Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The anterior subdivision of the embryonic PROSENCEPHALON or the corresponding part of the adult prosencephalon that includes the cerebrum and associated structures.
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
Food BEVERAGES that are used as nutritional substitutes for MILK.
A plant genus of the family TILIACEAE. Members contain lupeol and betulin TRITERPENES.
An autosomal disorder of the peripheral and autonomic nervous systems limited to individuals of Ashkenazic Jewish descent. Clinical manifestations are present at birth and include diminished lacrimation, defective thermoregulation, orthostatic hypotension (HYPOTENSION, ORTHOSTATIC), fixed pupils, excessive SWEATING, loss of pain and temperature sensation, and absent reflexes. Pathologic features include reduced numbers of small diameter peripheral nerve fibers and autonomic ganglion neurons. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1348; Nat Genet 1993;4(2):160-4)
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain SWAINSONINE.
An inflammatory process involving the brain (ENCEPHALITIS) and meninges (MENINGITIS), most often produced by pathogenic organisms which invade the central nervous system, and occasionally by toxins, autoimmune disorders, and other conditions.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
An organochlorophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide for the control of flies and roaches. It is also used in anthelmintic compositions for animals. (From Merck, 11th ed)
Neurologic disorders associated with exposure to inorganic and organic forms of MERCURY. Acute intoxication may be associated with gastrointestinal disturbances, mental status changes, and PARAPARESIS. Chronic exposure to inorganic mercury usually occurs in industrial workers, and manifests as mental confusion, prominent behavioral changes (including psychosis), DYSKINESIAS, and NEURITIS. Alkyl mercury poisoning may occur through ingestion of contaminated seafood or grain, and its characteristic features include POLYNEUROPATHY; ATAXIA; vision loss; NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; and DEAFNESS. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch20, pp10-15)
The innermost layer of the three meninges covering the brain and spinal cord. It is the fine vascular membrane that lies under the ARACHNOID and the DURA MATER.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Diseases that affect the structure or function of the cerebellum. Cardinal manifestations of cerebellar dysfunction include dysmetria, GAIT ATAXIA, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
'Nerve tissue proteins' are specialized proteins found within the nervous system's biological tissue, including neurofilaments, neuronal cytoskeletal proteins, and neural cell adhesion molecules, which facilitate structural support, intracellular communication, and synaptic connectivity essential for proper neurological function.
Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.
Inbred ICR mice are a strain of albino laboratory mice that have been selectively bred for consistent genetic makeup and high reproductive performance, making them widely used in biomedical research for studies involving reproduction, toxicology, pharmacology, and carcinogenesis.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Broad plate of dense myelinated fibers that reciprocally interconnect regions of the cortex in all lobes with corresponding regions of the opposite hemisphere. The corpus callosum is located deep in the longitudinal fissure.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).
The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Maintenance of blood flow to an organ despite obstruction of a principal vessel. Blood flow is maintained through small vessels.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.
Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.

Meningoencephalitis in an adult cow due to Mortierella woifli. (1/355)

A 7-year-old dairy cow presented with clinical signs of neurologic disease. Despite treatment with penicillin, the cow died 36 hours after initial presentation. Necropsy examination revealed multiple foci of hemorrhage within the cerebrum and thickened meninges. Additionally, endometritis and consolidation of approximately 30% of both lungs was observed. Histology revealed necrotizing vasculitis, infarction, and hemorrhage within sections of the brain, uterus, and lung. Large numbers of intralesional fungal hyphae were visible. Because only formalin-fixed tissue was available, polymerase chain reaction was used to make an etiologic diagnosis of Mortierella wolfii.  (+info)

Left unilateral neglect as a disconnection syndrome. (2/355)

Unilateral spatial neglect is a disabling neurological condition that typically results from right hemisphere damage. Neglect patients are unable to take into account information coming from the left side of space. The study of neglect is important for understanding the brain mechanisms of spatial cognition, but its anatomical correlates are currently the object of intense debate. We propose a reappraisal of the contribution of disconnection factors to the pathophysiology of neglect based on a review of animal and patient studies. These indicate that damage to the long-range white matter pathways connecting parietal and frontal areas within the right hemisphere may constitute a crucial antecedent of neglect. Thus, neglect would not result from the dysfunction of a single cortical region but from the disruption of large networks made up of distant cortical regions. In this perspective, we also reexamined the possible contribution to neglect of interhemispheric disconnection. The reviewed evidence, often present in previous studies but frequently overlooked, is consistent with the existence of distributed cortical networks for orienting of attention in the normal brain, has implications for theories of neglect and normal spatial processing, opens perspectives for research on brain-behavior relationships, and suggests new possibilities for patient diagnosis and rehabilitation.  (+info)

MEG mapping in multiple sclerosis patients. (3/355)

AIM: The research over the past decade suggests that multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease due to disorders of the immune system. Since the immune system is regulated by the pineal gland, which exerts immunomodulatory action with the secretion of melatonin and profound effects on electrical activity in the hippocampus, cerebellum and reticular formation structures, we have used magnetoencephalogram (MEG) recordings from MS patients in order to find any differentiation in brain activity in comparison with controls. METHODS: Ten MS patients and 10 controls were included in this study. The measurements were performed with a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) in an electrically shielded room. For each patient the magnetic activity was recorded from a total of 32 points of the skull as defined by a recording reference system, which is based on the International 10-20 Electrode Placement System. RESULTS: The biomagnetic signals (waveforms) were expressed in terms of magnetic power spectral amplitudes in the frequency range of 2-7 Hz. Some of the recorded points were observed to exhibit abnormal rhythmic activity, characterized by lower amplitudes and frequencies compared with controls. Using the MEG brain activity we were able to obtain a mapping technique characterized by the ISO-spectral amplitude of scalp distribution. CONCLUSION: This study, although preliminary, presents a novel approach for measuring brain biomagnetic activity from MS patients.  (+info)

Evaluation of fetal regional cerebral blood perfusion using power Doppler ultrasound and the estimation of fractional moving blood volume. (4/355)

OBJECTIVE: To standardize the evaluation of regional fetal brain blood perfusion, using power Doppler ultrasound (PDU) to estimate the fractional moving blood volume (FMBV) and to evaluate the reproducibility of this estimation. METHODS: Brain blood perfusion was evaluated in 35 normally grown fetuses at 28-30 weeks of gestation, using PDU. The following cerebral regions were included in the PDU color box: anterior sagittal, complete sagittal, basal ganglia, and cerebellar. Ten consecutive good-quality images of each anatomical plane were recorded and the delimitation of the region of interest (ROI) was performed off-line. FMBV was quantified in the ROI of all images and the mean considered as the final value. Differences between regions, variability, reproducibility and agreement between observers were assessed. RESULTS: Power Doppler images of the described anatomical planes were obtained in all cases, regardless of fetal position. The median time for the acquisition of the images was 7 (range 4-12) min. Mean (range) FMBV values were: anterior sagittal, 16.5 (10.7-22.8)%, inter-patient coefficient of variation (CV) 0.22; complete sagittal, 13.5 (8.8-16.1)%, CV 0.27; basal ganglia, 18.3 (10.7-27.6)%, CV 0.27; and cerebellar, 6.6 (3.0-11.0)%, CV 0.38. There were statistically significant differences in FMBV between cerebellar and complete sagittal ROIs with the frontal and basal ganglia regions. Reproducibility analyses showed an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.91 (95% CI 0.67-0.97) and an interclass correlation coefficient of 0.87 (95% CI 0.70-0.94). Interobserver agreement showed a mean difference between observers of -0.2 (SD 2.7) with 95% limits of agreement -5.6 to 5.2. CONCLUSIONS: When the regions of interest are well defined, the FMBV estimate offers a method to quantify blood flow perfusion in different fetal cerebral areas. There appear to be regional differences in FMBV within the fetal brain.  (+info)

IKAP/hELP1 deficiency in the cerebrum of familial dysautonomia patients results in down regulation of genes involved in oligodendrocyte differentiation and in myelination. (5/355)

The gene affected in the congenital neuropathy familial dysautonomia (FD) is IKBKAP that codes for the IKAP/hELP1 protein. Several different functions have been suggested for this protein, but none of them have been verified in vivo or shown to have some link with the FD phenotype. In an attempt to elucidate the involvement of IKAP/hELP1 in brain function, we searched for IKAP/hELP1 target genes associated with neuronal function. In a microarray expression analysis using RNA extracted from the cerebrum of two FD patients as well as sex and age matched controls, no genes were found to be upregulated in the FD cerebrum. However, 25 genes were downregulated more than 2-fold in the cerebrum of both the male FD child and female FD mature woman. Thirteen of them are known to be involved in oligodendrocyte development and myelin formation. The down regulation of all these genes was verified by real-time PCR. Four of these genes were also confirmed to be downregulated at the protein level. These results are statistically significant and have high biological relevance, since seven of the downregulated genes in the cerebrum of the FD patients were shown by others to be upregulated during oligodendrocyte differentiation in vitro. Our results therefore suggest that IKAP/hELP1 may play a role in oligodendrocyte differentiation and/or myelin formation.  (+info)

