regress neovascularization in vldlr-/- mice. However, the toxicity of nanoceria retention in the retina was unknown. The current study is proposed to address this point.. Methods: Wild type (C57BL/6J) mice at P30 were intravitreally injected with increasing doses of nanoceria (0.1mM, 0.3mM, 1mM, 3mM and 10mM) in 1µl saline. Saline injection and uninjected mice served as controls. Retinal structure, ONL (outer nuclear layer) thickness and cellular infiltration were analyzed using H & E stained slides at post injection (PI) 7h, 3d, 7d, 15d and 30d. Retinal function was evaluated with electroretinography at PI 30d. The fundus abnormality and angiogenesis were assessed with fundoscopy and fluorescence angiography. The expression of inflammatory cytokines and markers of activation of ...
Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs) are of significant interest to the scientific community due to their widespread applications in a variety of fields. It i
This mineral comes from the nickel rich bauxite deposits at Nisi, Greece. The series is then complete with bastnasite (having near 100% fluorines) and hydroxylcarbonate (with near 100% hydroxides) as the two end members and hydroxylbastnasite as the intermediate member. The structure of the three minerals is made up of stacks of carbonate ion layers and Ce(OH, F) layers. The Ce(OH, F) layers form flat hexagonal sheets with each cerium bonded to three fluorines and visa-versa. The carbonate layers are more complex with angled carbonate triangular groups. The structure is closely studied because it is one of the few rare earth mineral structures that can accommodate variously sized cations. Hydroxylbastnasite (also spelled hydroxyl-bastnasite) has cerium, lanthanum and neodymium in its generalized formula but officially the mineral is divided into three minerals based on the predominant rare earth element found in specimens. There is Hydroxylbastnasite-(Ce) with a more accurate formula of (Ce, ...
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Facts about Cerium talk about the chemical element in the periodic table which has the atomic number 58. The symbol of the element is Ce. Cerium is very easy to
Increased viability of fibroblasts when pretreated with ceria nanoparticles during serum deprivation Francielli S Genier,1 Maximilian Bizanek,1 Thomas J Webster,1,2 Amit K Roy1,2 1Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA; 2Wenzhou Institute of Biomaterials and Engineering (WIBE), Wenzhou University, Wenzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Conditions of cellular stress are often the cause of cell death or dysfunction. Sustained cell stress can lead to several health complications, such as extensive inflammatory responses, tumor growth, and necrosis. To prevent disease and protect human tissue during these conditions and to avoid medication side effects, nanomaterials with unique characteristics have been applied to biological systems. This paper introduces the pretreatment in human dermal fibroblasts with cerium oxide nanoparticles during nutritional stress. For this purpose, human dermal fibroblast cells received cell culture media with concentrations of
Surface area reduction of a cerium dioxide powder is studied at 900 K in a HCI, H|sub|2|/sub|O, and O|sub|2|/sub| atmosphere. The rate of surface area decrease is determined as a function of the surface chloride content and of the partial pressure of hydrogen chloride. It is shown that particle growth occurs due to the surface diffusion of cerium and hydroxyl ions, which results from hydrogen chloride adsorption. Adsorbed chloride ions react to give gaseous chlorine. The rate-determining step of the process of initial coarsening is hydrogen chloride fixation at the surface of cerium dioxide particles
Organocerium compounds are chemical compounds that contain one or more chemical bond between carbon and cerium. Organocerium chemistry is the corresponding science exploring properties, structure and reactivity of these compounds. In general, organocerium compounds are not isolable, and are rather studied in solution via their reactions with other species. There are notable exceptions, such as the Cp*3Ce(III) complex shown at right, but they are relatively rare. Complexes involving cerium of various oxidation states are known: though lanthanides are most stable in the +3 state, complexes of cerium(IV) have been reported. These latter compounds have found less widespread use due to their oxidizing nature, and the majority of literature regarding organometallic cerium complexes involves the +3 oxidation state. In particular, organocerium compounds have been developed extensively as non-basic carbon nucleophiles in organic synthesis. Because cerium is relatively non-toxic, they serve as an ...
We have studied (001) surface terminated cerium oxide nanoparticles grown on a ruthenium substrate using physical vapor deposition. Their morphology, shape, crystal structure, and chemical state are determined by low-energy electron microscopy and micro-diffraction, scanning probe microscopy, and synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Square islands are identified as CeO 2 nanocrystals exhibiting a (001) oriented top facet of varying size; they have a height of about 7 to 10 nm and a side length between about 50 and 500 nm, and are terminated with a p(2 × 2) surface reconstruction. Micro-illumination electron diffraction reveals the existence of a coincidence lattice at the interface to the ruthenium substrate. The orientation of the side facets of the rod-like particles is identified as (111); the square particles are most likely of cuboidal shape, exhibiting (100) oriented side facets. Lastly, the square and needle-like islands are predominantly found at step bunches and may be ...
X-ray emission spectroscopy and x-ray absorption spectroscopy have been used to investigate the photon emission and absorption associated with the Ce 3d5/2 and Ce 3d3/2 core levels in Ce oxide. A comparison of the two processes and their spectra will be made.
In this study, a new cerium phosphate (CePO4)-doped sulfonated polyether ether ketone (SPEEK) composite membranes were synthesized by using solution casting method with different CePO4 loading. Their performance and durability were investigated for proton exchange membranes fuel cells. Different techniques, namely Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic mechanical tests (DMA), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analyses were used to characterize the synthesized membranes. Water uptake (WU) and swelling properties as well as ion exchange capacities (IEC) of synthesized membranes were also determined. Fuel cell performance, durability, and Fenton tests for oxidative stability of the synthesized membranes were also investigated. Experimental results showed that addition of CePO4 up to 10% by weight improved the membrane properties. 10 wt% CePO4-doped membrane possessed a good proton conductivity of ...
A phosphor comprising an effective amount of cerium to provide luminescence, and the balance substantially an oxide compound of hafnium and an alkaline earth from the group consisting of barium, strontium, calcium, and mixtures thereof, having substantially a perovskite crystal form.
KeithBinns/iStockBy IBTISSEM GUENFOUD and GUY DAVIES, ABC News. (PARIS and LONDON) - An explosion at a warehouse stocked with 2,750 tons of ammonium nitrate in the Beirut port changed the face of a city almost instantly.. The exact cause of the Beirut blast is still under investigation, but the catastrophic effects of ammonium nitrate were there for all to see: A massive explosion causing shock waves throughout the city and a mushroom cloud of smoke billowing high into the sky.. So far, at least 137 are confirmed dead, including one American, and over 5.000 were injured in the blast, according to the Lebanese authorities.. But, according to experts, ammonium nitrate is not itself classified as dangerous, and requires a lot of energy to ignite.. [Ammonium nitrate] is a great fertilizer for growing plants, but its also wonderful as an explosive, Jimmy Oxley, a chemistry professor at the University of Rhode Island, told ABC News. 200 factories make ammonium nitrate around the world… They are ...
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Indium Zinc Oxide (IZO), is by far the best UV blocking material in existence, superior to other UV blocks including titanium dioxide, cerium oxide, and zinc oxide.
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The substitution of a methyl to an octyl group in the ancillary triazolylidene ligand-an apparently simple variation-induces a more than 10-fold increase of activity of the corresponding iridium complex in water oxidation catalysis when using cerium(IV) as sacrificial oxidant. Detailed NMR studies suggest that various different molecular species form, all bearing the intact triazolylidene ligand. The octyl substituent is essential for inducing the association of the iridium species, thus generating extraordinarily active multimetallic catalytic sites. Their accessibility and steady-state concentration is critically dependent on the type of sacrificial oxidant and specifically on the cerium ammonium nitrate versus catayst ratio.. ...
Materials with inherent oxygen excess are of great interest for high-temperature electrochemical applications, such as solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and oxygen permeation membranes due to their rapid ion conductivity. Cerium niobate has received a lot of attention recently due to its rapid oxide ion conductivity in the intermediate temperature range (500-650 °C). Cerium niobate has several interesting characteristics, such as the range of excess oxygen structures that stabilise in the monoclinic crystal system and the phase transition from monoclinic to tetragonal crystal structures associated with a change in ionic conductivity. During this work the first single crystal study of CeNbO4 has been performed and as a result of the higher quality of data available with single crystal diffraction a correction to the space group reported in literature has been suggested. Furthermore, single crystals have been thermally treated in order to synthesis the excess oxygen modulated structures. CeNbO4.25 ...
YTTRIUM [symbol, Y; atomic weight, 89.0 (O = 16)], a metallic chemical clement. In its character yttrium is closely allied to, and in nature is always associated with, cerium, lanthanum, didymium and erbium (see Rare Earths). For the preparation of yttrium compounds the best raw material is gadolinite, which, according to König, consists of 22.61% of silica, 34.64 of yttria, Y2O3, and 42.75 of the oxides of erbium, cerium, didymium, lanthanum, iron, beryllium, calcium, magnesium and sodium. The extraction (as is the case with all the rare earths) is a matter of great difficulty. Metallic yttrium is obtainable as a dark grey powder by reducing the chloride with potassium, or by electrolysing the double chloride of yttrium and sodium. It decomposes water slowly in the cold, and more rapidly on heating. Yttria, Y2O3, is a yellowish white powder, which at high temperatures radiates out a most brilliant while light. It is soluble, slowly but completely, in mineral acids. It is recognized by its very ...
The International Journal of Analytical Chemistry is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles reporting new experimental results and methods, especially in relation to important analytes, difficult matrices, and topical samples. Focussed review articles are also welcomed.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reactions of ceria supported rhodium with hydrogen and nitric oxide studied with TPR/TPO and XPS techniques. AU - Padeste, Celestino. AU - Cant, Noel W.. AU - Trimm, David L.. PY - 1994/6. Y1 - 1994/6. N2 - The reactions of ceria supported rhodium with H2 and NO have been investigated by temperature programmed reduction (TPR), temperature programmed oxidation (TPO) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In precious metal/ceria systems, both the support and the precious metal may be subject to reduction and reoxidation processes. Since partly reduced ceria is an ion-conducting material, the electrical charging of the whole sample during the XPS measurements depends on the oxidation state of the supporting ceria. Thus, the charging can be used as a sensitive indicator of the oxidation state of the support material which allows distinction between reactions of the support and of the precious metal. Rhodium oxide precursors are reduced to Rh0 at temperatures below 200°C, but a ...
worldnow id=8848977 width=420 height=278 type=video]. WEST (CBS 11 NEWS) - Investigators have now ruled what many have suspected: the ammonium nitrate stored at the West Fertilizer Companys plant exploded.. But the 29 state and federal agencies involved in the probe still dont know what triggered the blast, and the fire that began at the facility before that.. On Monday, the state announced the fire began in the fertilizer and seed building, but that investigators ruled out that the blaze began in the bin holding the ammonium nitrate.. ...
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Abstract Electrospun nanofibers with designed or controlled structures have drawn much attention. In this study, we report an interesting new closed-loop structure in individual cerium nitrate/polyvinyl alcohol (Ce(NO3)3/PVA) and NaCl/PVA fibers, which are fabricated by electrospinning with a nail collector. The electrospinning parameters such as voltage and Ce(NO3)3 (or NaCl) concentration are examined for the formation of the closed-loop structure. The results suggest that the increase of the spinning voltage or addition of Ce(NO3)3 (or NaCl) is favorable for the formation of the closed-loop structure, and the increase of loop numbers and the decrease of loop size. Further analyses indicate that the formation mechanism of the closed-loop fibers can be predominantly attributed to the Coulomb repulsion in the charged jets ...
AMS 4439F results from a Five Year Review and update of this specification. The title has been changed to from 1.2 Ce to 1.2 Rare Earths. The chemistry table has been changed from Cerium [total rare earths] to Total Rare Earths.. ...
Abstract In this work, we present our attempts on the the processing of nano ceramic electrolyte and electrodes (anode and cathode) materials for low temperature grade solid oxide fuel cells (LT-SOFC). The studies on the processing parameters and heat treament were discussed. The phase identification, morphology and electrical properties were also studied. Part I: Combustion synthesis of nanocrystalline ceria and nano grained dense ceria electrolyte by convencional solid-state route and its sintering characteristics studies were attempted. Accordingly, Gd3+ doped nanocrystalline ceria (GDC - Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95) was prepared by nitrate-fuel combustión technique followed by calcination at 700°C for 2h. The nanopowders were uni-axially pressed into cylindrical discs followed by sintering at 1200°C for 2h. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron micrsoscopy analyses resulted in the gadolinium oxide was completely disolved into ceria solid solution with single phase fluorite structure and
Another electron arrangement unique to the lanthanides series is that the 5s and 5p orbitals penetrate into the 4f-subshell. This has the effect that 4f-subshell electrons are not shielded from the increasing positive nuclear charge and that means that the attractive force makes the radii of their orbitals contract so they nudge closer to the nucleus. This means that the radii (physical size) of the lanthanide atoms actually decreases as atomic number increases. For example, the atomic radius of cerium (second lightest lanthanide, Z=58) is 2.70 angstroms across and the atomic radius of lutetium (heaviest lanthanide, Z=71) is just 2.25 angstroms. As proton number increases and radius decreases, the ionization energy (the energy you need to pull an electron into a higher energy shell or the energy released as it returns to ground state) increases, as you might expect. Increasing ionization energy means that outermost electrons are held more and more tightly to the atom. Density, hardness and ...
Sulfite is a well-known reductant. Oxidation of aqueous sulfur dioxide by acidified permanganate, cerium(IV) or hydrogen peroxide is feebly chemiluminescent;[1] exploitation of the weak chemiluminescence improved the detectivity of atmospheric sulfur dioxide by a factor of 50. A proposed mechanism comprised an initial oxidation of HSO3― to S2O62― , which then disproportionates to SO42― and excited SO2, which emits visible light. Sulfites undergo an addition reaction with carbonyl compounds and addition of cyclohexanone to protect sulfite solutions against atmospheric oxidation led to the observation that this, at appropriate concentrations, enhanced the oxidative chemiluminescence. Light emission is also sensitized by other cyclohexyl compounds. Paulls and Townshend have suggested that the enhancement depends on β-sultine formation and have shown that the phenomenon occurs generally with higher cycloalkyl compounds, the optimum ring size being nine.. Fused cycloalkane rings also enhance ...
An alcohol steam reforming catalyst for generating hydrogen contains palladium, yttrium, and at least one of cerium and a metal oxide. The catalyst displays both an improved alcohol conversion rate and improved carbon dioxide selectivity. Methods of making and using the alcohol steam reforming catalyst are described.
to name a couple. Mixite is probably the best known of these, but is still a rare mineral by most considerations. It forms in the oxidation zone of metal ores that probably contained primary bismuth sulfides such as emplectite. As a mineral collection specimen, mixite is truly a wonderful addition. It forms nice radial clusters called spherules, made up of fine acicular crystals. The color is typically a brilliant green of one shade or another coupled with an attractive silky luster. Mixite lends its name to a small group of rather obscure minerals called the Mixite Group. The Mixite Group is a group of hexagonal, hydrated copper arsenate and phosphate hydroxides with a general formula of ACu6(XO4)3(OH)6 - 3H2O The A in the formula can be either bismuth, aluminum, calcium, cerium, lanthanum, yttrium, neodymium or thorium. The X can be either arsenic or phosphorous. These are the members of the Mixite Group: ...