Enhanced cortical activation in the contralesional hemisphere of chronic stroke patients in response to motor skill challenge. (6/355)

The brain processes involved in the restoration of motor skill after hemiparetic stroke are not fully understood. The current study compared cortical activity in chronic stroke patients who successfully recovered hand motor skill and normal control subjects during performance of kinematically matched unskilled and skilled hand movements using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We found that cortical activation during performance of the unskilled movement was increased in the patients relative to controls in the contralesional primary sensorimotor cortex. Performance of the skilled movement elicited increased activation in the patients relative to controls in the contralesional primary sensorimotor cortex, ventral premotor cortex, supplementary motor area/cingulate, and occipitoparietal cortex. Further, the activation change in the contralesional occipitoparietal cortex was greater in the patients relative to controls with the increase in motor skill challenge. Kinematic differences, mirror movements, and residual motor deficits did not account for the enhanced activation in the contralesional cortices in the patients. These results suggest that activation in the contralesional cortical network was enhanced as a function of motor skill challenge in stroke patients with good motor recovery. The findings of the current study suggest that successful recovery of motor skill after hemiparetic stroke involves participation of the contralesional cortical network.  (+info)

Transfrontal three-dimensional visualization of midline cerebral structures. (7/355)

OBJECTIVE: To compare sonographic visualization of midline cerebral structures obtained by two-dimensional (2D) imaging and three-dimensional (3D) multiplanar and volume contrast imaging in the coronal plane (VCI-C), with transfrontal 3D acquisition. METHODS: Sixty consecutive healthy fetuses in vertex presentation at a mean gestational age of 24 (range, 20-33) weeks underwent 2D and 3D ultrasound examination. Sagittal cerebral planes were reconstructed using 3D acquisition from axial planes by multiplanar analysis and by VCI-C. The reconstructed midline images of both these techniques were compared with the midline structures visualized directly in the A-plane by transfrontal 3D acquisition using a sweep angle of 30 degrees . Measurement of the corpus callosum and cerebellar vermis and visualization of the fourth ventricle and the main vermian fissures were compared. The sharpness of the images was also assessed qualitatively. Mid-sagittal tomographic ultrasound imaging (TUI) was also performed. 3D planes were compared with 2D transfontanelle median planes obtained by transabdominal or, when required, transvaginal sonography. RESULTS: The midline plane could be obtained in 88% of multiplanar, 82% of VCI-C and 87% of transfrontal analyses. Measurements of the corpus callosum and cerebellar vermis obtained by 3D median planes were highly correlated. The clearest and sharpest definition of midline structures was obtained with transfrontal acquisition. Primary and secondary fissures of the cerebellar vermis could be detected in 13-26% of multiplanar, 18-35% of VCI-C and 52-79% of transfrontal analyses. 2D visualization was superior or equal to the 3D transfrontal approach in all the parameters compared. CONCLUSION: 3D planes obtained from axial acquisitions are simpler and easier to display than are transfrontal ones. However, artifacts and acoustic shadowing are frequent in 3D axial acquisition and spatial resolution is better in the direct visualization transfrontal technique. If the standard examination includes a view of the fetal facial profile, a quick 3D acquisition through the frontal sutures provides direct visualization for assessment of the midline structures. We believe that this volumetric methodology could represent a step towards incorporating a comprehensive fetal neuroscan into routine targeted organ evaluation.  (+info)

Effects of supplemental O2 inhalation on cerebral oxygenation during exercise in patients with left ventricular dysfunction. (8/355)

BACKGROUND: It has been recently reported that cerebral oxyhemoglobin (O(2)Hb) decreases during exercise in nearly 50% of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. The present study evaluated whether the inhalation of supplemental O(2) diminishes the decrease in cerebral O(2)Hb during exercise. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ten patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction <50% and a clearly observable decrease in cerebral O(2)Hb during preliminary exercise testing underwent 2 additional symptom-limited incremental exercise tests: 1 while breathing room air (control) and the other while breathing 50% O(2). In the latter test, the switch from room air to 50% O(2) was performed, on average, at 43.0+/-14.2 W. Cerebral O(2)Hb was continuously monitored during exercise using near-infrared spectroscopy. In the control exercise test, cerebral O(2)Hb gradually decreased as the work rate increased in all the subjects. When the subjects breathed 50% O(2), this decrease in cerebral O(2)Hb was diminished. The change in cerebral O(2)Hb from rest to peak exercise during the test under 50% O(2) was significantly higher than that during the control test (-0.23 +/-1.89 vs -2.47+/-1.57 micromol/L, p=0.002). Similarly, the change in the cerebral tissue oxygenation index was significantly higher in the test under 50% O(2) (0.45 +/-4.46 vs -3.33+/-3.06%, p=0.023). CONCLUSIONS: Impaired cerebral oxygenation during moderate to heavy intensity exercise in patients with left ventricular dysfunction can be offset by breathing supplemental O(2).  (+info)

The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain, located in the frontal part of the skull. It is divided into two hemispheres, right and left, which are connected by a band of nerve fibers called the corpus callosum. The cerebrum is responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, perception, and consciousness.

The outer layer of the cerebrum is called the cerebral cortex, which is made up of gray matter containing billions of neurons. This region is responsible for processing sensory information, generating motor commands, and performing higher-level cognitive functions. The cerebrum also contains several subcortical structures such as the thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and amygdala, which play important roles in various brain functions.

Damage to different parts of the cerebrum can result in a range of neurological symptoms, depending on the location and severity of the injury. For example, damage to the left hemisphere may affect language function, while damage to the right hemisphere may affect spatial perception and visual-spatial skills.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

The telencephalon is the most anterior (front) region of the embryonic brain, which eventually develops into the largest portion of the adult human brain, including the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, and olfactory bulbs. It is derived from the prosencephalon (forebrain) during embryonic development and is responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, perception, and language. The telencephalon can be further divided into two hemispheres, each containing regions associated with different functions.

The cerebellum is a part of the brain that lies behind the brainstem and is involved in the regulation of motor movements, balance, and coordination. It contains two hemispheres and a central portion called the vermis. The cerebellum receives input from sensory systems and other areas of the brain and spinal cord and sends output to motor areas of the brain. Damage to the cerebellum can result in problems with movement, balance, and coordination.

Medical definitions of "milk substitutes" refer to products that are designed to replace or serve as an alternative to traditional cow's milk for individuals who cannot consume it or choose not to. These can include a wide variety of products, such as:

1. Plant-based milks: These are made from plants such as soy, almonds, coconuts, oats, rice, hemp, flaxseed, and cashews. They are often fortified with calcium, vitamin D, and other nutrients to make them more similar in nutrition to cow's milk.
2. Animal-based milks: These include goat's milk, sheep's milk, and buffalo milk, which can be suitable alternatives for those who are allergic or intolerant to cow's milk.
3. Formula milks: These are designed for infants and young children who cannot be breastfed or need additional nutrition. They can be based on cow's milk, soy, or other proteins and are fortified with vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients to support growth and development.
4. Specialized milks: These are formulated for individuals with specific dietary needs, such as lactose-free milk for those with lactose intolerance, or hypoallergenic formulas for people with milk protein allergies.

It is important to note that not all milk substitutes are created equal in terms of nutrition and should be chosen based on individual dietary needs and preferences. Always consult a healthcare professional or registered dietitian for personalized advice on selecting the most appropriate milk substitute.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Grewia" is not a medical term. It is a genus of flowering plants in the mallow family, Malvaceae, commonly known as crossberries or shrubby rose-apples. These plants are native to tropical and subtropical regions of Africa, Asia, and Australia. They have various uses in traditional medicine and as sources of food and fiber in different cultures. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health conditions, I would be happy to help with those!

Familial dysautonomia (FD) is a genetic disorder that affects the autonomic nervous system (ANS), which controls automatic functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, and digestion. It is also known as Riley-Day syndrome or Hereditary Sensory and Autonomic Neuropathy Type III (HSAN III).

FD is caused by a mutation in the IKBKAP gene, which provides instructions for making a protein that is essential for the development and function of certain nerves. The condition is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, meaning that an individual must inherit two copies of the mutated gene (one from each parent) to have the disease.

The symptoms of familial dysautonomia can vary widely, but often include:

* Difficulty regulating blood pressure and heart rate, leading to fluctuations in blood pressure, dizziness, and fainting spells
* Poor temperature regulation, causing episodes of sweating or flushing
* Difficulty swallowing and poor muscle tone in the face and tongue
* Absent or reduced deep tendon reflexes
* Delayed growth and development
* Reduced sensitivity to pain and temperature changes
* Emotional lability and behavioral problems

There is no cure for familial dysautonomia, but treatment can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life. Treatment may include medications to regulate blood pressure and heart rate, physical therapy to improve muscle tone and coordination, and feeding tubes or special diets to ensure adequate nutrition.

Brain chemistry refers to the chemical processes that occur within the brain, particularly those involving neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, and neuropeptides. These chemicals are responsible for transmitting signals between neurons (nerve cells) in the brain, allowing for various cognitive, emotional, and physical functions.

Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that transmit signals across the synapse (the tiny gap between two neurons). Examples of neurotransmitters include dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid), and glutamate. Each neurotransmitter has a specific role in brain function, such as regulating mood, motivation, attention, memory, and movement.