Frit is a mixture of inorganic chemical substances produced by rapidly quenching a molten, complex combination of materials, confining the chemical substances thus manufactured as nonmigratory components of glassy solid flakes or granules. This category includes all of the chemical substances specified below when they are intentionally manufactured in the production of frit. The primary members of this category are oxides of some or all of the elements listed below. Fluorides of these elements may also be included in combination with these primary [email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected] ...
Frit is a mixture of inorganic chemical substances produced by rapidly quenching a molten, complex combination of materials, confining the chemical substances thus manufactured as nonmigratory components of glassy solid flakes or granules. This category includes all of the chemical substances specified below when they are intentionally manufactured in the production of frit. The primary members of this category are oxides of some or all of the elements listed below. Fluorides of these elements may also be included in combination with these primary [email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected] ...
A nickel-base superalloy article substrate has more nickel than any other element and a nominal bulk composition of carbon. A protective layer is deposited overlying the surface of the article substrate. The protective layer includes aluminum and one or more of the reactive elements hafnium, zirconium, yttrium, lanthanum, and cerium. The depositing of the protective layer includes steps of decarburizing locations where the carbon may serve as a barrier to the mobility of the reactive elements within the protective layer, and depositing an aluminum-containing protective layer overlying the substrate. The decreasing of the carbon concentration may be accomplished. by decarburizing the substrate, depositing a platinum-containing layer and then decarburizing, depositing an aluminum-containing layer in a reducing atmosphere, and/or decarburizing the deposited protective layer. A ceramic thermal barrier coating may be deposited overlying the protective layer.
Commonly used oxidants in redox polymerization include peroxides, cerium(IV) salts, sodium hypochloride, persulfates, peroxydiphophate, and permanganate. Reducing agents are, for example, the salts of metals like Fe, Cr, Ce, Tf Co, Cu, oxoacids of sulfur, hydroxyacids, [Pg.54] ...
Catalyst shaped bodies containing as active composition a multielement oxide i of the general stoichiometry i bi1wbox a mo12z1 cz2 dfeez3 fz4 gz5 hoy 1 i, where z1 ni or co, z2 alkali metal or alkaline earth metal, z3 zinc, phosphorus, arsenic , boron, antimony, tin, cerium, vanadium, chromium or bismuth, z4 silicon, aluminum, titanium, tungsten or zirconium, z5 copper, silver.
Solid inorganic polymers are derivatives of phosphorous or phosphonic acids which contain cyclic organo groups selected from the group consisting of alicyclics, aromatics and heterocyclics. They are characterized by the structural linkage of three oxygens bonded to phosphorus to one or more tetravalent metals selected from the group consisting of titanium, zirconium, cerium, hafnium, lead, thorium and uranium. The molar ratio of phosphorus to tetravalent metal is about 2 to 1. One use for the polymers is as stationary phases or supports in chromatography.
In vitro experimentation Construction of replication-defective adenoviral vectors. The OPGΔ cDNA was transferred from the mOPGΔ pCEP4 construct into the shuttle vector pTrackCMV using the pAdEasy-1 system ( 27). Recombinant adenoviral plasmids recovered by homologous recombination in Escherichia coli were transfected into 911 cells. Appropriate recombinant plaques containing mOPG were isolated, propagated and titrated. Adenovirus containing GFP was used as a control (Ad-EGFP).. In vivo experimentations Rat osteosarcoma model. The osteosarcoma was initially induced by a local injection of colloidal radioactive 144cerium in rats ( 28). The evolution of the tumor is comparable at the temporal (ratio 1:100 between rats and humans) and physiologic levels to the development of human osteosarcoma. The tumor can be regrafted as described above and maintained in vivo for many months, or fragments can be frozen until reuse. Lung metastases are observed in 75% to 90% of rats bearing advanced malignant ...
Thin carbonaceous laminations preserved in shallow-water facies of the 3416 Ma Buck Reef Chert, South Africa, have been interpreted to represent some of the oldest-known mats constructed by photosynthetic microbes. Preservation of these mats within a unit containing facies deposited at water depths ranging from 0 m to ,200 m provides an opportunity to explore the electron donors employed in early microbial photosynthesis. The presence of siderite (FeCO3) as a primary sediment, lack of hematite (Fe2O3), and lack of cerium anomalies throughout the Buck Reef Chert imply that the entire water column was anoxic despite the presence of photosynthetic organisms. Authigenic uranium (Ua = U-Th/3) correlates inversely with siderite abundance, suggesting that variations in carbonate rather than oxygen activity controlled uranium mobility. The inferred lack of oxygen and ferric minerals and the presence of dissolved Fe2+ in the water column imply that H2O, Fe2+, and H2S could not have served as primary ...
The BZ reaction is an example of a chemical oscillator, a system which instead of arriving at a steady state transitions between two different chemical states (which two states have two different colors, whence the waves above). Boris Belousov discovered it in the 1950s when he happened to mix together potassium bromate, cerium(IV) sulfate, propanedioic acid and citric acid in dilute sulfuric acid (hell, why not?); he made two attempts to publish his findings, but was rejected from peer-reviewed journals because he couldnt explain why the oscillations occurred ...
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CAS 7757-79-1 6484-52-2 PETERS PROFESSIONAL SOLUBLE FERTILIZER potassium nitrateammonium nitrate (solution) (sara iii) msds toxicity property
In 2019, Export of Double Salts and Mixtures of Calcium Nitrate and Ammonium Nitrate from Egypt was 924549 US Dollars. Discover more data with NationMaster!
One typically determines the heat capacity of the aqueous solution (Csoln) from the mass of the solution (msoln) and the specific heat capacity of the solution (ssoln). The mass of the solution is the sum of the masses of the water and ammonium nitrate originally placed in the calorimeter. The specific heat capacity of the aqueous solution is usually close to that of pure water (4.184 J oC-1 g-1).. The objective of this experiment is to determine the heat of reaction (in this case a heat of solution). The above equations can be combined and rearranged to yield a working equation:. qrxn = - qcal - qsoln = - ( Ccal + msoln ssoln ) ( Tf - Ti ) Just as the heat capacity of a substance is an extensive property, so the heat of solution is an extensive property. It is generally more convenient to report intensive properties, thus the heat capacity of a substance is usually reported as a specific heat capacity, that is, the heat capacity per gram of substance. Similarly one can report a specific heat of ...
The 2013 World Market Forecasts for Imported Fertilizers, Double Salts, and Mixtures of Ammonium Sulfate and Ammonium Nitrate This report was created for strategic planners, - Market research report and industry analysis - 7467803
Ammonium nitrate was about one-tenth the price of tetrazole, according to Upham, who also reviewed industry patents. But ammonium nitrate had a critical flaw that he says led other air bag makers to give up on it: Ammonium nitrate has five phases of varying density that make it hard to keep stable over time. A propellant made with ammonium nitrate would swell and shrink with temperature changes, and eventually the tablet would break down into powder. Water and humidity would speed the process. Powder burns more quickly than a tablet, so an air bag whose propellant had crumbled would be likely to deploy too aggressively. The controlled explosion would be just an explosion. Everybody went down a certain road, and only Takata went down another road, says Jochen Siebert, whos followed the air bag industry since the 1990s and is now managing director of JSC Automotive Consulting. If you read the conference papers from back then, you can actually see that people said, No, you shouldnt. Its ...