Neuromodulators are chemicals that modify the effects of neurotransmitters on neurons. They can enhance or inhibit the transmission of signals between neurons, thereby modulating brain activity. Examples of neuromodulators include acetylcholine, histamine, and substance P.

Neuropeptides are small protein-like molecules that act as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators. They play a role in various physiological functions, such as pain perception, stress response, and reward processing. Examples of neuropeptides include endorphins, enkephalins, and oxytocin.

Abnormalities in brain chemistry can lead to various neurological and psychiatric conditions, such as depression, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. Understanding brain chemistry is crucial for developing effective treatments for these conditions.

Oxytropis is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family, Fabaceae. It is native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, primarily in North America and Asia. Some common names for Oxytropis include locoweeds and wild peas.

In a medical context, Oxytropis species are most well-known for containing toxic alkaloids that can cause serious poisoning in livestock, particularly cattle, sheep, and goats. The toxins, including swainsonine and other indolizidine alkaloids, can affect the nervous system and cause symptoms such as weakness, tremors, blindness, and ultimately death.

While Oxytropis poisoning is not a direct concern for human health, it is important for medical professionals to be aware of its potential impact on animal health in rural and agricultural communities.

Meningoencephalitis is a medical term that refers to an inflammation of both the brain (encephalitis) and the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord (meninges), known as the meninges. It is often caused by an infection, such as bacterial or viral infections, that spreads to the meninges and brain. In some cases, it can also be caused by other factors like autoimmune disorders or certain medications.

The symptoms of meningoencephalitis may include fever, headache, stiff neck, confusion, seizures, and changes in mental status. If left untreated, this condition can lead to serious complications, such as brain damage, hearing loss, learning disabilities, or even death. Treatment typically involves antibiotics for bacterial infections or antiviral medications for viral infections, along with supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

The cerebral cortex is the outermost layer of the brain, characterized by its intricate folded structure and wrinkled appearance. It is a region of great importance as it plays a key role in higher cognitive functions such as perception, consciousness, thought, memory, language, and attention. The cerebral cortex is divided into two hemispheres, each containing four lobes: the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. These areas are responsible for different functions, with some regions specializing in sensory processing while others are involved in motor control or associative functions. The cerebral cortex is composed of gray matter, which contains neuronal cell bodies, and is covered by a layer of white matter that consists mainly of myelinated nerve fibers.

Trichlorfon is an organophosphate insecticide and acaricide. It is used to control a wide variety of pests, including flies, ticks, and mites in agriculture, livestock production, and public health. Trichlorfon works by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which leads to an accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and results in paralysis and death of the pest. It is important to note that trichlorfon can also have harmful effects on non-target organisms, including humans, and its use is regulated by various governmental agencies to minimize potential risks.

Mercury poisoning, specifically affecting the nervous system, is also known as erethism or cerebral mercurialism. It is a condition that results from prolonged exposure to mercury or its compounds, which can lead to serious neurological and psychiatric symptoms. The central nervous system is particularly sensitive to mercury's toxic effects.

The symptoms of mercury poisoning affecting the nervous system may include:

1. Personality changes: This might include increased irritability, excitability, or emotional lability.
2. Cognitive impairment: There can be issues with memory, attention, and concentration, leading to difficulties in learning and performing complex tasks.
3. Neuromuscular symptoms: These may include tremors, fine motor coordination problems, and muscle weakness. In severe cases, it might lead to ataxia (loss of balance and coordination) or even paralysis.
4. Sensory impairment: Mercury poisoning can cause sensory disturbances such as numbness, tingling, or pain in the extremities (peripheral neuropathy). Additionally, visual and auditory disturbances might occur.
5. Speech and hearing problems: Changes in speech patterns, including slurred speech, or difficulties with hearing may also be present.
6. Mood disorders: Depression, anxiety, and other psychiatric symptoms can develop as a result of mercury poisoning.
7. Insomnia: Sleep disturbances are common in individuals exposed to mercury.

It is important to note that these symptoms might not appear immediately after exposure to mercury but could take months or even years to develop, depending on the severity and duration of exposure. If you suspect mercury poisoning, seek medical attention promptly for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Pia Mater is the inner-most layer of the meninges, which are the protective coverings of the brain and spinal cord. It is a very thin and highly vascularized (rich in blood vessels) membrane that closely adheres to the surface of the brain. The name "Pia Mater" comes from Latin, meaning "tender mother." This layer provides nutrition and protection to the brain, and it also allows for the movement and flexibility of the brain within the skull.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

There is no medical definition for "dog diseases" as it is too broad a term. However, dogs can suffer from various health conditions and illnesses that are specific to their species or similar to those found in humans. Some common categories of dog diseases include:

1. Infectious Diseases: These are caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites. Examples include distemper, parvovirus, kennel cough, Lyme disease, and heartworms.
2. Hereditary/Genetic Disorders: Some dogs may inherit certain genetic disorders from their parents. Examples include hip dysplasia, elbow dysplasia, progressive retinal atrophy (PRA), and degenerative myelopathy.
3. Age-Related Diseases: As dogs age, they become more susceptible to various health issues. Common age-related diseases in dogs include arthritis, dental disease, cancer, and cognitive dysfunction syndrome (CDS).
4. Nutritional Disorders: Malnutrition or improper feeding can lead to various health problems in dogs. Examples include obesity, malnutrition, and vitamin deficiencies.
5. Environmental Diseases: These are caused by exposure to environmental factors such as toxins, allergens, or extreme temperatures. Examples include heatstroke, frostbite, and toxicities from ingesting harmful substances.
6. Neurological Disorders: Dogs can suffer from various neurological conditions that affect their nervous system. Examples include epilepsy, intervertebral disc disease (IVDD), and vestibular disease.
7. Behavioral Disorders: Some dogs may develop behavioral issues due to various factors such as anxiety, fear, or aggression. Examples include separation anxiety, noise phobias, and resource guarding.

It's important to note that regular veterinary care, proper nutrition, exercise, and preventative measures can help reduce the risk of many dog diseases.

The brainstem is the lower part of the brain that connects to the spinal cord. It consists of the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata. The brainstem controls many vital functions such as heart rate, breathing, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory and motor information between the cerebral cortex and the rest of the body. Additionally, several cranial nerves originate from the brainstem, including those that control eye movements, facial movements, and hearing.

Tissue distribution, in the context of pharmacology and toxicology, refers to the way that a drug or xenobiotic (a chemical substance found within an organism that is not naturally produced by or expected to be present within that organism) is distributed throughout the body's tissues after administration. It describes how much of the drug or xenobiotic can be found in various tissues and organs, and is influenced by factors such as blood flow, lipid solubility, protein binding, and the permeability of cell membranes. Understanding tissue distribution is important for predicting the potential effects of a drug or toxin on different parts of the body, and for designing drugs with improved safety and efficacy profiles.

Organ specificity, in the context of immunology and toxicology, refers to the phenomenon where a substance (such as a drug or toxin) or an immune response primarily affects certain organs or tissues in the body. This can occur due to various reasons such as:

1. The presence of specific targets (like antigens in the case of an immune response or receptors in the case of drugs) that are more abundant in these organs.
2. The unique properties of certain cells or tissues that make them more susceptible to damage.
3. The way a substance is metabolized or cleared from the body, which can concentrate it in specific organs.

For example, in autoimmune diseases, organ specificity describes immune responses that are directed against antigens found only in certain organs, such as the thyroid gland in Hashimoto's disease. Similarly, some toxins or drugs may have a particular affinity for liver cells, leading to liver damage or specific drug interactions.

A fatal outcome is a term used in medical context to describe a situation where a disease, injury, or illness results in the death of an individual. It is the most severe and unfortunate possible outcome of any medical condition, and is often used as a measure of the severity and prognosis of various diseases and injuries. In clinical trials and research, fatal outcome may be used as an endpoint to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of different treatments or interventions.

Organ size refers to the volume or physical measurement of an organ in the body of an individual. It can be described in terms of length, width, and height or by using specialized techniques such as imaging studies (like CT scans or MRIs) to determine the volume. The size of an organ can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, body size, and overall health status. Changes in organ size may indicate various medical conditions, including growths, inflammation, or atrophy.

Cerebellar diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the cerebellum, which is the part of the brain located at the back of the head, below the occipital lobe and above the brainstem. The cerebellum plays a crucial role in motor control, coordination, balance, and some cognitive functions.