Source: Al-Mayadeen, Lebanese TV channel pro-Hezbollah, August 5th, 2020 Translation: resistancenews.org Video: https://www.dailymotion.com/video/x7vf2l2 Transcript: Greetings. Anyone who sees these photos will find it hard to believe that they show the Beirut port just 24 hours ago, full of life, before being (completely) destroyed by (the explosion) of (hundreds of) tons of ammonium nitrate, stored in…
As seems to be the case, if the Beirut explosion was caused by thousands of tonnes of ammonium nitrate stored in a warehouse, the explosion reveals th...
Water should not be used to stop cerium fires, as cerium reacts with water to produce hydrogen gas. Workers exposed to cerium ... Cooling below approximately −160 °C will start formation of α-cerium but this is only from remaining γ-cerium. β-cerium does ... Greenwood and Earnshaw, p. 1228 Klaus Reinhardt and Herwig Winkler in "Cerium Mischmetal, Cerium Alloys, and Cerium Compounds" ... An example of a cerium compound used on its own as an inorganic pigment is the vivid red cerium(III) sulfide (cerium sulfide ...
Basic cerium(IV) nitrate has the formula Ce(NO3)3.OH.3H2O. It also forms upon evaporation of solutions of cerium(IV) in nitric ... Cerium nitrate refers to a family of nitrates of cerium in the three or four oxidation state. Often these compounds contain ... Double nitrates of cerium also exist. Anhydrous cerous nitrate, also called cerium(III) nitrate, is the anhydrous salt with the ... 2H2O is a hexanuclear cerium oxido and hydroxido complex. It can be dehydrated to form [Ce6O(OH)8(NO3)8]. Cerium magnesium ...
Strontium-90 releases only beta particles, while iodine-131 and cerium-144 release both beta particles and gamma rays, but ... and cerium-144 emit beta particles that are not distributed evenly in the body. ... Other articles where Cerium-144 is discussed: poison: Local toxicities of common beta-particle emitters: …the isotopes ... the isotopes strontium-90, iodine-131, and cerium-144 emit beta particles that are not distributed evenly in the body. ...
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Periodic Table of the Elements: Cerium. Periodic Table of the Elements: Cerium. Atomic Number:. 58. ...
A complexing ligand, acetate, was used to stabilize the cerium (III) ion in solution for deposition of the thin films. Fourier ... Cerium oxide films of preferred orientation are electrodeposited under anodic conditions. ... Solutions of cerium (. ) nitrate-acetate with a molar ratio of cerium (. ) to acetate in the range of 1 : 1 to 1 : 9 were run ... FTIR spectra for cerium (. )-acetate complex in the range of 1000-1650 cm−1 and molar ratio of cerium and acetate (a) 1 : 1; (b ...
Cerium Cerium was discovered in 1803 by Jöns J. Berzelius and Wilhelm von Hisinger in Sweden, and independently in the same ... Cerium oxide is used as an ingredient in catalytic converters to reduce carbon monoxide emissions in the exhaust fumes from ... An alloy of cerium and lanthanum, with small amounts of neodymium and praseodymium (misch metal) combined with iron oxide and ... Cerium oxide, as a nanopowder, is added to diesel fuel to reduce sooty fumes and improve engine performance. ...
Solvays CERIUM OXIDE HSA 8 is used for Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP) for the manufacture of semi-conductors.CMP is a ... Solvays CERIUM OXIDE HSA 8 is used for Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP) for the manufacture of semi-conductors.. CMP is ...
The cerium nitrate component reduces immunosuppression.. Recycling. Rare earths are very challenging to recycle due partly to ... Cerium was discovered in 1803 by Jöns J. Berzelius and Wilhelm von Hisinger in Sweden, and independently in the same year by ... Cerium oxide is used as an ingredient in catalytic converters to reduce carbon monoxide emissions in the exhaust fumes from ... An alloy of cerium and lanthanum, with small amounts of neodymium and praseodymium (misch metal) combined with iron oxide and ...
Elevate your adventures with the exceptionally lightweight warmth of the Arcteryx Cerium LT down hoodie. It works as a stand- ...
Cerium(IV) oxide, also known as ceric oxide, ceric dioxide, ceria, cerium oxide or cerium dioxide, is an oxide of the rare- ... a b c d Klaus Reinhardt and Herwig Winkler in "Cerium Mischmetal, Cerium Alloys, and Cerium Compounds" in Ullmanns ... Cerium also forms cerium(III) oxide, Ce. 2O. 3, which is unstable and will oxidize to cerium(IV) oxide.[3] ... Cerium(IV) oxide is formed by the calcination of cerium oxalate or cerium hydroxide. ...
Cerium Rod Ce bulk & research qty manufacturer. Properties, SDS, Applications, Price. Free samples program. Term contracts & ... Cerium. 58 Ce 140.116000000 Cerium See more Cerium products. Cerium (atomic symbol: Ce, atomic number: 58) is a Block F, Group ... The cerium atom has a radius of 182.5 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 235 pm. In its elemental form, cerium has a silvery ... About Cerium Rod. American Elements specializes in producing high purity uniform shaped Cerium Rod with the highest possible ...
Cerium Phosphide CeP bulk & research qty manufacturer. Properties, SDS, Applications, Price. Free samples program. Term ... 58 Ce 140.116000000 Cerium See more Cerium products. Cerium (atomic symbol: Ce, atomic number: 58) is a Block F, Group 3, ... The cerium atom has a radius of 182.5 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 235 pm. In its elemental form, cerium has a silvery ... About Cerium Phosphide. Cerium Phosphide is a semiconductor used in high power, high frequency applications and in laser diodes ...
Cerium-manganese mixed oxides with compositions of Ce0.5Mn0.5O1.75 and Ce0.8Mn0.2O1.9 were prepared by the citric-acid (Pechini ... Cerium-manganese mixed oxides with compositions of Ce0.5Mn0.5O1.75 and Ce0.8Mn0.2O1.9 were prepared by the citric-acid (Pechini ... Manganese-Cerium mixed oxides Coulometric titration Oxidation-reduction properties Methane oxidation Butane oxidation ...
A phosphor comprising an effective amount of cerium to provide luminescence, and the balance substantially an oxide compound of ... For example, compounds of cerium and hafnium or cerium and the alkaline earth may be present up to about 5 volume percent. ... It is an object of this invention to provide a phosphor comprised of cerium in an oxide compound of hafnium and an alkaline ... about 0.01 to 10 mole percent cerium, and the balance substantially an oxide having the formula AHfO3, where A is an alkaline ...
We have measured the thermal boundary resistance between powdered cerium magnesium nitrate (CMN), (average particle diameter ~ ... Reinstein L.E., Zimmerman G.O. (1975) Thermal Boundary Resistance Between Solid 3He and Cerium Magnesium Nitrate. In: Trickey S ... Average Particle Diameter Thermal Boundary Resistance High Temperature Approximation Adiabatic Demagnetization Powdered Cerium ... We have measured the thermal boundary resistance between powdered cerium magnesium nitrate (CMN), (average particle diameter ~ ...
... by 2024 - published on openPR.com ... The metallic cerium is manufactured using metallothermic process which in turns gives cerium of higher purity. Cerium is used ... The metallic cerium is manufactured using metallothermic process which in turns gives cerium of higher purity. Cerium is used ... EMEA Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle Market Growth 2019-2024. Global Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle Market Growth 2019-2024. China Cerium ...
The potential of the test material to act as a sensitiser was investigated in accordance with the standardised guidelines OECD 429 and EU Method B.42. The study assessed the skin sensitisation potential of the test material in female mice of the CBA/Ca strain following topical application to the dorsal surface of the ear. Three groups, each of four animals, were treated with 50 µL (25 µL per ear) of the test material as a suspension in propylene glycol at concentrations of 25, 10 and 5 % w/w. A further group of four animals was treated with propylene glycol alone. A concurrent positive control test, using a group of four animals, was performed with Phenylacetaldehyde, at a concentration of 2.5 % v/v in propylene glycol. The results for all three concentrations of the test material were negative, whilst the positive control material gave the expected result. Therefore, the test material was considered to be a non-sensitiser under the conditions of this study in accordance with EU criteria. ...
About this substance This section provides an overview of the volume in which the substance is manufactured or imported to the European Economic Area (EU28 + Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway). Additionally, if available, information on the use of the substance and how consumers and workers are likely to be exposed to it can also be displayed here.. The use information is displayed per substance life cycle stage (consumer, in articles, by professional workers (widespread uses), in formulation or re-packing, at industrial sites or in manufacturing). The information is aggregated from REACH registered dossiers provided by industry.. For a detailed overview on identified uses and environmental releases, please consult the registered substance dossier.. Use descriptors are adapted from ECHA guidance to improve readability and may not correspond textually to descriptor codes described in Chapter R.12: Use Descriptor system of ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety ...
Use of this information is subject to copyright laws and may require the permission of the owner of the information, as described in the ECHA Legal Notice.. ...
Cerium-Based, Intermetallic-Strengthened Aluminum Casting Alloy: High-Volume Co-product Development. ... Cerium-Based, Intermetallic-Strengthened Aluminum Casting Alloy: High-Volume Co-product Development ...
... we provide evidence that specific synthesis of cerium oxide nanoparticles can scavenge the hypochlorite anion, which is a ... Hypochlorite scavenging activity of cerium oxide nanoparticles G. Pulido-Reyes, S. Das, F. Leganés, S. O. Silva, S. Wu, W. Self ... In this report, we provide evidence that specific synthesis of cerium oxide nanoparticles can scavenge the hypochlorite anion, ...
Cerium oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal and hydrolysis methods. Cerous (4+ oxide nanoparticles was produced ... Keywords: CELLULAR UPTAKE; CERIUM OXIDE NANOPARTICLES; CYTOTOXICITY; HYDROTHERMAL; MTT ASSAY; PROSTATE CANCER CELL LINE; ... The selective toxicity of cerium oxide towards the normal and the cancer cell lines was evaluated. The nanoparticles were found ... Development of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles and Its Cytotoxicity in Prostate Cancer Cells ...
Global Rare Earth Metals (Lanthanum, Cerium, Neodymium, Praseodymium, Samarium, Europium, & Others) Market - Forecast to 2018 ...
The cerium target plasma flash x-ray generator is useful in order to perform high-speed enhanced K-edge angiography using cone ... Quasi-monochromatic cerium flash angiography Author(s): Eiichi Sato; Rudolf Germer; Etsuro Tanaka; Hidezo Mori; Toshiaki Kawai ... When the charging voltage was increased, the K-series characteristic x-ray intensities of cerium increased. The K lines were ... beams because K-series characteristic x rays from the cerium target are absorbed effectively by iodine-based contrast mediums. ...
... cerium oxide (ceria, CeO2) has attracted much attention in recent years. This chapter aimed at providing some basic and ... Cerium dioxide (CeO2/ceria) is considered the most stable oxide of the cerium. Cerium is the second member and the most ... The two electrons left behind were trapped at two cerium sites, i.e. they become localized at two cerium sites. At such cerium ... 4f1 for Ce3+.Cerium usually has two types of oxides named cerium dioxide (CeO2) and cerium sesquioxide (Ce2O3), but in a larger ...
  • In this report, we provide evidence that specific synthesis of cerium oxide nanoparticles can scavenge the hypochlorite anion, which is a strong extracellular oxidant involved in the inflammatory processes. (rsc.org)
  • Development of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles and Its Cytotoxicity in. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Cerium oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal and hydrolysis methods. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Detailed characterization of the nanoparticles proved that the synthesized cerium oxide nanoparticles were different in their stoichiometry. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The growth of cerium oxide nanoparticles market across the globe is fueled by the growing demand for cerium oxide nanoparticles from Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP) and biomedical applications. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Cerium oxide nanoparticles that are made of cerium, a rare earth metal belonging to the lanthanide series, is capable of existing in a dual oxidation state and hence is useful for various applications. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Dispersion is the largest form segment of the cerium oxide nanoparticles market and is projected to grow at the highest CAGR from 2017 to 2022. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Dispersion is the largest form segment and is expected to witness a high growth in the cerium oxide nanoparticles market during the forecast period. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Hence, this form is preferred over the powdered form of cerium oxide nanoparticles. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Among applications, biomedical is expected to be the fastest-growing segment in the cerium oxide nanoparticles market from 2017 to 2022. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Biomedical is expected to be the fastest-growing application segment during the forecast period, due to increased awareness about the potential applications for cerium oxide nanoparticles in this field. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Extensive study is being carried out to understand the potential use of cerium oxide nanoparticles in the biomedical application due to their various properties. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • North America is the largest market for cerium oxide nanoparticles across the globe. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • North America is the largest market for cerium oxide nanoparticles, in terms of value, and this trend is expected to continue till 2022. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Countries in this region such as US, Canada, and Mexico are witnessing a significant increase in the use of cerium oxide nanoparticles in the CMP application. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • The US is the fastest-growing market of cerium oxide nanoparticles in this region during the forecast period. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Cerion (US), Plasmachem (Germany), American Elements (US), Inframat Advanced Materials (US), NYACOL Nano Technologies (US), and Nanophase Technologies (US), are some of the leading players operating in the cerium oxide nanoparticles market. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Cerium dioxide nanoparticles (C e O 2 ENPs) are on the priority list of nanomaterials requiring evaluation. (mdpi.com)
  • The conclusions allow for new insights into the structure, stability, and dynamics of cerium oxide nanoparticles in strongly reducing environments. (rsc.org)
  • The major drivers for this market are increasing use of cerium oxide nanoparticles in various applications, rising focus of governments on nanotechnology research, and increasing government spending on pharmaceutical R&D in emerging nations. (lucintel.com)
  • Biomedical is expected to witness the highest growth over the forecast period due to increasing awareness of cerium oxide nanoparticles. (lucintel.com)
  • The Global Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles Market report 2018-2024, has been prepared By Axiom Market Research & Consulting, based on a deep market analysis with inputs from industry experts. (prsync.com)
  • Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2), generally known as nanoceria, is a rare earth metal oxide, which has multipurpose applications as automobile exhaust catalysts, oxide ion conductors, electrode materials for gas sensors, ultraviolet absorbents and glass-polishing materials. (prsync.com)
  • The global cerium oxide nanoparticles market has gained profitable growth owing to increasing use of cerium oxide nanoparticles in various applications and rising focus of government on nanotechnology research. (prsync.com)
  • The market is further boosted by technological advancements in cerium oxide nanoparticles production process. (prsync.com)
  • However, the global cerium oxide nanoparticles market is hindered by toxicity caused by nanoparticles. (prsync.com)
  • The report analyses the global cerium oxide nanoparticles market, based on form, application and geography. (prsync.com)
  • The cerium oxide nanoparticles find applications into biomedical, catalyst, energy storage, personal care & cosmetic products, polishing and others (coatings, fuel cell, gas sensors and fuel additive etc. (prsync.com)