Cerebellar diseases can be caused by various factors, including genetics, infections, tumors, stroke, trauma, or degenerative processes. These conditions can result in a wide range of symptoms, such as:

1. Ataxia: Loss of coordination and unsteady gait
2. Dysmetria: Inability to judge distance and force while performing movements
3. Intention tremors: Shaking or trembling that worsens during purposeful movements
4. Nystagmus: Rapid, involuntary eye movement
5. Dysarthria: Speech difficulty due to muscle weakness or incoordination
6. Hypotonia: Decreased muscle tone
7. Titubation: Rhythmic, involuntary oscillations of the head and neck
8. Cognitive impairment: Problems with memory, attention, and executive functions

Some examples of cerebellar diseases include:

1. Ataxia-telangiectasia
2. Friedrich's ataxia
3. Multiple system atrophy (MSA)
4. Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs)
5. Cerebellar tumors, such as medulloblastomas or astrocytomas
6. Infarctions or hemorrhages in the cerebellum due to stroke or trauma
7. Infections, such as viral encephalitis or bacterial meningitis
8. Autoimmune disorders, like multiple sclerosis (MS) or paraneoplastic syndromes
9. Metabolic disorders, such as Wilson's disease or phenylketonuria (PKU)
10. Chronic alcoholism and withdrawal

Treatment for cerebellar diseases depends on the underlying cause and may involve medications, physical therapy, surgery, or supportive care to manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Dogs" is not a medical term or condition. It is the common name for a domesticated carnivore of the family Canidae, specifically the genus Canis, which includes wolves, foxes, and other extant and extinct species of mammals. Dogs are often kept as pets and companions, and they have been bred in a wide variety of forms and sizes for different purposes, such as hunting, herding, guarding, assisting police and military forces, and providing companionship and emotional support.

If you meant to ask about a specific medical condition or term related to dogs, please provide more context so I can give you an accurate answer.

Cerebrovascular circulation refers to the network of blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood and nutrients to the brain tissue, and remove waste products. It includes the internal carotid arteries, vertebral arteries, circle of Willis, and the intracranial arteries that branch off from them.

The internal carotid arteries and vertebral arteries merge to form the circle of Willis, a polygonal network of vessels located at the base of the brain. The anterior cerebral artery, middle cerebral artery, posterior cerebral artery, and communicating arteries are the major vessels that branch off from the circle of Willis and supply blood to different regions of the brain.

Interruptions or abnormalities in the cerebrovascular circulation can lead to various neurological conditions such as stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), and vascular dementia.

Nerve tissue proteins are specialized proteins found in the nervous system that provide structural and functional support to nerve cells, also known as neurons. These proteins include:

1. Neurofilaments: These are type IV intermediate filaments that provide structural support to neurons and help maintain their shape and size. They are composed of three subunits - NFL (light), NFM (medium), and NFH (heavy).

2. Neuronal Cytoskeletal Proteins: These include tubulins, actins, and spectrins that provide structural support to the neuronal cytoskeleton and help maintain its integrity.

3. Neurotransmitter Receptors: These are specialized proteins located on the postsynaptic membrane of neurons that bind neurotransmitters released by presynaptic neurons, triggering a response in the target cell.

4. Ion Channels: These are transmembrane proteins that regulate the flow of ions across the neuronal membrane and play a crucial role in generating and transmitting electrical signals in neurons.

5. Signaling Proteins: These include enzymes, receptors, and adaptor proteins that mediate intracellular signaling pathways involved in neuronal development, differentiation, survival, and death.

6. Adhesion Proteins: These are cell surface proteins that mediate cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, playing a crucial role in the formation and maintenance of neural circuits.

7. Extracellular Matrix Proteins: These include proteoglycans, laminins, and collagens that provide structural support to nerve tissue and regulate neuronal migration, differentiation, and survival.

The cerebral ventricles are a system of interconnected fluid-filled cavities within the brain. They are located in the center of the brain and are filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which provides protection to the brain by cushioning it from impacts and helping to maintain its stability within the skull.

There are four ventricles in total: two lateral ventricles, one third ventricle, and one fourth ventricle. The lateral ventricles are located in each cerebral hemisphere, while the third ventricle is located between the thalami of the two hemispheres. The fourth ventricle is located at the base of the brain, above the spinal cord.

CSF flows from the lateral ventricles into the third ventricle through narrow passageways called the interventricular foramen. From there, it flows into the fourth ventricle through another narrow passageway called the cerebral aqueduct. CSF then leaves the fourth ventricle and enters the subarachnoid space surrounding the brain and spinal cord, where it can be absorbed into the bloodstream.

Abnormalities in the size or shape of the cerebral ventricles can indicate underlying neurological conditions, such as hydrocephalus (excessive accumulation of CSF) or atrophy (shrinkage) of brain tissue. Imaging techniques, such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are often used to assess the size and shape of the cerebral ventricles in clinical settings.

"Newborn animals" refers to the very young offspring of animals that have recently been born. In medical terminology, newborns are often referred to as "neonates," and they are classified as such from birth until about 28 days of age. During this time period, newborn animals are particularly vulnerable and require close monitoring and care to ensure their survival and healthy development.

The specific needs of newborn animals can vary widely depending on the species, but generally, they require warmth, nutrition, hydration, and protection from harm. In many cases, newborns are unable to regulate their own body temperature or feed themselves, so they rely heavily on their mothers for care and support.

In medical settings, newborn animals may be examined and treated by veterinarians to ensure that they are healthy and receiving the care they need. This can include providing medical interventions such as feeding tubes, antibiotics, or other treatments as needed to address any health issues that arise. Overall, the care and support of newborn animals is an important aspect of animal medicine and conservation efforts.

The Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) is a highly specialized, selective interface between the central nervous system (CNS) and the circulating blood. It is formed by unique endothelial cells that line the brain's capillaries, along with tight junctions, astrocytic foot processes, and pericytes, which together restrict the passage of substances from the bloodstream into the CNS. This barrier serves to protect the brain from harmful agents and maintain a stable environment for proper neural function. However, it also poses a challenge in delivering therapeutics to the CNS, as most large and hydrophilic molecules cannot cross the BBB.

Brain diseases, also known as neurological disorders, refer to a wide range of conditions that affect the brain and nervous system. These diseases can be caused by various factors such as genetics, infections, injuries, degeneration, or structural abnormalities. They can affect different parts of the brain, leading to a variety of symptoms and complications.

Some examples of brain diseases include:

1. Alzheimer's disease - a progressive degenerative disorder that affects memory and cognitive function.
2. Parkinson's disease - a movement disorder characterized by tremors, stiffness, and difficulty with coordination and balance.
3. Multiple sclerosis - a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the nervous system and can cause a range of symptoms such as vision loss, muscle weakness, and cognitive impairment.
4. Epilepsy - a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures.
5. Brain tumors - abnormal growths in the brain that can be benign or malignant.
6. Stroke - a sudden interruption of blood flow to the brain, which can cause paralysis, speech difficulties, and other neurological symptoms.
7. Meningitis - an infection of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
8. Encephalitis - an inflammation of the brain that can be caused by viruses, bacteria, or autoimmune disorders.
9. Huntington's disease - a genetic disorder that affects muscle coordination, cognitive function, and mental health.
10. Migraine - a neurological condition characterized by severe headaches, often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.

Brain diseases can range from mild to severe and may be treatable or incurable. They can affect people of all ages and backgrounds, and early diagnosis and treatment are essential for improving outcomes and quality of life.

ICR (Institute of Cancer Research) is a strain of albino Swiss mice that are widely used in scientific research. They are an outbred strain, which means that they have been bred to maintain maximum genetic heterogeneity. However, it is also possible to find inbred strains of ICR mice, which are genetically identical individuals produced by many generations of brother-sister mating.

Inbred ICR mice are a specific type of ICR mouse that has been inbred for at least 20 generations. This means that they have a high degree of genetic uniformity and are essentially genetically identical to one another. Inbred strains of mice are often used in research because their genetic consistency makes them more reliable models for studying biological phenomena and testing new therapies or treatments.

It is important to note that while inbred ICR mice may be useful for certain types of research, they do not necessarily represent the genetic diversity found in human populations. Therefore, it is important to consider the limitations of using any animal model when interpreting research findings and applying them to human health.

The spinal cord is a major part of the nervous system, extending from the brainstem and continuing down to the lower back. It is a slender, tubular bundle of nerve fibers (axons) and support cells (glial cells) that carries signals between the brain and the rest of the body. The spinal cord primarily serves as a conduit for motor information, which travels from the brain to the muscles, and sensory information, which travels from the body to the brain. It also contains neurons that can independently process and respond to information within the spinal cord without direct input from the brain.

The spinal cord is protected by the bony vertebral column (spine) and is divided into 31 segments: 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 1 coccygeal. Each segment corresponds to a specific region of the body and gives rise to pairs of spinal nerves that exit through the intervertebral foramina at each level.

The spinal cord is responsible for several vital functions, including:

1. Reflexes: Simple reflex actions, such as the withdrawal reflex when touching a hot surface, are mediated by the spinal cord without involving the brain.
2. Muscle control: The spinal cord carries motor signals from the brain to the muscles, enabling voluntary movement and muscle tone regulation.
3. Sensory perception: The spinal cord transmits sensory information, such as touch, temperature, pain, and vibration, from the body to the brain for processing and awareness.
4. Autonomic functions: The sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system originate in the thoracolumbar and sacral regions of the spinal cord, respectively, controlling involuntary physiological responses like heart rate, blood pressure, digestion, and respiration.

Damage to the spinal cord can result in various degrees of paralysis or loss of sensation below the level of injury, depending on the severity and location of the damage.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

Gangliosides are a type of complex lipid molecule known as sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids. They are predominantly found in the outer leaflet of the cell membrane, particularly in the nervous system. Gangliosides play crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell recognition, signal transduction, and cell adhesion. They are especially abundant in the ganglia (nerve cell clusters) of the peripheral and central nervous systems, hence their name.