  • In 2017, the biomedical application dominated the global market, owing to increasing use of cerium oxide nanoparticles in biomedical products, due to its unique catalytic, neuroprotective, radical scavenging properties. (prsync.com)
  • By geography, the global cerium oxide nanoparticles market is segmented into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific and Rest of the World. (prsync.com)
  • North America dominated the global cerium oxide nanoparticles market in 2017, due to high consumption of cerium oxide nanoparticles for industrial and commercial applications. (prsync.com)
  • The higher rate of the growth is fuelled by high demand for cerium oxide nanoparticles in automotive, glass, personal care and pharmaceutical industry applications in emerging countries such as China and India. (prsync.com)
  • Also, Europe and Rest of the World are also expected to fuel growth of global cerium oxide nanoparticles market at a steady pace soon. (prsync.com)
  • The demand for cerium oxide nanoparticles market is gauzed by market attractiveness tool and company market share. (prsync.com)
  • Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs), also known as nanoceria, switch between +3 and +4 oxidation states and reportedly scavenge superoxide anions, hydrogen peroxide, and peroxynitrite in vivo. (dovepress.com)
  • In our prior years of funding from The Michael J. Fox Foundation, we tested the hypothesis that cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeONP) were a disease-modifying therapy for PD. (michaeljfox.org)
  • Critical data for movement of cerium oxide nanoparticles from bench to bedside was obtained in this study. (michaeljfox.org)
  • We developed a method for analysis of trace levels of cerium oxide nanoparticles in tissues, determined their biodistribution in tissues immediately and six months after administration, and found little toxicity of the administered doses. (michaeljfox.org)
  • These studies demonstrate that cerium oxide nanoparticles are an excellent candidate for treatment and reversal of Parkinson s disease, and will enable this nanopharmaceutical to move forward down the drug development pipeline. (michaeljfox.org)
  • Cerium oxide nanoparticles are expected to grow at a rate of 16.2% for the forecast period of 2020 to 2027. (webnewswire.com)
  • The Cerium oxide nanoparticles are rare earth oxide metal, which is used in various applications such as, in energy storage products, automotive, polishing, personal care products due to its versatile properties and electronic configuration. (webnewswire.com)
  • Inhibition of bacterial growth due the cerium oxide nanoparticles was evaluated. (bham.ac.uk)
  • Today, cerium and its compounds have a variety of uses: for example, cerium(IV) oxide is used to polish glass and is an important part of catalytic converters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Often these compounds contain water, hydroxide, or hydronium ions in addition to cerium and nitrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2009. Toxicological Review of Cerium oxide and cerium compounds (CAS No. 1306-38-3). (ewg.org)
  • When present in compounds, cerium exists in both the trivalent state (Ce3+, cerous, usually orange-red) and the tetravalent state (Ce4+, ceric, usually colourless). (umicore.com)
  • EPA conducted a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of cerium oxide and cerium compounds that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. (epa.gov)
  • The draft Toxicological Review of cerium oxide and cerium compounds provides scientific support and rationale for the hazard and dose-response assessment pertaining to chronic exposure to cerium oxide and cerium compounds. (epa.gov)
  • EPA began reviewing the Tox Assessment of cerium oxide and cerium compounds. (epa.gov)
  • CRL Cerium Oxide Compounds are refined from the highest quality rare earth minerals available. (crlaurence.com)
  • CRL Cerium Oxide Compounds can be used with a hand pad for light surface cleanup, powered hand devices for scratch and surface repair, mechanized scrubbers in mirror silvering lines, or as the final polishing step in multi-stage edging and beveling equipment. (crlaurence.com)
  • CRL Cerium Oxide Compounds maintain and deliver a uniform particle size, on average 2.9 micron, and a high concentration of rare earth oxides to provide the brightest possible finish in all applications. (crlaurence.com)
  • Cerium Oxide compounds polish glass by a combination of mechanical and chemical action. (crlaurence.com)
  • On September 29, 2009, the IRIS Summary and Toxicological Review of Cerium Oxide and Cerium Compounds was finalized and loaded onto the IRIS database. (epa.gov)
  • The Toxicological Review of Cerium Oxide and Cerium Compounds was reviewed internally by EPA, by other federal agencies and White House Offices, by expert external peer reviewers, and by the public. (epa.gov)
  • Accordingly, interagency comments and the interagency draft of the Cerium Oxide and Cerium Compounds IRIS assessment are posted on this site. (epa.gov)
  • EPA began developing the Toxicological Review of cerium oxide and cerium compounds. (epa.gov)
  • EPA released the Final Toxicological Review (PDF) and accompanying Summary for Cerium Oxide and Cerium Compounds to the IRIS Web site. (epa.gov)
  • See also SULFIDES and CERIUM COMPOUNDS . (lookchem.com)
  • They called cerium oxide ceria . (umicore.com)
  • Cerium(IV) oxide , also known as ceric oxide , ceric dioxide , ceria , cerium oxide or cerium dioxide , is an oxide of the rare-earth metal cerium . (wikipedia.org)
  • Undoped and doped ceria also exhibit high electronic conductivity at low partial pressures of oxygen due to reduction of the cerium ion leading to the formation of small polarons . (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to excellent physical and chemical properties, cerium oxide (ceria, CeO2) has attracted much attention in recent years. (intechopen.com)
  • Cerium-manganese mixed oxides with compositions of Ce 0.5 Mn 0.5 O 1.75 and Ce 0.8 Mn 0.2 O 1.9 were prepared by the citric-acid (Pechini) method and their catalytic properties were compared to CeO 2 and Mn 2 O 3 . (springer.com)
  • EPA released the Final Toxicological Review (PDF) (118 pp, 703K) and accompanying Summary for Cerium Oxides to the IRIS Web site. (epa.gov)
  • The dynamic process of oxygen vacancy migration driven by the external electric field is directly observed at atomic scale in the cerium oxides (CeO{sub 2}) thin film by in-situ transmission electron microscopy method. (osti.gov)
  • The migration of oxygen vacancies results in the reversible structural transformation, i.e., releasing and storing oxygen processes in CeO{sub 2}, which is of great significance for the ionic and electronic applications of the cerium oxides materials, such as oxygen pump, gas sensor, resistive random access memory, etc. (osti.gov)
  • The powdered cerium dioxide can absorb small quantities of carbon dioxide from air. (alfa.com)
  • Ozkan's team says the cerium oxide and calcium solve that problem buy oxidizing the carbon into carbon dioxide. (ceramics.org)
  • An alloy of cerium and lanthanum, with small amounts of neodymium and praseodymium (misch metal) combined with iron oxide and magnesium oxide is used as the flint in gas lighters. (umicore.com)
  • The negative electrode (cathode) in NiMH batteries is a mixture of metal hydrides - typically a rare earth misch metal hydride containing praseodymium, neodymium, lanthanum and cerium. (umicore.com)
  • Hydroxylbastnasite (also spelled hydroxyl-bastnasite) has cerium, lanthanum and neodymium in its generalized formula but officially the mineral is divided into three minerals based on the predominant rare earth element found in specimens. (galleries.com)
  • Uses: As an ore of rare earth metals especially thorium, cerium and Lanthanum, radioactive dating uses and as mineral specimens. (galleries.com)
  • Monazite is a primary ore of several rare earth metals most notably thorium, cerium and lanthanum. (galleries.com)
  • Market Research Report Store offers a latest published report on Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle Market Analysis and Forecast 2019-2025 delivering key insights and providing a competitive advantage to clients through a detailed report. (openpr.com)
  • The worldwide market for Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle is expected to grow at a CAGR of roughly x% over the next five years, will reach x million US$ in 2024, from x million US$ in 2019, according to a new GIR (Global Info Research) study. (openpr.com)
  • This report focuses on the Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle in global market, especially in North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific, South America, Middle East and Africa. (openpr.com)
  • Cellular uptake was confirmed by the conjugation of cerium oxide nanoparticle with a fluorescent dye rhodamine- 123 followed by optical detection of the uptake. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • According to a new market report by Lucintel, the future of the cerium oxide nanoparticle market looks promising with opportunities in catalyst, biomedical, and energy applications. (lucintel.com)
  • The cerium oxide nanoparticle market is expected to grow with a CAGR of 19% from 2019 to 2024. (lucintel.com)
  • In this market, dispersion and powder form cerium oxide nanoparticle are used in various applications. (lucintel.com)
  • Dispersion is the largest segment of the cerium oxide nanoparticle. (lucintel.com)
  • Within the cerium oxide nanoparticle market, CMP, catalyst, biomedical and energy are the major applications. (lucintel.com)
  • Lucintel, a leading global strategic consulting and market research firm, has analyzed growth opportunities in the cerium oxide nanoparticle market by form, application, and region. (lucintel.com)
  • Lucintel has prepared a comprehensive research report entitled "Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle Market 2019-2024: Trends, Forecast, and Opportunity Analysis" . (lucintel.com)
  • For a detailed table of contents, contact Lucintel at +1-972-636-5056 or click on this link https://www.lucintel.com/cerium-oxide-nanoparticle-market.aspx or [email protected] . (lucintel.com)
  • Today, scientists report a treatment that could someday stop plaque and cavities from forming in the first place, using a new type of cerium nanoparticle formulation. (bordeglobal.com)
  • 99.9% cerium removal is achievable using potassium permanganate and Caro's acid in the absence of other REE. (queensu.ca)
  • Cerium Metal Report by Material, Application, and Geography Global Forecast to 2022 is a professional and in-depth research report on the worlds major regional market conditions, focusing on the main regions (North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific) and the main countries (United States, Germany, united Kingdom, Japan, South Korea and China). (aarkstore.com)
  • CERIUM(IV) SULFATE TETRAHYDRATE (CAS 10294-42-5) Market Research Report 2018 aims at providing comprehensive data on cerium(iv) sulfate tetrahydrate market globally and regionally (Europe, Asia, North America, Latin America etc. (marketpublishers.com)
  • Scope of the Report: This report focuses on the Cerium Tungsten Electrodestrong in Global market, especially in Europe, North America, China, Japan, Southeast Asia . (webnewswire.com)
  • They named the new element cerium after the asteroid Ceres, which had been discovered just two years earlier. (umicore.com)
  • Stable cerium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cerium, but differ in atomic weight. (curehunter.com)
  • Cerium oxide, as a nanopowder, is added to diesel fuel to reduce sooty fumes and improve engine performance . (umicore.com)
  • Most lanthanides can use only three electrons as valence electrons, as afterwards the remaining 4f electrons are too strongly bound: cerium is an exception because of the stability of the empty f-shell in Ce4+ and the fact that it comes very early in the lanthanide series, where the nuclear charge is still low enough until neodymium to allow the removal of the fourth valence electron by chemical means. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cerium makes up as much as half of mined rare earths, yet has less value than co-mined elements like neodymium and dysprosium that are in high demand for advanced energy technology applications. (eurekalert.org)
  • This alloy creates a use for the cerium that accompanies scarce and critical rare earths like neodymium and dysprosium," said CMI Director Alex King. (eurekalert.org)
  • To investigate adsorption of other REE to cerium, adsorption isotherms of neodymium and terbium were created using ceric hydroxide and fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. (queensu.ca)
  • Cathodic electrodeposition (i.e., base generation electrochemical methods) was first introduced for the plating of cerium oxide films [ 13 - 17 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • A defect chemistry model consistent with observed trends in the pO2 and temperature dependence of electrical conductivity in praseodymium cerium oxide (PCO) was developed. (mit.edu)
  • Cerium carbonate hydrate, cerous carbonate. (espimetals.com)
  • It is named in fact for its unusual chemistry reflecting the carbonate ( carbo ), cerium ( cer ) and sodium ( Na ) in its composition. (galleries.com)
  • The present invention relates to a process for the preparation of cerium oxide nano powder, a production method is by reacting an aqueous solution of cerium salt and carbonate reactants produce a cerium carbonate precipitate, washing the resultant cerium carbonate precipitates, the first milling, dry , plastic, a comprises the step of the second milling, and filtered. (google.com)
  • Hydronium cerium(III) nitrate hydrate, Ce(NO3)5(H3O)2.H2O It is monoclinic with space group P2/c. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tariff classification of Cerium Zirconium Solid Solution, Rhodium Nitrate, Palladium Nitrate ND, and Rare Earth Oxide from Japan. (faqs.org)
  • The applicable subheading for Cerium Zirconium Solid Solution (which is composed of cerium oxide and zirconium oxide) and Rare Earth Oxide (which is composed of cerium oxide, zirconium oxide, and aluminum oxide) will be 3815.19.0000 , Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTS), which provides for reaction initiators, reaction accelerators and catalytic preparations, not elsewhere specified or included: supported catalysts: other. (faqs.org)
  • Anhydrous cerous nitrate, also called cerium(III) nitrate, is the anhydrous salt with the formula Ce(NO3)3. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reduction enthalpy of cerium was significantly decreased with additions of Pr from approximately 4.7 eV (the value in pure CeO2) to 3.4 eV in 20% PCO. (mit.edu)
  • Cerium tetranitrate pentahydrate is prepared by evaporating a solution of ceric nitrate in concentrated nitric acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • A phosphor comprising an effective amount of cerium to provide luminescence, and the balance substantially an oxide compound of hafnium and an alkaline earth from the group consisting of barium, strontium, calcium, and mixtures thereof, having substantially a perovskite crystal form. (google.com)
  • For the quantitative analysis of the Ce-oxide film, XPS in combination with Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy is used to determine the integral amount of cerium and oxygen atoms and the chemical states in the Ce-oxide film. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Varying levels of cerium removal were achieved with lower selectivity using the other oxidants. (queensu.ca)
  • Cerium Oxide Rock Polishing Powder, 1 Lb. (mamasminerals.com)
  • Mama's Minerals brand optical grade Cerium Oxide Rock Polishing Powder (approximately 1.5 microns) is the standard medium for getting a high polish on quartz, agate, jasper, and other minerals in the 7-9 Mohs hardness range, as well as on glass and obsidian. (mamasminerals.com)
  • Cerium oxide is a very fine powder. (crlaurence.com)
  • Premium cerium oxide glass polishing powder is mixed with water to create a slurry for fine edge polishing and removing light scratches in glass. (deltakits.com)
  • Method of producing the cerium oxide nano-powder according to the invention can be easily produced by tens to hundreds of nano-sized uniform cerium oxide nano powder, it is possible to remove the cerium large oxide particles effectively, the individual, such as the cleaning, grinding It has the advantage that you can perform the steps in a continuous process. (google.com)
  • In this work, iron-cerium phosphates were prepared form iron nitrate, ammonium cerium nitrate, and phosphoric acid with sodium dodecyl sulfate. (hindawi.com)
  • A part of iron nitrate was substituted with ammonium cerium nitrate, (NH 4 ) 2 Ce(NO 3 ) 6 , in Fe/Ce = 8/2. (hindawi.com)
  • Ammonium cerium(IV) nitrate was used to initiate the graft polymerization of polyacrylic acid with magnetic cation exchange adsorbents, which was used in conjugation with micellar aqueous two-phase systems for protein separation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • CERIUM(IV) SULFATE TETRAHYDRATE (CAS 10294-42-5) Market Research Report 2018 contents were prepared and placed on the website in March, 2018. (marketpublishers.com)
  • Please note that CERIUM(IV) SULFATE TETRAHYDRATE (CAS 10294-42-5) Market Research Report 2018 is a half ready publication and contents are subject to change. (marketpublishers.com)
  • Cerium Tungsten Electrodestrong market is valued at USD XX million in 2018 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2023, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2018 and 2023.The market study serves a excellent guidance with the help of bar-graphs, pie charts, product figures, tables. (webnewswire.com)