Gangliosides consist of a hydrophobic ceramide portion and a hydrophilic oligosaccharide chain that contains one or more sialic acid residues. The composition and structure of these oligosaccharide chains can vary significantly among different gangliosides, leading to the classification of various subtypes, such as GM1, GD1a, GD1b, GT1b, and GQ1b.

Abnormalities in ganglioside metabolism or expression have been implicated in several neurological disorders, including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and various lysosomal storage diseases like Tay-Sachs and Gaucher's diseases. Additionally, certain bacterial toxins, such as botulinum neurotoxin and tetanus toxin, target gangliosides to gain entry into neuronal cells, causing their toxic effects.

Brain neoplasms, also known as brain tumors, are abnormal growths of cells within the brain. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign brain tumors typically grow slowly and do not spread to other parts of the body. However, they can still cause serious problems if they press on sensitive areas of the brain. Malignant brain tumors, on the other hand, are cancerous and can grow quickly, invading surrounding brain tissue and spreading to other parts of the brain or spinal cord.

Brain neoplasms can arise from various types of cells within the brain, including glial cells (which provide support and insulation for nerve cells), neurons (nerve cells that transmit signals in the brain), and meninges (the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord). They can also result from the spread of cancer cells from other parts of the body, known as metastatic brain tumors.

Symptoms of brain neoplasms may vary depending on their size, location, and growth rate. Common symptoms include headaches, seizures, weakness or paralysis in the limbs, difficulty with balance and coordination, changes in speech or vision, confusion, memory loss, and changes in behavior or personality.

Treatment for brain neoplasms depends on several factors, including the type, size, location, and grade of the tumor, as well as the patient's age and overall health. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these approaches. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for recurrence and manage any long-term effects of treatment.

Atrophy is a medical term that refers to the decrease in size and wasting of an organ or tissue due to the disappearance of cells, shrinkage of cells, or decreased number of cells. This process can be caused by various factors such as disuse, aging, degeneration, injury, or disease.

For example, if a muscle is immobilized for an extended period, it may undergo atrophy due to lack of use. Similarly, certain medical conditions like diabetes, cancer, and heart failure can lead to the wasting away of various tissues and organs in the body.

Atrophy can also occur as a result of natural aging processes, leading to decreased muscle mass and strength in older adults. In general, atrophy is characterized by a decrease in the volume or weight of an organ or tissue, which can have significant impacts on its function and overall health.

The Central Nervous System (CNS) is the part of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord. It is called the "central" system because it receives information from, and sends information to, the rest of the body through peripheral nerves, which make up the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS).

The CNS is responsible for processing sensory information, controlling motor functions, and regulating various autonomic processes like heart rate, respiration, and digestion. The brain, as the command center of the CNS, interprets sensory stimuli, formulates thoughts, and initiates actions. The spinal cord serves as a conduit for nerve impulses traveling to and from the brain and the rest of the body.

The CNS is protected by several structures, including the skull (which houses the brain) and the vertebral column (which surrounds and protects the spinal cord). Despite these protective measures, the CNS remains vulnerable to injury and disease, which can have severe consequences due to its crucial role in controlling essential bodily functions.

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

"Inbred strains of rats" are genetically identical rodents that have been produced through many generations of brother-sister mating. This results in a high degree of homozygosity, where the genes at any particular locus in the genome are identical in all members of the strain.

Inbred strains of rats are widely used in biomedical research because they provide a consistent and reproducible genetic background for studying various biological phenomena, including the effects of drugs, environmental factors, and genetic mutations on health and disease. Additionally, inbred strains can be used to create genetically modified models of human diseases by introducing specific mutations into their genomes.

Some commonly used inbred strains of rats include the Wistar Kyoto (WKY), Sprague-Dawley (SD), and Fischer 344 (F344) rat strains. Each strain has its own unique genetic characteristics, making them suitable for different types of research.

Neurons, also known as nerve cells or neurocytes, are specialized cells that constitute the basic unit of the nervous system. They are responsible for receiving, processing, and transmitting information and signals within the body. Neurons have three main parts: the dendrites, the cell body (soma), and the axon. The dendrites receive signals from other neurons or sensory receptors, while the axon transmits these signals to other neurons, muscles, or glands. The junction between two neurons is called a synapse, where neurotransmitters are released to transmit the signal across the gap (synaptic cleft) to the next neuron. Neurons vary in size, shape, and structure depending on their function and location within the nervous system.

The corpus callosum is the largest collection of white matter in the brain, consisting of approximately 200 million nerve fibers. It is a broad, flat band of tissue that connects the two hemispheres of the brain, allowing them to communicate and coordinate information processing. The corpus callosum plays a crucial role in integrating sensory, motor, and cognitive functions between the two sides of the brain. Damage to the corpus callosum can result in various neurological symptoms, including difficulties with movement, speech, memory, and social behavior.

A kidney, in medical terms, is one of two bean-shaped organs located in the lower back region of the body. They are essential for maintaining homeostasis within the body by performing several crucial functions such as:

1. Regulation of water and electrolyte balance: Kidneys help regulate the amount of water and various electrolytes like sodium, potassium, and calcium in the bloodstream to maintain a stable internal environment.

2. Excretion of waste products: They filter waste products from the blood, including urea (a byproduct of protein metabolism), creatinine (a breakdown product of muscle tissue), and other harmful substances that result from normal cellular functions or external sources like medications and toxins.

3. Endocrine function: Kidneys produce several hormones with important roles in the body, such as erythropoietin (stimulates red blood cell production), renin (regulates blood pressure), and calcitriol (activated form of vitamin D that helps regulate calcium homeostasis).

4. pH balance regulation: Kidneys maintain the proper acid-base balance in the body by excreting either hydrogen ions or bicarbonate ions, depending on whether the blood is too acidic or too alkaline.

5. Blood pressure control: The kidneys play a significant role in regulating blood pressure through the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which constricts blood vessels and promotes sodium and water retention to increase blood volume and, consequently, blood pressure.

Anatomically, each kidney is approximately 10-12 cm long, 5-7 cm wide, and 3 cm thick, with a weight of about 120-170 grams. They are surrounded by a protective layer of fat and connected to the urinary system through the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, and urethra.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

Astrocytes are a type of star-shaped glial cell found in the central nervous system (CNS), including the brain and spinal cord. They play crucial roles in supporting and maintaining the health and function of neurons, which are the primary cells responsible for transmitting information in the CNS.

Some of the essential functions of astrocytes include:

1. Supporting neuronal structure and function: Astrocytes provide structural support to neurons by ensheathing them and maintaining the integrity of the blood-brain barrier, which helps regulate the entry and exit of substances into the CNS.
2. Regulating neurotransmitter levels: Astrocytes help control the levels of neurotransmitters in the synaptic cleft (the space between two neurons) by taking up excess neurotransmitters and breaking them down, thus preventing excessive or prolonged activation of neuronal receptors.
3. Providing nutrients to neurons: Astrocytes help supply energy metabolites, such as lactate, to neurons, which are essential for their survival and function.
4. Modulating synaptic activity: Through the release of various signaling molecules, astrocytes can modulate synaptic strength and plasticity, contributing to learning and memory processes.
5. Participating in immune responses: Astrocytes can respond to CNS injuries or infections by releasing pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which help recruit immune cells to the site of injury or infection.
6. Promoting neuronal survival and repair: In response to injury or disease, astrocytes can become reactive and undergo morphological changes that aid in forming a glial scar, which helps contain damage and promote tissue repair. Additionally, they release growth factors and other molecules that support the survival and regeneration of injured neurons.

Dysfunction or damage to astrocytes has been implicated in several neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and multiple sclerosis (MS).

"Swine" is a common term used to refer to even-toed ungulates of the family Suidae, including domestic pigs and wild boars. However, in a medical context, "swine" often appears in the phrase "swine flu," which is a strain of influenza virus that typically infects pigs but can also cause illness in humans. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic was caused by a new strain of swine-origin influenza A virus, which was commonly referred to as "swine flu." It's important to note that this virus is not transmitted through eating cooked pork products; it spreads from person to person, mainly through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

A fetus is the developing offspring in a mammal, from the end of the embryonic period (approximately 8 weeks after fertilization in humans) until birth. In humans, the fetal stage of development starts from the eleventh week of pregnancy and continues until childbirth, which is termed as full-term pregnancy at around 37 to 40 weeks of gestation. During this time, the organ systems become fully developed and the body grows in size. The fetus is surrounded by the amniotic fluid within the amniotic sac and is connected to the placenta via the umbilical cord, through which it receives nutrients and oxygen from the mother. Regular prenatal care is essential during this period to monitor the growth and development of the fetus and ensure a healthy pregnancy and delivery.

Cerebral infarction, also known as a "stroke" or "brain attack," is the sudden death of brain cells caused by the interruption of their blood supply. It is most commonly caused by a blockage in one of the blood vessels supplying the brain (an ischemic stroke), but can also result from a hemorrhage in or around the brain (a hemorrhagic stroke).

Ischemic strokes occur when a blood clot or other particle blocks a cerebral artery, cutting off blood flow to a part of the brain. The lack of oxygen and nutrients causes nearby brain cells to die. Hemorrhagic strokes occur when a weakened blood vessel ruptures, causing bleeding within or around the brain. This bleeding can put pressure on surrounding brain tissues, leading to cell death.

Symptoms of cerebral infarction depend on the location and extent of the affected brain tissue but may include sudden weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg; difficulty speaking or understanding speech; vision problems; loss of balance or coordination; and severe headache with no known cause. Immediate medical attention is crucial for proper diagnosis and treatment to minimize potential long-term damage or disability.

The myelin sheath is a multilayered, fatty substance that surrounds and insulates many nerve fibers in the nervous system. It is essential for the rapid transmission of electrical signals, or nerve impulses, along these nerve fibers, allowing for efficient communication between different parts of the body. The myelin sheath is produced by specialized cells called oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS) and Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Damage to the myelin sheath, as seen in conditions like multiple sclerosis, can significantly impair nerve function and result in various neurological symptoms.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

"Wistar rats" are a strain of albino rats that are widely used in laboratory research. They were developed at the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, USA, and were first introduced in 1906. Wistar rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not have a fixed set of genetic characteristics like inbred strains.

Wistar rats are commonly used as animal models in biomedical research because of their size, ease of handling, and relatively low cost. They are used in a wide range of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and behavioral studies. Wistar rats are also used in safety testing of drugs, medical devices, and other products.

Wistar rats are typically larger than many other rat strains, with males weighing between 500-700 grams and females weighing between 250-350 grams. They have a lifespan of approximately 2-3 years. Wistar rats are also known for their docile and friendly nature, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory setting.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Aging is a complex, progressive and inevitable process of bodily changes over time, characterized by the accumulation of cellular damage and degenerative changes that eventually lead to increased vulnerability to disease and death. It involves various biological, genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors that contribute to the decline in physical and mental functions. The medical field studies aging through the discipline of gerontology, which aims to understand the underlying mechanisms of aging and develop interventions to promote healthy aging and extend the human healthspan.

Collateral circulation refers to the alternate blood supply routes that bypass an obstructed or narrowed vessel and reconnect with the main vascular system. These collateral vessels can develop over time as a result of the body's natural adaptation to chronic ischemia (reduced blood flow) caused by various conditions such as atherosclerosis, thromboembolism, or vasculitis.

The development of collateral circulation helps maintain adequate blood flow and oxygenation to affected tissues, minimizing the risk of tissue damage and necrosis. In some cases, well-developed collateral circulations can help compensate for significant blockages in major vessels, reducing symptoms and potentially preventing the need for invasive interventions like revascularization procedures. However, the extent and effectiveness of collateral circulation vary from person to person and depend on factors such as age, overall health status, and the presence of comorbidities.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Myelinated nerve fibers are neuronal processes that are surrounded by a myelin sheath, a fatty insulating substance that is produced by Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system and oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system. This myelin sheath helps to increase the speed of electrical impulse transmission, also known as action potentials, along the nerve fiber. The myelin sheath has gaps called nodes of Ranvier where the electrical impulses can jump from one node to the next, which also contributes to the rapid conduction of signals. Myelinated nerve fibers are typically found in the peripheral nerves and the optic nerve, but not in the central nervous system (CNS) tracts that are located within the brain and spinal cord.

Dietary cholesterol is a type of cholesterol that comes from the foods we eat. It is present in animal-derived products such as meat, poultry, dairy products, and eggs. While dietary cholesterol can contribute to an increase in blood cholesterol levels for some people, it's important to note that saturated and trans fats have a more significant impact on blood cholesterol levels than dietary cholesterol itself.

The American Heart Association recommends limiting dietary cholesterol intake to less than 300 milligrams per day for most people, and less than 200 milligrams per day for those with a history of heart disease or high cholesterol levels. However, individual responses to dietary cholesterol can vary, so it's essential to monitor blood cholesterol levels and adjust dietary habits accordingly.

Regional blood flow (RBF) refers to the rate at which blood flows through a specific region or organ in the body, typically expressed in milliliters per minute per 100 grams of tissue (ml/min/100g). It is an essential physiological parameter that reflects the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to tissues while removing waste products. RBF can be affected by various factors such as metabolic demands, neural regulation, hormonal influences, and changes in blood pressure or vascular resistance. Measuring RBF is crucial for understanding organ function, diagnosing diseases, and evaluating the effectiveness of treatments.

"Chickens" is a common term used to refer to the domesticated bird, Gallus gallus domesticus, which is widely raised for its eggs and meat. However, in medical terms, "chickens" is not a standard term with a specific definition. If you have any specific medical concern or question related to chickens, such as food safety or allergies, please provide more details so I can give a more accurate answer.

"Cat" is a common name that refers to various species of small carnivorous mammals that belong to the family Felidae. The domestic cat, also known as Felis catus or Felis silvestris catus, is a popular pet and companion animal. It is a subspecies of the wildcat, which is found in Europe, Africa, and Asia.

Domestic cats are often kept as pets because of their companionship, playful behavior, and ability to hunt vermin. They are also valued for their ability to provide emotional support and therapy to people. Cats are obligate carnivores, which means that they require a diet that consists mainly of meat to meet their nutritional needs.

Cats are known for their agility, sharp senses, and predatory instincts. They have retractable claws, which they use for hunting and self-defense. Cats also have a keen sense of smell, hearing, and vision, which allow them to detect prey and navigate their environment.

In medical terms, cats can be hosts to various parasites and diseases that can affect humans and other animals. Some common feline diseases include rabies, feline leukemia virus (FeLV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and toxoplasmosis. It is important for cat owners to keep their pets healthy and up-to-date on vaccinations and preventative treatments to protect both the cats and their human companions.

Computer-assisted image processing is a medical term that refers to the use of computer systems and specialized software to improve, analyze, and interpret medical images obtained through various imaging techniques such as X-ray, CT (computed tomography), MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), ultrasound, and others.

The process typically involves several steps, including image acquisition, enhancement, segmentation, restoration, and analysis. Image processing algorithms can be used to enhance the quality of medical images by adjusting contrast, brightness, and sharpness, as well as removing noise and artifacts that may interfere with accurate diagnosis. Segmentation techniques can be used to isolate specific regions or structures of interest within an image, allowing for more detailed analysis.

Computer-assisted image processing has numerous applications in medical imaging, including detection and characterization of lesions, tumors, and other abnormalities; assessment of organ function and morphology; and guidance of interventional procedures such as biopsies and surgeries. By automating and standardizing image analysis tasks, computer-assisted image processing can help to improve diagnostic accuracy, efficiency, and consistency, while reducing the potential for human error.

In situ hybridization (ISH) is a molecular biology technique used to detect and localize specific nucleic acid sequences, such as DNA or RNA, within cells or tissues. This technique involves the use of a labeled probe that is complementary to the target nucleic acid sequence. The probe can be labeled with various types of markers, including radioisotopes, fluorescent dyes, or enzymes.

During the ISH procedure, the labeled probe is hybridized to the target nucleic acid sequence in situ, meaning that the hybridization occurs within the intact cells or tissues. After washing away unbound probe, the location of the labeled probe can be visualized using various methods depending on the type of label used.

In situ hybridization has a wide range of applications in both research and diagnostic settings, including the detection of gene expression patterns, identification of viral infections, and diagnosis of genetic disorders.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Gestational age is the length of time that has passed since the first day of the last menstrual period (LMP) in pregnant women. It is the standard unit used to estimate the age of a pregnancy and is typically expressed in weeks. This measure is used because the exact date of conception is often not known, but the start of the last menstrual period is usually easier to recall.

It's important to note that since ovulation typically occurs around two weeks after the start of the LMP, gestational age is approximately two weeks longer than fetal age, which is the actual time elapsed since conception. Medical professionals use both gestational and fetal age to track the development and growth of the fetus during pregnancy.