  • Cerium Tungsten Electrodestrong Market 2018-2025 report exhibits the detail investigation of the parent market based on leading players, present, past and modern information which will fill in as a productive guide for all the Cerium Tungsten Electrodestrong business contenders.It offers complete, proficient report delivering market research data that is relevant for new market entrants or set up players. (webnewswire.com)
  • Overall, the report provides an in-depth insight of 2018-2025 Cerium Tungsten Electrodestrong Industry covering all important parameters. (webnewswire.com)
  • The metal tarnishes in moist air and reacts with water to form cerium hydroxide plus hydrogen gas. (umicore.com)
  • In its elemental form, cerium has a silvery white appearance. (americanelements.com)
  • Cerium nitrate hexahydrate, with the formula Ce(NO3)3.6H2O (CAS number 10294-41-4) is the most common nitrate of cerium(III). (wikipedia.org)
  • Basic cerium(IV) nitrate has the formula Ce(NO3)3.OH.3H2O. (wikipedia.org)
  • Streamlined in its design, and with an exceptional warmth-to-weight ratio, the Cerium LT hoody works as a mid layer or a standalone piece in cool, dry conditions. (arcteryx.com)
  • The Arc'teryx Cerium LT hoody works as a mid layer or a standalone piece in cool, dry conditions. (equipesport.com)
  • Minimalist down insulation for cool, dry conditions, the Cerium SL Hoody is exceptionally light and compressible. (equipesport.com)
  • Streamlined and lightweight, the Cerium LT down hoody is filled with 850 fill grey goose down and is intended to act primarily as a mid layer in cool, dry conditions. (hiltonstentcity.com)
  • Cerium(IV) oxide is formed by the calcination of cerium oxalate or cerium hydroxide . (wikipedia.org)
  • Fluoride and cerium emissions into effluent cell waters were measured during ASTs and correlated, which signifies that ionomer degradation products serve as possible counter-ions for cerium emissions. (osti.gov)
  • Fluoride emission rates were also correlated to final PEM cerium contents, which indicates that PEM degradation and cerium migration are coupled. (osti.gov)
  • Cerium oxide can function as a catalyst, structure barrier for insulator on silicon, buffer layer on superconductor materials, and an anticorrosion coating on metals [ 7 - 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • During operation, however, cerium rapidly migrates in the PEM and into the catalyst layers (CLs). (osti.gov)
  • Lastly, it is proposed that cerium migrates from the PEM due to humidification conditions and degradation, and is subsequently stabilized in the CLs by carbon catalyst supports. (osti.gov)
  • Cerium oxide is a polishing agent for glass mirrors, plate glass, television tubes, ophthalmic lenses, and precision optics, and is also used in emission control systems in gasoline engines and as a diesel fuel-born catalyst to reduce particulate matter emissions. (epa.gov)
  • Cerium oxide is a lanthanide metal oxide which is used as an ultraviolet absorber, catalyst, polishing agent, gas sensors etc. (prsync.com)
  • Despite always occurring in combination with the other rare-earth elements in minerals such as those of the monazite and bastnäsite groups, cerium is easy to extract from its ores, as it can be distinguished among the lanthanides by its unique ability to be oxidized to the +4 state. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cerium occurs naturally as a mixture with other rare-earth elements in its principal ores bastnaesite and monazite . (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydroxylbastnasite is an ore of cerium, an important industrial metal, but is far behind bastnasite and the phosphate mineral monazite as a source of the rare earth element. (galleries.com)
  • The primary defects of concern are oxygen vacancies and small polarons (electrons localized on cerium cations). (wikipedia.org)
  • The four iron (+III) cations were replaced with three cerium (+IV) cation. (hindawi.com)
  • Cerium oxide is often applied in today's catalysts due to its remarkable oxygen storage capacity. (rsc.org)
  • Umit Ozkan , a professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering who leads the research team, and graduate students Hua Song and Lingzhi Zhang, built the catalysts with calcium and cerium oxide covered with a thin layer of cobalt particles. (ceramics.org)
  • Each cerium atom is surrounded by the oxygen atoms of five bidentate nitrate groups and two water oxygen atoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The way the components are arranged in the crystal is that there are six nitrates around each cerium atom, however to get to the average of five per cerium, two nitrate groups on each, link the atoms into a chain along the an axis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cerium is the second element in the lanthanide series, and while it often shows the +3 oxidation state characteristic of the series, it also has a stable +4 state that does not oxidize in water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cerium nitrate refers to a family of nitrates of cerium in the three or four oxidation state. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is accomplished via the oxidation of cerium (III) to cerium (IV), which precipitates as cerium hydroxides. (queensu.ca)
  • Cerium oxidation was tested using these oxidants at varying stoichiometry, a pH range of 1.0 to 4.0, temperatures of 25, 45, and 65 °C, varying cerium concentrations, and in the presence of other REE. (queensu.ca)
  • The cerium(IV) oxide-cerium(III) oxide cycle or CeO 2 /Ce 2 O 3 cycle is a two-step thermochemical process that employs cerium(IV) oxide and cerium(III) oxide for hydrogen production . (wikipedia.org)
  • In the second exothermic step cerium(III) oxide reacts at 400 °C (752 °F)-600 °C (1,112 °F) in a fixed bed reactor with water and produces hydrogen and cerium(IV) oxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • the isotopes strontium-90, iodine-131, and cerium-144 emit beta particles that are not distributed evenly in the body. (britannica.com)
  • Ce-136, 138, and 142 are stable cerium isotopes. (curehunter.com)
  • Arc'teryx stuffed the Women's Cerium LT Down Jacket with a lofty 850-fill down and protective synthetic Coreloft insulation to give you the best of both worlds. (us-parks.com)
  • Strontium-90 releases only beta particles, while iodine-131 and cerium-144 release both beta particles and gamma rays, but their toxicities are primarily caused by the beta particles. (britannica.com)
  • We present a real-time in situ study of the structural transformations of cerium oxide particles on ruthenium(0001) at high temperatures of 700 °C in ultra-high vacuum. (rsc.org)
  • The final reduction step from cubic to hexagonal Ce 2 O 3 is accompanied by a lattice expansion, the formation of two new surface terminations, a partial dissolution of the cerium oxide particles, and a massive mass transport of cerium from the particles to the substrate. (rsc.org)
  • Cerium oxide is used as an ingredient in catalytic converters to reduce carbon monoxide emissions in the exhaust fumes from automobiles. (umicore.com)
  • June 7, 2017 -- Wisconsin's Eck Industries has signed an exclusive license for the commercialization of a cerium-aluminum (Ce-Al) alloy co-developed by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory that is ideal for creating lightweight, strong components for advanced vehicles and airplanes. (eurekalert.org)
  • Down insulation makes the Cerium lightweight and compressible to fit in the included stuff sack, while synthetic Coreloft is placed in moisture-prone spots like the shoulders, cuffs, and underarms for warmth even when wet. (us-parks.com)
  • Cerium-doped YAG phosphor is used in conjunction with blue light-emitting diodes to produce white light in most commercial white LED light sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2. A phosphor according to claim 1 wherein the cerium is about 0.1 to 1 mole percent. (google.com)
  • More specifically, the invention relates to an alkaline earth and hafnium oxide phosphor having cerium luminescence. (google.com)
  • The patent-pending alloy was developed as part of DOE's Critical Materials Institute (CMI) and makes use of cerium, the most abundant rare earth element. (eurekalert.org)
  • Uses: As an important ore of cerium and other rare earth metals and as mineral specimens. (galleries.com)
  • Uses: Only as mineral specimens and as a possible source of cerium. (galleries.com)
  • Cerium is a soft, ductile, and silvery-white metal that tarnishes when exposed to air, and it is soft enough to be cut with a steel kitchen knife. (wikipedia.org)

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