In humans, the cerebrum is the largest and best-developed of the five major divisions of the brain. The cerebrum is made up of ... The cerebrum (PL: cerebra), telencephalon or endbrain is the largest part of the brain containing the cerebral cortex (of the ... The cerebrum is divided by the medial longitudinal fissure into two cerebral hemispheres, the right and the left. The cerebrum ... Cerebrum. Lateral face. Deep dissection. Cerebrum. Medial face. Deep dissection. List of regions in the human brain "BrainInfo ...
... the cerebrum is responsible for coordinating movement, thinking, reasoning, problem-solving, emotions, learning, speech, vision ... The cerebrum is divided into four major lobes, each lobe with two halves, right and left. All four right halves come into the ... What Is the Cerebrum and What Does It Control?. *Medical Author: Dr. Sruthi M., MBBS ... The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain and divided into left and right hemispheres separated by a deep groove. Each side ...
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Cerebrum Winter 2022. COMPUTATIONAL NEUROSCIENTIST Yidou (Gwen) Weng 2019 IBB Champion China ...
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Specifically, we seek to show a comprehensive anatomic atlas of the human cerebrum demonstrating all 180 distinct regions ... A Connectomic Atlas of the Human Cerebrum-Chapter 7: The Lateral Parietal Lobe Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown). 2018 Dec 1;15(suppl ... Specifically, we seek to show a comprehensive anatomic atlas of the human cerebrum demonstrating all 180 distinct regions ...
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HomeReviewsCerebrum "Spectral Extravagance" (2009). Cerebrum "Spectral Extravagance" (2009). 3. May 2018 Adam McAuley Reviews 0 ... On the whole, Cerebrum is interesting, but I wish everything would unite together a bit better. They just seem like they need a ... Fans of the bands already mentioned should certainly check out Cerebrum to find a new unique sound in the metal genre that has ... There is certainly a very technical standpoint taken by Cerebrum to deliver their thoughts to the world. The band covers a lot ...
Writer/Director Arvi Ragu stops by to talk about writing the story and making CEREBRUM, and more. What are your hopes and fears ... CEREBRUM is available in the US now on Vudu, Amazon, and on DVD via Walmart. ... Writer/Director Arvi Ragu stops by to talk about writing the story and making CEREBRUM, and more. ... duplicate neural pathways and also store them digitally led to the story and thriller aspects of CEREBRUM. ...
Občianske združenie CEREBRUM pri Gymnáziu Jána Papánka. Profil organizácie nevyplnený. Chcete, aby prispievatelia vedeli, čomu ... Obchodné meno: Občianske združenie CEREBRUM pri Gymnáziu Jána Papánka Sídlo: 81107 Bratislava, Vazovova 6 Právna forma: ...
With Cerebrum at the heart of its operational set-up, CTV delivered an impressive, glossy and flexible front-end and the ... CTV chooses Axon Cerebrum Control as the perfect match for reality TV hit First Dates Hotel. With Cerebrum at the heart of its ... With Cerebrum at the heart of our operational set-up, CTV can provide our clients with an impressive, glossy and flexible front ... A fully resilient Cerebrum system was employed, managing IP camera control units, tally, UMD contribution and linking together ...
Boston Brain Science Cerebra is a nootropic claimed to help stave off cognitive decline associated with aging. Full review and ... How Does Cerebra Work?. The seller states that regular use of Cerebra can improve focus, prevent "senior moments", and lift ... Positive Cerebra Reviews. There are a large number of favorable customer reviews from users who felt that Cerebra was working ... This is what Karanastasis claims Cerebra will do, stating that Cerebra features three proprietary ingredients designed to help ...
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CerebrumCerebellumThe cerebrum is the largest part of the brain.The cerebellum is smaller compared to the cerebrum.Cerebrum is ... the part of the forebrain.Cerebellum forms the hindbrain.The main function of the cerebrum is to control voluntary movements, ... List in tabular form three distinguishing features between cerebrum and cerebellum - ... Cerebrum is the part of the forebrain.. Cerebellum forms the hindbrain.. The main function of the cerebrum is to control ...
With Cerebrum you can! Cerebrum contains Cereboost, a specific and unique extract of American Ginseng that has been clinically ... Cerebrum with Cereboost - Make Your Ideas Bright Ones!. October 14, 2014 Rachael Life 0 ... About: The first of its kind, Cerebrum is a revolutionary product that will work to:. -increase cognitive performance. -improve ... Bonus: As research shows, Cerebrum with Cereboost will increase your cognitive performance by 10% for a 6 hour period after ...
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Young cerebrums on the utilization of cannabis. February 26, 2021 / In the mean time, as shown by a July Gallup study, 44% of ... Gary A. Emmett, M.D. explains that the medicine impacts the cerebrums pleasure natural surroundings and causes loosening up ...
The FDA has authorized marketing of Cerebra Medical Ltds Cerebra Sleep System, a type II and III home sleep testing device ... The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has authorized marketing of Cerebra Medical Ltds Cerebra Sleep System, a type II and ... CEO Cerebra Medical, in a release. "Now that we have attained FDA market clearance, we can offer the Cerebra Sleep System in ... FDA Clears Cerebra Sleep System, Type II Home Sleep Test with Sleep Depth Algorithm. Jul 7, 2022 , FDA, Home Based/Out of Lab ...
Lyons Davidsons Head Injury team is supporting Cerebras Head Awareness Week 2017, which runs from 3-8 July. ... Cerebra, which organises the annual event, is a national charity that works with and supports children under the age of 16 who ... If you are able to support Cerebra and their work then please donate by text HEAD20 and the amount you want to donate to 70070. ... Cerebra listens and supports families in many ways, including providing guidance to parents about particular issues (e.g. ...
Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Status of the Cerebrum, Cerebellum and Brain Stem Following Dietary Monosodium Glutamate ... The weights of both the cerebrum and the cerebellum were increased (p,0.05). Lipid Peroxidation (LP) was increased (p,0.05) in ... Catalase (CAT) activity in both the brain stem and the cerebrum was increased (p,0.05) but the cerebellum was unaffected. ... Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Status of the Cerebrum, Cerebellum and Brain Stem Following Dietary Monosodium Glutamate ...
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... The cerebrum is the largest and most superior part of the brain. It is highly developed in humans and separates man ... The outer 2-4 millimeters of the cerebrum is the cerebral cortex. It is composed of gray matter, which is made up of neuron ... The classic division of the lobes is based on the cranial bones that overlay the cerebrum, hence there are four lobes, the ... Other clusters of cell bodies can be found deeper in the cerebrum within the white matter. These clusters are called nuclei. ...
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The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain, situated in the anterior and middle cranial fossae of the skull and occupying ... Commissures of the Cerebrum. The major commissure is the large corpus callosum. The majority of the fibers within the corpus ...
  • With the assistance of the cerebellum, the cerebrum controls all voluntary actions in the human body. (
  • The cerebellum is smaller compared to the cerebrum. (
  • 0.05) in the cerebrum, reduced in the brain stem and remained unchanged in the cerebellum. (
  • 0.05) in the cerebellum but the antioxidants were not affected in the cerebrum and the brain stem. (
  • The pons relays messages from the cerebrum to the cerebellum and spinal cord, and helps control movement of the face. (
  • The cerebellum is similar to cerebrum in that it has two hemispheres and has a highly folded surface or cortex. (
  • The brain is composed of 3 main structural divisions: the cerebrum, the brainstem, and the cerebellum (see the images below). (
  • called the cerebrum and cerebellum. (
  • The majority of diffuse astrocytomas arise in the cerebrum, but no region of the central nervous system (CNS) is spared as these tumors may occur in the basal ganglia, brainstem, cerebellum, and spinal cord. (
  • The brain consists of the cerebrum, brain stem, and cerebellum. (
  • Day 1 13C con- centrations of cerebrum and cerebellum were also significantly increased but the increase was inconsistent, significant only on one additional day of the postexposure period, possibly reflecting translocation across the blood-brain barrier in certain brain regions. (
  • Pathological conditions involving ARTERIES in the skull, such as arteries supplying the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, the BRAIN STEM, and associated structures. (
  • The cerebrum is divided into four major lobes, each lobe with two halves, right and left. (
  • The classic division of the lobes is based on the cranial bones that overlay the cerebrum, hence there are four lobes, the frontal , the parietal , the temporal , and the occipital lobes. (
  • The cerebrum, originally functioning as part of the olfactory lobes, is involved with the more complex functions of the human brain. (
  • Each half (hemisphere) of the cerebrum is divided into lobes. (
  • In this section you will review the anatomy, functions, and specific testing of the cerebrum. (
  • At the base of the brain is the brainstem, which extends from the upper cervical spinal cord to the diencephalon of the cerebrum. (
  • The cerebrum is contralaterally organized, i.e., the right hemisphere controls and processes signals (predominantly) from the left side of the body, while the left hemisphere controls and processes signals (predominantly) from the right side of the body. (
  • All four right halves come into the right hemisphere of the cerebrum and all four left halves come into the left hemisphere. (
  • The cerebrum consists of two cerebral hemisphere joined by a curved thick band of nerve fibres, called corpus callosum. (
  • The cerebrum contains grey matter and billions of unmyelinated neurons (brain cells) called the cerebral cortex. (
  • Shot on location in the South of France and screened early in 2017, the UK reality TV production demanded seamless control of a complex Powered by Ethernet (POE) workflow, including 80 remote cameras - with Cerebrum at its heart. (
  • Away from Provence and the four-star Le Vieux Castillon hotel, CTV is currently working with Axon on two further deployments of Cerebrum for 2017: a studio facility and the refurbishment of OB11, the largest 20-camera 4K-capable OB truck in Europe which is undergoing a complete video technology refit, also featuring Axon 3G glue equipment. (
  • The cerebrum consists of two C-shaped cerebral hemispheres, separated from each other by a deep fissure called the longitudinal fissure. (
  • It consists of the cerebrum - the area with all the folds and grooves typically seen in pictures of the brain - as well as other structures under it. (
  • The cerebrum (PL: cerebra), telencephalon or endbrain is the largest part of the brain containing the cerebral cortex (of the two cerebral hemispheres), as well as several subcortical structures, including the hippocampus, basal ganglia, and olfactory bulb. (
  • The cerebrum develops prenatally from the forebrain (prosencephalon). (
  • Cerebrum is the part of the forebrain. (
  • This often results in a baby being born without the front part of the brain (forebrain) and the thinking and coordinating part of the brain (cerebrum). (
  • Deeper parts of the cerebrum contain white matter, which is the collection of myelinated nerve fibers that connect different regions of the central nervous system (CNS) and spinal cord. (
  • Projection fibers connect the cerebrum with other parts of the brain and to the spinal cord allowing information to be sent both out of and into the cerebrum. (
  • Dandy additionally saw that air brought into the subarachnoid space through lumbar spinal cut could enter the cerebral ventricles and furthermore show the cerebrospinal liquid compartments around the foundation of the cerebrum and over its surface. (
  • From enthusiast to daily driver, Cerebrum Smart Tire Sensors provide clarity of tire conditions to drivers. (
  • Knowing when it is time to change tires is critical and Cerebrum Intelligent Tire Sensors keep you updated on the healthy tread life of your tires. (
  • The cerebrum is also divided into approximately symmetric left and right cerebral hemispheres. (
  • The cerebrum is made up of the two cerebral hemispheres and their cerebral cortices (the outer layers of grey matter), and the underlying regions of white matter. (
  • The cerebrum is divided by the medial longitudinal fissure into two cerebral hemispheres, the right and the left. (
  • We're delighted to announces that Cerebra will be delivering our Accessing Public Services Toolkit Workshop on Monday 13th December 2021. (
  • Lateral and medial surfaces of cerebrum, showing major sulci and gyri. (
  • The various nuclei of the cerebrum make up two important functional units, the basal nuclei and the limbic system . (
  • The cerebrum is further divided into the telencephalon and diencephalon. (
  • The telencephalon of the cerebrum is disproportionately well-developed in humans as compared with other mammals. (
  • The largest part of the brain, the cerebrum has two hemispheres (or halves). (
  • A fifth region, the insula , lies deeper in the cerebrum (Figure 2). (
  • Other clusters of cell bodies can be found deeper in the cerebrum within the white matter. (
  • Boston Brain Science Cerebra is a nootropic claimed to help stave off cognitive decline that's associated with aging and environmental stress. (
  • Cerebrum contains Cereboost, a specific and unique extract of American Ginseng that has been clinically proven to increase cognitive performance. (
  • As research shows, Cerebrum with Cereboost will increase your cognitive performance by 10% for a 6 hour period after taking it. (
  • Cerebrum brings together a group of researchers interested in neuropsychology as well as cognitive and computational neuroscience at the Université de Montréal. (
  • Cerebrum aims to facilitate collaborations between researchers in the Department of Psychology and those from other units in neuropsychology as well as cognitive and computational neuroscience at the Université de Montréal through research co-development, joint funding applications, and the planning of interdepartmental and inter-faculty courses. (
  • Cerebrum also aims to create partnerships between academic, clinical and industrial players to accelerate knowledge transfer in neuropsychology and cognitive and computational neuroscience in Quebec. (
  • The cerebral cortex, the outer layer of grey matter of the cerebrum, is found only in mammals. (
  • The outer 2-4 millimeters of the cerebrum is the cerebral cortex . (
  • The outer layer of the cerebrum , known as cerebral cortex , is formed of grey matter and white matter. (
  • In humans, the cerebrum is the largest and best-developed of the five major divisions of the brain. (
  • The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain, situated in the anterior and middle cranial fossae of the skull and occupying the whole concavity of the vault of the skull. (
  • Anencephaly (pronounced an-en-sef-uh-lee) is a serious birth defect in which a baby is born without parts of the brain and skull. (
  • In the human brain, the cerebrum is the uppermost region of the central nervous system. (
  • Below we take a closer look at Cerebra to see if their claims are valid, analyze the ingredients, and find out what real users have to say about this product. (
  • This is what Karanastasis claims Cerebra will do, stating that Cerebra features three proprietary ingredients designed to help your body build more brain cells, protect the existing ones, and help limit your body's physical reaction to stress. (
  • Cerebrum is the world's first intelligent tire solution utilizing revolutionary, patented sensor technology mounted directly to the tire. (
  • Welcome to the Cerebrum review module. (
  • Multinodular and vacuolating neuronal tumor of the cerebrum: Does the name require review? (
  • In order to increase the amount of surface area the cerebrum is arranged with numerous grooves and mounds. (
  • the cerebrum also functions as the center of voluntary motor activities. (
  • The main function of the cerebrum is to control voluntary movements, intelligence, and memory. (
  • Fans of the bands already mentioned should certainly check out Cerebrum to find a new unique sound in the metal genre that has a lot potential. (
  • ORP is a unique addition to the Cerebra Sleep System that goes beyond conventional measurements, giving clinicians additional insights into a patient's sleep quality to better inform diagnosis and therapy direction," says Amy Bender, PhD, director of clinical sleep science at Cerebra, in a release. (
  • Cerebrum sensors enable unique identification, classification, and visibility of a tire from cradle-to-grave. (
  • CTV already relies on Cerebrum for major OB sports productions, such as The Open, where it enables crews to simply control and manage a huge number of external sources. (
  • The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain and divided into left and right hemispheres separated by a deep groove. (
  • How Does Cerebra Work? (
  • If you are able to support Cerebra and their work then please donate by text HEAD20 and the amount you want to donate to 70070. (
  • In order to facilitate scientific exchanges, cerebrum will soon offer an innovative space for group work, creation and training, the NeuroBuro . (
  • Now that we have attained FDA market clearance, we can offer the Cerebra Sleep System in the US clinical sleep market and start helping more people get the accurate diagnosis they need to start sleeping better. (
  • The dynamic features of Cerebrum - completing tasks in minutes that previously took hours to achieve - make it a perfect match for reality TV productions and its power was experienced first-hand by the team on location in Provence. (
  • Given the complex set-up for First Dates Hotel, which employed IP infrastructure to capture and manage the action remotely, the team had complete confidence that Cerebrum would provide agile and robust control as well as support a hassle-free, flexible creative workflow. (
  • With Cerebrum at the heart of our operational set-up, CTV can provide our clients with an impressive, glossy and flexible front-end and the ability to manage productions seamlessly. (
  • Cerebra listens and supports families in many ways, including providing guidance to parents about particular issues (e.g. behavioural issues, education issues etc) and even design new equipment and new learning resources to provide support. (
  • Cerebrum sensors provide advanced tire pressure & temperature data to the vehicle as well as tread depth, alignment and performance data to the operator through the convenient mobile application. (
  • At Cerebrum, we provide pre-acquisition consultancy services to help you determine the overall worth of the products and assist you on your journey of building, refining, and invigorating your portfolio. (
  • At Cerebrum, we provide our expertise to assist companies in identifying the best products to acquire and guide them on maximizing the acquisition's benefits alongside their existing systems. (
  • A fully resilient Cerebrum system was employed, managing IP camera control units, tally, UMD contribution and linking together the main broadcast equipment including the video router and two Lawo V-pro8 video processors. (
  • What Is the Cerebrum and What Does It Control? (
  • When CTV was tasked by TwentyTwenty to deliver the hotly anticipated reality TV show First Dates Hotel for Channel 4, the OB company turned without hesitation to Axon's Cerebrum control and monitoring platform to ensure the production ran smoothly. (
  • Cerebrum provided robust, complete control and back-end IP integration with camera switching into the server itself - dramatically simplifying the workflow with control of local network camera switches. (
  • The results of the present study suggest that the ingestion of large amounts of MSG with diet causes an increase in the weight of cerebrum with simultaneous increase in LP and reduction in CAT activity. (
  • At the center of the Cerebra Sleep System is a patented ORP ("Odds Ratio Product") algorithm, which has been validated as a measure of sleep depth . (
  • Cerebrum Infotech is a software product development company and holds over a decade of experience in providing world-class business solutions. (
  • Cerebrum InfoTech partners with SMBs, startups, and enterprises and deliver the same level of dedication and sophistication to each one of our projects- that's why we are the best software product development company in the industry. (
  • The Cerebrum portfolio of solutions establishes a foundation of tire analytics and data collection capabilities, from which the next generation of smart cities and vehicles will thrive. (
  • At Cerebrum, we offer a streamlined process and pre-defined milestones, which allow us to consistently deliver high-quality results within strict timelines, while maintaining meticulous attention to detail. (
  • Specifically, we seek to show a comprehensive anatomic atlas of the human cerebrum demonstrating all 180 distinct regions comprising the cerebral cortex. (
  • Primary multiple temporal cystic lesion, minimally en- human infection are E. granulosus and cerebral hydatid cysts are quite unu- hanced after contrast. (
  • The outermost layer of the cerebrum is the cortex, which has a slightly gray appearance--hence the term "gray matter. (
  • Getting bought out by an advertising giant like WPP is bound to get you some serious exposure but, as digital agency Cerebra recently found out, that exposure isn't always for the best. (
  • Cerebrum with Cereboost - Make Your Ideas Bright Ones! (
  • Note: if the cerebrum were smooth it would have to be about the size of a breach ball to have the same amount of surface area. (
  • CONTACT US to discuss your specific needs and which Cerebrum products will fit. (